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Occasional Papers on Antiquities, 5

Greek Vases
in the J. Paul Getty Museum Volume 4

MALIBU, CALIFORNIA 1989


M a r i o n True, Curator o f Antiquities
Christopher Hudson, Head o f Publications
Bndicte G i l m a n , Manuscript Editor
Andrea P. A . B e l l o l i and M a r y Holtman,
Editorial Coordination
Karen Schmidt, Production Manager
Elizabeth Burke Kahn, Production Coordinator
Patrick Dooley, Design Manager
Patricia Inglis, Designer
Thea Piegdon, Production Artist

A l l photographs by the Department o f Photographic Services,


The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , unless otherwise noted.

Typography by Andresen Typographies, Tucson


Printed by A l a n Lithograph Inc., Los Angeles

Greek Vases 4/1989

1989 The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m


17985 Pacific Coast Highway
M a l i b u , California 90265-5799
(213) 459-7611

M a i l i n g address:
P.O. B o x 2112
Santa Monica, C A 90406

I S B N 0-89236-058-5

Cover: White lekythos attributed to Douris. Left side. M a l i b u ,


The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 84. AE.770.

Library o f Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


(Revised for vol. 4)

Greek vases in the J. Paul Getty M u s e u m .

(Occasional papers on antiquities; 1, 4)


English and German.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Vases, Greek. 2. Vase-painting, GreekThemes,
motives. 3. Vases, Etruscan. 4. Vase-painting,
EtruscanThemes, motives. 5. VasesCalifornia
M a l i b u . 6. J. Paul Getty M u s e u m . I. J. Paul Getty
M u s e u m . II. Series: Occasional papers on antiquities;
1, etc.
NK4623.M37J24 1983 738.3 ' 82 ' 0938074019493 82-49024
I S B N 0-89236-058-5 (pbk. : v. 1)
Contents
The Minotaur in Malibu? 5
William R. Biers

T w o B l a c k - f i g u r e N e c k - A m p h o r a e i n the J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m : 11
P r o b l e m s o f W o r k s h o p and Iconography
H A. Shapiro

Giants at the G e t t y A g a i n 33
Mary B. Moore

East G r e e k Influences i n S i x t h - C e n t u r y A t t i c V a s e - P a i n t i n g 41
and S o m e L a c o n i a n Trails
B. B. Shefton

O d d i t i e s o f V e r y E a r l y R e d - f i g u r e and a N e w F r a g m e n t at the G e t t y 73
Beth Cohen

Phintias i n M a l i b u u n d Karlsruhe 83
Carina Weift

Panathenaic A m p h o r a e by the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter 95


Susan B. Matheson

Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 113


D. C Kurtz

R h y t a and K a n t h a r o i i n G r e e k R i t u a l 131
Herbert Hoffmann

O r v i e t o Vases i n the G e t t y M u s e u m 167


5. Schwarz

Graffites t r u s q u e s au J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m 181
Jacques Heurgon
This page intentionally left blank
The Minotaur in Malibu?
William R. Biers

A unique plastic vase only slightly over 10 centimeters neglected to do the same over the right eye (figs. Ide).
high and in the form of a bust is in the collections of The pupils of the eyes are in relief, and black relief lines
the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu. Instead of a human form the contour of the eyes themselves.
head, a bulls head forms the upper portion of the vessel The molded vase is decorated in vase-painting tech
(figs, lae). The bull is portrayed wearing an elabo nique with both added color and incision. The latter is
rately decorated garmenta chiton or short tunicand used for the rendering of the forelock hair, the nostrils,
should, then, presumably be identified as the Minotaur. the mouth, and a sixteen-pointed star design around
The vase was first brought to public notice in 1974, the filling hole on the lip of the mouth. The technique 4

when it was in a private collection in Switzerland. It is 1


of incision on the forehead is distinctive: a fan-shaped
complete and well preserved, although with some res area made up of a net of narrow, largely vertical incisions,
torations. As with many plastic vessels of the seventh
2
many in lozenge-shaped enclosures.
and sixth centuries B.C., it was made in a two-piece The animal's hide and the garment are reserved in the
mold comprising back and front, with the ears, horns, reddish color of the clay. The underside of the bust is
and the vessels mouth added later. The overall form is decorated with a double twelve-petaled rosette design
similar to the numerous female bust-vases, traditionally executed in black glaze-paint, applied more thickly for
said to come from Rhodes (and certainly at home in the one of the designs (fig. 1c). White is used for the white
general area of East Greece), in which the vase is shaped of the eyes (the pupils are black), and traces of added red
like a woman's head and shoulders down to below the can still be seen on the interior of the ears and in the
level of the breasts, but often without indication of nostrils. Red dots are painted between each point of the
arms. The vase appears almost cylindrical when seen
3
incised star design around the filling hole, and the edge
from the side, with the bulls head and neck massive in of the lip is similarly decorated with red dots. The gar
proportion to the lower part of the bust. Some of the ment is decorated with a black strip down each side,
thickness of the head is explained by the placement of perhaps representing decorative bands sewn over the
the aryballos-type mouth, which is set relatively low seams and along the neckline (figs. Ide). The strip at
5

behind the horns, so that it is hardly visible from the the throat is bordered by a line of black dots and over-
front (figs, lab). The hairy pelt on the neck is molded painted with a white meander with red dots in each
in thick, rounded ridges, a technique similar to the ren meander square. The black strip down the creatures
dering of the hair on female bust-vases. The coroplast right side is decorated with the same design, only bor
placed three raised ridges above the bulls left eye but dered on both sides by black dots (fig. Id). The left side

