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What Is Stylistics?
Stylistics is the science which explores how readers interact with the language of
(mainly literary) texts in order to explain how we understand, and are affected by texts when
we read them.


1. General Stylistics or Stylistics:

This is stylistics viewed from the broad notion of the linguistic study of all types
of linguistic events from different domains of life. It is used as a cover term for
the analysis of non-literary varieties of language, or registers. Hence, one can
undertake a stylistic study of a religious sermon, a sport commentary, a legal
document, a political speech, a business conversation, etc.

2. Literary Stylistics:
This is the type of analysis that focuses on literary texts. In the broad sense,
such a study may be linguistic or non-linguistic, but in the more specialized
sense, it is essentially linguistic. To make this linguistic orientation clearer, the
terms linguistic stylistics or linguostylistics are sometimes employed to denote
the linguistic analysis or interpretation of literary events. Other types of
stylistics below are largely subtypes of this linguistic literary stylistics.

3. Textualist Stylistics (Textlinguistics):

This is the type of stylistics which engaged in an empty technology of a text.
It merely identifies the raw linguistic patterns of a (literary) text such as the
phonological, grammatical, lexical and semantic patterns without attempting to
relate these patterns to the message in the text. This approach
was popular at the early stages of the evolution of stylistics as a discipline
where linguists viewed literary texts merely as linguistic events and felt literary
interpretation, involving thematic concerns or artistic significance, were not of
concern to them as linguists, especially as they involved an
understanding of the artists intention which was hardly subject to the objective
verifiability emphasized by the scientific claim of modern linguistics.
4. Interpretative Stylistics:
This is the practice engaged in by most stylisticians nowadays. It involves the
analysis of the linguistic data in a (literary) text, the unraveling of the content or
artistic value of the text and the marrying of these two. As depicted in Leo
Spitzers philological circle, the interpretative stylistician
relates linguistic description to literary appreciation by seeking artistic function
and relating it to the linguistic evidence or first seeking the linguistic features in

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the text and relating it to the artistic motivation. The belief is that the linguistic
patterns are chosen deliberately to express
certain artistic or literary goals and that the two can hardly be divorced.
Interpretative stylisticians see themselves as both linguists and literary critics
and integrate the roles of the two scholars. This may be seen as the more
wholistic approach to literary stylistics or the analysis of literary texts
in general.

5. Formalist and Functional Stylistics:

These terms may be viewed as alternatives for textualist stylistics and
interpretative stylistics respectively as discussed above. Formalist stylistics
concentrates on the linguistic forms in the texts, paying little attention to the
function of these forms in relation to the overall content of the text.
Conversely, functional stylistics emphasizes the contextual function that the
linguistic elements are used to perform.

6. Evaluative Stylistics:
This is a term used by Richard Bradford to designate the type of analysis which
uses linguistic tools to assess or measure the worth or merits and demerits of a
text. It assumes that the quality of a text is revealed in the quality of language
patterns it employs. Such analyses may involve the juxtaposition of two or more
texts for comparative evaluation.

7. Discourse Stylistics:
This is the stylistic approach which employs the procedures and terminology of
discourse analysis in the explication of literary language use. Ronald Carter
explains it this way:
[discourse stylistics] operates under the direct influence of work in pragmatics,
discourse analysis and text linguistics, and this work continues to provide the
field of stylistics with increasingly sophisticated means of discussing both longer
stretches of text and, indeed, longer texts. In the basic elementary definition,
it is the application of discourse analysis to literature. Thus, an advantage of the
discourse analysis approach is that it enables us to study longer stretches of
language beyond sentences, which traditional linguistics may not reach. Such
terms as cohesion, coherence, location, perlocution, maxim,
implicature, speech acts, etc which are regular in pure discourse analysis
are employed in literary explication.

8. Contextualist Stylistics:
This has various factions that are united in their emphasis on the ways in which
literary style is formed and influenced by its contexts. These involve (1) the
competence and disposition of the reader; (2) the prevailing sociocultural forces
that dominate all linguistic discourse, including
literature; and (3) the systems of signification through which we process and
interpret all phenomena, linguistic and non-linguistic, literary and
nonliterary(Bradford 73). What happens with contextual stylistics is that it

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takes into cognizance the various contexts in which a stylistic analysis is done.
It is
actually reader-centred.

9. Phonostylistics:
This has been described by Hartman and Stork as the study of the expressive
function of sounds In practice, phonostylistics may not be considered as a
distinct type of stylistics but rather as one of the
phonological levels at which a stylistician could analyse a text, (other levels of
linguistic analysis being the grammatical, the syntactic and the morphological,
the lexical (vocabulary), the semantic and the contextual). Such a phonological
analysis would involve the identification (and functional
interpretation) of both the segmental patterns (vowels and consonants) and
supra-segmental features (syllable, stress, rhythm, tone, intonation, etc).
Phonological schemes like alliteration, assonance, consonance, chiming,
volume, onomatopia, etc are discussed.

10. Sociostylistics:
This is actually a subject which studies, for instance, the language of writers
considered as social groups (e.g. the Elizabethan University wits, pamphleteers,
or fashions in language) (Wales 438). The emphasis is on how the language
identifies particular socio-literary movements such as the metaphysicals, the
romanticists, African writers, imagists, expressionists, modernists etc.

11. Feminist Stylistics:

In the introductory pages of Sara Mills Feminist Stylistics, she describes the
phrase feminist stylistics as one which best sums up her concern first and
foremost with an analysis which identifies itself as feminist and which uses
linguistic or language analysis to examine texts So the concern of feminist
stylistics, according to Mills, is beyond only describing sexism in texts but is
broadened to analyse the way that point of view, agency, metaphor or
transitivity are inexpectedly related to matters of gender, to discover whether
womens writing practices can be described and
so on. Bradford sees feminist stylistics as having a view of discourse as
something which transmits social and institutionalized prejudices and
ideologies, specifically the respective roles, the mental and behavioural
characteristics of men and women. It is apparent from the two view points that
feminist stylistics cannot be divorced from sexism and gender-oriented issues.

