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FUNCTION TRANSMIT LOADS TO GROUND


a) SAFELY
b) within ACCEPTABLE DEFORMATION LIMITS

A FOUNDATION INTERFACES BETWEEN


THE STRUCTURE & GROUND

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FUNCTION TRANSMIT LOADS TO GROUND
a) SAFELY
b) within ACCEPTABLE DEFORMATION LIMITS

DESIGN ACTIONS STRUCTURE SELF-WEIGHT (permanent)


IMPOSED LOADS (variable, accidental,
seismic)
a) VERTICAL, &/or
b) HORIZONTAL ,&/or
c) MOMENT LOADING.

DESIGN SOIL/ ROCK STRENGTH


RESISTANCE SOIL/ ROCK DEFORMABILITY
a) UNDRAINED or DRAINED
b) ELASTIC or CONSOLIDATION (& CREEP?)
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FUNCTION TRANSMIT LOADS TO GROUND
a) SAFELY
b) within ACCEPTABLE DEFORMATION LIMITS

STRUCTURAL MODEL GEOTECHNICAL MODEL


ACTIONS STRENGTH & DEFORMABILITY
DEFORMATION LIMITS SOME ACTIONS

FOUNDATION
ENGINEER

CHOICE OF
FOUNDATION SYSTEM
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FUNCTION TRANSMIT LOADS TO GROUND
a) SAFELY
b) within ACCEPTABLE DEFORMATION LIMITS

a) transmit loads SAFELY b) transmit loads


Design without DAMAGE
resistance
LOAD
A B C
DISPLACEMENT

Ultimate resistance

Limiting
settlement

Damage is caused
by distortion

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Understanding & designing for soil-structure
interaction requires:
Reliance on observation &
measurement
Deep understanding of
(ground & structural)
materials
Development & use of
appropriate models
(conceptual, analytical or
physical)
Reference to precedent
knowledge
after Burland (2006)
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footing
Shallow
(D < B) &/or ground
raft
improvement
combined
Deep piled-raft
(D > c. 3B)
vibro-concrete
piles columns
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less than about 5 m to approx. 30 m to about 70 m

Shallow foundations Ground improvement Large dia. rotary piles,


&/or &/or Driven piles (soft soil)
Ground improvement Piles (most types) &/or
CSM (c. 50 m)
Vibro-flotation

Possibly on footings/
raft in basement >5 m

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less than about 30 m to approx. 50 m More than 50 m

mono-pile, tripod, floating structures


gravity base, jacket
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tripod / jacket
are used where competent foundation soils (or
rock) are found close to the ground surface.
there are a range of different types:
spread footings principles are similar however,
combined footings i.e. limit bearing pressures and
rafts or mats hence limit movement

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may be mass concrete or need reinforcement for
punching &/or bending; combined to take out
11 eccentric loads
when footing size becomes large..,

Ground or loads are non-uniform..,

Underground obstructions are present..,

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Consider raft foundation
simple slab (at surface or in basement),

slab with thickening under columns (reduces


shear,

Cellular/ buoyancy raft,

void void void void

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Combined piled raft foundation,

www.wechselwirkung.eu
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are used where competent foundation soils (or
rock) are not close to the ground surface, or when
loads are very high &/or expected movement of
surface foundation is not acceptable.
many different types and systems offered, and
these vary from market-to-market as well.
but principles of piled foundations are the same.

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Classification by function
compression lateral

raking
friction

end-bearing
tension

Most piles/pile groups use a


friction

combination of friction and


end-bearing to resist loads
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Classification by function
compression LOAD

0.3%B to 3%B
shaft resistance, Rs

DISPLACEMENT
base resistance, Rb

pile diameter, B >20%B


pile length, L
Rb Rs R = Rb+Rs
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Pile classification by installation effect
DISPLACEMENT REPLACEMENT

Precast Augered H-piles Continuous Bored (many


Driven cast- unplugged flight auger differing types)
in situ tube (CFA) Barrettes
Timber

High displacement Low displacement Replacement

Little or no spoil Spoil produced

Classification based soil displacement on pile shaft and at pile base


High shaft Low shaft No shaft displacement
High base Low base No base

NOISE? VIBRATION? PRODUCTION? SPACE?


