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Practical Handbook

of

Marine

Science

Third Edition

Marine Science Series The CRC Marine Science Series is dedicated to providing state-of-the- art coverage

Marine Science Series

The CRC Marine Science Series is dedicated to providing state-of-the- art coverage of important topics in marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geology, and physical oceanography. The series includes volumes that focus on the synthesis of recent advances in marine science.

CRC MARINE SCIENCE SERIES

SERIES EDITOR

Michael J. Kennish, Ph.D.

PUBLISHED TITLES

Artificial Reef Evaluation with Application to Natural Marine Habitats, William Seaman, Jr. Chemical Oceanography, Second Edition, Frank J. Millero Coastal Ecosystem Processes, Daniel M. Alongi Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects, Michael J. Kennish Ecology of Marine Bivalves: An Ecosystem Approach, Richard F. Dame Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, Larry McEdward Environmental Oceanography, Second Edition, Tom Beer Estuary Restoration and Maintenance: The National Estuary Program, Michael J. Kennish Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Systems: Origin and Succession of Plankton Blooms and Effects on Secondary Production in Gulf Coast Estuaries, Robert J. Livingston Handbook of Marine Mineral Deposits, David S. Cronan Handbook for Restoring Tidal Wetlands, Joy B. Zedler Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons, Doeke Eisma Morphodynamics of Inner Continental Shelves, L. Donelson Wright Ocean Pollution: Effects on Living Resources and Humans, Carl J. Sindermann Physical Oceanographic Processes of the Great Barrier Reef, Eric Wolanski The Physiology of Fishes, Second Edition, David H. Evans Pollution Impacts on Marine Biotic Communities, Michael J. Kennish Practical Handbook of Estuarine and Marine Pollution, Michael J. Kennish Seagrasses: Monitoring, Ecology, Physiology, and Management, Stephen A. Bortone

Practical Handbook

of

Marine

Science

Third Edition

Edited by

Michael J. Kennish, Ph.D.

Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey

Boca Raton

and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey Boca Raton CRC Press London New York

CRC Press

London

New York

Washington, D.C.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Practical handbook of marine science / edited by Michael J. Kennish.--3rd ed. p. cm.-- (Marine science series) Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 0-8493-2391-6 1. Oceanography. 2. Marine biology. I. Title: Marine science. II. Kennish, Michael J. III. Series.

GC11.2 .P73 2000

551.46--dc21

00-060995

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

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The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying.

Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.

Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation, without intent to infringe.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

No claim to original U.S. Government works

International Standard Book Number 0-8493-2391-6 Library of Congress Card Number 00-060995

Printed in the United States of America 1 Printed on acid-free paper

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Dedication

This book is dedicated to the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve at Mullica River–Great Bay, New Jersey

Preface

This third edition of Practical Handbook of Marine Science provides the most comprehensive contemporary reference material on the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the marine realm. Since the publication of the second edition of this book 5 years ago, there have been significant advances in nearly all areas of marine science. It is the focus of this volume to examine these developments and to amass significant new data that will have appeal and utility for practicing marine scientists and students engaged in investigations in oceanography and related disciplines. Because of its broad coverage of the field, this volume will be valuable as a supplemental text for undergraduate and graduate marine science courses. In addition, administrators and other profes- sionals dealing in some way with the management of marine resources and various problems pertaining to the sea will find the book useful. Much of this third edition consists of updated material as evidenced by the large number of recent references (1995 to 1999) cited in the text. This edition contains a systematic collection of selective physical, chemical, and biological reference data on estuarine and oceanic ecosystems. It is com- prised of six chapters: Physiography, Marine Chemistry, Physical Oceanography, Marine Geology, Marine Biology, and Marine Pollution and Other Anthropogenic Impacts. Each chapter is arranged in a multisectional format, with information presented in expository, illustrative, and tabular formats. The main purpose of this handbook is the same as the two previous editions: to serve the multidisciplinary research needs of contemporary marine biologists, marine chemists, marine geol- ogists, and physical oceanographers. It is also hoped that the publication will serve the academic needs of a new generation of marine science students. I wish to acknowledge my colleagues who have been instrumental in enabling me to gain new insights into the complex and fascinating world of marine science. In particular, in the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University I am thankful to Kenneth W. Able, Michael P. DeLuca, Richard A. Lutz, J. Frederick Grassle, John N. Kraeuter, and Norbert P. Psuty. I also express my deep appreciation to the editorial staff of CRC Press, especially John B. Sulzycki, who supervised all editorial and production activities on the book, and Christine Andreasen, who provided technical editing support on the volume. Finally, I am most appreciative of my wife, Jo-Ann, and sons, Shawn and Michael, for recognizing the importance of my commitment to complete this volume and for providing love and support during its preparation.

The Editor

Michael J. Kennish, Ph.D., is a research professor in the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. He graduated in 1972 from Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, with a B.A. degree in Geology and obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the same discipline from Rutgers University, New Brunswick, in 1974 and 1977, respectively. Dr. Kennishs professional afliations include the American Fisheries Society (Mid-Atlantic Chapter), American Geophysical Union, American Institute of Physics, Atlantic Estuarine Research Society, New Jersey Academy of Science, and Sigma Xi. Dr. Kennish has conducted biological and geological research on coastal and deep-sea environ- ments for more than 25 years. While maintaining a wide range of research interests in marine ecology and marine geology, Dr. Kennish has been most actively involved with studies of marine pollution and other anthropogenic impacts in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems as well as with biological and geological investigations of deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seaoor spreading centers. He is the author or editor of ten books dealing with various aspects of estuarine and marine science. In addition to these books, Dr. Kennish has published more than 100 research articles and book chapters and has presented papers at numerous conferences. His biographical prole appears in Who’s Who in Frontiers of Science and Technology , Whos Who Among Rising Young Americans , Whos Who in Science and Engineering , and American Men and Women of Science .

