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EFFECTS OF HOMESICKNESS AND DEPRESSION ON

ADJUSTMENT OF HOSTEL STUDENTS

By

Saadia Haleema

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES, ISLAMABAD

JANUARY 2017
CHAPTER 01

INTRODUCTION

"Homesickness" is a term associated to the emotion of those people who left their own
houses and settle out on any new place, for example in our common student life we find most
students who study in those university or colleges which are so far from their own houses.
Because of this problem student need to adopt hostel lives against their interests. Mostly these
types of hostel students fall prey of homesickness because it's really difficult for students to left
their own houses and spend their few years in hostels.
During the couple of years which students spent in hostels, they could be fall prey of many
problems, for example students who are living in hostels it's commonly that they will be facing
lot more problems such as, mentally depression, missing their parents, feeling loneliness and
other kinds of problems as well. When a hostel student facing these types of problems then
he/she could be physically and mentally depressing. Furthermore, those types of students would
be involved in bad companies as well.
Most people have always led moving away from home to feel homesickness. Homesickness as
a psychological state created by the prospect or the reality of social isolation continues to attract
research attention. Much of the literature in international human resource management
acknowledges that one of the key issues facing expertise and international workers is related to
adjustment to the new place. Homesickness is usually explained by the psychologists within the
framework of culture shock, an engaged but different psychosocial reality linked to different
origin. The article defines on the literature and interviews with psychologists and among those
workers who use to travel for observation about hostel students and their lives. The first part
provides a definition of homesickness and explores some theoretical models and achieves to
differentiate it from culture shock; the second part considers the experiences of the specialists
and migrant workers interviewed to explain the hesitation of homesickness and its difficulties in
the host country.
Van Tilburg, Vingerhoets & Van Heck (1996, p.899) define homesickness as the mainly
experienced state of distress among those who have left their house and home and find
themselves in a new and unknown environment. The authors debated that homesickness is a big
problem which can cause ill-health in the people affected e.g. Depression, Deficiencies in the
immune system, Diabetes The authors claim is not isolated
Black, Mendenhall & Oddou (1991) classified about adjustment difficulties and they also
formed of four major elements: individual factors, non-work factors, organizational factors and
job factors. Some issues of culture and the family occupy a central place as homesickness is not
referred
Homesickness is the state of being in great trouble which is caused by an actual or anticipated
separation from home and attachment objects such as parents. It is indicated by dreadful and
terrible thoughts of home. Most of all children, adolescents, and adults experience some degree
of homesickness when they are separated by a distance from intimate people and environments.
In some individuals, the subjective distress and level of impairment related to this separation
may be extreme. The homesickness especially overwhelms the students who come from far
places to live in hostels during studies. Due to homesickness students could not adjust in new
environment and resultantly could not pay heed to their studies.
However, hostel life is much necessary for students. Students living in hostels face many
difficulties and hurdles, amongst which adjustment issues are at the top of the list.
Homesickness is the distress caused by an actual separation from home. Its cognitive
problems are preoccupying thoughts of home and bond objects. Cause of homesickness is
classified as an adjustment disorder with diverse anxiety and depressed mood according to the
American Psychiatric Association taxonomy (diagnostic code 309.28). Homesickness is
classified by recurrent apprehension focused on home such as parents, house, loved ones. It is
always unexpectedly by an actual or anticipated separation from home. These features make
troubles for homesickness from other adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders, and mood
disorders. This is huge problem for those students whose left their houses and settle in hostels.

Risk and protective elements

Risk elements establishes which increase the possibility or strength of homesickness and

protective elements establishes that decrease the possibility or strength of homesickness vary by
population. For example, increase on board, the pressure on the environment associated with a

hospital; foreign country may aggravate homesickness and complicated treatment.

Risk elements

The risk elements for homesickness could be defined into five basic categories: experience,

personality, family, attitude and environment.

Experience elements: Younger age; little previous experience far away from home, little

or no previous experience in the novel environment.

Attitude elements: The elements that homesickness will be strong and low expectations

for the new surroundings; understood absence of social support; high perceived demand

e.g. on academic and sports performance.

Personality elements: Uncertain attachment relationship with preceding caregivers; low

perceived control over the timing and nature of the distance from home; anxious feelings

in the months prior to the separation; low self-directedness; high harm avoidance;

rigidity; a wishful-thinking coping style.

Family elements: Lack of decision control e.g., caregivers forcing a young children to

spend time away from home against their wishes and furthermore governments forcing a

person to be in a novel environment for example a person who is serving his/herself as

military service officer government start forcing him/her that far away from home or

being sentenced to prison.


Environmental elements: Highly society contrast e.g., different languages, customs, food,

threats to physical and emotional safety; dramatic alternations in daily schedule; having

no information about the new place.

Protectiveelements

Protective elements which we can divide into five major steps which we already

explained for example in experience elements we discuss about the ages of the students who

left their houses just because of hostels. Because some of the students who are teenager they

cannot adjust themselves in new environment. Furthermore, they face lot of problems such as

economical crisis, psychologically disturbances and love for home.

Different ways to understand Homesickness

There are following ways which can help us to understand about homesickness. It is

recognizable that homesickness is the normal feeling .They need proper time to get used to their

new home environment. They need to talk about their feelings with friends, family, a resident

assistant, or counselor. They should use post pictures and things from home in their room. They

must be made useful plans to visit their home, keeping in mind that they will be returning to

school. They should be involved in their campus activities. They must be try to ignore their

feelings or try to drown them by drinking alcohol, taking drugs, or participating in any type of

risky behavior.

Management and homesickness


Allow them to feel sad, and have a good cry when needed. Take care of themselves by

eating well, getting enough sleep, and exercising. Establish a routine as soon as possible and

create a work, leisure balance, to try and connect with others. Give making new friends a chance

explore their .surroundings, seek out interesting places, be active and make time to familiarize

themselves with their new community. Stepping out of their homesick zone" by travelling

around in a new place can be exciting and educational.

Keep in touch with family and friends regularly by phone, Skype, email or letters. They

`may need to decide whether it's best for them to have more frequent contact with home (if it

makes them feel better) or less contact (if it makes them feel worse). Set up a routine of phone

contact with friends and loved ones at home. Being open to the positive aspects of their new

situation, make a list if this helps. Talk to someone about how they are feeling, a partner, friend,

counselor, or sympathetic colleague. Keeping familiar things such as photos, favorite possessions

etc, from home can give them comfort whilst they adjust. Planning a home visit can often be

helpful, although can also be unsettling if going back too often. Invite their family and friends to

come and visit. The duration and experience of homesickness differs between individuals. Not

everyone misses the same thing as another. One person may miss their family and pets, another,

their friends or workmates and work environment, and another, the familiar physical or

environmental surroundings.

Overcoming homesickness can often feel at first 'all too hard' as we attempt to motivate

themselves and be open to the challenge of embracing our new lives away from home. Adult

homesickness is usually a temporary phase, although for some, can be long lasting. By

attempting to remain positive and involved, whilst allowing themself the time to grieve and feel
whatever emotions arise, homesickness will more often than not fade as they adjust to their new

environment. Usually homesickness is a temporary or passing phase in their life; Students will

have felt homesick at some time in their lives, probably when they were younger, and it is easy

to forget, however sometimes feeling homesick can be rougher if they are dealing with other

problems, may be their parents are getting divorced or someone they know recently died. These

kinds of scary, sad and gloomy experiences may make them even more attached to everyone and

everything around them, including the little things they don't even think about until they're not

there.

Normal Reasons of homesickness

We face pretty difficulty in leaving familiar things, people and places and adapting to new

things, people and places.

We consider that we are far away from home, family, and friends.

We miss important events at home, such as birthdays, weddings, and other holiday

celebrations.

We find difficulty in communicating smoothly with the people around you.

We sometimes strongly feel like, it would have better if some of our family member would

have thereto take care of you.

A sense of anticlimax at finally arriving at new-place after working towards it for so long.

Whether the migrated person was responsible for the decision to come to new-place

Unhappiness due to expectations of new-place not being met.


Job-strain - i.e. work overload and low control over it.

Contrast in lifestyle.

Major Depressions

Major Depression is a symptom of an ailment that interferes with the ability to work,

study, sleep, eat and enjoy once pleasurable activities. A Major Depressive incident may happen

only once; but more usually, many incidents may happen in a lifetime. A Chronic Major

Depression may require a person to continue treatment and monitor lifestyle habits on an

ongoing basis.

This disorder is classified by the presence of the majority of these symptoms:

Persistent sad and anxious mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by subjective

report or observation of others. In children and adolescents, this may be classified as an irritable

mood, feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness, Lack

of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities ,Decreased energy, fatigue, being slowed down,

Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions, Trouble in sleeping, early-morning

awakening, or oversleeping, Appetite or weight changes, Thoughts of death or suicide,

Restlessness, irritability, or angry outbursts, Persistent physical symptoms, such as headaches,

digestive disorders, and chronic pain, which do not respond to daily basis treatment.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder which is characterized by mental illness that causes

unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks. This
disorder is responsible for serious issues like risky behavior such as suicidal tendencies. Bipolar

disorder is also known as manic-depressive illness.

Persistent Depressive Disorder

A persistent depressive disorder is chronic depressions that usually come and go over a period

of years and their intensity can change over time. This disorder may lose attraction in normal

day-to-day activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity, and has low self-esteem.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that's related to changes in seasons.

SAD begins and ends at about the same times every year. This disorder may also face difficulty

waking up in the morning, nausea, lack of energy and difficulty concentrating on or completing

tasks.

Psychotic Depression

Psychotic depression is a severe mental disorder that is the combination of abnormal

thinking and perceptions. People with psychosis lose touch with reality. The symptom of this

disorder is delusions and hallucinations.

Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression is a clinical depression which can affect both sexes after childbirth. This

disorder may include sadness, lack of energy, changes in sleeping and eating patterns, reduced

desire for sex, anxiety, and irritability. Postpartum depression (PPD) is also called postnatal

depression.
Substance Induced Mood Disorder (abuse or dependence)

Substance-Induced Mood Disorder is a depressive illness of clients in substance abuse

treatment. This disorder may involve a complete loss of interest or enjoyment in life.