I w o u l d like to thank b o t h M a r i o n T r u e o f the J. Paul Getty i n A r t and Literature for the D e v e l o p m e n t o f the M y t h ,
M u s e u m for permission and encouragement t o p u b l i s h t h i s vase a n d 7 0 0 - 4 0 0 B . C . " P h . D . diss., B r y n M a w r , 1972 ( A n n A r
p a r t i c u l a r l y the staff o f the M u s e u m f o r a l l o w i n g m e t o s t u d y the vase b o r , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1972).
d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r l y b u s y p e r i o d . T h e clear o b s e r v a t i o n s o f K a r e n 1. H . B l o e s c h , e d . . Das Tier in der An tike: 400 Werke agyptischer,
M a n c h e s t e r saved m e f r o m m a n y b l u n d e r s . griechischer, etruskischer und romischer Kunst aus privatem und qffentlichem
Abbreviations Besitz ( Z u r i c h , 1974), p. 46, n o . 276, p i . 46.
Brommer: F. B r o m m e r , Theseus: Die Taten des griechischen Helden in 2 . M a l i b u , T h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m , 8 3 . A E . 2 1 3 , g i f t o f L e o n
der antiken Kunst und Literatur ( D a r m s t a d t , 1982). L e v y . H e i g h t : 10.4 c m , d i m e n s i o n s at base 5 x 4 c m . F a b r i c 5 Y R 5 / 8
Higgins: R . A . H i g g i n s , Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Depart ( y e l l o w i s h red) ( M u n s e i l S o i l C o l o r C h a r t s , 1975 e d i t i o n , read b y ar
ment of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, vol. t i f i c i a l l i g h t ) , s l i g h t l y m i c a c e o u s . C r a c k s d o w n t h e r i g h t a n d left sides,
2 ( L o n d o n , 1959). p e r h a p s a l o n g m o l d l i n e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s t o r a t i o n has b e e n c a r r i e d
Robertson: C . M . R o b e r t s o n , " A G r o u p o f Plastic Vases," JHS 58 o u t o n b o t h h o r n s , t h e vessel's m o u t h , a n d o n p o r t i o n s o f t h e b o d y .
(1938), p p . 4 1 - 5 0 . 3. F o r these vases, see VPR, p p . 3149.
VPR: J. D u c a t , Les pases plastiques rhodiens archaiques en terre 4 . T h e f o r m o f t h i s d e s i g n , b u t w i t h a n i n e - p o i n t e d star, is i l l u s
cuite. B i b l i o t h e q u e des Ecoles franchises d ' A t h e n e s et de t r a t e d i n H i g g i n s , p. 8, f i g . 11.
R o m e , fasc. 209 (Paris, 1966). 5. H i g g i n s , p. 16.
Young: E. R. Y o u n g , " T h e Slaying o f the M i n o t a u r . Evidence
6 Biers

Figure a. Bull-headed plastic vase. Front. Malibu, The Figure lb. Back o f bull-headed vase, figure l a .
J. Paul Getty Museum, 83.AE.213.

o f the bust, however, has traces o f a w h i t e z i g z a g


painted o n the black strip, w i t h red dots i n each o f the
interstices (fig. l e ) . T h i s i m b a l a n c e i n the d e c o r a t i o n is
o d d and parallels the c o n t r a s t i n g treatment o f the areas
above the r i g h t and left eyes o f the beast.
O v e r fifty years ago M a r t i n R o b e r t s o n assembled a
g r o u p o f plastic vases that were alike i n fabric and
m e t h o d o f decoration. T h i s "Robertsons G r o u p , " as it is
called, has n o t o n l y h e l d together t h r o u g h o u t the years
but has g r o w n b y a n u m b e r o f n e w m e m b e r s . 6
Charac
teristic o f the vases o f the g r o u p is a r e d d i s h w e l l -
prepared clay, black glaze-paint o f g o o d quality, and the
use o f dots and strokes o f black glaze-paint i n the deco
ration. Hansjrg Bloesch has already i d e n t i f i e d the
G e t t y bull-vase as b e l o n g i n g to R o b e r t s o n s G r o u p o n
the basis o f these c r i t e r i a , but a d d i t i o n a l evidence can
7

be cited to solidify the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . A duck-vase i n


N e w Y o r k (fig. 2), w h i c h belongs to the group, exhibits
exactly the same style o f i n c i s i o n as seen o n the head o f
the bull-vase i n M a l i b u . In the N e w Y o r k e x a m p l e the
8

incisions are used to indicate leg feathers, but the s i m -

Figure ic. Underside o f bull-headed vase, figure l a . 6. Robertson, pp. 4150. For recent additions to the duck-vases in
the Robertsons Group, see W. R. Biers, " T h e D o z i n g Duck: A Rare
Plastic Vase," Muse 18 (1984), pp. 26-34.
7. See above (note 1).
The Minotaur in Malibu? 7

Figure id. Right side of bull-headed vase, figure l a . Figure te. Left side o f bull-headed vase, figure l a .