Introduction

Marine science constitutes a broad eld of scientic inquiry that encompasses the primary disciplines of oceanographymarine biology, marine chemistry, marine geology, and physical oceanographyas well as related disciplines, such as the atmospheric sciences. Its scope is extensive, covering natural and anthropogenic phenomena in estuaries, harbors, lagoons, shallow seas, continental shelves, continental slopes, continental rises, abyssal regions, and mid-ocean ridges. Because of the breadth of its coverage, the study of marine science is necessarily a multidisciplinary endeavor, requiring the efforts of many scientists from disparate disciplines. Chapter 1 describes the topography and hypsometry of the world oceans. Emphasis is placed on the major physiographic provinces (i.e., continental-margin, deep-ocean, and mid-ocean ridge provinces). The characteristics of the benthic and pelagic provinces in the sea are also discussed. Chapter 2 examines marine chemistry, focusing on the major, minor, trace, and nutrient elements in seawater. Information is also presented on dissolved gases and organic compounds in the hydrosphere. In addition, vertical proles of the various chemical constituents are detailed. The

major nutrient elements (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon) are particularly noteworthy because

of their importance to plant growth, with nitrogen being the principal limiting element to primary

production in estuarine and marine waters. However, phosphorus may be the primary limiting element to autotrophic growth in some estuaries during certain seasons of the year. Low silicon

availability, in turn, can suppress metabolic activity of the cell, can limit phytoplankton production, and can reduce skeletal growth of diatoms, radiolarians, and siliceous sponges. Hence, these three nutrient elements play a critically important role in regulating biological production in the sea. Chapter 3 deals with physical oceanography. It investigates the physical properties of seawater and the circulation patterns observed in open-ocean, coastal-ocean, and estuarine waters. Waves, currents, and tidal ow, as well as the forcing mechanisms responsible for their movements, are assessed. Ocean circulation is divided into two components: (1) wind-driven (surface) currents and (2) thermohaline (deep) circulation. These components are described for all the major oceans.

A detailed account is given on conspicuous wind-driven circulation patterns (e.g., gyres, meanders,

eddies, and rings). In estuaries, water circulation depends greatly on the magnitude of river discharge relative to tidal ow. Turbulent mixing in these shallow systems is a function of river ow acting against tidal motion and interacting with wind stress, internal friction, and bottom friction. Surface wind stress and meteorological forcing also play a vital role in modulating circulation in coastal ocean waters. Chapter 4 addresses marine geology. Major structural features of the seaoor (e.g., mid-ocean ridges, transform faults, and deep-sea trenches) are explained in light of the theory of plate tectonics, which represents the unifying paradigm in geology. The dynamic nature of the ocean crust and

seaoor is coupled to the movement of lithospheric plates. The genesis of ocean crust occurs along

a globally encircling mid-ocean ridge and rift system through an interplay of magmatic construction, hydrothermal convection, and tectonic extension. The destruction of ocean crust, in turn, takes place at deep-sea trenches. The relative motion of lithospheric plates is responsible for an array

of tectonic and topographic features on the seaoor. Moving away from the mid-ocean ridges, the

deep ocean oor exhibits the following prominent topographic features: abyssal hills and plains, seamounts, aseismic ridges, and trenches. The continental margins are typied by continental rises, slopes, and shelves. The seaoor is blanketed by sediments in most areas. Terrigenous sediments predominate on the continental margins. The deep ocean oor contains a variety of sediment types, with various admixtures of biogenous, terrigenous, authigenic, volcanogenic, and cosmogenic components. The relative concentration of these sediment components at any site depends on water depth, the proximity to landmasses, biological productivity of overlying waters, volcanic activity on the seaoor, as well as other factors.

Marine biology is treated in Chapter 5. Major taxonomic groups of plants and animals found in estuarine and oceanic environments are reviewed. Included here are various groups of phyto- plankton, zooplankton, benthic ora and fauna, and nekton. Data are compiled on the abundance, biomass, density, distribution, and diversity of these organisms. Information is also chronicled on estuarine and marine habitats. Chapter 6 conveys the seriousness of pollution and other anthropogenic impacts on biotic communities and habitats in estuarine and marine environments. Acute and insidious pollution problems encountered in these environments are commonly linked to nutrient and organic carbon loading, oil spills, and toxic chemical contaminant inputs (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and radioactive substances). Many human activities disrupt and degrade habitats, leading to signicant decreases in abundance of organisms. For example, uncontrolled coastal development, altered natural ows, overexploitation of sheries, and the introduction of exotic species can have devastating effects on estuarine and coastal marine systems. The impacts of human activitiesespecially in the coastal zonewill continue to be a major issue in marine science during the 21st century.

Contents

 

Chapter 1

Physiography

I.

Ocean Provinces

1

A. Dimensions

1

B. Physiographic Provinces

2

1. Continental Margin Province

2

2. Deep-Ocean Basin Province

2

3. Mid-Ocean Ridge Province

3

C. Benthic and Pelagic Provinces

3

1. Benthic Province

3

2. Pelagic Province

4

1.1 Conversion Factors, Measures, and Units

5

1.2 General Features of the Earth

10

1.3 General Characteristics of the Oceans

14

1.4 Topographic Data

17

 

Chapter 2

Marine Chemistry

I.

Seawater Composition

45

A. Major Constituents

45

B. Minor and Trace Elements 46

C. Nutrient Elements

47

1. Nitrogen

47

2. Phosphorus

48

3. Silicon

48

D. Gases

48

E. Organic Compounds 49

F. Dissolved Constituent Behavior

49

G. Vertical Profiles

49

1. Conservative Profile 49

2. Nutrient-Type Profile

49

3. Surface Enrichment and Depletion at Depth

50

4. Mid-Depth

Minima

50

5. Mid-Depth Maxima

50

6. Mid-Depth Maxima or Minima in the Suboxic Layer

50

7. Maxima and Minima in Anoxic Waters

50

H. Salinity

51

2.1

Periodic Table

54

2.2

Properties of Seawater

59

2.3

Atmospheric and Fluvial Fluxes 68

2.4

Composition of Seawater

76

2.5

Trace Elements

88

2.6

Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry

98

2.7

Organic Matter

107

2.8

Decomposition of Organic Matter 126

2.9

Oxygen

128

2.10

Nutrients

136

Chapter 3

Physical Oceanography

I. Subject Areas

167

II. Properties of Seawater

167

A.

