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Ravisankar P.1 and Prakash M.2

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Trichy Engineering College, Trichy
College of Engineering Guindy,
Anna University, Chennai - 60025, India.
KEYWORDS results in poor dimensional accuracy and surface
Microendmilling, Tool condition monitoring, quality [11]. They also observed that most of the tool
Accelerometer, Time and frequency domain, Discrete characteristics and its influence on the machining
Wavelet transformation. conditions are not well understood. Hence, there is a
need to monitor the tool condition in tool based micro
ABSTRACT machining processes.
Microendmilling is one of the tool based Literature survey indicates that the conditions of
micromachining processes used for manufacturing the tool are monitored using signals collected from
micro-moulds, micro-pins, micro-impellers, etc. In the different sensors such as acoustic emission,
this work, an attempt has been made to monitor the accelerometer, cutting force dynamometer, torque,
tool condition in microendmilling of aluminium alloy current, strain, power, temperature, etc. [12]. Among
(AA 1100) using vibration signals acquired with help these sensors accelerometer is found to reliable and
of accelerometer. Microendmilling is carried out with economical for tool condition monitoring [13].
coated carbide tool upto 1440 seconds. The tool wear Accelerometer is used to collect the vibration that
is correlated with surface roughness (Ra) and the arises due to the influence of tool [14]. The literature
acquired vibration signal. The signals are analyzed in survey related to monitoring condition of the tool
time domain, frequency domain and discrete wavelet using accelerometer is briefly presented here.
transformation (DWT) technique. From the study, it Haber et al. [15] Investigated tool wear
is observed that as the machining time progress the monitoring in milling using accelerometer and also
Ra is found to increasing with the increase in the tool other sensors such as dynamometer and acoustic
wear. There is also strong correlation between the emission sensor. The amplitude of the time domain
tool wear and the amplitude of the vibration signal in signals is found to be more sensitive to changes in the
the frequency domain. From the DWT analysis, tool condition irrespective of the sensor position.
among the decomposed signal in five different Jiang et al. [16] correlated vibration signals with tool
frequency band levels (D1 - D5) it is found that D1 wear during turning. The collected signals were
level (5-10 kHz) is maximum. This study will be analysed using power spectral density function in
useful for the manufacturers for monitoring the three different frequency namely upto 100 Hz, 117-
condition of the tool using vibration signal during 510 Hz and 510-1000 Hz. They have observed that
microendmilling of aluminium alloy. the vibration signals are sensitive to tool wear status.
Dan and Mathew [17] correlated vibration signal with
INTRODUCTION tool wear by developing a discrete modeling method
Tool based micromachining plays an important called data dependent system. They observed that the
role in the manufacturing of micro components in vibration signals are sensitive to tool wear and he
various fields such as aerospace, automotive, also observed that there are some variations in the
biomedical, optical, military, micro-electronics vibration signal within the specific frequency band
packaging industries, etc. It is the mechanical cutting regardless the changes in the cutting parameter.
of feature with geometrically defined cutting Dimla [18] analysed vibration signals collected from
edge/edges of size less than 1 mm and with no two accelerometers placed in x and y axes of the
constraints on the size of the components. The table during turning. The signal collected from the z-
different types of tool based micromachining axis is found to be more sensitive than that of the
processes are microturning, micromilling, signals acquired from x-axis.
microdrilling, etc. Microendmilling is one of the tool From the literature review, it is observed that
based micromachining processes which is carried out most of the researchers have carried out vibration