i l a r i t y i n technique is such that the t w o vases m i g h t be


considered as h a v i n g been decorated b y the same artist.
M o r e o v e r , the rosette design o n the underside o f the
M a l i b u figure (fig. l c ) is exactly paralleled by the same
design i n the same p o s i t i o n o n a boar's head that also
belongs to the g r o u p . T h e habit o f painting a design o n
9

the flat resting surface o f a protome or bust-shaped plas


tic vase is c o m m o n i n R o b e r t s o n s G r o u p .
A c o n n e c t i o n can also be m a d e b e t w e e n the G e t t y
vase and the large group o f female bust-vases whose hair
is rendered i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r to that o f the w r i n k l e d
h i d e o f the G e t t y b u l l . East G r e e k plastic vases i n the
f o r m o f female busts have been d i v i d e d by Jean D u c a t
i n t o several groups, and his G r o u p C 1 is closest to o u r
Figure 2. East Greek duck-vase. N e w York, The Metro
vase i n the shape o f the bust and the treatment o f the
politan M u s e u m o f A r t 13.225.11, Rogers
hair. 10
T h e r e is some v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n this g r o u p i n the
Fund, 1913. Photo, courtesy The M e t r o
treatment o f the bust p o r t i o n o f the vase: O f t e n a h i m a - politan M u s e u m o f Art.
t i o n is s h o w n w o r n over the usual c h i t o n , and i n m a n y
cases either one or t w o arms are indicated. M o s t o f these
vases b e l o n g to the " G o r g o n i a n C l a s s " o f plastic vases,
f o l l o w i n g a classification established i n a p i o n e e r i n g

8. N e w York, Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t , 13.225.11, Rogers (Winterthur, 1964), pi. 5, no. 16b. A boar's head i n W r z b u r g , also
Fund, 1913. Robertson, p. 42, no. 6a. Thanks go to Joan Mertens for belonging to Robertsons Group, has a similar but slightly more elabo
permission to illustrate this vase. rate design on its base: Robertson, pl. V.5.
9. VPR, p. 149, no. 2; H . Bloesch, Antike Kleinkunst in Winterthur 10. VPR, Sries "Normales," pp. 33-37.
8 Biers

o f the M a l i b u vase are o m i t t e d .


N o other plastic vases i n the f o r m o f a bull's bust are
k n o w n i n R o b e r t s o n s G r o u p . D u c a t lists o n l y five b u l l -
vases o f this type overall, t w o o f w h i c h have a s i m p l e
f i l l i n g hole i n the forehead. T h e r e m a i n i n g three have
the appropriate aryballos m o u t h but appear to differ s i g
nificantly i n its placement (between the horns) and i n
p r o p o r t i o n s and q u a l i t y . 14

The location of the workshop that produced


Robertson's G r o u p o f plastic vases has always been a
puzzle. R o b e r t s o n first suggested a c i t y i n E t r u r i a u n d e r
G r e e k influence but later began to q u e s t i o n an Italian
a t t r i b u t i o n o n the basis o f finds f r o m L i n d o s . 1 5
R. A .
H i g g i n s suggested an I o n i a n c i t y i n contact w i t h L y d i a ,
and D u c a t argued strongly for a R h o d i a n origin. 1 6

However, the R h o d i a n o r i g i n o f m a n y East Greek plastic


vases has been challenged, and those o f Robertson's
G r o u p are no exception. Technical studies, o n l y recently
p u b l i s h e d , have suggested that at least t w o vases o f the
g r o u p are l i k e l y to have been m a d e i n M i l e t o s . 1 7
It h a d
also p r e v i o u s l y been reported that analysis h a d tenta
tively assigned the G o r g o n i a n G r o u p o f plastic vases to
Ephesos. 18
Our bull-vase has parallels to both the
Figure 3. Female bust-vase. Baltimore, Walters A r t
G o r g o n i a n and the Pomegranate groups, as has been
Gallery, 48.2229. Photo, courtesy Walters A r t
Gallery. illustrated, and D u c a t has i n fact p o i n t e d out that the
vases o f R o b e r t s o n s G r o u p represent a synthesis o f the
characteristics o f b o t h these g r o u p s . 19

w o r k b y M . I. M a x i m o v a i n 1927. 11
T h e s e vases gener T h e date o f Robertson's G r o u p is placed by D u c a t i n
ally have a dark fabric and are decorated w i t h added red the p e r i o d 600580 B . C . H e assigns a s i m i l a r date to the
and white. O n l y t w o vases i n Ducat's classification show female bust-vases o f the Pomegranate G r o u p that s h o w
an alternative techniqueMaximova s "Pomegranate s i m i l a r i t i e s to the bull-vase i n the treatment o f the
C l a s s , " w h i c h has a w h i t i s h fabric and uses i n c i s i o n to a c h i t o n , and Ducat's c h r o n o l o g y has been u p h e l d i n a
greater d e g r e e a n d these s h o w the closest parallel to
12
separate study o f the c h r o n o l o g y o f the female bust-
the M a l i b u vase i n the treatment o f the borders o f the vases b y O t f r i e d v o n V a c a n o . 20

c h i t o n . T h e bust vase i n the Walters A r t G a l l e r y (fig. 3) A b u l l - h e a d e d figure depicted w e a r i n g w h a t appears


illustrates one o f t h e s e . 13
T h e decoration at the throat to be a chiton immediately brings to m i n d the M i n o t a u r ,
a n d at the side seam is almost i d e n t i c a l , except that the w h o s e appearance is k n o w n f r o m the m a n y representa
meander is i n c i s e d rather than painted, and the red dots tions o f his struggle w i t h T h e s e u s . 21
T h e earliest repre-