Depression and homesickness

The relation between depression and homesickness has not been extensively studied

especially as it applies to hostel students. A simple EBSCO host search of Psych Articles and

Psychology/Sociology databases with the terms homesickness hostels and depression

offers a mere four results, only one of which is an empirical article (Retrieved April 14, 2009,

from Psychology/Sociology databases on EBSCO host).In addition to this , a similar search for

depression and homesickness in the result of these just ten results were issued from which

only four of results were empirical and none of which were relevant for the Current study.

Johnson and Hayes (2003) found that those higher in depress distress are less likely to seek

help for homesickness, but at the same time homesickness may be connected with depressive or

spiritual distress. However, they search out the correlation between homesickness and help-

seeking as different to using depression as a moderator. While there has not been a great

connection of literature on homesickness and depression, some have attempted to use depression

to decrease the effects of homesickness. One guide to study with homesickness even involved

Get ready to grow in your faith as one of their six steps for dealing with homesickness

(Barnhill, 2001). This guide was not, however, based on any empirical evidence. Indeed, there

are only two studies that look at depression as a beneficial factor for hostel students during

adjustment within the depressive literature. In observing a group of 268 undergraduates,

Richards (1991) found a main effect for intrinsic homesickness in lessening depression among
first semester hostel students. Furthermore, relevant is the finding that depress students reported

less separation anxiety from parents as opposed to non-depress students. However, this study

used a two-by-two design by splitting individuals into high- and low-Intrinsic depression as

opposed to a mode rational approach. Despite this methodology, their findings are consistent

with previous research concentrating that depression is a beneficial factor for many at-risk

behaviors and negative outcomes.

There are many of disadvantages of depression and homesickness such as when hostel

students left their own houses they face many difficulties in hostels as financial crisis, mentally

disturbance, missing their family relations as well as they miss all the opportunities of their

houses which they can enjoy as the member of their family .

Homesickness as an ailment

Homesickness is very dangerous for the life of hostel students because of that students

cannot fulfill their desires as they want. Large-scale migration in immediate society underscores

the need to learn about the difficult experience of leaving home and settled within or beyond

his/her own country. Separate observation of various types of stress out students connected with

geographic moves is called for, because these are same to be connected with different correlates

and consequences, probably leading to co morbidity.

Homesickness is a usual element of relocation, known to be related to obvious settlements,

difficulties and health problems, as well as clinical disorders. However, an up-to-date,

comprehensive point of view of scientific observations of HS is lacking. Therefore, this article

scientifically reviews empirical research on HS, depending on immediately sojourns from home.

Fifty-five articles that explain to exact design and methodological criteria were classified in the
literature. These studies explain indicative patterns of findings relating to the prevalence,

consequences, predictors, and prevention/treatment strategies for HS. Gaps in knowledge about

phenomena and hesitation connected with HS are also explained. Specifically, it is denoted that

the inclusion of stress out hostel students in the new place when assessing HS limits

understanding. We suggest theory-guided indications for future research. Baier & Welch (1992),

Fisher (1989) and many others explained much evidence to support this claim.

In observing the cognitive symptoms of homesickness, Fisher (1989) reveals that there

develop in the migrate person obsessive thoughts about home and sometimes simultaneously

negative thoughts about the new place. Fisher also highlighted a state of absent stresses in the

people affected. There is a tendency to idealize home rather than revisiting the problems one

encountered there before. The behavioral symptoms include apathy, listlessness, lack of

initiative and little interest in the new environment (Van Tilburget al., 1996, p. 903).

A number of psychologist and migrant studies give knowledge that there are a lot of complex

relationships between socio-cultural and psychological adjustment (Fisher, 1989; Lin 1986;

Scullion & Linehan, 2005). The business consequences of such psychological, physiological and

social anomalies are numerous and include lack of encouragement, lack of team work and poor

performance (Deresky, 2010). Omi and Winnant (2003) found similar consequences in a study of

migrant populations in East Kentucky, in the United States. It should, however, be aware that

there may be elements related to personality and to the impact of the micro-environment in

which the psychologist and labor migrants arrive. If the individuals degree of psychological

damage, as a result of displacement, is high and has deeply affected on the lives of the hostel

students and probably effect on their personality, then they are more likely to display much of
the pathological signs explained by Fisher and other psychologists. Further, the extent to which

the new environment in which the international assignee or the migrant lands is giving

supportive determines the degree to which the newcomer experiences difficulties and the extent

to which he or she feels homesick. Although most studies of homesickness have been explained

on other groups of migrates students who migrate from one place to another, not necessarily

psychologists, given the above argue it may not be unreasonable to accept to speculate possible

generalizations of the submission to international assignees and to the social environments in

which they arrive. The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of homesickness are likely to lead to

emotional problems such as low mood, lack of security, loneliness, nervousness, lack of control

and depression.

SYMPTOMS AND EFFECTS OF HOMESICKESS

The symptoms and effects of homesickness help to understand the measure of the problem,

especially as it may affect long term international assignees and migrants. Psychologists may

already be facing many difficulties which are classified with their involvement in major

situations in the home country; consequently they may be facing the bundle of problems whether

to pursue their career within a MNC in their own home country or find out an international

experience often seen as fetishism for a high flying career as a global manager or guider.

Further dilemma is faced by dual-career couples that may be worried about opportunities for the

partner abroad or the security of their jobs on return. Such a psychological trauma coupled with

isolation and difficult conditions in the new environment could participate into acute cases of

homesickness. If support is not offered, then homesickness may involve protecting their
belonging. In such a case, integration and successful reconstructing of broken lives are in great

jeopardy and could intern affect the success of the international assignment as argued earlier.

Homesickness is viewed many time as a periodic situation although in severe cases these

feelings are continuous(Fisher et al., 1984). The possibility of protracted period for

homesickness enables to differentiate this condition from culture shock, whose life cycle may be

shorter. While homesickness is view as a serious illness, culture shock is not always processed in

this way. Adler (1987) in particular rejects the classification of culture shock with illness.

The main effect of homesickness is further classified by its observation although it has been

suggested that it is hard to assess prevalence of the disease because of its period illness. Van

Tilburg et al. (1996) explained that most people observe homesickness especially in the early

days following starts of their observation and only gave experiences is reported immediately.

Fisher et al., (1984) studied homesickness among hostel students and they found that only 18

percent of cases were reported. However, a deepest observation in the same hostel taking results

a prevalence rate of sixty to seventy percent. This condition may classify the case of psychologist

who falls within a field that is under-researched as asserted and substantiated earlier in this

research. The little attention paid to homesickness as a distinct condition in expatriate literature

and, at the same time, there are the volumes of existing evidence that a significant number of

international assignments end in failure (Briscoe & Schuler, 2004).Homesickness in expatriates

and international workers could be a deeper and continuous process that should command more

attention if the success rate in international labour transfers is to improve.

Theoretical Models of Homesickness


There are some models going to be explaining which can help us to understand with the

ideas of different authors that what are the effect and difficulties of homesickness.

Models of homesickness conducted by Fisher in 1989 are similar to Lins 1986 model of

psychological and social disruption in forced migrants. Fisher explains five models to the ways

in which homesickness affect upon people who are far from their usual home.

The first, the Decline and attachment model, observes that the separation of the person from

his or her social and cultural networks is felt as a loss which turns into anxiety, grief and anger.

If this is persistent, the feeling of loss aggravates to become apathy and helplessness (Van

Tilburg, et al., 1996, p.903). These latter results of homesickness in the loss model are what

occasion a situation of dependency for the persons affected and leads, in order, to depression,

agoraphobia, two symptoms of home sickness according to the authors.

The Intervention and disconnectivity model is depend on the fact that a break in the way

people used to abandon their lives and fulfill daily activities can be an important stressor and the

source of other negative feelings like fear, anxiety, and distress. The student becomes influence

because the basic departments of his or her real life have disturbed. In order to spend their lives

in the new environment, the expatriate or displaced person needs important adjustments that may

not be hold in the immediate future, or may not be achievable at all. Thus, the more extended the

process of adjustment is the more anxiety, fear and depression is developed to a large extent

successful social and professional integration in the case of global assignees.

In this Decreased personal control model the person who is new in hostel is not in control

of the new environment in which he or she has landed. In many cases, the individual lacks

coping mechanisms susceptible of helping to living in the new social, cultural, technological and
psychological conditions which can be perceived as opposing and threatening forces. Burt (1993)

argues that the increasing of homesickness is mainly due to the fact that the displaced person is

not in control of the host environment.

The Change and transformation model sees personally as being obliged to accept to

achieve new roles that are implements to enable them to live in harmony with the host

environment. The transformation between giving up old roles and habits to adopt the novel

ones is particularly stressful. This has been observed in male and female students who settle out

in hostels behavior. For instance, in research by the various plenty of the migrant assisting

organizations, some male migrants have been seeming to fulfil kitchen and childcare duties in

the United Kingdom because in their original cultures such duties are basic feminine Similarly,

some female migrants have been opposed to consider work with male colleagues as this might

clash with their own culture and religion (Hack-Polay, 2008).

The Contradiction model is being explained that there is a conceptual conflict within the

personal itself. On the one hand the migrated hostel student has the will - or is rather forced - to

learn and acquire new paths of seeing and to achieve things and life. On the other hand, there is a

kind of resistance on the part of the individual to provide accommodations the uncontrollable

wind of change. Thus, there adjusts in the mind of the displaced hostel students a desire to return

home but they are facing lot of issues of security and safety. Research in an area connected to

home sickness, culture shock, uses a model referred to as the U-curve model conducted by Oberg

(1960). This model claims that newcomers to an alien culture go through four stages to reach

adjustment. These stages are honeymoon, crisis, recovery and adjustment. This model has been
argued because some researchers argue that not all migrants go through the honeymoon phase

(Selmer 1999).

Models are interesting to consider in an attempt to understand the behaviors of psychologists

and international workers. Fishers models offer a very fair and logical catalogue of what

psychologists may feel like and do in the new environment and professional context. However,

Fishers theories as five different models, there could be a practical inclination to categories

them as one single model of homesickness with different stages. Infect, it is not rare to observe

that an personal point of view goes through more than one, and sometimes, all the stages defined

by Fishers model. These stages may be classified that some theorists have given possible ideas,

intervention or concept to deal with homesickness.

