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Master Thesis Conceptual Lay-out of a Small Launcher

Student: Claire Ballard

Supervisor: Markus Jaeger, Astrium GmbH Bremen

From: 05.09.2011 To: 25.02.2012

Abstract

The objective of this diploma thesis is to perform a conceptual lay-out of a small launcher. Re- quirements have been defined in order to realize this first preliminary study and design of a small launcher. In that frame, a MATLAB code has been written in order to simulate the rocket tra- jectories. An optimization program on launcher staging has been written as well. To validate this code, the VEGA and Ariane 5 launchers have been used. Then from studies on existing launchers, simulations have been performed in order to find an optimum small launcher and later on to design more precisely the small launcher. As a requirement an upper stage has been newly designed for the purpose of the study. At the end, two small launchers have been considered: a three-stage launcher using the Zefiro 23 as a first stage, the Zefiro 9 as a second stage, and an upper stage using a 3kN thrust engine; a two-stage launcher using the Zenit booster engine in the first stage, and an upper stage using a 22kN thrust engine.

This paper presents the method used to develop the small launcher and the results.

Claire Ballard: Conceptual Lay-out of a Small Launcher

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Claire Ballard: Conceptual Lay-out of a Small Launcher

 

Contents

Contents

Abstract

i

List of Figures

vii

List of Tables

x

Nomenclature

xi

Abbreviations

xiii

1 Introduction

1

2 Small Launcher Basic Conditions

3

2.1 Mission and Requirements

 

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3

2.2 Method

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6

2.2.1 Stage research

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6

2.2.2 Upper stage design .

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7

2.2.3 Matlab code

 

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8

2.2.4 Small launcher

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3 Calculation Methods

 

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3.1 Flight Physics .

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11

3.1.1 Newtons equations of motion

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11

3.1.2 Environment model

 

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13

3.2 Trajectory Basics .

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14

3.2.1 Gravity turn trajectory

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14

3.2.2 Hohmann transfer

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15

3.3 Optimization: Nelder-Mead Method

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18

3.4 Functional Budget

 

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21

3.4.1 Propellant budget

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3.4.2 Propellant tank volume

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23

3.4.3 Helium budget

 

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24

3.5 Structural Mass

 

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26

3.5.1 Upper stage components .

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27

3.5.2 Structural Mass Calculation Software Tool

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28

4 Code Explanation

 

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4.1 The Simulation Folder

 

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41

4.2 The Optimization Folder

 

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45

Claire Ballard: Conceptual Lay-out of a Small Launcher

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Contents

5 Code Validation

47

5.1 VEGA launcher simulation

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47

5.2 VEGA launcher simulation results

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48

5.3 Ariane 5 launcher simulation

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49

5.4 Ariane 5 launcher simulation results

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51

5.5 Discussion .

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53

6 Results

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6.1 Existing Stages

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55

6.1.1 Solid stages

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55

6.1.2 Liquid stage

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57

6.2 Upper Stage Preliminary Design

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58

6.3 3-stage launcher solution .

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61

6.3.1 Initial values, constants and inputs

 

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61

6.3.2 Optimal launchers

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62

6.3.3 The retained solution

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66

6.3.4 The upper stage design

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66

6.3.5 3-stage launcher configuration

 

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74

6.3.6 Small launcher simulation

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81

6.4 2-stage Launcher Solution

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83

6.4.1 Initial values, constants and inputs

 

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83

6.4.2 Optimal launcher .

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84

6.4.3 The retained solution

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86

6.4.4 The Zenit new design

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86

6.4.5 The upper stage design

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90

6.4.6 The 2-stage launcher

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98

6.4.7 Small launcher simulation

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104

7 Conclusion

109

Bibliography

113

A Thrust profile

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A.1

A.2

VEGA boosters thrust profile

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115

Ariane 5 boosters thrust profile

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116

B Functional Budget Calculation Tool

 

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C MATLAB function files

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D MATLAB Main file

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E Fluid schematic

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F Technical drawings

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- iv -

Claire Ballard: Conceptual Lay-out of a Small Launcher

List of Figures

List of Figures

2.1

Small launcher mission .

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3

2.2

Small launcher configurations

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4

2.3

A basic performance calculation loop

 

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5

2.4

A second performance calculation loop

 

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6

2.5

Optimum curves

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7

2.6

Method to find optimum small launcher

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9

3.1

Frame of reference and forces acting on the rocket

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12

3.2

The gravity turn trajectory

 

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15

3.3

The Hohmann transfer .

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16

3.4

Elliptical orbit characteristics

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18

3.5

The Nelder-Mead algorithm

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19

3.6

Example of the simplex method in a two-dimension space

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3.7

The different move possibilities in the Nelder-Mead method

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21

3.8

Propellant budget

 

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