11. M . M a x i m o v a , Les vases plastiques dans l'antiquit, vol. 1, 18. R. H . Higgins, "Some East Greek Plastic Vases and Figurines,"
M . Carsow, trans. (Paris, 1927), pp. 174-175. Acta of the XI International Congress of Classical Archaeology (London,
12. For the Pomegranate Class, see M a x i m o v a (note 11), p. 173. For 1979), pp. 204-205.
the two examples, VPR, p. 36, e, nos. 29, 30. Helmeted head-vases 19. VPR, p. 167.
also exist i n both techniques, see W. R. Biers, " A Helmeted Ionian," 20. For the dating o f Robertsons Group, see VPR, pp. 159160; for
JWalt 42-43 (1984-1985), pp. 2 - 5 . the female busts, see pp. 4446, 168 and O. von Vacano, " Z u r C h r o
13. Baltimore, Walters A r t Gallery, 48.2229. JWalt 24 (1961), nologie der rhodischen Bstenvasen," BJb 176 (1976), p. 38 (B I a and
pp. 42-44, figs. 4 - 5 ; VPR, p. 36, no. 30. I w o u l d like to thank Ellen b), p. 43.
Reeder Williams for permission to illustrate this vase. 21. A discussion o f the representations o f this Theseus myth i n art
14. VPR, p. 104, types G and H . Plastic vases i n the form o f bull and o f the various bull-headed men i n Greek art can be found i n
protomes, rather than busts, are also k n o w n from East Greece, VPR, Young. See also Brommer, pp. 3564.
pp. 102-103. 22. Brommer, pi. 26.
15. Robertson, pp. 4550, and idem, i n same volume, p. 255. 23. For example, see the short garment worn by the M i n o t a u r on
16. Higgins, p. 32; VPR, pp. 158-160. the O l y m p i a shield band reliefs: E . Kunze, Archaische Schildbander.
17. R. E . Jones, Greek and Cypriote Pottery: A Review of Scientific Olympische Forschungen, vol. 2 (Berlin, 1950), pp. 129132. For i l
Studies (Athens, 1986), pp. 671-673. lustrations o f the major examples: Brommer, p. 41, figs. 5af.
The Minotaur in Malibu? 9

sentation o f the story still seems to be that o n a Cycladic


relief-amphora i n B a s e l , dated to the second or t h i r d
quarter o f the seventh century, i n w h i c h males and
females i n a l i n e b r a n d i s h stones at a hoofed, h o r s e l i k e
creature, w h o s e head is unfortunately b r o k e n away.
Traces o f his l o c k s are preserved, however, and these
l o o k h u m a n , l e a d i n g m o s t scholars to c o n c l u d e that this
is a representation o f the M i n o t a u r . 2 2
I f this o d d scene
does represent the Theseus and M i n o t a u r story, evi
dently the M i n o t a u r ' s i c o n o g r a p h y h a d not yet been es
tablished when the relief-amphora was made. His
characteristic human-bodied, bull-headed shape does ap
pear before the s i x t h century, and certainly b y the s i x t h
century he is often depicted w e a r i n g a short, belted
c h i t o n , w h o s e edges are s o m e t i m e s indicated b y double
lines, perhaps suggesting decoration. 23
The struggle
w i t h Theseus becomes e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r i n A t t i c art i n
Figure 4. "Theseus and the Minotaur." Composite
the s i x t h c e n t u r y but is c o m p a r a t i v e l y rare e l s e w h e r e . 24

drawing by Marian H . Welker. Drawing cour


E x a m p l e s f r o m East Greece are difficult to f i n d i n the tesy Gordion Excavations, University M u
s i x t h century, a l t h o u g h there m a y p o s s i b l y have been an seum, University o f Pennsylvania.
A r c h a i c statuary g r o u p o f a h u m a n g r a p p l i n g w i t h a
b u l l - h e a d e d i n d i v i d u a l , to j u d g e f r o m a h a n d g r a s p i n g a short-sleeved garment, thus relating h i m b o t h to the
h o r n found o n S a m o s . 25
Farther to the east, architectural m a i n l a n d representations o f dressed monsters and to the
terracottas f r o m Sardis and G o r d i o n d e p i c t i n g a h u m a n East G r e e k plastic vase i n M a l i b u .
f i g h t i n g a b u l l - h e a d e d creature have generally been de I f there is r o o m for d o u b t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f
scribed as representations o f Theseus and the M i n o t a u r . scenes o f humans fighting bull-headed monsters, the sit
H o w e v e r , G e o r g e H a n f m a n n has argued that not a l l i l uation is even more difficult w h e n it comes to interpret
lustrations o f b u l l - m e n f i g h t i n g heroes need be specific i n g the representation o f a single b u l l - h e a d e d creature.
representations o f the Theseus m y t h , and he has s u g T h e r e are a n u m b e r o f these i n early G r e e k art, b e g i n
gested that a l o c a l l e g e n d is b e i n g illustrated, perhaps n i n g i n the e i g h t h century and c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h the
w i t h the use o f G r e e k or L y d i a n (in the case o f the s i x t h century i n a variety o f m e d i a and s t y l e s . 28
Gener
G o r d i o n scene) i c o n o g r a p h i e m o d e l s . 26 The fragments ally, the farther away the representation is i n t i m e and
f r o m G o r d i o n , m o s t l i k e l y o f the second h a l f o f the space f r o m the flowering o f the m y t h i n s i x t h - c e n t u r y
s i x t h century, h o l d some interest i n relationship to the A t t i c a , the less l i k e l y scholars are to i d e n t i f y the single
G e t t y vase. A c o m p o s i t e d r a w i n g o f the scene (fig. 4 ) 2 7 b u l l - m a n as the M i n o t a u r . T h e s e creatures are generally
shows a bearded and h e l m e t e d " T h e s e u s " grasping the considered b y m o s t students to be Mischwesen and
h o r n o f the " M i n o t a u r " w i t h one h a n d w h i l e stabbing classed w i t h other h y b r i d monsters that s h o w u p i n
h i m w i t h a c r u d e l y d r a w n s w o r d . T h e b u l l - m a n wears a Archaic and earlier art. 29
E v e n i n sixth-century A t t i c art,