using microendmill of diameter normally between signal analysis in macro-regime machining and the
100 m to 500 m. This is used for manufacturing signals are mostly analyzed in time and frequency
complex 3D form with high precision and good domain for correlating with tool wear status. Few
surface quality such as micro-moulds, micro-pins, researches have carried out investigations using
micro-impellers, etc [1-10]. different sensors such as acoustic emission,
The quality of the microendmilled components accelerometer, force sensor, etc., in order to monitor
depend upon the condition (good or worn out) of the the tool condition in tool based micromachining
tool during the machining. During machining the tool processes [11, 18]. Some researchers made also
is subjected to large cutting forces, vibrations due to attempt to analyze the acquired vibration signal using
size effect, minimum chip thickness, etc. Researchers wavelet transform technique [19]. Lee et al. [19]
and manufacturers found difficult to detect tool wear, decomposed the collected acoustic emission signals
damages to the cutting edges, broken tool, etc. in different frequency bands such as D1 (500 - 1000
especially in micromachining environment, which kHz), D2 (250 - 500 kHz), D3 (125 - 250 kHz), D4
(62.5 - 125 kHz) and D5 (32.25 - 62.5 kHz), which is flank wear occurs. The average of the two flank
found to be very useful for monitoring the tool wears (VB1max and VB2 max) values considered as the
condition. Hence, in this study an attempt has been final flank wear (VB). The crater wear is not
made to monitor the tool condition in considered in this study because at low depth of cut
microendmilling using vibration signals collected of 50 m it is found to be insignificant. Ra is
from the accelerometer and the acquired signals are measured with surface roughness tester with 0.8 mm
processed in time domain, frequency domain and cut of length and 5.6 mm traverse length.
discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) technique.
The vibration signals were acquired using
EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS piezoelectric accelerometer (Make: Kistler, Model:
The experiments were carried out in 8702B) with frequency range from 1 to 10 kHz. The
MIKROTOOLS made DT110 integrated multi- vibration signals were acquired using an
process machine tool driven by a 100 W AC servo accelerometer mounted on a workpiece as shown in
drive motor with the speed range of up to 5000 rpm. Figure 1. Compatible coupler (Make: Kistler, Type:
The machine tool has maximum traverse range of 5110) is used to amplify the vibration signals
200 mm (X-axis) 100 mm (Y-axis) 100 mm (Z- obtained from the accelerometer. Thereafter, the
axis). The X-Y table has optical linear scale with amplified vibration signals are converted into a
resolution of 0.1 m (Figure 1). digital signal by using the BNC-2110 connector
Microendmilling is carried out at speed of 2800 through the DAQ card. The sampling frequency of
rpm, feed of 2 m/flute and depth of cut of 50 m. the vibration signal is 250 kHz. The collected data
Microendmilling is performed using two-flute from the accelerometer is transferred to the PC and
carbide endmill of 500 m diameter (Model: UMIE then were analyzed off-line in time domain,
3052; Make: Speed Tiger Precision Technology, frequency domain and DWT at regular interval of
Taiwan) coated with aluminum titanium nitride time (for every 240 s) to derive the necessary
(AlTiN) of 400 nm thickness. The workpiece material information about the condition of the tool (Table 1).
used in the work is aluminium alloy 1100 (AA 1100) The signal processing is carried out by using
and their chemical composition is Aluminium MATLAB.
99.22%, Copper 0.011%, silicon 0.014%, Iron
0.425% and Manganese 0.05%, which is measured
using optical emission spectroscopy. The experiments
are carried out at dry conditions. The experimental Domin
parameters are selected based on the results obtained ACCRMS Amplitude ant
Ex. Time VB Ra
during preliminary works. (V) (v) Freq.
no. (sec) (m) (m)
10-4 10-6 (Hz)
1 240 0.00 0.502 2.843 1.42 3906
2 480 2.50 0.274 2.877 1.52 3906
3 720 11.0 0.683 2.960 2.25 3906
4 960 12.5 1.000 4.096 3.19 3906
5 1200 16.5 0.427 3.871 4.11 3906
6 1440 27.5 0.283 2.677 5.34 3906