Youngish and Metz (2004) investigated depression development by tracking both depression

and drug/alcohol use through the hostel years and found religiousness to continue to have a

buffering effect throughout. Such a protective effect of depression has also been seen in specific

communities and ethnicities, such as African American hostel students (Regnerus, Smith & 5

Fritsch, 2003; Wills, Gibbons, Gerrard, Murry& Brody, 2003) and Jews (Regnerus, Smith &

Fritsch, 2003). The relationship between alcohol and depression has been found both in hostel

students.

Feasible intercessions about hostel students

Van Tilburg, Vingerhoets & Van Heck, (1996: 909) have discussed that the feasibilities of

intercessions reveal to be limited. But much of what the literature has given the idea as a

remedy for the common illnesses of homesickness turns around the return to the original society.

This mode of intervention can be seen as involvement because in many cases the people affected
cannot return to the original society because of coercive forces preventing them to do so. In the

case of expatriates, for instance, the coercive force may be the risk of losing their jobs, the risk of

not being able to move up the ladders in their career, or the prospect of unemployment, etc.

Perhaps, many other realistic modes of intercessions may be seen in the stress management

approach (Fisher, 1989). It is planned to help the influenced people to accept the feeling of

homesickness, to be involved in the new surroundings, to do physical activities (sports, games,

visits), to eat and sleep properly, to go onto training institutions(Van Tilburg, Vingerhoets & Van

Heck, 1996). It can be noticed that with the exception of the stress management approach, most

remedies are social intercessions. However, the materialistic home needs much comparable to

the original one and this should be reflected in the relocation strategies and the choice of

resettlement areas for displaced students. The reconstruction of a familiar social context needs to

take account of culture because this has often represented another big problem for hostel life

students and is well documented in expatriate literature.

Avoidances from homesickness

Preventive solutions may be greatly rooted in the ability of the organizations to ensure

proper preparations for their expatriates before departure. Deresky (2006) stress the crucial

importance of preparation and training. She claims that such activities smooth the expatriates

landing in the new environment and overcome the culture shock, including distorted perceptions

and anxiety. Deresky also claims that people in such a situation confront trauma and key

symptoms of this include irritation and deep seated-psychological panic and crisis.

Preparation should chiefly be concerned with informing the expatriate about the
conditions in the new environment. It should also critically highlight the possibility that the

expatriate may face some social and psychological isolation for some time before he or she

becomes aware with the new environment, i.e. both physical and social. There should be an

understanding that this procedure is usual and takes time and personal or family effort for a

positive and gentle adjustment. Deresky (2006: 364) believes that important family problems

could result from homesickness; members could turn against each other and this could lead on

occasions to the fragmentation of the family. The author claims that a large number of people do

not pass this stage, causing the expatriate to get back earlier.

As part of the preventive procedures, the expatriates group should include plans for daily

basis return visits back home. While this may add to the general cost of the expatriate

assignment, it will still continue to exist cheaper than disappointed expatriation. This should be

considered for as part of the balance sheet approach to compensating the expatriate as it will

equalize the standard of living between the host and home countries and compensate for

inconvenience or qualitative loss (Deresky, 2006: 370). Possibly, a relative of the expatriate,

along from the accompanying spouse and children, could be sponsored by the organization to

visit the expatriate occasionally. This may be the mother, father or other relative dear to the

expatriate. This viewpoint is likely to ensure that there is not essential breakdown in the family

connections and reduce the feeling of missing dear ones, which is often at the center of

homesickness.

Last but not least, decreasing homesickness could also take into account an attempt to

reconstruct a socio-cultural network. For instance, areas such as Thailand, Indonesia or West

Africa where French, British and American expatriates work for their several MNCs, there could
be concerted efforts to set an expatriate network that could also include host country nationals

(HCNs). Cultural practices such as nightclubs, religious institutions, schools or childcare

facilities could be built up jointly to provide a more cultural careful network for the expatriates.

This is greatly from indicating that parent company nationals (PCNs) and third country nationals

(TCNs) should separate themselves off the host society. On the other hand, they acquire from

each others adjustment difficulties and successes at once as combating somehow the effects of

home sickness. In a study on forced migrants Reynolds & Shackman (1995) argued that possibly

the best method to help the newcomers to settle in the new society is to help them build intimate

social networks and self-help groups that would provide them with the means to combine the

larger host society.

Adjustment

Adjustment problem begins right from the birth of and maintains till death, various

conditions arise at home. Adjustment is the way of arriving at a stable state between the need of

mankind and their satisfaction. Accommodations and education institutions play a key role in the

adjustment of an individual. According to the Darwin, he was developed in 1958 by theory of

evolution. He argues that those living organisms which altered successfully to the demands of

living, survived and multiplied while others, who did not, died out. Therefore adaptation or

change in individual according to the external surrounding is a fundamental need for survival.

The term adjustment refers to which an individual's personality roles effectively in the

universe of population. It refers to the harmonious relationship between the person and the living

world. In other words, it is the bond that comes among the organisms, the environment and the

character. A well-balanced personality is well prepared to play the functions which are expected
of the status appointed to him with in given environment. His wishes will be satisfied in

compliance with the public needs.

Psychologists have explained adjustment from two important way of thinking.

Adjustment as an attainment

Adjustment as an attainment means how effectively a person could accomplish his tasks in

different situations. Employment, military education and other social activities require efficient

and well balanced men for the progress and human being of the nation. For example, when poor

children study in the corner of a playground because in home he has not proper place to study he

is said to be in the process of adjustment. As a result of that adjustment he attains good grads in

examination. Thus adjustment meant as an attainment means how the effectiveness with which

an individual can function in changed circumstances.

Adjustment as an everlasting process

The process of adjustment is everlasting. In this process, we analyze that the child, at the

time of his birth is absolutely based on others for the fulfillment of his needs, but gradually with

age he learns to control his needs. His needs are also changing in accordance with the demands

of the changing outside environment. Consequently, the process of an individuals adjustment

can be supposed to change from situation to situation and according to Ark off (1968), there is

nothing like satisfactory adjustment which can be attained once and for all time. It is something

that is constantly attained and re-attained by us (Mangal,2006).

IDEA OF ADJUSTMENT

Adjustment is the association which seems to be established between the individual and the

environment. Every person plays certain position in his public relations. He is educated to play
his role in such a way that his maximum needs will be achieved. So, he should play his role

correctly and get maximum contentment. If he does not achieve his task according to standards

and educating home environment received his desires may not be fulfilled and he may get

hesitated. According to the ideas of adjustment there are following two kinds of adjustment

which can help us to identify a lot of problems and their solutions which we face during the time

of hostel life.

Normal adjustment

When a relationship between the students who is more respected to his parents and always

obeys them. If that kind of student leaves his family environments and joins new people, new

surroundings and pays new hostel life. Then it will be very easy for that type of students for the

normal adjustment.

Abnormal adjustment

If we study about the abnormal adjustment among the hostel students as compared to those

hostel students who adjusts normally in hostel life. Then we find that those students who do not

obey their parents and follow their instructions, then they try to make new relations very fast in

the result of that for these students always very difficult to normal adjustment. These type of

students easily fall prey to abnormal adjustments.

Measurement of Adjustment in Hostel

There are following the important measurements which are measured as measurements of

adjustment in hostel.

Adjustment to the new environment and hostel routine


This means that a child should not feel himself/herself a new comer in the new hostel

environment. Student should feel like home while playing in the playground, using toilet, and

performing different activities at hostel.

Adjustment to Academic and Extra activities

This involves to getting most out of specific studies and activities, to stress out learning

problems and instructional difficulties, and to make beneficiary progress in observing

experience.

Psychological Adjustment

Development of good memory which turns into everlasting moments desirable interest, good

temper, and desirable attitudes given good strength to the psychological adjustment of student.

Adjustment to and within themselves

Adjustment to and within themselves means to self-understanding and easily adopting new

things by their own acceptance, a proper insight into needs, attitudes and values, overstressing

emotional difficulties and personal hygiene.

Social Adjustment

This means a harmonious relationship with the students and teachers, Proper understanding

of social needs, requirements and group goals, and meeting effectively to the social requirements

of the home, peer groups, culture and the community.

If we analyze as psychologist then we find some important factors which can affect to

adjustment at hostel students.


Proper training to Teachers

Teachers should build harmonious relationship between those students who come from very

long distance and settled down in hostel for better studies on the contrary teacher training in

psychological point of view may help students in their adjustment..

Adequate Curriculum

Extra activities should be planned and managed in such a way that it should be achieve

psychological and social needs of students.

Adequate Recreational Facilities

Some recreational facilities can easily help for adjustment such as sports, library, debate and

excursion may help students in their adjustment.

Classroom atmosphere

If the classroom atmosphere is beneficial and cooperative for students, it can facilitate better

adjustment in students.

Proper relationships between students and administrations

Understandable relations between the Principal and teachers, and teachers and teachers, and

teachers and office staff as well as students also play a vital role in making harmonious and

congenial environment in the school.

Evaluation system of the hostel

Evaluation should be rigid cum flexible. Too much concentration in study and unreliability

should be avoided. Numerical marking should be avoided and grades should be given to

students. Due to low marks, students lose confidence in their life which then affects in their

mental health. By these word mostly hostel students loses their hopes and they choose wrong
way to overcome their problems such as using of alcohol avoidance from studies, bad

relationships between students and missing their parents. The world 'fail' should not be used by

the teachers

The role of hostel warden in student adjustment

The role of hostel warden is very important to make peaceful environment. The hostel

warden plays the most key role to bring improvement in the hostel environment and help the

students in adjustment. He /She can perform the following role :

1. Provide a home environment where the students feel free to express themselves

2. Develop in youngsters student a sense of self-respect and self-esteem by complements for

work.

3. Accept the individual differences of students.

4. Maintains good mental health

. 5. Hostel warden should adopt democratic and respective behavior

Adjustment Mechanism

The term adjustment mechanism refers to which the individual to achieve satisfaction of the

need ineffectively. This helps reducing tensions and also helps him in maintaining self-respect.