12. Computational Stylistics:

This is a subdiscipline of computational linguistics. It evolved in the 1960s and
involves the use of statistics and other data that are readily generated by the
computer to treat different problems of style. In the area of stylometry, the
computer is used to generate data on the types, number and length of words
and sentences which aid the stylistician in his study of texts, ensuring the
objectivity required. Such data from different texts may even be used for
comparative purposes as well as for the authentification of authorship. For
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example, stylometric data may be used to determine which author a piece of

disputed writing belongs to according to whether the stylometric data in it
conform to stylometric data already associated with the author. The risk here
are that it forecloses the possibility of an author changing his style from text to
text and the possibility of two authors writing alike.

13. Expressive Stylistics:

This approach is often considered old-fashioned in seemingly upholding the
view Stylus virum arguit (The style proclaims the man, that is the author).
This approach emphasizes an identification of how the style, the linguistic
elements, reveal the personality or soul of the author. It pursues the belief
that the artists employ language to express their inner selves. Thus, there is the
concept of style as idiolect, that each language user has some linguistic traits
that not only mark him/her out but also expresses his/her personality. The
obvious weakness of this approach is the probability that writers change their
personality and language over time and text and that a change
in one does not necessarily accompany a change in the other.

14. Pedagogical Stylistics:

This refers to the employment of stylistic analysis for teaching and learning
purposes. Literary texts may sometimes be difficult for learners to appreciate.
Hence, a teacher may analyse the linguistic patterns in the text, breaking down
complex linguistic units to smaller ones, converting excerpts
in verse form prosaic form, hyperbaton (syntactic inversion) to regular forms in
the belief that such will help the learner to grasp the message therein. Wales
remarks on this as follows:
Because of its eclecticism, stylistics has increasingly come to be used as a
teaching tool in language and literature studies for both native and foreign
speakers of English; what can be termed pedagogical stylistics. Carter and
McRae claim that stylistics in its pedagogical application has
been accused of tending towards the simplistic (xxxi). However, since the aim
of teaching and learning is to make things clearer or simpler than they seem,
pedagogical stylistics would be considered a positive development.

15. Radical Stylistics:

This is a term introduced by D. Burton in 1982 to designate a stylistic approach
which tends to go beyond the identification of the artistic effects of language
use to analyse how language is used to express different ideologies of world
views. The radical stylistician is interested in the choice of linguistic patterns to
reflect such ideological slants as communism, socialism, capitalism, welfarism,
etc. Thus, the stylistician attempts to discover in the text certain jargons
associated with such ideologies. This is allied to sociological criticism. The label
suggests that such an analyst would have a passion for the reflection or
rejection of an ideological bias.

16. New Stylistics:

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This is a rather vague term used to denote some fresh models of stylistic
analysis. Such models cease to be new as soon as newer models evolve. For
example, Leo Spitzers ideas about stylistics as one of its originators in Western
Europe were considered new. However, the term is often applied more
consistently to the studies in the West from the 1970s which employed the
latest principles of
structuralism, poetics and reader-response criticism in the analysis of literary
I. What is Style? Explain its traditional, modern and linguistic concepts.
II. What is Stylistics?

A Dictionary of Literary Terms defines style as:

The characteristic manner of expression in prose or verse; how a
particular writer says things. The analysis and assessment of style involves
examination of a writers choice of words, his figures of speech, the devices
(rhetorical or otherwise), the shape of his sentences, and the shape of his
paragraphs-- indeed, of every conceivable aspect of his language and the
way in which he uses it. Style defies complete analysis or definition it is
the tone and voice of the writer himself; as peculiar to him as his laugh, his
walk, his handwriting and the expression on his face

Traditional Concept of Style:-

Style has been an object of study from ancient times. Aristotle, Cicero and Demetrius
treated style as the proper adornment of thought. In this view, which prevailed throughout the
Renaissance period, devices of style can be classified. The essayist or orator is expected to frame
his ideas with the help of model sentences and prescribed kinds of figures suitable to his mode
of discourse.

The traditional idea of style as something properly added to thoughts contrasts with the
ideas that derive from Charles Bally, the Swiss philologist, and Leo Spitzer, the Austrian literary
critic. According to followers of these thinkers, style in language arises from the possibility of
choice among alternative forms of expression, as for example, between children, kids,
youngsters, and youths, each of which has a different value.

This theory emphasizes the relation between style and linguistics, as does the theory
of Edward Sapir, who talked about literature that is form-based (Horace, Virgil, and much of
Latin literature) and literature that is content-based (Homer, Plato, Dante, William Shakespeare)
and the near untranslatability of the former.

Style is also seen as a mark of character. The Count de Buffons famous epigram that
means Style is the man himself in his Discours sur le style suggests that, no matter how
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calculatingly choices may be made, a writers style will bear the mark of his personality. An
experienced writer is able to rely on the power of his habitual choices of sounds, words, and
syntactic patterns to convey his personality or fundamental outlook.

The traditional, literary critical attitude towards Style is subjective and unscientific, and
considers it a writers intuitive insight into aesthetics. This concept of style is essentially
ambiguous because the reader may or may not share with the writer and critic the level and
delicacy of intuitive perception. It is, therefore, undemocratic and imperialistic in its nature.

Style is a writers individual mode of expression.

Modern Concept of Style:-

The twentieth-century work on stylistics, particularly in Britain, by scholars such as

Roger Fowler and M. A. K. Halliday, looked at relationships between social, contextual, and
formal linguistic analysis. There were also attempts to interrogate the logical assumptions
underlying stylistics.

Modern stylistics uses the tools of formal linguistic analysis coupled with the methods of
literary criticism; its goal is to try to isolate characteristic uses and functions of language
and rhetoric rather than advance normative or prescriptive rules and patterns.