Temperature

167

B. Salinity

168

C. Density

168

III. Open Ocean Circulation

169

A. Wind-Driven Circulation 169

1. Ocean Gyres 169

2. Meanders, Eddies, and Rings

169

3. Equatorial

Currents

170

4. Antarctic Circumpolar Current 171

171

6. Ekman Transport, Upwelling, and Downwelling 171

7. Langmuir Circulation 172

B. Surface Water Circulation 172

5. Convergences and Divergences

1. Atlantic Ocean

172

2. Pacic Ocean

173

3. Indian Ocean

173

4. Southern Ocean 173

5. Arctic Sea 173

C.

Thermohaline Circulation

174

1. Atlantic Ocean

174

2. Pacic Ocean

174

3. Indian Ocean

175

4. Arctic Sea 175

IV. Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Circulation 176

A. Estuaries

176

B. Coastal Ocean

177

1.

Currents

177

2. Fronts

178

3. Waves

178

a. Kelvin and Rossby Waves

178

b. Edge Waves 179

c. Seiches

179

d. Internal Waves

179

e. Tides 179

f. Surface Waves 180

g. Tsunamis 182

3.1 Direct and Remote Sensing (Oceanographic Applications) 185

3.2 Light

193

3.3 Temperature

196

3.4 Salinity

201

3.5 Tides

206

3.6 Wind

211

3.7 Waves and Their Properties

215

3.8 Coastal Waves and Currents

220

3.9 Circulation in Estuaries

238

Chapter 4

Marine Geology

I. Plate Tectonics Theory

279

II. Seaoor Topographic Features

280

A. Mid-Ocean Ridges

280

B. Deep Ocean Floor

282

1. Abyssal Hills 282

2. Abyssal Plains 283

3. Seamounts

283

4. Aseismic Ridges

283

5. Deep-Sea Trenches

284

C. Continental Margins 285

285

2. Continental Slope 285

3. Continental Rise 286

1. Continental Shelf

III.

Sediments

286

 

A.

Deep Ocean Floor

286

 

1. Terrigenous Sediment

287

2. Biogenous Sediment

288

a. Calcareous Oozes 288

b. Siliceous Oozes 289

289

4. Authigenic Sediment 290

3. Pelagic Sediment Distribution

5. Volcanogenic Sediment 291

6. Cosmogenic Sediment

291

7. Deep-Sea Sediment Thickness

291

B. Continental Margins 291

1. Continental Shelves

292

2. Continental Slopes and Rises

293

4.1 Composition and Structure of the Earth 297

4.2 Ocean Basins

303

4.3 Continental Margins

305

4.4 Submarine Canyons and Oceanic Trenches

311

4.5 Plate Tectonics, Mid-Ocean Ridges, and Oceanic Crust Formation

335

4.6 Heat Flow

353

4.7 Hydrothermal Vents

362

4.8 Lava Flows and Seamounts

384

4.9 Marine Mineral Deposits

397

4.10 Marine Sediments

404

4.11 Estuaries, Beaches, and Continental Shelves

410

Chapter 5

Marine Biology

I. Introduction

441

II. Bacteria

441

III. Phytoplankton

444

A.

Major Taxonomic Groups

445

 

1. Diatoms

445

2. Dinoagellates

445

3. Coccolithophores

445

4. Silicoagellates

446

IV.

Zooplankton

447

A. Zooplankton Classications 447

1. Classication by Size 447

448

2. Classication by Length of Planktonic Life

 

a.

Holoplankton 448

b.

Meroplankton

448

c.

Tychoplankton

449

V.

Benthos

450

A.

Benthic Flora

450

 

1. Salt Marshes 452

2. Seagrasses

453

3. Mangroves 454

 

B.

Benthic Fauna

454

 

1. Spatial Distribution

455

2. Reproduction and Larval Dispersal 456

3. Feeding Strategies, Burrowing, and Bioturbation 457

4. Biomass and Species Diversity

458

 

a. Biomass

458

b. Diversity

459

 

C.

Coral Reefs

459

VI.

Nekton

460

A.

Fish

460

 

1.

Representative Fish Faunas

461

 

a. Estuaries

461

b. Pelagic Environment

461

i. Neritic Zone 461

ii. Epipelagic Zone 461

iii. Mesopelagic Zone

461

iv. Bathypelagic Zone

461

v. Abyssopelagic Zone

461

c. Benthic Environment

461

i. Supratidal Zone 461

461

iii. Subtidal Zone 462

iv. Bathyal Zone 462

ii. Intertidal Zone

v. Abyssal Zone

462

vi. Hadal Zone

462

B. Crustaceans and Cephalopods

462

C. Marine

Reptiles

462

D. Marine Mammals

463

E. Seabirds

463

5.1 Marine Organisms: Major Groups and Composition 470

5.2 Biological Production in the Ocean

479

5.3 Bacteria and Protozoa

491

5.4 Marine Plankton

497

5.5 Benthic

Flora

504

5.6 Benthic Fauna

541

5.7 Nekton

561

5.8 Fisheries

571

5.10 Carbon

Flow

580

5.11 Coastal Systems

587

5.12 Deep-Sea Systems

594

Chapter 6

Marine Pollution and Other Anthropogenic Impacts

I.