An adjustment mechanism defined as any habitual procedure of overcoming blocks, reaching

goals, satisfying motives, relieving frustrations and maintains equilibrium. The following are the

adjustment mechanism.

Compensation
Compensation is a concept where the individual attempts to overachieve his weakness in one

area by showing his strength in another. A student deficient in physical activities may make

amends himself in showing good results in the educational field and vice versa.

Identification

Identification is a concept when an individual attempts to identify himself with some

prosperous person. To conceal his own failures, a student may identify himself with his father

and talk about his victory.

Rationalization

Rationalization means transferring of responsibility for our failures to factors outside it i.e.

many students attribute their failure to the firm question paper.

Projection

Projection is a psychological defense mechanism in which individuals attribute characteristics

they find unrealized in themselves to another person. For example, a husband who has a hostile

nature might attribute this hostility to his wife and say she has an anger management problem.

Day-Dreaming

The imaginative fulfillment of needs is called day-dreaming. Day-Dreaming provides mental

relief to an individual if it is done with limits. It becomes very detrimental when it is carried to

excess (Aggarwal,1995).

Attribute of a Well-adjusted Hostel student

A well-adjusted student is supposed to possess the following attributes.

1. Awareness of his own efforts and limitations. A well-adjusted student knows his own

strengths and weaknesses.


2. Respecting him and others. The dislike of one-self is a typical symptom of maladjustment.

3. An adequate level of aspiration. His level of aspiration is neither too low nor too high in terms

of his own strengths and abilities.

4. Sense of achievement of basic needs. His basic organic, emotional and social needs are full

satisfied or in the process of being satisfied.

5. Absence of critical or fault-finding attitude. Most of the students encourage the good abilities

in different things, persons and their attitude. These students never try to observe bad things the

thinking of that type of students always logical as compared to other students. They always

attract people and win their satisfaction.

6. Flexibility in behavior. He is not stubborn in his attitude or way of life. He can easily

accommodate by making necessary changes in his behavior.

7. A well-adjusted hostel student feels satisfied with his surroundings. He fits in well in his

home, family, friends and other social surroundings. If a student, he likes his hostel, hostel-

mates, the caretaker of hostel, and feels comforted with his daily routine.

8. A well-mannered psyche of life. A well-adjusted student has a logic which gives direction to

his life forever keeping in view the demands of changed situations and condition.

Rationale of the study:

This study is proposed in order to find out the effect of homesickness and depression on

adjustment of hostel students. Students face many life stressors: adjusting to living away from

home, academic demands, living with roommates, building new friendships, managing time and

money, and more. How the student reacts to such changes can give you clues on what might be

going on. Students who are "homesick" may miss their family and friends, but will rebound
quickly after checking in with those they miss or after a brief visit home. Talking with family

and friends usually leads to appropriate problem-solving and the student feeling better about

their situation.

Students with depression have symptoms that persist and interfere with normal activities,

such as: Feelings of sadness or unhappiness, Irritability or frustration, even over small matters,

Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities, Insomnia or excessive sleeping, Changes in

appetite or weigh.

Chapter - II

LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter different psychologists and migrant workers share their knowledge and

those experiences which they gain during observation about those students who left their own

houses and migrate into hostel for study purpose. Many of the psychologists examine the lives of

different hostel students who suffering from lot of difficulties during the hostel life such as

mentally disturbance, missing their relations, missing their family atmosphere and with their

special attachments.

The problem of homesickness among the hostel students didnt come into seems till 1750s.

In ancient time this type of feeling was known as nostalgia, a medical condition. It was first

identified in 1688 by Johannes Hofer, a Swiss scholar, who warned that the condition had not

been sufficiently observed dire consequences. By Hofers explanation, the nostalgic individual
stress out himself thinking of home that he couldnt attend to other ideas and needs. While

nostalgia was examined as a Victorian virtue, a testament to civility and the domestic order,

extreme onsets could kill a person. And so they did during the Civil War. By two years in, two

thousand soldiers had been seemed with nostalgia, and in the year 1865, twenty-four white

Union soldiers and sixteen black ones died from it. An emotional feeling that caused death could

no longer pass as a force for social good. Instead it had far greater utility as a patronizing

justification of racism. Some in favor of slavery began to claim that slaves loved their home

more than anyone; that being the case, how cruel to then tear them from the plantation.

WWIs national training programs, the first of their kind, were explained to stifle

homesickness from the start. Men from the same environment were deliberately assigned to

different units across America, so that they couldnt retreat into the comfort of local

remembrances. The aim was to turn each unit into a national entity whose first objection was to

the country. In the 1950s, the age of the civilization person, corporations attempted the same

thing. Displaced people were part of the path to promotion. IBM, employees joked, stood for Ive

Been Moved. Eventually, in a given year during the Eisenhower Administration, roughly 20%of

Americans had.

But the organization most successful at destroying localism, at least today, is the American

college. Places like NYU, Brown, Skidmore, and Harvard draw students from across the country,

from around the globe. No longer are their wants local; theyre national. Lifelong friendships and

rivalries persist largely between classmates rather than childhood neighbors. If theres one
locality overcoming represented at these liberal arts education centers, its New York, wherein so

many of their graduates hostel students will subsequently settle.

New York is the area wise American experiment on speed, a holding pen for migrants.

Graduatesimmigrants in sweatpants with big boxes of booksarrive every summer; they try

to adjust and to profit; they either accept that environment or return home. In the 1920s and

1930s, parents prepared their children for such moves by promoting them to frontier-themed

summer camps where they would play pioneer. And where kids have camps to build confidence,

college grads turn to New York as the final test, not only of resilience but of that characteristic of

confidence is supposed to serve: achievement. Certain Manhattan hard-liners, the people who

announce that New York is the only city; though Paris is pretty, think the only reason to leave

New York is if you fail out.

A successful friend of mine recently decided to come back home to Boston after weathering

New York for four years university study, during the studies he was living in university hostel.

He hated drawing, was tired of all the parties, and his gallery job, which was probably pleasant

enough, would never give him a good salary. What he wanted was his home city, and a well-

paying office job, where at 5 P.M. hed be released to enjoy with his young nephews. Among my

friends his honesty was polarizing: some, like me, appreciated it; while many others felt

threatened by his resignation from the rat race and what was perceived as a regressive retreat into

familiarity.

But the problem with homesickness isnt just that it obstructs ambition; its that the object

of longing, home, is not as fixed as one might think. After the Civil War, for instance, the
transcontinental railroad and steam-powered ocean liners, Matt writes, made it easier to return

to a physical home and thus, at least theoretically, easier to decreasing homesickness. Upon

traveling back, however, they found they had not arrived, for the same technologies that had

brought them home had also disrupted traditional ways of life. The casual and even the clocks

of hometowns had been rearranged to train schedules and standard time; certain commodities,

like ice, reshaped the diet. Traveling back revealed that home had been reached by time, and a

word necessarily arose to define this longing for what was lost: nostalgia.

While homesickness was overpowered in America, nostalgia was permitted to prosper. In

1899 New Hampshire solved out a way to benefit off of it, and started throwing annual Old

Home Weeks. These festivals, wherein the township might show old photographs and outdated

town artifacts while concessionaires in old-timey clothes served up topical specialties, were

formulated of as bonds, meant to sketch former stays rear to their birthplaces. By 1903, these

weeks were alluring half a million people, and this day quite a few New England towns still

throw themsuch as Freedom, New Hampshire, which hosts one every August. Neither priory

El Granada nor my El Granada of the 1980s and 1990s had enough of a community to justify an

antiquarian street fair. But Americas comparative acceptanceembraces, evenof nostalgia

constructs sense to me. Its safer than homesickness because its neutered; it cant be felt and

wont get in the aspect of work; it asks you to long only for something that no prolonger exists.

Ekblad (1993), Leff et al. (1970) and Weissman & Paykel (1973) found prove to explain

hesitations that homesickness effects on health. If homesickness affects students on the move,

even the voluntary migrants, then there is strong possibility that it could be more pronounced in
expatriate populations. In fact, the literature helps that homesickness is usual among hostel

students and is an illness of socially disorientated and isolated people.

Homesickness has been defined as difficulty and functional impairment caused by an actual

or unwanted separation from home and attachment objects such as parents (Thurber, et al.,

2007). Signs of homesickness have been submitted to include maladjustment outcomes such as

depression, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors (Fisher, Murray & Frazer, 1985; Zaleski,

Levey-Thors, and Schiaffino, 1998 for a review). For example, in a sample of 101 first year

college students, Fisher, Murray and Frazer (1985) found that 60% of Participants reported

homesickness. This study is specifically mentionable because it was one of the first to

conceptualize homesickness as having multiple directions. Their findings indentified that both

the distance of new surroundings and features of the new environment combined to increase the

feeling of homesickness.

Stroeb, van Vliet, Hewstone and Wills (2002) experience that 280 British students found a

reasonable distance from homesickness to depression, as explained the relationship between

displace students and depression. Many point of views for homesickness have been suggested,

including booklets and Brochures (Thurber, 2005), practice time away from home (Thurber,

2005; Thurber, Walton, & the Council on School Health, 2007), introducing a system of

companion and relatives away from home, and providing coping instruction (Thurber, Walton, &

Council on School Health, 2007). These procedures may be in large part due to the many

differing unbalanced outcomes to which homesickness has been attached. The structure of

literature on homesickness in hostel students has usually pointed on frequencies of occurrence,

treatments, and specific educational outcomes due to homesickness. Variance in the estimates of
occurrence and variety of symptoms identify the involvement of moderating and mediating

variables. Researchers have disappointed to observe these moderating and mediating variables,

leaving a huge gap in our understanding of the phenomenon. Understanding mechanisms

involved in the connected between homesickness and adjustment will be critical in establishing

future effective and powerful avoidance programs as well as intervention treatments.

Furthermore problematic in the study of homesickness is the fact that strong cross-

cultural differences have been observed. This can make the understanding of homesickness even

more difficult, particularly when attempting to firm rapidly what proportion of students suffer as

well as the degree to which it affects on them.