Published as Linguistics and Poetics in 1960, Jakobson's lecture is often credited with
being the first coherent formulation of stylistics, and his argument was that the study of poetic
language should be a sub-branch of linguistics.

Michael Halliday is an important figure in the development of British stylistics. His 1971
study Linguistic Function and Literary Style: An Inquiry into the Language of William
Golding's The Inheritors is a key essay. One of Halliday's contributions has been the use of the
term register to explain the connections between language and its context.

For Halliday, register is distinct from dialect. Dialect refers to the habitual language of a
particular user in a specific geographical or social context. Register describes the choices made
by the user, choices which depend on three variables:

1. Field ("what the participants... are actually engaged in doing", for instance, discussing a
specific subject or topic),

2. Tenor (who is taking part in the exchange)

3. Mode (the use to which the language is being put).

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Fowler comments that different fields produce different language, most obviously at the
level of vocabulary. The linguist David Crystal points out that Halliday's 'tenor' stands as a
roughly equivalent term for style, which is a more specific alternative used by linguists to
avoid ambiguity.

Hallidays third category, mode, is what he refers to as the symbolic organization of the
situation. Downes recognizes two distinct aspects within the category of mode and suggests that
not only does it describe the relation to the medium: written or spoken, but also describes
the genre of the text.

Halliday refers to genre as pre-coded language, language that has not simply been used
before, but that predetermines the selection of textual meanings. The linguist William
Downes makes the point that the principal characteristic of register, no matter how peculiar or
diverse, is that it is obvious and immediately recognizable.

Linguistic Approach to Style:-

As linguistics studies language scientifically, it studies style in an

impersonal and objective manner. Stylistics defines, studies and analyses
style objectively and technically applying methodology of linguistics.
Literature was traditionally appreciated non-technically and the critic
depended on his superior vision and arbitrary good taste of the reader.

Stylistics, on the other hand, evaluates a literary text precisely.

Descriptive linguistics gives stylistic analysis of a text at phonological,
syntactic and semantic levels of linguistic description. Stylistics uses its
own meta-language and terminology to analyze a text and to analyze its
items and structures. The communicative power of these isolated linguistic
items and structures is evaluated objectively.

Riffaterre has well put the role and function of stylistics: The
authors encoding is permanent, but the process of decoding changes as the
language changes in the course of time. Stylistics should encompass this
simultaneity of permanence and change.
M. Riffaterres definition of style is more enlightening and also suggests the
function of stylistics: Style is the means by which the encoder ensures
that his message is decoded in such a way that the reader not only
understands the information conveyed, but shares the writers attitude
towards it.

According to Aitchison, The linguistic analysis of literary language is

known as stylisticsthe words style and stylistics have acquired somewhat
specialized, narrow usage of linguistics applied to literature. John Lyons
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defines stylistics as the study of stylistic variation in languages and of the

way in which this is exploited by their users


Concept no. 01: Stylistics is a discipline that studies the ways in

which language is used; it is a discipline that studies the styles of
language in use.

Concept no. 02: Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which applies

the theory and methodology of modern linguistics to the study of

Definition of Stylistics:

Stylistics is a branch of linguistics which studies style in a

scientific and systematic way concerning the manners/linguistic
features of different varieties of language at different levels.

Scope of Stylistics:

Literary stylistics: concentrating on the unique features of various

literary works, such as poem, novel, prose, drama, etc.

General stylistics: concentrating on the general features of various

types of language use, including literary discourses and other
practical styles.

Stylistics is a broad term that has assumed different meanings from different linguistic
scholars. But it can simply be said to be the study of style.

Style on its own as defined by Lucas (1955) is: the effective use of language, especially
in prose, whether to make statements or to rouse emotions. It involves first of all the power to
put fact with clarity and brevity.

Style has also been defined as the description and analysis of the variability forms of
linguistic items in actual language use. Leech (1969) quotes Aristotle as saying that the most
effective means of achieving both clarity and diction and a certain dignity is the use of altered
from of words.

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Stylistics is also defined as a study of the different styles that are present in either a given
utterance or a written text or document. The consistent appearance of certain structures, items
and elements in a speech, an utterance or in a given text is one of the major concerns of
Stylistics. Stylistics requires the use of traditional levels of linguistic description such as sounds,
form, structure and meaning. It then follows that the consistent appearance of certain structures,
items and elements in speech utterances or in a given text is one of the major concerns of

A linguistic Stylistic study is concerned with the varieties of language and the
exploration of some of the formal linguistic features which characterize them. The essence and
the usefulness of stylistics is that it enables the immediate understanding of utterances and texts,
thereby maximizing our enjoyment of the texts.

The concepts of style and stylistic variation in language are based on the general notion
that within the language system, the content can be encoded in more than one linguistic form.
Thus, it is possible for it to operate at all linguistic levels such as phonological, lexical and
syntactic. Therefore, style may be regarded as a choice of linguistic means, as deviation from the
norms of language use, as recurrent features of linguistic forms and as comparisons.

Stylistics deals with a wide range of language varieties and styles that that are possible in
creating different texts, whether spoken or written, monologue or dialogue, formal or informal,
scientific or religious etc.
Again, stylistics is concerned with the study of the language of literature or the study of
the language habits of particular authors and their writing patterns. From the foregoing, stylistics
can be said to be the techniques of explication which allows us to define objectively what an
author has done, (linguistic or non-linguistic), in his use of language.
The main aim of stylistics is to enable us understand the intent of the author in the
manner the information has been passed across by the author or writer.
Therefore, stylistics is concerned with the examination of grammar, lexis, semantics as well as
phonological properties and discursive devices. Stylistics is more interested in the significance
of function that the chosen style fulfills.

Topic: Norm and Deviation.