24. According to Brommer, there are more than 320 Attic black- often represented in the sixth century. For discussions and illustrations
figure paintings on this theme alone. See his comments i n "Herakles o f these architectural terracottas, see A . A k e r s t r m , Die architek-
und Theseus auf Vasen i n M a l i b u , " Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty tonischen Terrakotten Kleinasiens (Lund, 1966), p. 70, pi. 37 (Sardis frag
Museum 2. Occasional Papers on Antiquities, 3 (Malibu, 1985), ment); pp. 145146, pis. 7679. Akerstrm's pi. 79 is figure 4 here.
pp. 183-228. 27. Thanks go to Ellen Kohler for permission to illustrate the com
25. Suggested by B . Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen posite drawing by Marian H . Welker.
Zeit und des Strengen Stils. Samos, vol. 11 (Bonn, 1974), pp. 130135, 28. Young, pp. 8591 treats all these various bull-men.
no. 64. 29. Some o f the earliest bull-men appear i n the eighth century as
26. See G. M . A . Hanfmann, "Lydiaka I. M i n o t a u r ? " HSCP 63 bronze figurines associated w i t h tripods. There are also separate male
(1958), pp. 6568. Young, pp. 114115 apparently accepts that these are figures, leading to the speculation that there may have been pairs o f
representations o f the Theseus and M i n o t a u r battle. John Boardman s figures representing Theseus and his opponent. This o f course touches
recent comment, "We hardly need reminding that all men w i t h a lion on the larger question o f whether or not specific myths were repre
need not be Herakles" ("Image and Politics in Sixth Century Athens," sented i n the art o f the Geometric period. See the comments o f H . - V .
in H . A . G. Brijder, ed., Ancient Greek and Related Pottery [Amsterdam, Hermann, "Werksttten geometrischer Bronzeplastik," Jdl 79 (1964),
1984], p. 241) can equally be taken to apply to the popular myth o f pp. 57-59 n. 159; pp. 64-65. Young, pp. 85-86.
Theseus and the Minotaur, especially outside Attica, where it was so
10 Biers

can be used for ducks, swans, owls, or cranes. 31


A fur
ther example o f this practice can be seen i n a small n u m
ber o f East G r e e k male bust-vases that c o m b i n e a
m u s t a c h i o e d head w i t h a female bust. F i g u r e 5 shows
such an e x a m p l e i n the B r i t i s h M u s e u m . A n o t h e r i n
C a m b r i d g e is s i m p l y a female bust w i t h a mustache
painted on, and there is a helmeted head c o m b i n e d w i t h
a female bust i n N e w York. These o d d combinations are
often described as j o k e s . 32
C o u l d the bull-headed bust i n
M a l i b u be seen s i m p l y as an artist's fancy, a unique crea
t i o n designed to amuse, perhaps w i t h the u n e v e n d e c o
r a t i o n as a studied part o f the w i t ?
I f the plastic vase i n M a l i b u is a representation o f the
M i n o t a u r , then one m i g h t expect to be able to identify a
Theseus a m o n g c o n t e m p o r a r y East G r e e k plastic vases.
T h e r e is n o t h i n g d i s t i n c t i v e for Theseus a m o n g the n u
merous helmeted-head vases, 33
a n d the hero is generally
s h o w n bareheaded, at least i n A t t i c art. T h e o d d m a l e
bust-vases just mentioned, w i t h their strange m i x t u r e o f
male and female attributes, do not appear to be g o o d
candidates for the y o u n g Theseus either.
It seems clear that it is difficult to i d e n t i f y Theseus at
all i n A r c h a i c East G r e e k art. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , it is e x
Figure 5. Male bust-vase. London, British Museum, t r e m e l y difficult to m a k e any definite statement or to
47.86.36. Photo, courtesy Trustees o f the c o m e to any specific c o n c l u s i o n o n a subject so d i m l y
British M u s e u m . perceived. T h e b u l l - h e a d e d plastic vase i n M a l i b u re
mains u n i q u e . D o e s it represent the w h i m o f its maker,
it is very difficult to find a representation o f the M i n o t a u r or a m y t h o l o g i c a l m o n s t e r i m m e d i a t e l y recognizable to
b y h i m s e l f ; he seems to need Theseus to e x i s t . 30
the buyer, even w i t h o u t its famous opponent, or does it
A bull's head o n w h a t appears to be a woman's bust represent some other strange creature, lost to us i n the
can also be seen as an o d d c o m b i n a t i o n o f attributes not mists o f time? It is, after a l l , a p r o d u c t o f a r i c h , A r c h a i c
u n k n o w n i n plastic vases, w h e r e the technique a l l o w s G r e e k c i v i l i z a t i o n and as such is perhaps best t h o u g h t
such e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b y c o m b i n i n g m o l d e d parts w i t h o f as representing the famous M i n o t a u r f r o m one o f the
hand-made or w h e e l - m a d e attributes. Among Corin most popular Greek myths o f antiquity O n e o f the great
t h i a n plastic vases, for example, the same s t o c k y b i r d cities o f A s i a M i n o r m a y yet p r o d u c e a recognizable
b o d y can be used for birds, sirens, or strange l i o n - Theseus to go w i t h the " M i n o t a u r " i n M a l i b u .
headed creatures by simply substituting different
m o l d e d heads. In R o b e r t s o n s G r o u p a basic b i r d b o d y University o f Missouri, Columbia