According to the specialized psychologist to observed variety of students who suffering

from lot of problems, he examined that 69 Turkish and 75 American students residing in their

native countries, Cardin and Fichte (1991) found 77% of Turkish students identifying

homesickness, while 19% of Americans did. In addition to this, Americans were mainly lower

than Turkish students on ratings of value of symptoms.

There are lots of differing calculations of homesickness. Many previous studies used a single

item homesickness questionnaire, while reliable, significantly observed homesickness as a sign

of sorrow. From this point of view, homesickness is thinking of as mainly results of missing

items or people from the sufferers prior environment. Furthermore, single item measures of

homesickness fail to address the difficulty and various types of the phenomenon, such as the

multi- measurements explained by Fisher, Murray & Frazer (1985).

Other specialist have examined how new environments effect individuals ability to cope

and found that the so-called strain model may be a more accurate way of conducting
homesickness. This model looks at the effect of the new environment on well-being and observes

problems due to homesickness as arising due to emotional strains. Archer, Ireland, Amos, Broad

and Curried (1998) tried to explain these two perspectives and combined them together in one

scale, the Homesickness Questionnaire (HQ). When data was collected, an observing factor

analysis on their scale was executed by using two factors. These two factors were disliking the

university, which accounted for 24% of the total variance, and attachment to home, which

accounted for 8.7% of the total variance. Each of the items included in the factors were loaded

above .41. Cronbachs alpha for the two subscales were .85 for factor 1 and .83 for factor 2. Both

parts of this scale were largely related to their single-item control of how homesick do you

feel. This single-item measurement has been found to be perhaps the most reliable measurement

of homesickness; moreover, it does not break homesickness into different parts, which is a major

strength of the HQ. There was a slight yet notable difference between the two subscales and the

control item, identifying that feeling homesick was more closely associated to attachment to

home as opposed to having negative attitudes towards the environment. Due to the theoretical

strengths of this measure, it was used in the current study.

Practical Experiences of homesickness

It is being submitted that research proved some authentic information about homesickness.

Homesickness is increasing lot more these days usually homesickness is depending on the

population and environment during hostel life period in universities or colleges, as well as the

method used to checking homesickness. Consequently upwards of 90% of young students

spending their times away from home, it is reported by (Thurber & Walton, 2007) that those
students suffered from many problems such as depression, homesickness as well as missing their

parents. Only 20% of boys and girls report moderate-to-severe signs and just about 7% report

intense homesickness that is related with severe symptoms of depression and/or anxiety

(Thurber, Sigman, Weisz, & Schmidt, 1999; Thurber, 1999).

Young people who experience moderate-to-severe levels of homesickness commonly

present as being tearful and withdrawn. Other students might present who had changed their

behaviors, such as fighting, swearing, or destroying property. Some present with nonspecific

somatic complaints, such as a headache or a stomachache (Anes, Feldman, Gersony, Morrison,

& Weiss; Thurber, 1995). Some hostel students try to make and keep friends; others find it

difficult to concentrate (Fisher, Frazer, & Murray, 1986). Homesickness can be classified by

(Thurber &Sigman, 1999). Risk factors for the increasing of intense homesickness in young

hostel students include: little previous experience away from home, prior negative experiences

away from home, negative first impressions Little knowledge of the new environment, feeling

forced to leave home by parents, made them insure attachment to primary hostel warden, prior

history of depression or anxiety, and ambivalent messages from primary hostel warden, such as,

Have a great time away. I dont know what Ill do without you.

Although the best way to reduce intense homesickness is through an specifically

supported prevention program, surrogate hostel warden can be also trainedvia printed

materials and online educationto recognize and treat the symptoms of distress that accompany

homesickness. Homesickness has been researched in boys and girls hostel camps, as well as in

boarding schools, universities, and hospitals (Thurber & Walton, 2006). Hugely, people of
different genders, ages, ethnicities, and cultures all defines and experience homesickness

similarly, regardless of the environment they are in.

Homesick campers are less likely to return to camp the following summer, more likely to

withdraw socially, little bit interest to participate in activities, and more likely to monopolize

staff time than their less homesick peers (Thurber, 1999). Boys and girls at hostel camp report

that the most thinkable ways of coping with homesickness which could be include: staying busy

at their new places, talking with someone they trust, writing to their loving parents, making new

friends, Chris Thurber, Exeter Academy 1 reframing time, and keeping a good and valuable

attitude (Thurber &Weisz, 1997a; 1997b).

Homesickness can be made less effective such as Prevention programs for homesickness can

take interests a combination of environmental information, psycho-education (normalizing

homesickness), social support (both at home and in the new place), explicit coping instruction

(outlining the most effective strategies), hostel warden training (to be positive and non-

ambivalent), Giving good time to those students who are living at hostels and very away from

home (such as short stays at a friends house). One empirically supported homesickness

prevention program exist for summer camps: the American Camp Associations DVD-CD set

entitled The Secret Ingredients of Summer Camp Success. Camp-based research gives idea that

homesickness prevention programs can lower the strength of first-year hostel students campers

homesickness by an average of 50% were among those students (Thurber, 2005), as well as

increase the likelihood that campers will return to camp the following summer (Thurber, 1999).

Prevention programs result not only in less severe homesickness, but also fewer feelings of

depression and anxiety and greater satisfaction with the new environment (van Tilburg et al.,
1999; Thurber, 2005; Tognoli, 2003). Many Hostel camps, boarding schools, and colleges also

use theoretically-based homesickness prevention programs of their own. These programs include

essential base programs for parents and hostel students who participate with sound advice on the

best ways to cope with homesickness (Stover, 2007).

In bottom explanation Homesickness is a normative response to live far away from a

familiar environment and those enjoyments which students just enjoy in their houses. About 20%

of young hostel students who were spending time away from home experience moderate-to-

severe homesickness; about 7% experience debilitating levels of homesickness. By the Good

Luck, homesickness can be hugely prevented and effectively treated with proper and cheaper

education and training. Experiencing some degree of homesickness also encourage young

students to learn long lasting coping skills that serve them best future benefits away from home.

Depression

During 2007, American College Health AssociationNational College Health Assessment

(1), a national survey of Maximum 20,500 college students which were spending their times on

39 hostel campuses, 43.2% of the students reported feeling so depressed and uncomfortable it

was difficult to survival at least once in the past 12 months. More than 3,200 university students

reported being seen as having depression, with 39.2% of those students diagnosed in the past 12

months, 24.2% presently in therapy for depression, and 35.8% taking antidepressant medication.

During the students surveyed, 10.3% admitted seriously considering attempting suicide within

the past 12 months and 1.9% actually attempted suicide during that year. Consequently the

explanation which classify before can help to understand depression among hostel students, it is

not to most mental health clinicians and officials at U.S. colleges.


According to the 2008 National Survey of Counseling Center Directors, 95% of researchers

believe that there has been a trend in recent years of an increase in the number of students with

serious psychological problems. In 2008 an approximately 26% of consulting center clients were

taking psychiatric medication, up from 20% in 2003, 17% in 2000, and 9% in 1994. And

furthermore the rate of suicide among hostel students may have decreased in recent 10 years;

suicide still remains the third leading cause of death among adolescent and young adults. Many

college officials have started to appreciate the effect that a students depression can have on

overall classifying in the college community.

Depression has been linked to academic problems as well as interpersonal problems at

hostels, with more severe depression correlated with higher levels of impairment. The treatment

of depression among hostel students has been examined with a beneficial effect on these

students grade point averages. In an effort to diagnose and treat early and effectively, and thus

decrease the excess morbidity and risk of suicide connected with depression, some U.S. college

have even started to screen students for depression in the initial care setting. There are specific

challenges of providing treatment to hostel students. These challenges involved special academic

burden in semester-based cycles, lately semester breaks that result in disturbing of care, and

heavy reliance on community supports that can be inconsistent. Given the prevalence and impact

of depression on hostel campuses and the different services classified by university mental health

centers. Through the bad effects of depressive identities has been increasing among hostel

students.

According to a study of college students receiving counseling services between the years of

1988 and 2001, a 20% increase occurred in the number of students seeking help for depressive
symptoms during that time period of hostel lives (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton,

2003). In a observation of university counseling center directors completed in 2006, it was

explained that 91.6% of the expatriates reported that they had examined an increase in the

strength of students experiencing psychological problems in the recent years (Blanco, et. al,

2008). The development of depressive identifications may have a powerful impact on the ability

of college students to successfully achieve academic requirements.

In a nationwide study, 43% of hostel students reported feeling so depressed that it was

difficult for them to study (American College Health Association, 2009). Depressive symptoms

can negatively impact the lives of hostel students. Students examining depressive symptoms

report large amounts of emotional suffering. This suffering may impact life satisfaction and

academic performance (Brown &Schiraldi, 2004). A large national study (n=4,092) focused

upon a comparison of the mental health of hostel students and their non-college attending peers.

A total of 2,188 2 students between the ages of 19 to 25 years who were currently attending

college, and 2,904 of their peers who were not attending college were surveyed to determine the

prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the rate of treatment received for these disorders in each

of the groups. The results depended that the problem of mood disorders and anxiety disorders

were huge in both groups. An alarming result of this activity was that almost 50% of all of the

individuals from both groups met the problematic for at least one psychiatric disorder during the

past 1 year (Blanco, et. al, 2008). In a nationwide travelling according to investigation about the

depression among hostel students conducted by the American College Health Association in

2008, 94% of the students reported feeling overwhelmed by the demands of college life

(American College Health Association, 2009).


Adjustment

Psychologists use term "adjustment "differing conditions of social or familiar relationship in

the society. Adjustment means reaction to the needs and conflicts of society environment

imposed upon the individual. The need may be external or internal to whom the person is to

behave (Agarwal, 1996) According to Carter V. Good (l959), "Adjustment is the way of finding

and adopting ways of reaction suitable to the surrounding or the changes in the environment".

Erickson (1968) Adolescents as a good have long been concerned observing for themselves to

find some form of classify and meaning in their lives. The Gale encyclopedic of childhood and

adolescence sometimes referred to as teenage years. Youth puberty, adolescence crosses the

period from irregularly as 10 to 20 in a child's development. In all societies, adolescence is a

period of growing up, of moving from the inexperience of childhood into the experience of

adulthood.