One of the most enduring concerns of literary stylisticians is the examination
of deviations from the norm inherent in a given literary work among a body of
related works. A deviant situation is always an interesting one, for it brings new
perception to usual things and calls for close scrutiny. The close scrutiny is needed
to determine how the deviation has been brought about. It is relevent to add here
that deviation can only occur where there is a point of reference which is commonly
taken to be the norm. Where the norm cannot be established there can be no
deviation. Thus, the existence of the norm suggests the possibility of deviation.

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Style as Deviation:

When an idea is presented in a way that is different from the expected way, then we say
such a manner of carrying it out has deviated from the norm. The concept of style as deviation is
based on the notion that there are rules, conventions and regulations that guide the different
activities that must be executed. Thus, when these conventions are not complied with, there is
deviation. Deviation in stylistics is concerned with the use of different styles from the expected
norm of language use in a given genre of writing. It is a departure from what is taken as the
common practice. Language deviation refers to an intentional selection or choice of language
use outside of the range of normal language. Language is a system organized in an organic
structure by rules and it provides all the rules for its use such as phonetic, grammatical, lexical,

Thus, any piece of writing or material that has intentionally abandoned the rules of
language in some way is said to have deviated. Stylistics helps to identify how and why a text
has deviated. Trangott and Pratt (1980: 31) believe that the idea of style as deviance is favored
by the generative frame of reference. It is an old concept which stems from the work of such
scholars as Jan Mukarovsky. Mukarovsky relates style to foregrounding and says that the
violation of the norm of the standard is what makes possible the poetic utilization of

Deviation may occur at any level of language description e.g. phonological, graphological,
syntactic, lexico-semantic, etc. At the graphological level, for example, we may see capital
letters where they are not supposed to be. At the syntactic level, subject and verb may not agree
in number. Or the normal order of the clause elements may not be observed e.g. Adjunct may
come before the subject. At the lexico-semantic level, words that should not go together may be
deliberately brought together, for example: dangerous safety and open secret.

Norm an assemblage of stable means objectively existing in the language and

systematically used.
Norm is an invariant, which should embrace all variable phonemic,
morphological, lexical, and syntactic patterns with their typical properties
circulating in the language at a definite period of time.
Norm is a regulator that controls the set of variants (Makayev). The most
characteristic and essential property of norm is flexibility.
As soon as the feeling of the norm is instilled in the mind one begins
to appreciate its talented fluctuations. The norm may be perceived and
established only when there are deviations from it, it happens so to say
against their background.

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Linguistic Deviation: unexpected irregularity in a part of a text which is

signaled as crucial to the understanding of what is written. A line is marked
in Stylistic; the line deviates from Standard English linguistic rules. The
Deviation has a psychological effect (Foregrounding) on readers and
hearers, because that deviant part becomes more noticeable.
Foregrounding is more visible; Backgrounding is less visible.

There are different kinds of deviation:

1 Discourse deviation.
2 Semantic deviation.
3 Lexical deviation.
4 Morphological deviation.
5 Phonological and graphological deviation.
6 Internal and external deviation.

Discourse Deviation When we don't follow the prototypical discourse

situation (a conversation between 2 people in a context of situation)
Text should begin at the beginning;
Prototype is a conversation between two people.
Written communication No context shared. A text could begin from the middle
and not from the start.

Discourse is different from Conversation: The first is more complex, has a

context and involves ideological point of view. Conversation involves more
people talking.

Semantic Deviation When the meaning relations are logically inconsistent or

Example: midwinter spring.

Lexical Deviation creation of new word that did not exist previously.
Example: Sick Good.

Morphological Deviation There is Morphological Deviation when: The

writer adds an ending to a word would be not normally be added to.
Example: perhapless.

Phonological and Graphological Deviation the written equivalent of

phonological is the graphological level, because of the relations between writing
and speech.
The implications of meaning and significance have to do with how we might read
the text out loud that is through capital letters. (Capital letter would have
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special pronunciation, more marked, saying it louder, more slowly and wide
pitch span.)

Words are pronounced or stressed oddly. Example: wind waind to follow to a

rhyme scheme; Spaces between words, absence of punctuation and the use of
asterisks. (*)

Internal and external deviation deviation from some norm which is internal
or external to the text
External It includes, for example, English language, genre norms or period

Internal The norm is set up by the text itself.

Internal Deviation often is the opposite of parallelism. Example: A poem has a

parallel structure or a particular style and, in a certain point, that structure or
style change with a foregrounding effect.

Discourse Analysis
A discourse is behavioral unit. It is a set of utterances which constitute a
recognizable speech event e.g. a conversation, a joke, a sermon, an interview etc.
In its historical and etymological perspective the term is used in different
perspectives e.g.

Verbal communication.

All this fine talk.

Direct / indirect speech.

To chat.

In order to narrow down the range of possible meanings, the modern linguists have given
different views or definitions.
Discourse is written as well as spoken: every utterance assuming the a speaker and
a hearer as discourse.

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An individualizable group of statements and sometimes as a regulated practice that

counts for a number of statements.

The specification with the term is that discourse must be used with its social
purpose this is the main specification of discourse.

The brief difference between discourse and text, I think, will facilitate to better
understand the term Discourse.

Difference between Discourse and Text

Discourse Analysis focuses on the structure of naturally spoken language as found

in conversation interviews, commentaries and speeches.

Text analysis focuses on the structure of written language, as found in such text as
essays, notices, road signs and chapters.

Some scholars talk about spoken or written discourse other about spoken or
written text

It means discourse and text can be used almost synonymously. But a distinction is
always there and that in discourse has some social purpose while text fulfills the
function of communication of some meaning only. As suggested by Michel Stubbs
(1983) who treats text and discourse as more or less synonymous.

Hawthorn (1992) says text may be non-interactive where as a discourse is

interactive. Means to say text is non-interactive thats it only fulfils the function of
conveying some meaning. But discourse is always involved in two ways responses
in some formal or informal conversation and dialogues etc.