Introduction

621

II. Types of Anthropogenic Impacts 622

622

1. Nutrient Loading 622

A. Marine Pollution

2. Organic Carbon Loading

624

3. Oil

625

4. Toxic Chemicals 627

627

b. Halogenated Hydrocarbons 628

a. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

 

c. Heavy Metals

630

d. Radioactive Substances

631

B.

Other Anthropogenic Impacts

632

1. Coastal Development

632

2. Marine Debris

633

3. Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal 634

4. Oil Production and Marine Mining 635

5. Exploitation of Fisheries 635

6. Boats and Marinas

636

7. Electric Generating Stations

637

8. Altered Natural Flows 638

9. Introduced Species 638

III.

Conclusions

639

6.1

Sources of Marine Pollution

647

6.2

Watershed Effects

654

6.3

Contamination Effects on Organisms 671

6.4

Nutrients

683

6.5

Organic Carbon

694

6.6

Sewage Waste

709

6.7

Pathogens

721

6.8

Oil

724

6.9

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

738

6.10

Halogenated Hydrocarbons

754

6.11

Heavy Metals

785

6.12

Radioactive Waste

807

6.13

Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal 826

Index

837

A. Dimensions

CHAPTER 1

Physiography

I. OCEAN PROVINCES

The world oceans including the adjacent seas cover 71% of the earth’s surface ( 3.6 10 8 km 2 ), and they have a total volume of 1.35 10 9 km 3 . The mean depth of all the oceans amounts to 3700 m, with the Pacic Ocean being deepest (4188 m), followed by the Indian Ocean (3872 m) and the Atlantic Ocean (3844 m). Nearly 75% of the ocean basins lie within the depth zone between 3000 and 6000 m. The seas are much shallower, being 1200 m deep or less. The Pacic Ocean is by far the largest and deepest ocean, comprising 50.1% of the world ocean and occupying more than one third of the earths surface. By comparison, the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean constitute 29.4 and 20.5% of the world ocean, respectively. The oceans range from 5000 km (Atlantic) to 17,000 km (Pacic) in width. Ocean water is not evenly distributed around the globe. In the southern hemisphere, the percentage of water (80.9%) to land (19.1%) far exceeds that of the percentage of water (60.7%) to land (39.3%) in the northern hemisphere. This uneven distribution greatly affects world meteo- rological and ocean circulation patterns. The mean temperature of the oceans is 3.51°C, and the mean salinity 34.7. Excluding the Southern Ocean as a separate entity, the Pacic Ocean exhibits the lowest temperatures and salinities with mean values of 3.14°C and 34.6, respectively. In contrast, highest mean temperatures (3.99°C) and salinities (34.92) exist in the Atlantic Ocean despite its large volume of riverine inow. This is particularly true in the North Atlantic, where the mean temperature (5.08°C) and salinity (35.09) exceed those of all other major ocean basins. The Indian Ocean has intermediate mean temperature (3.88°C) and salinity (34.78) values. The major oceans also include marginal seas. Some of these smaller systems are bounded by land or island chains (e.g., Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Sea of Japan). Others not bounded off by land are distinguished by local oceanographic characteristics (e.g., Labrador, Norwegian, and Tasman seas). 1 Marginal seas can strongly inuence temperature and salinity conditions of the major ocean basins. For example, the warm, saline waters of the Mediterranean Sea can be detected over thousands of kilometers at mid-depths in the Atlantic Ocean. Comparing oceanic depths and land elevations on earth, it is quite clear that relative to sea level, the landmasses are not as high as the oceans are deep. As demonstrated by a hypsographic curve, 84% of the ocean oor exceeds 2000 m depth, while only 11% of the land surface is greater than 2000 m above sea level. The maximum oceanic depth, recorded in the Mariana Trench in the western Pacic, amounts to 11,035 m. The highest elevation on land, Mt. Everest, is 8848 m.

2

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

B. Physiographic Provinces

1. Continental Margin Province

The ocean oor is divided into three major physiographic provincesthe continental margins, deep-ocean basins, and mid-ocean ridgescharacterized by distinctive bathymetry and unique landforms. 2,3 The continental margins represent the submerged edges of the continents, and they consist of the continental shelf, slope, and rise, which extend seaward from the shoreline down to depths of 2000 to 3000 m. The continental shelf is underlain by a thick wedge of sediment derived from continental sources. Here, the ocean bottom slopes gently seaward at an angle of 0.5°. Although typied by broad expanses of nearly at terrain, many shelf regions also exhibit irregularly distributed hills, valleys, and depressions of low to moderate relief. Continental shelves, which range from 5 km in width along the Pacic coasts of North and South America to as much as 1500 km along the Arctic Ocean, average 7.5 km in width worldwide. They cover 7% of the total area of the ocean oor. The outer margin of continental shelves lies at a depth of 150 to 200 m, where the slope of the ocean bottom increases abruptly to 1 to 4°, marking the shelf break. The continental slope occurs seaward of the shelf break, being inclined at 4°. It descends to the upper limit of the continental rise. Sediments underneath the continental slope are commonly incised by submarine canyons having steep-sided, V -shaped proles. These erosional features, with a topographic relief of 1 to 2 km, are usually cut by turbidity currents. They serve as conduits for the transport of sediment from the continental shelf to the deep-ocean basins. Examples are the Hudson, Baltimore, LaJolla, and Redondo canyons. The continental rise is a gently sloping apron of sediment accumulating at the base of the continental slope and spreading across the deep seaoor to adjacent abyssal plains. It is a topo- graphically smooth feature, sloping at an angle of 1° and covering hundreds of kilometers of the ocean oor down to depths of 4000 m. Clay, silt, and sand turbidite deposits underlying the rise may accumulate to several kilometers in thickness, being transported by turbidity currents from the nearby continental shelf and slope.