In this study Day Scholar and Hostlers residence is examined. The Day Scholar and Hostlers

areas have their own particular characteristics and they distinguish prevalently with each other in

words of homogeneity, morality, professions, environmental differences, social traditions,

contrasts in size of communities, differences in physical facilities and educational level. Day

Scholar and Hostlers residence also distinguished on the basis of psychological features. For

instance the behavior patterns, thoughts, beliefs and ideologies, patterns of socialization, social

cohesion, emotional bonding, simplify and sincerity of relationships. Day Scholar Life is quick

and strainful as compared to Hostlers life. Those adolescents staying Day Scholar or Hostlers

areas are socialized and natured ultimately various situations. So it is supposed that Day Scholar
and Hostlers situation can affect adolescent's emotional intelligence and different areas of

adjustment.

Chadda (1985) created that no difference was noticed between the emotional adjustment

ranks of various sub classes of teachers, vice versa male female, Hostlers and urban. Chu (2002

appeared that males have superior level of emotional intelligence that the females. With treat to

gender wise contrasts in adolescents, conclusions are in opposition with the findings of Abdullah

and Maria (2008) who indicated that male students' overall level of adjustment was established

to be as compared to female students.

Gupta (1990) originated that, teenage girls studying in Day Scholar schools were

significantly finer in their social adjustment as compared to girls in Hostlers schools. Gupta,

Sushma (1990) found that parents of girls studying in Day Scholar and English medium schools

had a superior opinion according the social adjustment of their daughter as estimated to the

parents of girls in Hostlers and Hindi medium schools teenage girls studying in Day Scholar

schools were prominently better in their social adjustment as contrasted to girls in Hostlers

schools. Kauri (2007) expressed that males were high on home, health, social and total

adjustment. Kumar (1988) found that sports girls belonging Hostlers and Day Scholar areas were

superior in emotional social and educational adjustment than non-sports girls.

Pandey (1979) created that among students of higher secondary stage, the Hostlers group to

be higher in emotional, health and school adjustment whereas the Day Scholar group to be better

in aesthetic adjustment prominent relationship occurs among adjustment, aspiration and


achievement. Wing and Love (2001) announced that Day Scholar adolescents had comparatively

better emotional intelligence and adjustment against Hostlers counterparts

Hostel Adjustment
The concept of hostel adjustment has been widened in recent years to consider outcomes

beyond academic performance (Ladd, 1989, 1996; Libby, 2004; Perry & Weinstein,

1998). Libby produces a thorough review of the conceptualizations of attachment, bonding,

connectedness, and engagement to school utilized in research over the past couple of decades. In

an effort to incorporate as much of the existing theory and empirical evidence as possible, we

think three ways of hostel adjustment the individuals level of hostel bonding, friends hostel

bonds, (connection with peers who are bonded to hostel), and avoidance of hostel-related

misbehavior.

The extent to which a student likes or enjoys hostel and is connected to teachers is a very

commonly considered aspect of hostel adjustment and is often referred to as hostel bonding.

Friends hostel bonding is considered because the social development model (Catalano, et al.,

2004; Hawkins & Weis, 1985) and peer cluster theory (Oetting & Beauvais, 1987) clearly

suggest the importance of bonding to peers and indicate that bonding to peers with prosaically

attitudes, involving positive attitudes toward hostel, keeps prosaically behaviors. Finally, hostel

related misbehavior or disruptive behavior is a construct that also has been used to conceptualize

a students overall level of hostel adjustment (Ryan & Patrick, 2001).


The hostel environment has been described as one of the most influential socialization

domains in a teenagers life. Several times of research have demonstrated that a students

experiences at hostel and adjustment to hostel can exert both positive and negative effects on

their development. These influences extend beyond hostel-specific behavior (e.g., academic

performance, attendance at hostel) to prosaically and antisocial development in general,

including early involvement with alcohol use.

Ample evidence indicates that a young students own positive hostel adjustment is a

protective factor with respect to alcohol use. However, an individual students alcohol use may

not only be affected by their own degree of school adjustment but may also be affected by the

degree to which their classmates demonstrate positive hostel adjustment. As explained

by Osgood and Anderson (2004), an individual-level scale (e.g., hostel bonding) may account for

contrasts in alcohol use across hostels in two ways via a compositional effect and via a

contextual effect. A compositional impact is simply the effect that would be supposed because

the students in a particular hostel have, on the average, better hostel adjustment than students in

other hostels, and the average level of alcohol use in that particular hostel would therefore be

lower than in other hostels. In other words, in hostels where more of the students are well

adjusted to hostel, fewer students will use alcohol. A contextual effect is different. It occurs

when the general hostel environment, in this case, hostel adjustment, has an impact on individual

student's use of alcohol above and beyond what would supposed based on his or her own level of

hostel adjustment. In other words, a significant contextual effect indicates that, given two

students who show the same level of hostel adjustment but attend two different hostels, the

student attending a school where pupils lead to be better adjusted to hostel will demonstrate less
alcohol use than the student attending a hostel where pupils tend to be poorly adjusted to

hostel. Osgood and Anderson (2004) indicate that contextual effects are results of emergent

properties of groups or social settings, and thus they cannot be accounted for at the individual-

level. Thus, a compositional effect exists only because it is an average of the person effects,

while a contextual effect is an impact of the general hostel environment on an individual.

Hostel Context and Adolescent Alcohol Use

Several theories produce a solid theoretical framework for supposing that the normative

hostel environment with respect to hostel adjustment elements is an important predictor of

substance use and other forms of delinquency. The social development model (Catalano &

Hawkins, 1996; Hawkins & Weis, 1985) hypothesizes that young people seek both pro-social

and antisocial patterns of behavior (including use of alcohol) from the hostel environment.

Furthermore, the behavior of an individual student will be pro-social or antisocial (e.g., avoiding

or engaging in alcohol use) as a role of the prominent norms, attitudes, and behaviors showed by

the hostel culture. There is some empirical work to maintain this hypothesis (Battistich & Hom,

1997; Cleveland & Wiebe, 2003; Frankowski, et al., 2007; Henry & Slater, 2007; Kim &

McCarthy, 2006).

Welshs (2000) studies of hostel climate corroborate this theoretical framework. He argues

that hostels, like individuals, have their own characteristic personalities (e.g., climates),

explaining climate as the feel of the school as perceived by those who work there or attend class

therethe general we feeling and interactive life of the hostel. Moreover, Welsh points

to Owens (1987) efforts on organizational behavior in education, classifying that the aggregated
perceptions of individuals at the hostel (e.g., students, teachers) comprise the construct of hostel

climate. Research has firmed that hostel climate elements such as hostel belonging, hostel

attachment, and sense of hostel as a community do vary significantly across hostels (Anderman,

2002; Battistich & Hom, 1997; Henry & Slater, 2007) and Welsh (2000; Welsh, Greene, &

Jenkins, 1999) indicates that negative hostel climates can and do exhibit a negative influence on

students behavior.

Although the idea of adjustment is not as simple as adaptation. Psychologist and scholars

differ considerably in understanding its meaning and nature.

James Dreier defines adjustment as the alteration to compensate for or meat special

condition. According to the Shaffer, L.S. Adjustment is the process by which living organism

maintain a balance between his needs and the conditions that effect the satisfactions of these

needs. In the words of Coleman, James C., Adjustment is the outcome of the individuals

attempts to deal with the stress and meet his demands: also his works to maintain harmonious

relationships with the environment. And according to the Carter V Good, adjustment is the

process of finding and adopting modes of behavior suitable to the environment or the change in

the surrounding.
CHAPTER- III

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researcher describes their objective of the study, hypothesis,

instruments, data, and procedure. This study uses a non-experimental or passive observational

design to investigate the effect of homesickness and depression on adjustment of different hostel

students of Islamabad. The method for data collection and analysis are also described here.

Objective of the Study

Following are the objectives of the research study

To measure the impact of homesickness on adjustments of hostel students.

To weigh the impact of depression on adjustments of hostel students.

Hypotheses

H1: There is a relationship between homesickness and adjustments in the context of university

students living in hostels.

H2: There is a relationship between depression and adjustments in the context of university

students living in the hostels.

Operational Definition
Homesickness

Homesickness is defined as the distress and functional impairment caused by an actual or

anticipated separation from home and attachment objects such as parents. Severe homesickness

is classified as an adjustment disorder with mixed anxiety and depressed mood according to the

American Psychiatric Association taxonomy (diagnostic code 309.28).

Depression

Depression is more than just sadness. People with depression may experience a lack of

interest and pleasure in daily activities, significant weight loss or gain, insomnia or excessive

sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt and

recurrent thoughts of death or suicide (American Psychological Association).

Adjustment

According to physiological Dictionary, Adjustment is the variations and changes and behavior

in behavior that are necessary to satisfy needs and meets demands so that one can established a

harmonious relationship with the environment.

Instruments

The instruments used in the present study included:

Homesickness Questionnaire

This Homesickness Questionnaire is developed by John Archer. This scale is used in the

scientific world to measure homesickness. He wrote about it in his study Derivation of a

homesickness scale (1998).


Depression Questionnaire

The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the nine DSM-IV criteria as "0"

(not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ was developed by Drs. Robert L. Spitzer, Janet

BW Williams, Kurt Koneke.

Adjustment Questionnaire

This scale was developed by Kaya and Weber (2003) and measures four different

dimensions: social adjustment, academic adjustment, institutional adjustment and personal

adjustment

Population and sample

Students studying in Islamabad and which was living in hostels are the target audience for

this particular research study. The sample of this study was comprised on 100 individual. Both

male and female students belong to bachelor, masters and postgraduate classes are being

targeted. A quantitative research methodology will be adopted. Descriptive research is used to

conduct and to finalize the research instruments

Procedure

Present study was conducted to measure the effect of homesickness and depression on

adjustment. Researcher used descriptive research approach. Data was collected from the Arid

Agricultural University, International Islamic University, and Quaid e AZ am University. These

universities located in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Before starting the research researcher gave

assurance to participants that collected participants information would only used for research

objective and remaine highly confidential. After collecting data results were analyzed through

SPSS.
Research Design

In this quantitive research which begins from extensive literature review, conceptual

modeling, developing hypothesis and generating authentic results from the help of the study

(Sekaran 2006). This research started from extensive literature review, identifying literature gap

to be targeted in this particular research study. Identify reasons why this study is important to fill

that particular literature gap. Developing problem statement, which researcher will address.

