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Microorganismos benefios y su

relacion con los inoculantes microbianos en agricultura

Stephen Diver www.attra.ncat.org | 800-346-9140 steved@ncat.org

Centro Nacional para Tecnologia

Apropiada

en agricultura Stephen Diver www.attra.ncat.org | 800-346-9140 steved@ncat.org Centro Nacional para Tecnologia Apropiada
On-Farm Beneficial Microbe Cultures CT = Compost Teas EM = Effective Microorganisms FPE = Fermented

On-Farm Beneficial Microbe Cultures

CT = Compost Teas

EM = Effective Microorganisms

FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts

MI = Mycorrhizal Inoculants

Substrate & Microbial Culture Substrate (raw organic material) + Native microflora or microbial inoculant +

Substrate & Microbial Culture

Substrate (raw organic material)

+ Native microflora or microbial inoculant

+ Add sugar as microbial food source

= Extraction + Fermentation

sugar as microbial food source = Extraction + Fermentation = Soluble Nutrients = Bioactive Substances =

= Soluble Nutrients

= Bioactive Substances

= Beneficial Microorganisms

Soil Biology Concepts Rhizosphere + Phyllosphere Biologically active plant zones Nutrient uptake Biological control of

Soil Biology Concepts

Rhizosphere + Phyllosphere

Biologically active plant zones Nutrient uptake Biological control of diseases

Distribution of micro-organisms in the rhizosphere

Trichomes + glandular secretion, Lavendar leaf CMM, The University of Queensland

Compost tea increases leaf surface microbial populations

Compost tea increases leaf surface microbial populations
Soil Biology Concepts General Suppression Abundance & Diversity of microorganisms results in soil fertility and

Soil Biology Concepts

General Suppression

Abundance & Diversity of microorganisms results in soil fertility and biological control; e.g.,

compost teas

Specific Suppression

Specific microbes are antagonistic to

certain plant pathogenic organisms; e.g., biopesticides

EM = Effective Microorganisms • Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. of Ryukyus in Okinawa,

EM = Effective Microorganisms

Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. of

Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan

Liquid microbial inoculant, stock solution Mixed culture of naturally-occurring beneficial microorganisms

Fermentative anaerobic + aerobic

microorganisms co-existing symbiotically

Main Species of EM

Microorganisms

Lactic acid bacteria

Lactobacillus plantarum

Lactobacillus casei

Lactococcus lactis

Photosynthetic bacteria

Rhodopseudomonas palustrus

Rhodobacter spaeroides

Yeasts

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Candida utilis

Actinomycetes

Streptomycetes albus

Streptomycetes griseus

Fermenting fungi

Aspergillus oryzae

Mucor hiemalis

Lactic Acid Bacteria

Lactic Acid Bacteria The barrier of Lactic Acid Keeps Harmful Microbes away
Lactic Acid Bacteria The barrier of Lactic Acid Keeps Harmful Microbes away

The barrier of Lactic Acid

Keeps Harmful Microbes away

Yeast

Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and
Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and
Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and
Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and
Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and
Yeast The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts Promote Active Cell and

The Bioactive Substances such as Hormones and Enzymes produced by Yeasts

Promote Active Cell and Root Division

Phototrophic Bacteria

Hydrogen Sulfide Odorless Ammonia
Hydrogen Sulfide
Odorless
Ammonia

Kitchen Garbage, Animal Shed, Sludge etc.

Offensive Smell
Offensive
Smell

Decompose Harmful Gases Such as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide

Changing them into Odorless Gases

Lactic Acid Bacteria + Phototrophic Bacteria + Yeast This combination is SYNERGISTIC
Lactic Acid Bacteria + Phototrophic Bacteria + Yeast This combination is SYNERGISTIC
Lactic Acid Bacteria + Phototrophic Bacteria + Yeast This combination is SYNERGISTIC
Lactic Acid Bacteria + Phototrophic Bacteria + Yeast This combination is SYNERGISTIC

Lactic Acid Bacteria + Phototrophic Bacteria + Yeast

This combination is SYNERGISTIC

Fermentation and Putrefaction

Fermentation:

Production of useful substances (alcohol, amino acids, organic acids and anti-oxidation substances) via metabolism of microorganisms; beneficial organisms.

Putrefaction:

Production of harmful substances (hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, ammonia, oxidation substances) via metabolism of microorganisms; pathogenic organisms.