2. Deep-Ocean Basin Province

The deep-ocean basins are found seaward of the continental rises at a depth of 3000 to 5000 m. Signicant topographic features within this province include abyssal plains, abyssal hills, deep-sea trenches, and seamounts. As such, the topography is more variable than in the continental margin physiographic province, ranging from nearly at plains to steep-sided volcanic edices and deep narrow trenches. With slopes of less than 1 m/km, the abyssal plains are the attest areas on earth. They consist primarily of ne-grained sediments ranging from 100 m to more than 1000 m in thickness. These level ocean basin regions form by the slow deposition of clay, silt, and sand particles (turbidites) transported via turbidity currents off the outer continental shelf and slope, ultimately burying a signicant amount of the volcanic terrane. 3 A large fraction of the sediments are transported to the deep sea through submarine canyons. Abyssal hills and seamounts frequently dot the seaoor in the deep-ocean basin province. Typically of volcanic origin, the abyssal hills rise as much as 1000 m above the seaoor, but generally have an average relief of only 200 m. Some appear as elongated hills, and others as domes ranging from 5 to 100 km in width. In contrast, seamounts with circular, ovoid, or lobate shapes usually protrude more than a kilometer above the surrounding seaoor, and typically have slopes of 5 to 25°. Large intraplate volcanoes may approach 10 km in height. Occasionally, seamounts merge into a chain of aseismic ridges. Flat-topped forms, referred to as guyots, develop

PHYSIOGRAPHY

3

as the volcanic peaks are eroded during emergence. Seamounts are most numerous in the Pacic Ocean basin, where as many as 1 million edices cover 13% of the seaoor. 4 The greatest ocean depths ( 11,000 m) have been recorded in deep-sea trenches. These long, narrow depressions are on average 3000 to 5000 m deeper than the ocean basins. They are bordered by volcanic island arcs or continental margin magmatic belts, and mark the sites of major lithos- pheric subduction zones. Deep-sea trenches represent tectonically active areas associated with strong earthquakes and volcanism.

3. Mid-Ocean Ridge Province

The largest and most volcanically active chain of mountains on earth occurs along a globally encircling mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and rift system that extends through all the major ocean basins as seaoor spreading centers. It is along the 75,000-km global length of MORs where new oceanic crust forms through an interplay of magmatic construction, hydrothermal convection, and tectonic extension. 5,6 These spreading centers are sites of active basaltic volcanism, shallow-focus earth- quakes, and high rates of heat ow. The seaoor at MORs consists of a narrow neovolcanic zone (1 to 4 km wide) anked successively by a zone of crustal ssuring (0.5 to 3 km) and a zone of active faulting out to a distance of 10 km from the spreading axis. The neovolcanic zone is the region of most recent volcanic activity along the ridge. The summit of the ridge is marked by a rift valley, axial summit caldera, or axial summit graben. The MOR system is segmented along-axis by transform faults, which commonly extend far into deep-ocean basins as inactive fracture zones. The irregular partitioning of the ridge axis by transform faults creates a hierarchy of discontinuities. 7 The mid-ocean ridge physiographic province lies at a depth of 2000 to 3000 m. The volcanic ridges comprising this mountain system are comparable in physical dimensions to those on the continents. Most seamounts form on or near mid-ocean ridges. The inner valley oor of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge is composed of piled-up seamounts and hummocky pillow ows, representing the product of crustal accretion. 810 They account for highly variable and rugged volcanic landscapes. As this volcanic material and the remaining newly formed lithosphere cool and subside on either side of the MOR, the elevations of the submarine volcanic mountains decline, and the topography becomes less rugged. The original volcanic topography also is gradually buried under a thick apron of sediments as the lithosphere moves away from the MOR.

C. Benthic and Pelagic Provinces

1. Benthic Province

The oceans can also be subdivided on the basis of major habitats on the seaoor (benthic province) and in the water column (pelagic province). The benthic province consists of ve discrete zones: littoral, sublittoral, bathyal, abyssal, and hadal. The littoral (or intertidal) zone encompasses the bottom habitat between the high and low tide marks. Immediately seaward, the sublittoral (or subtidal) zone denes the benthic region from mean low water to the shelf break at a depth of 200 m. The seaoor extending from the shelf break to a depth of 2000 m corresponds to the bathyal zone. The deepest benthic habitats include the abyssal zone from 2000 to 6000 m depth and the hadal zone below 6000 m. These zones roughly conform with the aforementioned physi- ographic provinces. For example, the sublittoral zone represents the benthic environment of the continental shelf. The bathyal zone corresponds to the continental slope and rise, and the abyssal zone to the deep-ocean basins exclusive of the trenches, which are represented by the hadal zone. The abyssal zone accounts for 75% of the benthic habitat area of the oceans, and the bathyal and sublittoral zones 16 and 8% of the area, respectively.

4

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

2. Pelagic Province

Pelagic environments are subdivided into neritic and oceanic zones. The neritic zone includes all waters overlying the continental shelf, and the oceanic zone, all waters seaward from the shelf break. Waters of the oceanic zone are further subdivided into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathy- pelagic, abyssalpelagic, and hadalpelagic regions. Epipelagic waters constitute the uppermost por- tion of the water column extending from the sea surface down to a depth of 200 m. The waters between 200 and 1000 m constitute the mesopelagic zone, and those between 1000 and 2000 m, the bathypelagic zone. Deepest ocean waters of the pelagic province occur in the abyssalpelagic zone, located between 2000 m and 6000 m depth, and in the underlying hadalpelagic zone, occupying the deep-sea trenches. The abyssalpelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones contain the greatest volume of seawater, amounting to 54, 28, and 15% of all water present in the oceanic zone, respectively.

REFERENCES

1. Pickard, G. L. and Emery, W. J., Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction, 4th ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1985.

2. Millero, F. J., Marine Chemistry, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997.

3. Pinet, P. R., Invitation to Oceanography, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA, 1998.

4. Smith, D. K., Seamount abundances and size distribution, and their geographic variations, Rev. Aquat. Sci., 5, 197, 1991.