Develop research questions based on problem statement. Identifying objectives of the study,

which leads to answer research questions of the study?

Statistical Analysis Plan

The result was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The

main findings of this research are the effect of homesickness. The statistical analysis includes

Mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Correlation, and Reliability.

Table 1
Demographic profile of the sample (N=100)
Demographic Variable F %

Gender
Male 69 69
Female 31 31

Age
20-25 77 77
25-30 20 20
30-35 3 3

Education

Bachelor 41 41
Master 47 47
PhD 12 12

CHAPTER -IV

RESULTS

The research was conducted to measure homesickness and depression on adjustment of

hostel students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. For this reason information was gathered from 100

individuals including males and females. Information gathered through questionnaires is

analyzed in SPSS by running various statistical techniques and summarized various results in

tabulations form as follows:

Table No 2

Demographic details

Data was collected from 100 respondents through research questionnaires. For the measure of

data in which 184 were usable for data analysis it means that survey has shown 100% response

rate.

Demographic profile of the sample (N=100)


Demographic Variable F %
Gender
Male 69 69
Female 31 31
Age
20-25 77 77
25-30 20 20
30-35 3 3
Education
Bachelor 41 41
Master 47 47
PhD 12 12

_____________________________________________________________________________

Table no 2 described the demographic information of the respondents in relation with their

frequency and percentage. From this table it appears that in data 60 % were male whereas 31%

were female. 77 % were belonged to age group 20-25 and 20% were from the age group 25-30

rest of 3% belonged to age group 30-35. 41% were bachelor, 47% were masters and 12% were

PhD.
Table 3

Reliability of HomeSickness, Depression Questionnaires

Variables Cronbachs Alpha Items

Homesickness .639 33

Depression .680 9

Adjustment .670 16

Overall .672 62

Table 3 shows the reliability results for this survey questionnaire is 0.672, researcher

supported that reliability values satisfactory (Evrardet al., 2003). The reliability values for each

variable vary from .889 between 0.6 to 0.8 are to .923. These values show that this survey

questionnaire is reliable for conducting this research.

Table 4
Item Total Correlations of Homesickness (N=100)

Items Correlations Items Correlation

1 - 0.040 23 0.040
2 - 0.015 24 0.015
3 - 0.073 25 0.073
4 - 0.054 26 0.701**
5 - 0.064 27 0.713**
6 0.006 28 0.733**
7 - 0.039 29 0.689**
8 - 0.045 30 0.755**
9 - 0.006 31 0.626**
10 0.073 32 0.790**
11 0.288** 33 0.670**
12 0.280**
13 0.243*
14 0.382**
15 0.273**
16 0.357**
17 0.311**
18 0.320**
19 0.127
20 0.003
21 0.003
22 0.058

__________________________________________________________________________

Table no 4 shows the items total correlation of Homesickness in which the highest value

is .790 and lowest value is .003. Correlation ranges from .003 and .790. It shows all items have

significant correlation with scale of homesickness.

Table 5

Item Total Correlations of Depression (N=100)

Items Correlations
1 0.522**
2 0.458**
3 0.644**
4 0.333**
5 0.480**
6 0.492**
7 0.303**
8 0.766**
9 0.451**

Table no 5 showed that the items total correlation of Depression which have the highest

value of .766 and the lowest value of .303. Correlation ranges from .303 and .766. It shows the

strong correlation between all items of Depression.

Table 6

Item Total Correlations of Adjustment (N=100)

Items Correlations
1 0.772**
2 0.590**
3 0.731**
4 0.725**
5 0.754**
6 0. 829**
7 0.824**
8 0.736**
9 0.792**
10 - 0.731**
11 0.319**
12 0.206*
13 0.245*
14 0.250*
_______________________________________________________________________

Table no 6 showed that the items total correlation of Adjustment which have the highest

value of .829 and the lowest value of .206. Correlation ranges from .206 and .829. It shows the

strong correlation between all items of Depression


Table 7

Inter - Scales Correlation of Homesickness

Variables THS LTC ST

THS _

LTC 0.536** _

ST -0.240* 0.114 _

Homesickness Scales Total 0.296 0.114

Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

Table 7 portrays the inter scales correlations of the homesickness, which showed that

there is positive correlation among all subscales as well as with total subscale. Total score of

home ideation is 0.296 and total score of likeness towards campus is 0.114 which shows the

highest inter scale correlation exist between sub scale home ideation and sub scale likeness

towards campus among hostel students.

Table 8
Inter - Scales Correlation of Depression

Variables CGT AFT PSY

CGT _

AFT 0.314** _

PSY 0.355** 0.459** _


Depression Scale Total 0.669 0.459

Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Table 8 portrays the inter scales correlations of the depression which shows that there is

positive correlation among all subscales as well as with total subscale. Total score of cognitive is

0.669 and total score of affective is 0.459 which shows the highest inter scale correlation exist

between sub scale cognitive and sub scale affective among hostel students.

Table 9
Inter - Scales Correlation of Adjustment

Variables ADJ MLD

ADJ _

MLD 0.548** _

Total 0.548

Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Total score of Adjustment in Table 9 is 0.548 which portrays the inter scales correlations of

the Adjustment which shows that there is positive correlation among all subscales as well as with

total subscale

Table 10
Total Inter - Scales Correlation of Adjustment, Homesickness and Depression

Variables ADJ HMS DPN

ADJ _

HMS 0.219* _

DPN 0.168 0.001 _


Total 0.387 0.001

**correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

The above table shows the correlation among the Adjustment, Homesickness and

Depression. The results show that there is a highly positive relationship among the above

variables.

Table 11
Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Home sickness Scale in relation with Variable
Age

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Home Sickness 20-25 25-30 30-35

(N=77) (N=20) (N=3)


M SD M SD M SD

Home ideation 37.89 5.36 35.60 3.87 37.66 2.88


Negative feeling about Campus 28.79 3.25 26.60 3.05 28.33 2.08
Stress 46.97 7.83 46.70 5.16 52.66 2.51

Table no 11 shows the Mean and SD of respondents score on homesickness in relationship

with the variable age from the table it proves that 77% belonged to age group 20-25, 20%

belonged to age group 25-30 and 3% belonged to age group 30-35.

Table 12
Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in relation with Variable
Age

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Depression 20-25 25- 30 30-35
(N=77) (N=20} (N=3)
M SD M SD M SD
Depression at Cognitive level 9.85 1.29 10.00 1.12 10.66 0.57
Depression at Affective level 9.20 1.77 9.00 1.62 8.33 1.52
Depression at Motor level 9.97 1.66 9.85 1.75 10.33 2.08
____________________________________________________________________________________

Table no 12 shows the Mean and SD of respondents score on depression in relationship with

the variable age from the table it proves that 77% belonged to age group 20-25, 20% belonged

to age group 25-30 and 3% belonged to age group 30-35.

Table 13
Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Adjustment Scale in relation with Variable
Age
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Adjustment 20-25 25-30 30-35

(N=77) (N=20) (N=3)


M SD M SD M SD
Adjustment 24.29 6.19 21.45 3.88 21.00 4.58
Maladjustment 15.92 2.72 16.65 2.03 16.33 1.15

Table no 13 shows the Mean and SD of respondents score on adjustment in relationship with

the variable age from the table it proves that 77% belonged to age group 20-25, 20% belonged

to age group 25-30 and 3% belonged to age group 30-35.

Table 14
Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Home sickness Scale in relation with Variable

Gender

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Subscales of Home Sickness Male Female


(N= 69) (N=31)
M SD M SD
Home ideation 37.30 4.53 37.70 6.24
Negative feeling about Campus 27.92 3.31 29.25 3.07
Stress 47.32 7.06 46.32 7.86

Table no 14 illustrates the Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Home sickness Scale in

relation with variable Gender shows 69 males and 31 females were taken into the study.

Table 15

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in relation with Variable

Gender

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Depression Male Female
(N=69) (N=31}
M SD M SD
Depression at Cognitive level 9.91 1.22 9.90 1.32
Depression at Affective level 9.13 1.67 9.16 1.88
Depression at Motor level 9.98 1.69 9.90 1.68

Table no 15 illustrates the Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in

relation with variable Gender shows 69 males and 31 females were taken into the study.

Table 16
Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Adjustment Scale in relation with Variable

Gender

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Adjustment Male Female
(N=69) (N=31)
M SD M SD
Adjustment 22.89 5.48 25.25 6.40
Maladjustment 16.13 2.28 15.96 3.15

Table no 16 illustrates the Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Adjustment Scale in

relation with variable Gender shows 69 males and 31 females were taken into the study.

Table 17

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Home sickness Scale in relation with Variable
Education level

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Home Sickness Bachelor Masters PhD

(N=41) (N=47) (N=12)


M SD M SD M SD

Home ideation 37.37 5.13 37.12 5.32 37.58 4.33


Negative feeling about Campus 27.56 3.30 29.08 3.32 28.08 2.53
Stress 45.56 7.55 47.68 7.13 50.00 6.28

The above tables show the mean and standard deviation of the homesickness and

demographics variables of educations. The table describes mean and standard deviation of
demographic variables with sub scales of homesickness which is home ideation, negative

feelings about campus and stress. From this table it appears that in data 41% were bachelor, 47%

were masters and 12% were PhD.

Table 18

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in relation with Variable


Education level

Subscales of Depression Bachelor Masters PhD

(N=41) (N=47} (N= 12)


M SD M SD M SD
Depression at Cognitive level 9.92 1.10 9.89 1.37 9.91 1.31
Depression at Affective level 9.12 1.56 9.14 1.87 9.16 1.85
Depression at Motor level 9.95 1.70 9.97 1.68 9.91 1.72
____________________________________________________________________________________

Table 18 shows the mean and standard deviation of the depression and demographics

variables of educations. The table also describes mean and standard deviation of demographic

variables with sub scales of depression which is cognitive, affective and motor level. From this

table it appears that in data 41% were bachelor, 47% were masters and 12% were PhD.