“ Activated ” EM Dilution Rates 1:20 Recipe for AEM EM Molasses = 3/4 cup

ActivatedEM Dilution Rates

1:20 Recipe for AEM

EM

Molasses

= 3/4 cup

= 3/4 cup = 1 gallon

= 4-7 days

Water

Ferment

Ready when pH drops to 3.7 Use AEM at Following Dilutions

1:50

1:100

1:500

1:1000

Two Primary Suppliers of EM Sustainable Community Development in Kansas City, MO www.scdworld.com EMRO-USA in

Two Primary Suppliers of EM

Sustainable Community Development in

Kansas City, MO www.scdworld.com

EMRO-USA in Tuscon, AZ

www.emrousa.com

EM Retail Pricing Recipe Price from SCD in Kansas City, MO 1 liter = $11.95

EM Retail Pricing

Recipe Price from SCD in Kansas City, MO

1 liter

=

$11.95

1

gallon

=

$17.45

5

gallons =

$43.95

55 gallons =

$1,500

250 gallon tote is available

Wholesale prices are available for 55 and 250 gallons

EM 250 gallon tote
EM 250 gallon tote
EM 250 gallon tote
Uses of AEM • Irrigation injection • Foliar fertilization & plant protection • Fermented plant

Uses of AEM

Irrigation injection

Foliar fertilization & plant protection

Fermented plant extracts

Compost integration

Vermicompost integration

Handling of food wastes

Livestock probiotics: water & feed

Livestock stalls, manures, lagoons

Application of EM

As a Liquid…

Activated EM Solution EM-Fermented Plant Extract

As a Solid…

EM Bokashi

Fermented grains act as microbial inoculant

EM Bokashi bokashi = fermented organic matter EM Bokashi EM inoculated wheat bran Dry, sweet

EM Bokashi

bokashi = fermented organic matter

EM Bokashi

EM inoculated wheat bran

Dry, sweet fermenty smell Ready-to-use for food scraps

and animal feed

Stored in buckets or barrels

FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts • Stinging nettle • Comfrey • Equisetum Also called: •

FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts

Stinging nettle

Comfrey

Equisetum

Also called:

Herbal teas Liquid manures Plant-based pest control

Stinging Nettle
Stinging Nettle
EM-FPE for Pest Control Margarita Correa, Auroville in India 15 liters water 3 kg neem

EM-FPE for Pest Control

Margarita Correa, Auroville in India

15 liters water

3 kg neem leaves

250 g selected plant leaves

450 ml of EM stock solution

450 g of cane jaggery (sugar)

Close tight and ferment 4-5 days

Filter Apply diluted 1:500

Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville Turmeric Ginger Tobacco Papaya Custard Apple Vitex Neem

Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville

Turmeric

Ginger

Tobacco

Papaya

Custard Apple

Vitex

Neem

Calotropis

Onion

Garlic

Aloe

Tulsi

Pongam

Euphorbia

*Table of EM-FPE for 64 different insects & diseases

EM „ Special Culture ‟ Recipes EM-FF EM-FPE EM-FCM EM Bokashi = Fermented organic matter

EM Special CultureRecipes

EM-FF

EM-FPE

EM-FCM

EM Bokashi = Fermented organic matter

EM5 Insect & Disease Suppressant EM, molasses, vinegar, alcohol

EM 3-in-1

= Fermented Fish

= Fermented Plant Extract

= Fermented Chicken Manure

EM5 + herbal extracts

EM Database EM Research www.emtechnologynetwork.org 600 papers, research reports, proceedings

EM Database

EM Research

www.emtechnologynetwork.org

600 papers, research reports, proceedings

Development of Integrated Livestock Production System with EM Technology in the Swine Farm of Maroto Castillo S.A., the Biggest Swine Farm in Costa Rica

Luciano Machado

M.O. ECO SOLUCIONES S.A.