Hawthorn (1992) further says discourse is a linguistic communication seen as a

transaction between speaker and hearer. While text is also a linguistics

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communication (either spoken or written) seen simply as a message coded in its

auditory or visual medium

To conclude we can say discourse and text have something in common as both use
the medium of language whether in sign language. Both have some meaning that
they try to convey.

But text has a limited scope as compare with discourse. In other words we can say
discourse is somewhat broad category in the system of language. And text deals
with the written from of language. Discourse has different form as Discourse of
Advertising, Discourse of Racism, Discourse of Medical etc. But text has no such
forms. Discourse can be found with in text. And not vice versa. Text has its
maximum interpretation in its ownself but discourse has a lot of things above the
language level.

Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis is an attempt to discover linguistic regularities in discourse using grammatical,
phonological and semantic criteria e.g. cohesion, anaphora, inter sentence connectivity etc. It is an effort
to interpreter what the writer or speaker intended to convey with in a sensitive social context.

Father: Is that your coat on the floor again?

Son: yes (goes on reading)

Here in the above example Discourse Analysis says that the answer of the son is
not clear one. It shows the exploitation of ambiguity about fathers command to
pick up his coat. Rather the son deals his fathers command as a simple content
question which can be answered in yes /no.

Discourse Analysis is a process in which the reader and listeners mind is working
up on the linguistic features of the utterance to grasp the intended meaning of the
writer or speaker.

Even if the utterances or sentences are ungrammatical the Discourse Analysis

makes us grasp the intended meaning.


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My natal was in a small town, very close to Riyadh capital of Saudi Arabia. The
distance between my town and Riadh 7 miles exactly. The name of this Almasani
that means in English factories. It takes its name from the people carrer. In
childhood I remember the people live. It was very simple most the people was

The above paragraph is full of grammatical mistakes since by Discourse Analysis of

this text we can grasp mostly what are the informations the writer wants to

Discourse concerns with communication so Discourse Analysis gives us the interpretation of the
communicated commodity.

Devices for Discourse Analysis

We use different tools for Discourse Analysis. Some of them are as under:

Cohesion refers to the ties and connections which exist within texts that link
different parts of sentences or larger unit of discourse.

Cohesive Devices

(a)Anaphoric Relation

Interpretation of text from some previously expressed idea entity.


He did that there.

Every word has some anaphoric reference with which interpretation could not be

(b) Cataphoric Relation

It means referring forward. It refers the identity what is being expressed and what is
to be expressed.

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Here is the 9, O Clock news.

By using these relation and links we can better interpret and analyzed discourse.

The language users try to come to an interpretation in the scenario of knowledge of
the world they posses. Coherence is not something which exists in the language but
something which exists in people. By using coherence the reader arums semantic
unity the paragraph.


Her: Thats the telephone

Him: I am in the both.

Her: Ok.

We can interpret the above dialogue with the help of conventional action and by
our background knowledge that someone in the bathroom can not attend the

Parallelism means side by side. In some piece of literature some comparisons or
contrasts go side be side with each other. They also help to interpreter the whole


In Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice, good marriages and bad marriages are
compared and contrasted on parallel levels.

(4) Speech Events

Speech events are mainly concerned what people say in different environment e.g.
Debate, interview, discussions, quiz etc are different Speech Events. Speakers
may have different speech roles as friend, strangers, young or old of equal or
unequal status

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This background knowledge about the personality and environment give a better
comprehension for better interpretation of discourse.

(5) Background Knowledge

Background knowledge can be very much helpful in interpreting any text.

Schema and script are two terms that comprise the background knowledge.
Schema and script tells us what is actually the real situation and what are the

Schema is conventional knowledge which exists in memory.

Script is essentially a dynamic schema in which conventional action takes place.

The schema of a supermarket holds the knowledge food displayed on shelves,

checkout counters etc.

While in script such actions are involved as going to movies, eating in a

restaurant etc.


Trying not to be out of the office Suzy went into the nearest place, sat down and ordered a
Here in the above example the background knowledge of the situation and the
action can be traced out through the schema and script as:

Schema tells us:

Suzy may be an office girl

The nearest place is some restaurant.

Script tells us:

About the action she performed as:

Firstly, she unlocked the door.

Secondly, she walked to the nearest restaurant.

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Thirdly, she opened the door of the restaurant. etc.

Here schema and script tells us what is actually the real situation and what are the

(6). Conversational Interaction

Conversation is an activity where for the most part or more people take turn
at speaking: in these turns at speaking one has to pick up the completion point to
take his turn to speak. This is conversational interaction.

During the discourse we not only taking part in conversation but we are also
analyzing. The discourse simultaneously. So in the conversation turn taking helps us
to successfully complete the discourse.

(7) The co-operation principle

Grice (1975) set Four Maxims which say that in conversational exchanges the
participants are in fact co-operating with each other.

(i). Maxim of Quantity

Make your contribution as informative as is required but not more or less

than is required.

(ii). Maxim of Quality

Dont say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack evidence.

(iii). Maxim of Relation

Be relevant

(iv). Maxim of Manner

Be clear, brief and orderly.

Carol : Are your coming to the party tonight?

Lara: Ive got exam tomorrow.

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Apparently this exchange have no relevance but by using these Maxims we can
analyze the discourse as:

1. Maxim of Quantity:- information is that Lara has exams

2. Maxim of Quality: She is describing a fact of her exams.
3. Maxim of Relation: It is the reason why she could not come to the party
4. Maxim of Manner: A clear cut refusal.
The following can be the intended meaning:

Tomorrow : Exam

To night : Study, Preparation

Tonight : No party

Intended meaning : Refusal

The analysis of the above statement shows the use of maxims of co- cooperation in
Discourse Analysis.