30. Brommer's exhaustive lists o f representations o f Theseus and Society for the Promotion o f Hellenic Studies and the Managing
the M i n o t a u r show only a few examples o f the monster represented Committee o f the British School o f Archaeology at Athens, 1961),
without his opponent. Where he is shown alone, on the lips o f sixth- p. 50, no. 17, fig. 8. For the N e w York helmeted head, see VPR,
century Attic cups, for instance, he is used as a decorative element and pp. 4748, pl. VII.13. For an opposite view to the possibility o f
the myth is implied: F. Brommer, Vasenlisten zur griechischen Helden- potters' jokes, see E . Walter-Karydi, " D i e Themen der ostionischen
sage, 3rd ed. (Marburg, 1973), pp. 226243; idem, Denkmalerlisten zur figrlichen Salbgefsse," MJb 36 (1985), pp. 716. This small group o f
griechischen Heldensage, vol. 2 (Marburg, 1974), pp. 1922; Brommer, male busts is not consistent within itself as to treatment o f hair, which
pp. 35-64. is the criterion often used for identification, nor as to representation o f
31. For combinations i n Corinthian plastics: J. Ducat, "Les vases breasts. These inconsistencies make it unlikely that they represent any
plastiques corinthiens," BCH 87 (1963), p. 451, figs. 2225. For c o m one individual, such as Theseus. Ducat suggested (VPR, p. 48) that
binations i n Robertsons Group, Biers (note 6), p. 34 n. 15. perhaps the modeler o f the N e w York helmeted vase was attempting
32. VPR, pp. 3739 for the group o f male vases. O u r illustration is to represent an Amazon, and a painter mistakenly added a mustache to
British M u s e u m 47.86.36, Higgins, no. 1613. I w o u l d like to thank go w i t h the helmet. It would seem that these vases could do w i t h
Susan Walker for permission to publish this photo. For the Cambridge more study.
vase, see R. V. Nicholls, "Recent Additions at the Fitzwilliam M u 33. VPR, pp. 7-29.
seum, Cambridge," Archaeological Reports for 1961-1962 (Council o f the
ST MLXCXXT] Tippto

Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae in the J. Paul Getty


Museum: Problems of Workshop and Iconography
H. A. Shapiro

The two vases that f o r m the subject o f this paper first p u b l i c a t i o n , the neck-amphorae went on v i e w i n
p r o b a b l y have s t o o d side by side for m o r e t h a n t w o and New York, and i n the a c c o m p a n y i n g checklist to the
a h a l f m i l l e n n i a (figs, lad, 2ad). T h e y w e r e said to e x h i b i t i o n they were l i s t e d s i m p l y u n d e r " A t t i c Black-
have been f o u n d together w h e n they entered the collec- figure." 3
A few years later S c h a u e n b u r g again discussed
t i o n o f M r . and M r s . Walter Bareiss, and they r e m a i n and i l l u s t r a t e d the t w o vases i n the c o n t e x t o f a b r o a d e r
together today i n the J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m . 1
Quite d i s c u s s i o n o f T y r r h e n i a n and other A t t i c vases. In 4
1976,
possibly, they also traveled together i n a n t i q u i t y from however, Dietrich von Bothmer c l a i m e d the Kyknos
Greece to Italy, w h e r e they w e r e f o u n d , for they surely amphora for a Euboean workshop, without further
come from the same w o r k s h o p , and several scholars c o m m e n t and w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g its c o m p a n i o n . 5
By
have considered t h e m the w o r k o f a single artist. B u t the the t i m e a selected catalogue o f the Bareiss c o l l e c t i o n
p r o b l e m o f i d e n t i f y i n g that w o r k s h o p has so far pro- was published i n 1983, b o t h amphorae were attributed to
duced no c o m m u n i t y o f o p i n i o n . Euboea and to the same hand.6 The attribution of the
In their first p u b l i c a t i o n , b y K o n r a d Schauenburg, 2
Kyknos a m p h o r a to E u b o e a was apparently accepted
the two amphorae were assigned to the Tyrrhenian by Frank Brommer,7 and most recently the Judgment
G r o u p , an A t t i c w o r k s h o p m a k i n g vases for e x p o r t to a m p h o r a was e x h i b i t e d i n A t l a n t a and catalogued as
E t r u r i a f r o m the s e c o n d quarter u n t i l s o m e t i m e after Euboean. 8
A l l p u b l i c a t i o n s have suggested a date of
the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h century. In the year after t h e i r 570-560 B.C.