Costa Rica Central America

EM Application in Hog Housing

EM Application in Hog Housing EM APPLICATION BY MICROSPRAYER Apply 200 liters of Activated EM at

EM APPLICATION BY

MICROSPRAYER

Apply 200 liters of Activated EM at 5% dilution per day

Results

Reduced foul odors Improved respiratory problems Reduced the chemical use by 50% Reduced labor costs

Efficient EM application

EM Application in Hog Housing

EM APLICATION IN

DRINKING WATER

Apply activated EM with medicinal plants extract (garlic, ginger, etc)

with dilution of 1:2000

Results

Reduced diarrhea caused by harmful

bacteria and mechanical diarrhea

Improved in physical appearance, skin, hair, color and eyes

Improved pig behavior

bacteria and mechanical diarrhea • Improved in physical appearance, skin, hair, color and eyes • Improved

EM Application in Hog Housing

EM APPLICATION IN FLUSHING TANKS

Daily applications of Activated EM with dilution of 1:1000

Results

Easy to clean up

Excretions are flushed with the minimum amount of water

Flushed water ends up in the waste treatment system as pre-inoculated with EM

flushed with the minimum amount of water • Flushed water ends up in the waste treatment

Management of Solid Swine Waste

SOLID WASTE SEPARATOR

When the waste (excrements, urine, water) from the facility reaches the separtor, it is already pre-fermented with EM

The solid waste comes out from the separator with the 35% moisture content and a pleasant odor (fermented sweet & sour)

No foul odor and flies

the separator with the 35% moisture content and a pleasant odor (fermented sweet & sour) •

Management of Cattle Manure

EM APLICATION IN THE CATTLE SHED

Total area of 2000 m 2 with the capacity of 600 animals.

Bedding of saw dust 10 - 15 cm

thick.

Daily application of activated

EM at 3% dilution.

with the capacity of 600 animals. Bedding of saw dust 10 - 15 cm thick. Daily
IM = Indigenous Microorganisms Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous Microorganisms and Vital Power of Crop/Livestock Han

IM = Indigenous Microorganisms

Korean Natural Farming: Indigenous

Microorganisms and Vital Power of

Crop/Livestock

Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama

Korean Natural Farming Association,

1997. 172 p.

IMO No. 1 • Boiled rice laid on soil (oak forest) • IMO ‟ s

IMO No. 1

Boiled rice laid on soil (oak forest)

IMOs grow on rice

Add molasses 1 week later, 1:1 ratio

Dilute 1:20, let sit 1 week

Strain & store as liquid IMO stock Use 2 tbs/gal

Spray on compost, soil, plants

KNFA „ Special Cultures ‟ IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 FFJ =

KNFA Special Cultures

IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3

FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice

FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice

FAA = Fish Amino Acid

BRV = Brown Rice Vinegar OHN = Oriental Herbal Nutrients LAS = Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum

Organic Agriculture in Korea Chung-Nong-Hae (Right Farming), 1976 Korea Organic Farming Assoc (KOFA), 1978, 18,000

Organic Agriculture in Korea

Chung-Nong-Hae (Right Farming), 1976

Korea Organic Farming Assoc (KOFA),

1978, 18,000 farms

Korean Natural Farming Assoc (KNFA),

1986, 6,500 farms (roots in early 1960s)

Development, Current Issues and Prospects of Organic Agriculture

in Korea,Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea

Natural Farming Local resources biomass, plants, IMO ‟ s, sugars Local recipes plant extracts, special

Natural Farming

Local resources

biomass, plants, IMOs, sugars

Local recipes plant extracts, special cultures Local ideas Nature as a model

The Power of Duck: Integrated Rice and Duck Farming by Takao Furuno

The idea makes all the difference (Weeds and Insects exist for the sake of the Rice Plants).

On-Farm Mycorrhizal Inoculation • USDA-ARS + Rodale Institute in PA • Compost + Vermiculite nursery

On-Farm Mycorrhizal Inoculation

USDA-ARS + Rodale Institute in PA

Compost + Vermiculite nursery mix

Container production Bahiagrass plant as host Commercial mycorrhizal inoculant

Colonize roots & increase mycorrhizal

inoculum throughout nursery mix

Use farm-grown MI-nursery mix in pots, planting beds, transplant holes

The Power of Leaf Mould
The Power of Leaf Mould
Components of Compost Extracts Soluble nutrients Liquid organic fertilizer Bioactive substances Plant growth-promoting

Components of Compost Extracts

Soluble nutrients Liquid organic fertilizer

Bioactive substances

Plant growth-promoting Humic, amino acids, hormones

Plant protecting

Phenols, antibiotics Beneficial microorganisms Foodweb diversity, biomass, antagonists Colonization & competition Microbial metabolites

Uses of Microbial Cultures & Plant Extracts To transform organic wastes into fertilizers To extract

Uses of Microbial Cultures &

Plant Extracts

To transform organic wastes into fertilizers To extract nutrients To promote plant growth To suppress insects & diseases

To control flies and odors