Human beings are great travelers, traders and colonizers. The mythical tales of nearly all
cultures tell tales of the trials and tribulations of travel and exploration, such as those of
Ulysses in Homers Odyssey. Surely, one of the tribulations of ranging outward from your
house is sooner or later you will encounter people who do not speak your language, nor you
theirs. Some parts of the world, we may not have to travel farther than the next door to find
languages disconnect and other part we may have to cross the ocean. This situation is so
common in human history and society, several solutions for bridging this communication gap
have arisen, sociolinguistics being one.

Many scholars have discussed sociolinguistics and have come up with several definitions based
on their individual perspectives. Hudson defines sociolinguistics as, the study of language in
relation to the society. It is the study of language as it affects and is being affected by social
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relations; it is also the study of language and linguistic behavior as influenced by social and
cultural factors.

Holmes defines sociolinguistics as, the way people use language in different contexts, and the
way people indicate aspects of their social identity through language. Sociolinguistics is a
scientific discipline developed from the cooperation of linguistics and sociology that investigates
the social meaning of the language system and language use, and the common set of conditions
of linguistic and social structure.

Fishman defines sociolinguistics as the study of the characteristics of language varieties, the
characteristics of their functions, and the characteristics of their speakers as these three
constantly interact, change and change one another within a speech community.

Anything that either examines language in its social context or investigates social life through
linguistics could be referred to as sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistics is the study and analyses of
language; its nature, characteristics as well as its structure in relation to the society where it
functions. The focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language.

Sociolinguistics actually does not discuss a structure of a language, but it focuses on how a
language is used, so it could play its function well. From this statement, we can get a description
that people also face language conflicts before sociolinguistics appears. So it is clear now that
the role of sociolinguistics is to manage a language as its functions in society, or in other
words sociolinguistics deals with a language as means of communication.


In everyday interaction, people usually choose different codes in different situation. They
may choose a particular code or variety because it makes them easier to discuss a particular
topic, regardless where they are speaking. When talking about work or school at home, for
instance, they may use the language that is related to those fields rather than the language used
in daily language communication at home.

A code is a system that is used by people to communicate with each other. When people want to
talk each other, they have to choose a particular code to express their feeling. According to
Stockwell, a code is a symbol of nationalism that is used by people to speak or communicate in
a particular language, or dialect, or register, or accent, or style on different occasions and for
different purposes.

Ronald Wardaugh also maintains that a code can be defined as a system used for
communication between two or more parties used on any occasions. When two or more
people communicate with each other in speech, we can call the system of communication that
they employ a code. Therefore, people are usually required to select a particular code

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whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to
another or to mix codes, sometimes in very short utterances and it means to create a code.

From those opinions of the code given by many linguists above, we can make conclusion
that a code can be said as a language. The code is a form of the language variation that is
used by a society to make communication with other people.


Human beings are social beings who are always committed to a certain group of people called a
community. A particular community has its own characteristics, including the way of its
communication. This community is called speech community.

Bloomfield offers the simple definition of speech community. He says that a speech community
is a group of people who interact by means of speech. Spolsky also defines speech community
as all the people who speak a single language and so share notions of what is same or different
in phonology or grammar.

Because of the system, Gumperz further states that the language of a speech community can
be analyzed both within the context of the language itself and also within the broader context of
social behavior. One example of this phenomenon is language switching and mixing.


Most people as speakers usually occupy more than one code and require a selected code
whenever they choose to speak with other people. The phenomenon of people having two or
more than two codes (languages) is called bilingualism or multilingualism.

To clarify the term bilingualism or multilingualism, Spolsky defines a bilingual as a person

who has some functional ability in the second language. This may vary from a limited ability
in one or more domains, to very strong command of both languages. According to
Bloomfield, bilingualism is a situation where a speaker can use two languages as well.

Gumperz also mentions that bilingual people usually use their own idioms for in-group
communication and the common language for their interaction and communication with
outsiders. In this case, the bilinguals have a repertoire of domain-related rules of language
choice meaning that bilinguals are able to choose which language that he is going to use.

In other words, since the members of a bilingual community vary in the capacity of mastering
the languages used in the community, they have to be able to set a condition where they can
communicate effectively. This condition leads them to do code switching and code mixing.

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Code-mixing is the change of one language to another within the same utterance or in the same
oral/written text. It is a common phenomenon in societies in which two or more languages are
used. Studies of code-mixing enhance our understanding of the nature, processes and constraints
of language and of the relationship between language use and individual values, communicative
strategies, language attitudes and functions within particular socio-cultural contexts.

Code mixing is a mixing of two codes or languages, usually without a change of topic. Nababan
said that, code mixing is found mainly in informal interactions. In formal situation, the speaker
tends to mix it because there is no exact idiom in that language, so it is necessary to use
words or idioms from other language.

Referring to the different characteristics and features of code-mixing, various linguists have
defined it in different ways. For instance O

Numan and Carter define code-mixing as, a phenomenon of switching from one language to
another in the same discourse. According to Berthold, Mangubhai and Bartorowiez 1997, code-
mixing occurs when speakers shift from one language to the other in the midst of their
conversation. Thus this definition accommodates inter-sentential switching and intra-sentential
mixing both under the term code switching.

Code-mixing is an interesting phenomenon in bilingual societies. Code-mixing leads to language

hybridization that in turn gives birth to the issues of language maintenance, shift, and desertion.
Wardhaugh (1992), characterizes that code mixing occurs when during conversation, speakers
use both languages together to the extent that they shift from one language to the other in the
course of a single utterance. In code-mixing sentences, pieces of one language are used while a
speaker basically using another language.

Code mixing is a mixing of two codes or languages, usually without a change of topic. Code
mixing often occurs within one sentence, one element is spoken in language A and the rest in
language B. In addition, Nababan, a linguist, said that code mixing is found mainly in informal
interactions. In formal situation, the speaker tends to mix it because there is no exact idiom
in that language, so it is necessary to use words or idioms from other language.

At last, we can say the phenomenon of bilingualism results in the occurrence of code mixing. It
happens when a speaker requires a particular code, in order to switch or mix one code to another
and even create a new code.