Table 19

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Adjustment Scale in relation with Variable

Education level

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Adjustment Bachelor Masters PhD
(N=41) (N=47) (N=12)
M SD M SD M SD
Adjustment 23.42 5.52 24.25 6.37 21.83 4.72
Maladjustment 16.75 2.40 15.80 2.73 14.83 1.89

Table 19 shows the mean and standard deviation of the adjustment and demographics

variables of educations. The table describes mean and standard deviation of demographic

variables with sub scales of adjustment which is cognitive, affective and motor level. From this

table it appears that in data 41% were bachelor, 47% were masters and 12% were PhD.

Table 20

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Home sickness Scale in relation with Variable
Occupation

_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Home Sickness Student J0b Business

(N=61) (N=31) (N=8)


M SD M SD M SD
Home ideation 37.45 4.73 37.70 6.24 36.12 2.53
Negative feeling about Campus 28.09 3.16 29.25 3.07 26.62 4.34
Stress 47.50 7.30 46.32 7.86 46.87 5.24

Table no 20 demographic variables show that 61% individuals are taken from students, 31%

individuals are taken from job and 8% individuals are taken from business.

Table 21

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in relation with Variable

Occupation
Student J0b Business

(N=61) (N=31) (N=8)


M SD M SD M SD
Depression at Cognitive level 9.90 1.27 9.90 1.32 10.00 0.75
Depression at Affective level 9.13 1.71 9.16 1.88 9.12 1.45
Depression at Motor level 10.04 1.67 9.90 1.68 10.33 1.85

Table no 21 demographic variables show that 61% individuals are taken from students, 31%

individuals are taken from job and 8% individuals are taken from business.

Table 22

Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Adjustment Scale in relation with Variable


Occupation
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Subscales of Adjustment Student Job Business
(N=61) (N=31) (N=8)
M SD M SD M SD
Adjustment 23.06 5.78 25.25 6.40 21.62 1.92
Maladjustment 16.06 2.28 15.46 3.15 16.62 2.38

Table no 22 described the demographic information of the respondents in relation with their

occupation. From this table it appears that in data 61 % belonged to students, 31% belonged to

job and 8 % belonged to business.


CHAPTER-V

SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, FIINDINDS, CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

The research was correlation study in which there are three variables named as

homesickness, depression and adjustment. The study was conducted to explore the effect

of homesickness and depression on adjustment of hostel students. The theme of the study was to

inquire the effect of homesickness and depression on adjustment of hostel students and to

measure the intensity of its impact on study surrounding of hostel students. The role of

demographic variables including as gender, age, occupation and education, was also inquired in

order to check the dimensions of homesickness, depression and adjustment.

The study consisted of statistical results to examine the hypothesis. Research tools were

used to gather the data. The population was students so the sample was 100 students both male

and female from hostel students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The sampling technique was

convenient sampling technique and data was collected by visiting university and hostels.

Homesickness scale composed of 33, 3 sub-scales which are home ideation, likeness

towards campus, stress. The main study was designed to check the research hypothesis through

the measurement of the effect of homesickness and depression on adjustment of hostel students.

The sample was 100 students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Data was collected from hostel

students.
The cronbachs Alpha coefficient of homesickness was 0.639 for entire items, depression

was 0.680 and adjustment was 0.670 for entire items. The correlation of homesickness with all

the sub scales were correlated with the total scale of correlation .790, the correlation of HI with

all subscales were positively linked with the total scale.

The depression total correlation shows .766 highest correlations. The inter scale

depression showed positive results with the sub scales. The correlation of adjustment with all the

sub scales were correlated with the total scale of correlation .829, the correlation of AI with all

subscales were positively linked with the total scale.

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, hypothesis were formulated to test with

different statistical methods such as, mean, SD and correlation.

The first hypothesis stated that there is a relationship between homesickness and

adjustments in the context of university students living in hostels. The result analysis proved that

there is a strong relationship between homesickness and adjustment. So it is proved that our

hypothesis is significantly supported by the findings.

Homesickness could be a critical factor affecting adaptation and adjustment and should

require greater attention than it currently receives. Expatriation is significant corporate

investment whose high cost has been consistently argued. It is imperative to take every little step

to safeguard such crucial investment. Van Tilburg et al., (1996, p.909) argue that the

possibilities of interventions appear to be limited. Some realistic modes of interventions center

on the stress management approach (Fisher, 1989). It is designed to help the affected people to

accept the feeling of homesickness, be involved in the new environment, do physical activities
(sports, games, visits), eat and sleep well, go onto training programmers (Van Tilburg et al.,

1996). In discussing culture shock, a concept related to homesickness, Selmer (1999) argues that

there is no way to prevent it.

Attempts can be made to reduce the impact of homesickness on expatriates and

organizations; such attempts are deeply rooted in the ability of organizations to ensure adequate

expatriate preparation before departure and during the assignment. Deresky (2010) emphasizes

the importance of preparation and training, arguing that such activities reduce culture shock,

disorientation and anxiety. Preparation should largely be concerned with informing the expatriate

about the circumstances in the host country and the potential for social and psychological

isolation for some time before acquaintance with the new environment. This process is normal

and requires time and personal or family effort for a positive and gradual adjustment. Important

family problems could result from homesickness; members could turn against each other and this

could lead, on occasions, to the disintegration of the family and a large number of people do not

pass this stage, causing the expatriate to return earlier. As part of prevention, expatriate packs

could include plans for frequent return visits back home. Although this may add to the overall

cost of the expatriate assignment, it will still remain more economical than failed expatriation.

Finally, reducing homesickness could take into account an attempt to rebuild a socio-cultural

network, however artificial it may be. In many places several multinational companies work in

juxtaposition and their staff may share cultural norms. For instance, there could be concerted

effort by MNCs to establish an expatriate network that could include host country nationals

(HCNs). Cultural practices such as nightclubs, religious institutions, schools or childcare

facilities could be drawn in to provide a more cultural sensitive network for the expatriates.
The second hypotheses of this research are that there is a relationship between the

depression and adjustments in the context of university students living in hostels . This

hypothesis is tested on SPSS. The researcher analyzed the correlation between the depression

and adjustments. Through the analysis hypotheses was proved correct.

According to a study of college students receiving counseling services between the years

of 1988 and 2001, a 20% increase occurred in the number of students seeking help for depressive

symptoms during that time period of hostel lives (Benton, Robertson, Tseng, Newton, & Benton,

2003). In a observation of university counseling center directors completed in 2006, it was

explained that 91.6% of the expatriates reported that they had examined an increase in the

strength of students experiencing psychological problems in the recent years (Blanco, et. al,

2008). The development of depressive identifications may have a powerful impact on the ability

of college students to successfully achieve academic requirements.

Summary

The main purpose of this research was to measure and explore the effect of homesickness and

depression on adjustment of hostel students. Data was gathered from hostel students of

Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

The second purpose of the study was to measure the differences among demographic

variations such as gender, age, education and occupation.

The population of this study was based on hostel students both male and female from

university. For the collection of data the convenient sampling technique was used on 100
students masters, bachelors and PhDs from the universities located in Rawalpindi and

Islamabad.

Findings were obtained from different statistical analysis of homesickness, depression

and adjustments.

Findings:

1. The alpha reliability of the homesickness is 0.639 with the total item of 33, reliability of

depression is 0.680 with total item of 9 and reliability of adjustment is 0.670 with total item

of 16.

2. Item total correlation of homesickness ranges from .003 and .790 which shows strong

relationship.

3. Item total correlation of the depression inventory ranges from .303 and .766 which shows

positive correlation.

4. Item total correlation of adjustment scale ranges from .206 and .829 with shows positive

correlation with sub scales.

5. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, the inter correlation between two scales.

The scales show positive correlation each other at the 0.01 significance level.

6.The Mean and SD of respondents score on homesickness in relationship with the variable

age from the table it proves that 77% belonged to age group 20-25, 20% belonged to age

group 25-30 and 3% belonged to age group 30-35.


7. The Mean and SD of Respondents Scores on Depression Scale in relation with variable

Gender shows 69 males and 31 females were taken into the study.

8. The mean and standard deviation of the adjustment and demographics variables of

educations. The table describes mean and standard deviation of demographic variables with

sub scales of adjustment which is cognitive, affective and motor level. From this table it

appears that in data 41% were bachelor, 47% were masters and 12% were PhD.

CONCLUSIONS

The study was conducted on university students of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The sample

size of the research is 100. The main findings of this research are the effects of homesickness and

depression on adjustment of hostel students. The results show that all three variables are highly

correlated. If the homesickness and depression increases then the adjustments also do increase.

All scales of homesickness, depression and adjustments are reliable.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Future researches will be able to use the outcomes of this analysis of homesickness and

depression on adjustment of hostel students. The students interested in exploring and further

enlightening themselves about homesickness, depression and adjustment will also find this

analysis useful. Through this study the different strategies for homesickness, depression and

adjustment strategies can be learned. This analysis additionally serves the factors dealing with

the students background and household. Following are recommendations for homesickness,

depression and adjustment of hostel students.


1. Hostel students are able to create initiate advanced strategies on further development

of homesickness, depression and adjustment.

2. Counselling and guidance can be provided to students for coping in different

emotional situations.

3. Hostel in charges are also provided with counselling and guidance so they may

manage different study tasks regarding hostel schedule.

4. This research is also beneficial for parents to motivate and support their child in

hostel life which is helpful for students in daily life tasks as well as improve study

skills that will help in their education throughout academic career.

5. Public and private sectors may develop plans of students interest and also calculate

the time for study and extra activities by which students remain active and motivated.

LIMITATIONS & SUGGESTIONS

There are some important methodological limitations to this research study. First, the reality

that the collected data is dependent on single, self-explained questionnaire at only on a single

point is challenging. Therefore, self-reported questionnaire at only on a single point might be

highly influenced. Secondly, the sample population selected for this study was limited to hostel

students based in Islamabad as it will not be possible to cover a larger number of population

spread nationwide because it will require considerable time, resources and other logistics. The

sample however is similar in nature to the population that work on different projects in different

organization in Pakistan and can thus be generalized.