M y thanks are due first to M a r i o n True (Malibu), who encouraged 1. M a l i b u 86.AE.53 (formerly S 80.AE.253) and 86.AE.52 (for-
me to pursue my interest i n the two vases discussed here and provided merly S 80.AE.303). In this paper, the latter w i l l be referred to for the
excellent photographs. Robert G u y (Princeton) made several helpful sake o f brevity as the Judgment amphora (after the principal scene on
comments on an earlier draft, and Dietrich von Bothmer (New York) Side A , the Judgment o f Paris), the former as the Kyknos amphora
kindly responded to my queries, but neither is responsible for the (after the scene o f the combat o f Herakles and Kyknos). Dimensions
views presented here. M y greatest debt is to Michalis Tiverios (Sa- are given i n Greek Vases: Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection, Malibu,
lonika), who literally watched this paper being written and generously The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 1983 (catalogue by J. Frel and M . True),
shared his enormous knowledge o f Attic black-figure i n daily conver- no. 4 (the Judgment amphora) and checklist no. 19 (the Kyknos am-
sations. H e is responsible for much that is right in this, but not for the phora). The Judgment amphora is also no. 18 i n the checklist.
mistakes. Finally, I wish to thank the Alexander von H u m b o l d t F o u n - 2. Weltkunst aus Privatbesitz, Cologne, Kunsthalle, 1968, A 12
dation (Bonn) for making possible m y stay i n M u n i c h during which (Judgment amphora) and A 13 (Kyknos amphora) (catalogue edited by
this paper was written. H . May).
Abbreviations 3. Greek Vases and Modern Drawings from the Collection of Mr. and
Boardman, BSA 1952: J. Boardman, "Pottery from Eretria," BSA Mrs. W Bareiss, N e w York, Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art, 1969, no. 14
47 (1952), pp. 1-48. (Kyknos amphora) and no. 15 (Judgment amphora) (catalogue by
Bothmer, MMAf 1969: D . v o n Bothmer, "Euboean Black-figure D. von Bothmer and J. Bean).
in New York," MMAf 2 (1969), 4. Schauenburg, 1973, p. 22, figs. 2223 (Judgment amphora) and
pp. 27-44. _ pp. 2627, figs. 3336 (Kyknos amphora).
CancianiJi/71980: F. Canciani, " E i n e neue A m p h o r a aus 5. Review o f H . M o m m s e n , Der Affecter, i n AfA 80 (1976),
V u l c i und das Problem der pseudochal- p. 436.
kidischen Vasen,"Jdl 95 (1980), pp. 140-162. 6. Bareiss (note 1).
Rumpf, CV: A . Rumpf, Chalkidische Vasen (Berlin and 7. F. Brommer, "Herakles und Theseus auf Vasen i n M a l i b u , "
Leipzig, 1927). Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 2. Occasional Papers on A n t i q -
Schauenburg, 1973: K . Schauenburg, "Parisurteil und Nessos- uity, 3 (1985), p. 205, fig. 26. The photo caption identifies the vase as
abenteuer auf attischen Vasen hochar- "Euboeisch," but there is no discussion o f the attribution i n the text.
chaischer Z e i t , " Aachener Kunstblatter 44 8. Poets and Heroes: Scenes of the Trojan War, Atlanta, E m o r y U n i -
(1973), pp. 15-42. versity M u s e u m o f A r t and Archaeology, 1986, no. 2 (catalogue by
Tiverios, Lydos: M . A . Tiverios, O Auos KOL T ep7o TOTJ B. Wescoat).
(Athens, 1976).
12 Shapiro

Figure la. Neck-amphora. Side A : Combat o f Herakles and Kyknos. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 86.AE.53.
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphlore 13

Figure lb. Side B o f figure l a . Figure lc. Side B / A o f figure l a .

M u c h progress has been made i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g


o f p o t t e r y made i n E r e t r i a , o n E u b o e a , i n recent years,
and o u r v i e w o f the " T y r r h e n i a n " G r o u p has been re
fined, t h r o u g h the painter attributions o f D i e t r i c h v o n
Bothmer, 9
and m o d i f i e d , especially b y the recent w o r k
of Thomas H . Carpenter. 10
It is o u r purpose here to
reopen the q u e s t i o n o f the G e t t y n e c k - a m p h o r a e and to
argue that they are i n d e e d A t t i c , but n o t o f the T y r r
h e n i a n G r o u p . Rather, they c o m e f r o m a w o r k s h o p that
shared m a n y characteristics w i t h the T y r r h e n i a n s , but
h a d several d i s t i n c t i v e artistic personalities o f its o w n :
the w o r k s h o p o f L y d o s . W e m a y start w i t h a close de
scription o f the t w o vases, b e g i n n i n g w i t h those features
c o m m o n to b o t h .

SHAPE A N D O R N A M E N T
T h e shapes o f the t w o n e c k - a m p h o r a e are v i r t u a l l y
identical: o v o i d , w i t h the center o f g r a v i t y f a l l i n g w e l l

9. D. von Bothmer, " T h e Painters of'Tyrrhenian Vases," AJA 48


(1944), pp. 161-170; " S i x Hydriai," AntK 12 (1969). Cf. also
K . Schauenburg, " Z w e i neue Tyrrhenische A m p h o r e n , " A A, 1962,
pp. 58-70.
10. " O n the Dating o f the Tyrrhenian Group," OJA 2 (1983),
pp. 279293; " T h e Tyrrhenian Group: Problems o f Provenance," OJA
3 (1984), pp. 45-56. Figure Id. Side A / B o f figure l a .
14 Shapiro