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Code-mixing is a phenomenon of switching one language to another in such communities where

people are bilingualism or multilingualism. If we talk about features of code mixing then we
come top know that; Sridhar, a linguist, has elaborated the following three features of code
mixing through analysis of a text.

These features are an applicable on the everyday language use:

The mixed elements are on every level of grammatical organization such as noun, verbs,
attributive and predicative adjectives, and noun phrases etc.

The mixed elements are not specifically culture oriented or culture bond. They are
mostly from day to day life and every day usage items, which have acceptable equivalent
in the language in which they are mixed.

The mixed elements obey the rules of the original language from which they are taken as
far as their grammatical organization is concerned


In some subjects we have difficulty in coding for language diaries due to delicate differentiation
between our mother language and English mix in daily utterances. In some cases, English proper
names and acronyms were not counted as English linguistic elements. In others, certain English
words have become somewhat lexicalized in some other language and treated as pure parts of
that language. Examples include Mummy (mama), BB (baby), OK and Bye-Bye.

In fact, the difficulty in coding has highlighted a significant issue: how mixed is a mixed code?
Code-mixing refers to any admixture of linguistic elements of two or more language systems in
the same utterance at various levels: phonological, lexical, grammatical and orthographical. Due
to constraints of space, the discussion will focus on lexical and grammatical code-mixing.

Short forms
Proper nouns
Lexical words
Incomplete sentences
Letters of the alphabet
Single full sentences and two-sentence Units


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Code mixing plays a very significant role in language variation, and also provides an insight into
the socio-cultural phenomena taking place in that area or region, through the linguistic choices
of the people. Code mixing is done in almost all the languages of the world; however, South
Asia is a fertile field for search in code mixing since in all South Asian countries a wide range of
codes exist simultaneously, and their interaction given way to code mixing. Code mixing is a
social phenomenon; and social and linguistic characteristics of code mixing are interlinked. The
social aspects of code mixing i.e. the setting, addressee, and addresser as well as other social
factor such as prestige attached to a particular language, socio-historical background of a
language etc. determine the linguistic choices and preferences in the process of code mixing. On
the other hand the linguistic choices of items to be code mixed reflect the socio-cultural context.


Intra-lexical code mixing:

Involving a change of pronunciation
Intra-sentential switching / code mixing

This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary. The insertion of well-
defined chunks of language B into a sentence that otherwise belongs to language A. Insertion of
words from one language into a structure of another language.


This kind of code mixing occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people say
an English word, but modify it to Indonesian phonological structure. For instance, the
word strawberry is said to be stroberi by Indonesian people. The use of element from either
language in a structure that is wholly or partly shared by languages A or B.

The succession of fragments in language A and B in a sentence, which is overall not identifiable
as belonging to either A, or B and do come again. `That's all right then, and do come again.


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When code mixing occurs, the motivation or reasons of the speaker is an important
consideration in the process. According to Hoffman, there are a number of reasons for bilingual
or multilingual person to switch or mix their languages. Those are:

Quoting somebody else
Expressing group identity
Because of real lexical need
Talking about a particular topic
Repetition used for clarification
Being emphatic about something
To soften or strengthen request or command
Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor
To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience


The emergence of English as a lingua franca in the recent decades has given rise to the process
of code mixing of English with the local languages all over the world. This process is
significantly observable in South Asia and particularly in the Sub-continent. As far as Pakistan is
concerned mixing of English words in other codes is a prominent feature of the present socio-
linguistic scenario. Code-mixing of English with the national language of Pakistan, Urdu is a
common aspect of the present socio-linguistic situation. Even a layman frequently uses the
English words in everyday conversation. Thus, such instances can be frequently heard:

Kitna khubsurat scene hai. (noun)

In dono ko compare kro. (verb)
Yeh one-sided report hai. (noun phrase)
Aaj main nay bara tasty kofta curry banaya hai. (noun phrase hybridization)


Code-mixing is the widely accepted phenomena in the everyday life of bilinguals. Pakistani
English Literature in which Pakistani speech communities and characters are depicted is the
examples of these instances. The sociolinguistics types, reasons and context of the code-mixing
done by the characters are traced down in this work which proves that sociolinguistics theories
are not only applicable to real life situations but also on the written representation of such
situations by competent authors.


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Bapsi Sidhwa is an author of Pakistani origin who writes in English and is resident in
America. She describes herself as a "Punjabi-Parsi-Pakistani". She mentions Urdu and Punjabi
and she wants to dominate her own language because language is the symbol of a person
identity. Sidhwa uses Urdu language in her novel just because she wants to give local touch to
her novel

We find many examples of code mixing in this novel ICE CANDY MAN. Bapsi Sidhwa is a
Pakistani writer and she uses Urdu language in her novel just because she wants to give local
touch to her novel. When she wrote this novel she lived in English colonized society, where
Urdu and Punjabi are the common language of the people. She mentions Urdu and Punjabi in
her novel because she wants to dominate her own language because language is the symbol of a
person identity. We find different examples of code-mixing in ICE CANDY MAN that is

Waris road, lined with rain gutters.....

A few furlongs away jail road vanishes into the bazaars of mozan chungi....

An English gnome wagging a leathery finger in my ayahs face.

She sends her mini aunty, who with her dogged devotion to my mother....

Her eyes twinkling concern, in her grey going out saari...