The following section deals with the analysis of
tool wear, Ra, signal processing in time domain,
frequency domain and DWT. Microendmilling has
been carried out up to 1440 sec (Table 1). Table 1
also shows the result of tool wear, Ra, root mean
FIGURE 1 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP square of the time domain signal (ACC RMS),
amplitude and dominant frequency of the acquired
The tool wear is measured after every 240 s of signal.
machining time using non-contact video measuring
system (Model: VMS 2010F, Make: Rational
Precision Instruments, Japan). It is found that mostly Analysis of tool wear and Ra
From Table 1, it is observed that as the x 10
machining time progress the tool wear is found to be 1
increasing. This may be due to the increased contact
between the tool and the workpiece. Tool wear up to 0.8
11 m (i.e. up to 720 s of machining time) can be
considered as initial wear region, while the tool wear

PSD (V /Hz)
from 11 m to 27.5 m can be considered as 0.6

progressive wear region. Tool wear results indicates it
X: 3906
follows similar trend as that of with R a (Table 1). This 0.4 Y: 3.319e-05
indicates that there is a strong correlation between the
tool wear and Ra.
Analysis of signals in time and frequency domain
Figure 2 shows typical time domain of the 0
acquired accelerometer signal. The results are 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
analyzed by calculating root mean square (RMS) Frequency (Hz)
value (Table 1). From the RMS values (Table 1), it is
observed that the time domain of the ACC RMS signal FIGURE 3 FREQUENCY DOMAIN OF THE
shows non-uniform trend from 1st second to 1440th ACCELEROMETER SIGNAL (1st sec)
Figure 3 shows the typical frequency domain of Analysis on wavelet transformation
the accelerometer signal. From the frequency
domain, it is observed that the amplitude of vibration As the time domain of the accelerometer signal
signal is found to be very low during initial period of does not provided much significant information on
machining and then increases as the machining time tool condition, DWT has been carried out. The
increases (Table 1). From Table 1, it is also observed acquired vibration signal is decomposed in to 5 levels
that the dominant frequency of vibration signal is of frequency bands namely D1 (5 - 10 kHz), D2 (2.5
found to be consistent at 3906 Hz during the entire - 5 kHz), D3 (1.25 - 2.5 kHz) D4 (0.625 - 1.25 kHz)
machining time. It is also observed that there is also and D5 (0 - 0.625 kHz). Typical decomposed signal
another peak found in the frequency domain of 7906 is shown in Figure 4. Table 2a indicates the amplitude
Hz, which needs further investigations. level and frequency bands of the decomposed signal.
From Table 2a, it is observed that the amplitude level
x 10 of frequency bands D4 (6 x 10-3 v) and D5 (1 x 10-3 v)
are very low comparatively with D1 (0.30 v), D2
(0.16 v) and D3 (0.13 v). In order to verify whether
1 the decomposed accelerometer signal is in the
respective frequency, an FFT analysis has been
Amplitude (V)


carried out. Typical FFT signal is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5 indicates that the FFT of decomposed signal
falls within the range.


0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
Time (sec)


SIGNAL (1st sec)
b) higher specific energy of the accelerometer signal is
Specific accelerometer
a) distributed within the decomposed signal at D1 level
Time ACCRMS (V)10-3 (5-10 kHz), while low frequency is distributed in the
(V2integrated/m3) D5 level (0-0.625 kHz). The occurrence of high
10-8 specific accelerometer energy distribution of D1 level
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 is may be due to the effective plastic deformation
[20]. Figure 6 indicate that there is increasing trend
240 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.04 from the 1st second to 900th seconds. Thereafter,
480 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.04 decrease trend of specific energy is observed.
720 0.01 0.06 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.05
960 0.28 0.16 0.12 0.10 0.01 0.58 0.19 0.10 0.07 0.02
1200 0.30 0.12 0.13 0.06 0.00 0.66 0.11 0.13 0.02 0.03
1440 0.13 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.01

x 10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-4 D1(5-10kHz)
x 10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-4 D2(2.5-5kHz)
Amplitude (V)

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
x 10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
x 10
-4 D4(0.625-1.25kHz) CONCLUSION
0 In this work, vibration signal analyses were
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 carried out to monitor the tool condition in
Time (sec) microendmilling of aluminium alloy. The signals are
analyzed in time domain, frequency domain and
wavelet transformation. DWT technique is used to
decompose the accelerometer signal. Ra and tool wear
SIGNAL (1ST sec) follows the uniform trend with respected to
machining time, while non-uniform trend is observed
in case of ACCRMS. The amplitude of the dominant
frequency of the accelerometer signal also shows
0 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10
uniform trend with respect to increase in the tool
0.1 wear. However, the dominant frequency is found to
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 be similar over the entire machining time. The
Amplitude (Volts Rms)

0.2 specific energy analysis of the decomposed signals
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
show that the decomposed level of D1 (5-10 kHz) is
found to be dominating among the other levels.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0.1 The authors would like to acknowledge the
0 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 financial support provided by the Department of
Frequency (kHz) Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of Science
and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi,
India to carry out this research work under the
FIGURE 5 FFT OF THE ACCELEROMETER sanctioned project titled Development of in-process
SIGNAL (1st sec) tool condition monitoring for mechanical micro-
machining using multiple sensors (DST Ref. No.
Specific accelerometer energy for the SR/S3/MERC-0004/2010 dated 21.09.2010).
decomposed signal D1-D5 were calculated (Table 2b
and Figure 6). From Figure 6, it is observed that the
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