5. Macdonald, K. C. and Fox, P. J., The mid-ocean ridge, Sci. Am., 262, 72, 1990.

6. Cann, J. R., Eldereld, H., and Laughton, A. S., Eds., Mid-Ocean Ridges: Dynamics of Processes Associated with Creation of New Ocean Crust, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998.

7. Macdonald, K. C., Scheirer, D. S., and Carbotte, S. M., Mid-ocean ridges: discontinuities, segments, and giant cracks, Science, 253, 968, 1991.

8. Smith, D. K. and Cann, J. R., The role of seamount volcanism in crustal construction at the Mid- Atlantic (24°–30°), J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1645, 1992.

9. Smith, D. K. and Cann, J. R., Building the crust at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature, 365, 707, 1993.

10. Smith, D. K., Mid-Atlantic Ridge volcanism from deep-towed side-scan sonar images, 2529°N,

J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 67, 233, 1995.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

5

1.1 CONVERSION FACTORS, MEASURES, AND UNITS

Table 1.1–1

Recommended Decimal Multiples and Submultiples

Multiples and

 

Submultiples

Prefixes

Symbols

10

18

exa

E

10

15

peca

P

10

12

tera

T

10

9

giga

G

10

6

mega

M

10

3

kilo

k

10

2

hecto

h

10

deca

da

10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 9

deci

d

centi

c

milli

m

micro

nano

n

10

12

pico

p

10

15

femto

f

10 18

atto

a

Source: Beyer, W. H., Ed., CRC Standard Math- ematical Tables, 28th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1987, 1. With permission.

Table 1.12

Conversion Factors

 

To Obtain

Metric to English Multiply

By

Inches Feet Yards Miles Ounces Pounds Gallons (U.S. liquid) Fluid ounces Square inches Square feet Square yards Cubic inches Cubic feet Cubic yards

Centimeters

0.3937007874

Meters

3.280839895

Meters

1.093613298

Kilometers

0.6213711922

Grams

3.527396195 10 2

Kilograms

2.204622622

Liters

0.2641720524

Milliliters (cc)

3.381402270 10 2

Square centimeters

0.1550003100

Square meters

10.76391042

Square meters

1.195990046

Milliliters (cc)

6.102374409 10 2

Cubic meters

35.31466672

Cubic meters

1.307950619

6

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

Table 1.12

Conversion Factors (continued)

 

To Obtain

English to Metric a Multiply

 

By

Microns

Mils

25.4

Centimeters

Inches

2.54

Meters

Feet

0.3048

Meters

Yards

0.9144

Kilometers

Miles

1.609344

Grams

Ounces

28.34952313

Kilograms

Pounds

0.45359237

Liters

Gallons (U.S. liquid)

3.785411784

Milliliters (cc)

Fluid ounces

29.57352956

Square centimeters

6.4516

Square meters

Square inches Square feet Square yards Cubic inches

0.09290304

Square meters

0.83612736

Milliliters (cc)

16.387064

Cubic meters

Cubic

feet

2.831684659 10 2

Cubic meters

Cubic yards

0.764554858

To Obtain

Conversion FactorsGeneral a Multiply

 

By

Atmospheres

Feet of water @ 4°C

2.950 10 2

Atmospheres Atmospheres BTU BTU Cubic feet Degree (angle) Ergs Feet

Inches of mercury @ 0°C 3.342

10 2

Pounds per square inch Foot-pounds Joules Cords Radians Foot-pounds

6.804 10 2 1.285 10 3 9.480 10 4

128

57.2958

1.356 10 7

5280

Feet of water @ 4°C

Miles Atmospheres

33.90

Horsepower-hours 1.98 10 6

Foot-pounds Foot-pounds Foot-pounds per min Horsepower Inches of mercury @ 0°C Joules Joules Kilowatts Kilowatts

Kilowatt-hours Horsepower Foot-pounds per second Pounds per square inch BTU Foot-pounds BTU per minute

2.655 10 6 3.3 10 4 1.818 10 3

2.036

1054.8

1.35582

1.758 10 2 2.26 10 5

Kilowatts

Foot-pounds per minute Horsepower

0.745712

Knots Miles Nautical miles Radians Square feet Watts

Miles per hour 0.86897624

Feet Miles Degrees Acres BTU per minute

1.894 10 4

0.86897624

1.745 10 2

43560

17.5796

 

Temperature Factors

 

°F 9/5 (°C) 32 Fahrenheit temperature 1.8 (temperature in kelvins) 459.67 °C 5/9 [(°F) 32] Fahrenheit temperature 1.8 (Celsius temperature) 32 Celsius temperature temperature in kelvins 273.15

a Boldface numbers are exact; others are given to ten signicant gures where so indicated by the multiplier factor. Source: Beyer, W. H., Ed., CRC Standard Mathematical Tables, 28th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1987, 21. With permission.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

7

(continued)

0.00155 in. 2 (sq. in.)

1.0567 qt

0.036127 lb/in. 3

1 gal

U.S. System

U.S. System

Liquid Measures U.S. System

1 qt

1 pt

0.155 in. 2 1 in. 2 1 ft 2 1 yd 2 10.7639 ft 2 0.3861 mi 2 1 mi 2

1 lb/in. 3 1 lb/ft 3

0.0610 in. 3 28.875 in. 3 57.749 in. 3 61.0 in. 3 231 in. 3

Density

Area

Metric System

Metric System

Metric System

1 g/cm 3 27.68 g/cm 3 0.0160 g/cm 3

1 mm 2 1 cm 2 6.45163 cm 2 0.0929 m 2 0.83613 m 2 1 m 2 1 km 2 2.58998 km 2

3.7853 l

0.473 l

0.946 l

1 ml

l

1

Metric and U.S. System, Measures, Units, and Conversions

0.6102 10 4 in. 3 (cu. in.)