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Classification by size
Generic identifier Diameter, mm Comments
Micro-piles up to 300 Driven/ jacked: <150 mm diam.,
EN 14199:2005 RC, steel or cast iron tube
Rotary, rotary percussion, CFA

Small diameter 300 - 600 Driven: EN 12699:2001


(also split by rig
type/ size) Bored: EN 1526:2000

Large diameter 600 - 3000 Driven: EN 12699:2001 - up to 2.2m


diam., larger sizes for near- / off-
shore structures
Bored: EN 1526:2000 - rotary up to
3 m diam., CFA up to 1.2 m
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Displacement
Hammer / press-in/ vibration
1. Drive Unit
Auger Energy Transfer Ratio
driver-cap-pile-soil system
Considerations:
2. Pile Damage when handling/ driving
Stability of joints
Durability
3. Ground Obstructions in ground
Monitoring of installation (QC)
Driving resistance
Noise & vibration
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Effect of soil displacement (heave)
High displacement
Materials:
Timber
Steel
(closed tube or with plug
inducer, Franki/DCIS)
Concrete sections
(precast solid or hollow)
Installation:
Driving (noise & vibration)
Augering (more acceptable)

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Low displacement
cce4004.blogspot.pt
Materials:
Steel
(open tube or H-pile)
Concrete sections
(open-ended hollow)
Installation:
Driving
Jacking
Oscillation/ vibration

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Replacement
Crowd
Torque

1. Auger Considerations:
Excavation stability (casing, fluid)
Durability
Obstructions in ground
Arisings (contamination, disposal)
Monitoring of installation (QC)
2. Ground
Shaft defects (process control,
detection)
Effect of soil disturbance
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Replacement
Materials:
Concrete
Steel reinforcement and
possibly permanent steel
casing
Installation:
Rotary
Rotary percussion
Continuous Flight Auger
Barrettes (grab/ mill)

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Deep foundations often to
BY-PASS weak/deformable Basic categories:
ground. Substitution
As an alternative the ground
Consolidation
could be either REPLACED
or IMPROVED. Densification
Choice of best method (or Grouting
combination of methods) is
Mixing
project specific.
Essentially, aiming to Reinforcement
achieve necessary strength Thermal
& stiffness with least cost
(time & monetary).
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Applicability by soil type:
2.0 0.06 0.002 mm
GRAVEL SAND SILT CLAY
VIBRO-COMPACTION ELECTRO-OSMOSIS
VIBRO-REPLACEMENT/ STONE COLUMNS/ CONCRETE COLUMNS
BLASTING THERMAL
DYNAMIC DEEP COMPACTION
REINFORCEMENT/ INCLUSIONS
PRE-CONSOLIDATION/ SURCHARGING
PERMEATION GROUTING
PARTICULATE
CHEMICAL

COMPACTION GROUTING
JET GROUTING
CEMENT STABILIZATION LIME/CEMENT STABILIZATION
26 LIME
Many very different
techniques for improving Considerations:
ground. Quality control
Development is practice Improvement
lead, science is added performance
later.
Durability
As precedent experience
grows, techniques become
more widely accepted

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Consolidation
Soft clayey soils have poor
strength & settlement
characteristics.
BUT strengthen & stiffen with
time under sustained load.
Methods used to increase pre-
consolidation pressure incl.
Surcharging/ preloading (often with
vertical drains)
Vacuum (suction preload)
Dewatering to lower GWL
Heating/electric current
www.deltaressystems.com
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Consolidation tsurch
t90,fill time
by increasing fill

settlement,
height, time to
achieve target-% of fill
final fill settlement
fill+
is faster.
hsurcharge surch
surcharge or fill
settlement rate can hfill
be accelerated by
drainage, to reduce
flow path length
(T 1/H2)
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Densification/ compaction
Loose granular soils also have
poor characteristics & are
susceptible to liquefaction.
Impulse/ vibrations force
particles closer together.
Methods incl.
High energy compaction (< 5m)
Dynamic compaction
Vibro-compaction
Vibro-replacement (stone columns,
vibro -concrete columns)
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Densification/ compaction
Vibro-compaction
Water jets & rig crowd assist
insertion
Vertical vibrations cause particle
rearrangement and densification

Topping-up

www.agra.com

few metres dep. soil

www.abelhomes.co.uk
31 Insertion Compaction
Densification/ compaction
Vibro-replacement
Extension of vibro-compaction
Granular material (sand drains,
stone columns) or concrete
(vibro-concrete columns) can
be made
Final diameter depends on soil
characteristics.

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Summary:
The Structure:
Carries loads to foundation
Sensitivity to movement

The Foundation:
Distributes load safely
Installation may modify ground

The Ground:
Strength to carry load
Will move in response to load change
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