Stylistic devices

Repetition and Variation

stylistic device definition translation example effect

alliteration recurrence of initial sound Alliteration The fair breeze blew, to convey auditory images

the white foam flew.

accumulation series of expressions Anhufung He came, saw, fought and to make the language livelier
(adjectives, cliches, won
examples, images) that
contribute increasingly to

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anaphora repetition of first word(s) of Anapher In every town, in every to stress the main point
line/clause house in every man, in often used in speeches
every woman and in every
child .....

leitmotif a dominant recurrent Leitmotiv gives the text a structure and stresses the theme by repeating it
theme (word, phrase,
emotion, idea) associated
with a certain idea, person
or situation and
accompanying its/his/her
reappearance throughout
the text

climax the point of highest Hhepunkt climatic text structuring means arranging material in order
dramatic tension or a of importance, with the most important arguments coming
major turning point in the last
action of the text or the
point of greatest dramatic
interest in a play


stylistic device definition translation Example effect

euphemism figure of speech intended Euphemismu He passed away for he it may be necessary to spare a persons feelings but it often
to hide the real nature of s died originates in prudery or a false sense of refinement unpleasant or taboo
by using a mild or indirect (Beschnigun ... the underprivileged for
expression g) ... the poor

oxymoron combination of two terms Oxymoron eloquent silence to express complex things or to unite contrasting things
which are contradictory in (Scheinwider-
meaning spruch)

paradox seemingly self- Paradoxon I see it feelingly it may be found to contain some truth on closer examination
contradictory or absurd
statement which in fact So fair and foul a day I
establishes a more have not seen
complex level of meaning (Shakespeare, Macbeth)
by way of association

antithesis a rhetorical figure which Antithese God made the country and produce an effective contrast
denotes the opposing of man made the towns
ideas by means of
grammatical parallel
arrangements of words,
clauses or sentences

anti-climax a sudden transition from The love of God, justice and produce a humorous effect
the idea of significance or sports cars ......
dignity to an idea trivial or
ludicrous by comparison

rhetorical question an assertion in the form of Rhetorische Who does nor love this give the listener the false impression of taking part in a
a question which strongly Frage country? (= of course debate
suggests a particular everybody loves his country) used to bring liveliness into a speech

Imagery and Analogy

stylistic device definition translation example effect

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onomatopoeia sound(s) imitative of Wortmalerei engines roar imagination

thing(s) they refer to

metaphor a reduced or implied Metapher ... the sand of time... enriches the language (good style)
comparison between
phenomena not normally All the worlds a stage
associated with each other

And all the men and woman

Not a simile (with like) merely players...

symbol denotes a concrete thing Symbol rose as a symbol of love

that stands for
immaterial, invisible or white as a symbol of
abstract innocence

connotation implies additional Konnotation the word hearth which gives the reader an association
meaning(s) of a word or literally means the floor of
implication phrase along with or apart Andeutung a fireplace suggests in
from what it explicitly addition the fireside,
names or describes warmth, safety)

metonymy the object meant is not Metonymie He could feel the steel
explicitly named but rather going right through him
[-`- - -] substituted by a closely (Namensvert steel instead of dagger or
associated feature, a auschung, knife
characteristic part or a Umbenennun
proper name g) aristocracy instead of the

personification figure of speech in which Personifikatio Justice is blind gives things life or some similarity with human beings
inanimate object, abstract n
concepts or living things Necessity is the mother of
(plants, animals) are invention
referred to as if they were
human beings
The sun stepped out of the
clouds and smiled

pun a humorous play of words Wortspiel Is life worth living? It humorous

which are either identical depends on the liver! (1) to make the reader laugh
or similar in sound but are liver as the organ (2) liver as
very different in meaning one who lives

simile an explicit comparison Vergleich ... as dead as a mutton ... the readers imagination must be stirred by a simile
(using as or like) between
two distinctly different ... as fit as a fiddle ...
things which have at least
one feature in common
... like a bull in a china
shop ...

I wandered lonely as a
cloud... (Wordsworth)

example serves to illustrate an Beispiel often used in speeches

abstract rule or acts as an a special case is given to serve for a general statement
exercise in the application
of this rule

Other stylistic devices

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stylistic device definition translation example effect

hyperbole a figure of speech using Hyperbel `I loved Ophelia: forty not to persuade or to deceive, but to emphasize a feeling or to
exaggeration thousand brothers could not, produce a humorous effect. It is not to be taken literally.
bertreibung with all their quantity of love
make up my sum.

understatement understatement is the Untertreibung Thats rather nice =great to give special emphasis to a situation or idea
reverse of exaggeration. It humorous
litotes is a statement below the Litotes It is pouring with rain and
truth the streets are flooded: Bit
wet today, isnt it?
Litotes is a type of
understatement which It was not a bad party at all
expresses an affirmative = it was a excellent party
idea by negation of its

irony figure of speech by which Ironie is often used to blame

the writer says the will draw attention to its actual meaning
opposite of what he means

tone Denotes the accent or Ton The tone can be: it reflects the mood of the author and his attitude towards his
inflection of the voice as subject
adapted to the emotion or colloquial, ironical, serious,
passion expressed, also earnest, humorous etc.
used for the style or
manner of approach in
speaking or writing in

ambiguity In deceptive rhetoric it is Doppeldeutig to hide the truth or to leave the reader uncertain about the
the deliberate wording of a keit, authors real attitude
phrase or passage in such Zweideutigkei
a way that it can be taken t
in two ways

flashback a literary or theatrical Rckblende to give a vivid picture of the (heros) past
technique that involves the
interruption of the
chronological sequence of
events. At this point earlier
scenes or events are

anticipation the reverse of the Vorwegnahm The authors aim is to make developments transparent, quite
flashback. The author e often with emotional overtones.
interrupts the
chronological sequence of
events to present or allude
to events which will
happen in the relative

ellipsis shortening of a sentence Ellipse used to avoid repetition but also used for artistic effect
by the omission of one or (Auslassung)
more words that may be
easily understood from the

allusion allusion is an implied Anspielung the reader is expected to think about the situation himself and
indication. It denotes an to have a certain knowledge.
indirect reference to
people or things outside
the text without
mentioning them in a

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straightforward way.

satire Satire is a piece or form of Satire used to expose and discourage vice and to ridicule foolish ideas
writing based on the use of or habits. Satirical writing is always didactic.
humour, irony or sarcasm