0.035 oz av (ounce av)

2.20462 lb av ton sh (short ton)

1 ton 1 (long ton)

1 int. nautical mi

3.937 10 9 in.

3.937 10 5 in. 0.3937 in. 1 in.

1 lb av (lb av) a

U.S. System

U.S. System

U.S. System

1.1023 ton sh

1.30794 yd 3

0.06102 in. 3

1.09361 yd

0.62137 mi

1 fathom

1 oz av

yd 3

1 in. 3

1 yd

1 mi

ft 3

ft

1

1

1

1

1.60935 km

Lengths Metric System

Volume

m

m

km

cm

Mass

0.9144 1 m

1.8288 1 km

2.540
0.3048

1.852

1 cm

1

1Å

Metric System

Metric System

cm 3

kg

kg

Table 1.13

m 3

m 3

1016.047

907.1848

g

g

8 cm 4 cm

0.76456 1m 3

16.3872

0.02831

5 cm

2 cm

28.349
453.59

mm 3

cm 3

kg

g

t

10

10

10
10

1

1

1

1

1

8

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

9.4805 10 11

9.480 10 4 3.413 10 3

9.607 10 2

BTU

3.9685

1

9.8692 10 10

9.8722 10 3 3.5540 10 4 4.1306 10 1

Liter-atmos.

0.01934

1.0409 10 1

lb/in. 2

14.504

14.223

14.696

1

1

2.421 10 2 2.5198 10 1

2.389 10 11 2.390 10 4 8.6041 10 2

0.001359

0.07031

kcal t

1.0197

at

1.033

1

Energy

1

Metric and U.S. System, Measures, Units, and Conversions (continued)

Pressure

2.7769 10 14

2.7778 10 7

1.1622 10 3 2.8137 10 5 2.930 10 4

0.068046

0.96784

0.98692

0.00131

k W int h

atm.

1

1

0.9997 10 7

3.6000 10 6 4.186 10 3 1.0133 10 2 1.0548 10 3

51.7144

Joule mt

735.56

Torr

760

750

1

1

1.0002 10 7 3.6011 10 13 4.1853 10 10 1.0133 10 9 1.0548 10 10

0.98067

0.00133

0.06895

1.0133

bar

erg

1

1

bar (10 6 dyn/cm 2) torr atm at (1 kg/cm 2 ) lb/in. 2

Table 1.13

erg Joule int kW int h Kcal 15 Liter-atmos. BTU

1

1

1
1

1

PHYSIOGRAPHY

9

Source: Heydemann, A., Handbook of Geochemistry, Vol. 1, Wedepohl, K. H., Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969. With permission.

1472

1292

1832

1652

1112

932

392

482

572

752

°F

°F

500

250

300

900

200

400

700

600

800

1000

°C

°C

Degrees Réaumur (°R) °R 4/9 ( T°F 32)

Temperature Absolute Centigrade or Kelvin (K) °K T°C 273.18 Degrees Centigrade (°C) °C 5/9 ( T°F 32) Degrees Fahrenheit (°F) °C 5/4 T°R

9/4 T°R 32 9/5 T°C 32

4/5 T°C

Centigrade to Fahrenheit °F

Centigrade to Fahrenheit °F

194

284

140

230

266

176

158

248

212

302

°R

°F

°F

a 1 lb av 1 pound avoirdupois is the mass of 27.662 in. 3 .

60

80

90

70

100

130

110

120

150

140

°C

°C

104

50

86

58

68

238

328

148

32

122

°F

°F

150

200

100

0

50

10

20

50

30
40

°C

°C

10

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

1.2 GENERAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH

HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE 1.2 GENERAL FEATURES OF THE EARTH Figure 1.2 – 1 Divisions of

Figure 1.21

Divisions of the earths surface. (From Millero, F. J., Chemical Oceanography, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1996, 4. With permission.)

Table 1.21

Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth

Quantity

 

Symbol

Value

Unit

Mass Major orbital semi-axis

M

5.9742 10 27

g

a orb

1.000000

AU

 

1.4959787 10 8

km

Distance from sun at perihelion Distance from sun at aphelion Moment of perihelion passage Moment of aphelion passage Siderial rotation period around sun

r x

0.9833

AU

r

1.0167

AU

T x

T

P orb

Jan. 2, 4 h 52 min July 4, 5 h 05 min 31.5581 10 6

s

 

365.25636

d

 

U orb

29.78

km/s

a

6378.140

km

a c a b c N c S

a

b

1/298.257

 

21.385

km

1/295.2

1/298.0

1/30,000

 

213

m

70

m

1.10 5

g e g p g p g e

 

9.78036

m/s

2

9.83208

m/s

2

5.172

cm/s 2

g

9.7978

m/s 2

Mean rotational velocity Mean equatorial radius Mean polar compression (attening factor) Difference in equatorial and polar semi-axes Compression of meridian of major equatorial axis Compression of meridian of minor equatorial axis Equatorial compression Difference in equatorial semi-axes Difference in polar semi-axes Polar asymmetry Mean acceleration of gravity at equator Mean acceleration of gravity at poles Difference in acceleration of gravity at pole and at equator Mean acceleration of gravity for entire surface of terrestrial ellipsoid

PHYSIOGRAPHY

11

Table 1.21

Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth (continued)

 

Quantity

Symbol

Value

Unit

 

Mean radius Area of surface Volume Mean density Siderial rotational period Rotational angular velocity Mean equatorial rotational velocity Rotational angular momentum Rotational energy Ratio of centrifugal force to force of gravity at equator Moment of inertia Relative braking of earths rotation due to tidal friction Relative secular acceleration of earths rotation Not secular braking of earths rotation Probable value of total energy of tectonic deformation of earth Secular loss of heat of earth through radiation into space Portion of earths kinetic energy transformed into heat as a result of lunar and solar tides in the hydrosphere Differences in duration of days in March and August Corresponding relative annual variation in earths rotational velocity Presumed variation in earths radius between August and March Annual variation in level of world ocean Area of continents

R

6371.0

km

 

S

5.10 10 8 1.0832 10 12

km

2

V

km

3

5.515

g/cm 3

 

P

86,164.09

s

7.292116 10 5

rad/s

 

v

0.46512

km/s

L

5.861 10 33 2.137 10 29 0.0034677 1/288

J s

 

E

J

q c

I e /

8.070 10 37 4.2 10 8

kg m 2 century

1

i / / E t

1.4 10 8 2.8 10 8 1 10 23

1

century century 1 J/century

E k

1 10 23

J/century

E k

1.3 10 23

J/century

P * /

0.0025 (MarchAugust) 2.9 10 8 (Aug.March)

s

*R

9.2 (Aug.March)

cm

 

h o S C

10 (Sept.March) 1.49 10 8

cm km 2 % of surface km 2 % of surface m m km

 

29.2

Area of world ocean

S o

3.61 10 8

 

70.8

Mean height of continents above sea level Mean depth of world ocean Mean thickness of lithosphere within the limits of the continents Mean thickness of lithosphere within the limits of the ocean Mean rate of thickening of continental lithosphere Mean rate of horizontal extension of continental lithosphere Mass of crust Mass of mantle Amount of water released from the mantle and core in the course of geological time Total reserve of water in the mantle Present content of free and bound water in the earths lithosphere Mass of hydrosphere Amount of oxygen bound in the earths crust Amount of free oxygen Mass of atmosphere Mass of biosphere Mass of living matter in the biosphere Density of living matter on dry land Density of living matter in ocean

h C

875

h o

3794

h c.l.

35

h o.l.

4.7

km

 

h/ t l/ t

1040

m/10 6 y km/10 6 y

0.7520

m 1

2.36 10 22 4.05 10 24 3.40 10 21

kg

kg

kg

2 10 23 2.4 10 21

kg

kg

m h

1.664 10 21 1.300 10 21 1.5 10 18 5.136 10 18 1.148 10 16 3.6 10 14

kg

kg

kg

m a

kg

m b

kg

kg

0.1

g/cm

2

15 10 8

g/cm

3

12

PRACTICAL HANDBOOK OF MARINE SCIENCE

Table 1.21

Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth (continued)

Age of the earth

4.55 10 9

y

Age of oldest rocks

4.0 10 9

y

Age of most ancient fossils

3.4 10 9

y

This table is a collection of data on various properties of the earth. Most of the values are given in SI units. Note that 1 AU (astronomical unit) 149,597,870 km.

Source: Lide, D. R. and Frederikse, H. P. R., Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998, 146. With permission.

Note:

REFERENCES

1. Seidelmann, P. K., Ed., Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1992.

2. Lang, K. R., Astrophysical Data: Planets and Stars, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992.

Table 1.22

Density, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth

Depth

p

g

Depth

p

g

km

g/cm 3

kbar

cm/s 2

km

g/cm 3

kbar

cm/s 2

 

Crust

Mantle (solid)

 
 

1771

4.96

752

994

2071

5.12

903

1002

0

1.02

0

981

2371

5.31

1061

1017

3

1.02

3

982

2671

5.45

1227

1042

3

2.80

3

982

2886

5.53

1352

1069

21

2.80

5

983

 

Outer Core (liquid)

 
 

Mantle (solid)

 
 

2886

9.96

1352

1069

21

3.49

5

983

2971

10.09

1442

1050

41

3.51

12

983

3371

10.63

1858

953

61

3.52

19

984

3671

11.00

2154

874

81

3.48

26

984

4071

11.36

2520

760

101

3.44

33

984

4471

11.69

2844

641

121

3.40

39

985

4871

11.99

3116

517

171

3.37

56

987

5156

12.12

3281

427

221

3.34

73

989

271

3.37

89

991

Inner Core (solid)

 

321

3.47

106

993

371

3.59

124

994

5156

12.30

3281

427

571

3.95

199

999

5371

12.48

3385

355

871

4.54

328

997

5771

12.52

3529

218

1171

4.67

466

992

6071

12.53

3592

122

1471

4.81

607

991

6371

12.58

3617

0

Note: This table gives the density , pressure p, and acceleration due to gravity g as a function of depth below the earths surface, as calculated from the model of the structure of the earth in Reference 1. The model assumes a radius of 6371 km for the earth. The boundary between the crust and mantle (the Mohorovicic disconti- nuity) is taken as 21 km, while in reality it varies considerably with location. Source: Lide, D. R. and Frederikse, H. P. R., Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1998, 1410. With permission.

REFERENCES

1. Anderson, D. L. and Hart, R. S., J. Geophys. Res., 81, 1461, 1976.

PHYSIOGRAPHY

13

Table 1.23

Abundance of Elements in the Earths Crust and Sea

 
 

Abundance

Abundance

Element

Crust (mg/kg)

Sea (mg/l)

Element

Crust (mg/kg)

Sea (mg/l)

Ac

5.5 10 10

N

1.9 10 1 2.36 10 4 2.0 10 1 4.15 10 1 5 10 3 8.4 10 1 4.61 10 5 1.5 10 3 1.05 10 3 1.4 10 6 1.4 10 1 1.5 10 2 2 10 10

5 10 1 1.08 10 4 1 10 5 2.8 10 6 1.2 10 4 5.6 10 4 8.57 10 5

Ag

7.5 10 2

4 10 5

Na

Al

8.23 10 4

2 10 3 4.5 10 1 3.7 10 3 4 10 6

 

Nb

Ar

3.5

Nd

As

1.8

Ne

Au

4 10 3

Ni

B

1.0 10 1

4.44

O

Ba

4.25 10 2

1.3 10 2 5.6 10 6

 

Os

 

Be

2.8

P