Figure 2a. Neck-amphora. Side A : Judgment o f Paris. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 86.AE.52.
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 15

Figure 2b. Side B o f figure 2a. Figure 2c. Side B / A o f figure 2a.

b e l o w the handle roots, g i v i n g t h e m a sturdy but pleas


i n g l y r o u n d e d appearance. B e l o w an echinus m o u t h , the
neck is relatively broad. T h e handles are r o u n d and re
served o n the underside. A fillet m a r k s the j u n c t u r e be
tween neck and shoulder, and another r i n g separates the
b o d y f r o m the echinus foot.
A l s o c o m m o n to b o t h amphorae is the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f
the surface, even i f m o s t o f the details o f o r n a m e n t are
different. A b o v e the p r i n c i p a l figure panel is a r o w o f
tongues, alternating red and black. T h e figures stand o n
a red g r o u n d l i n e , and s l i g h t l y below, a second l i n e
m a r k s the top o f the a n i m a l frieze. B e n e a t h the animals,
a black b a n d is framed above and b e l o w w i t h red. A b o v e
the foot is a ray pattern, and near the outer edge o f the
foot i t s e l f is a reserved band.
T h e o v o i d n e c k - a m p h o r a was an e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r
f o r m i n A t t i c w o r k s h o p s t h r o u g h o u t the second quarter
o f the s i x t h century. It is especially characteristic o f
" T y r r h e n i a n s , " but by n o means l i m i t e d to t h e m , n o r
d i d it originate i n the " T y r r h e n i a n " w o r k s h o p . 1 1
Lydos

11. Beazley attributed a fragment by Sophilos to an ovoid neck-


amphora: Oxford G 128.20; ABV 38,4; G Bakir, Sophilos (Mainz,
1981), pi. 65, fig. 127. In the period circa 570560, it is the favorite
shape of, for example, the Camtar Painter: ABV 84; Paralipomena,
p. 31; D. von Bothmer, " T h e Camtar Painter," AntKl (1959), pp. 5-9. Figure 2d. Side A / B o f figure 2a.
16 Shapiro

F^wre 3a. Neck-amphora by Lydos. Side A . Florence Figure 3b. Side B o f figure 3a.
70995. Photos, courtesy Soprintendenza
Archeologica della Toscana, Gabinetto
Fotogrfico.

Figure 3c. Side B / A o f figure 3a. Figure 3d. Side A / B o f figure 3a.
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 17

Figure 4a. Neck-amphora. Side A . N e w York, The Figure 4b. Side B o f figure 4a.
Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art, 59.64, gift o f
Eugene Holman. Photos, courtesy The
Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art.

decorated several o v o i d n e c k - a m p h o r a e early i n his ca (figs. 4ab), w h i c h , as B e a z l e y wrote, "bears some re


reer (figs. 3ad), 12
but by the m i d - s i x t h century the s emblance to the w o r k o f the P t o o n P a i n t e r . " 16
H e r e the
shape was already g o i n g out o f fashion i n A t t i c a . A f t e r n eck is p i n c h e d , giving the body a squatter, more
this time, o n l y a few o l d - f a s h i o n e d artists t r i e d to revive b u l b o u s l o o k , and the disparity between figurai and
it, m o s t notably the A f f e c t e r . 13
T h e shape was also i m i a n i m a l frieze is not so p r o n o u n c e d . O n the Getty
tated outside A t t i c a , perhaps above a l l by workshops a mphorae, w h i c h are at least ten years later, the a n i m a l
catering to an E t r u s c a n clientele, w h o , o n the evidence b a n d has become m o r e clearly subsidiary, w h i l e the
o f the " T y r r h e n i a n s , " were i n o r d i n a t e l y f o n d o f i t . 1 4
s light e l o n g a t i o n o f the vase i t s e l f also increases the size
T h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the G e t t y neck-amphoraethe o f the m a i n figure panel.
fairly tall figure-zone e x t e n d i n g to b e l o w the m i d d l e o f A m o n g vases contemporary w i t h the Getty amphorae,
the vase, and a single a n i m a l frieze beneathis not at all s everal c o m e e x t r e m e l y close i n shape, p r o p o r t i o n s , size,
characteristic o f the " T y r r h e n i a n s . " T h e s e generally have a nd relationship o f the figurai and a n i m a l friezes. T h e
m o r e elongated p r o p o r t i o n s , to a c c o m m o d a t e t w o or finest and m o s t a m b i t i o u s o f these is the a m p h o r a i n
m o r e rows o f animals, and the figure-frieze is narrower, F lorence attributed by B e a z l e y to L y d o s (figs. 3ad),
sometimes e x t e n d i n g o n l y s l i g h t l y b e l o w the handle- e xcept for the a n i m a l frieze, w h i c h he considered " d e f i
roots. 15
A n early e x a m p l e o f the arrangement o n o u r n i t e l y not Lydan." 1 7
O n the t w o other ovoid neck-
a m p h o r a is f o u n d o n a vase i n N e w Y o r k dated circa 570 a mphorae attributed to h i m , L y d o s d i d not f o l l o w the

12. ABV 110,3032. We shall return to each o f these vases below . 16. N e w York 59.64; Paralipomena, p. 31; CJ^4 N e w York 4,
13. H . M o m m s e n , Der Affecter (Mainz, 1975), esp. pp. 8-9. pis. 1-2.
14. Canciani, fdl 1980, p. 146. A l m o s t all pseudo-Chalkidian vases 17. Florence 70995; ABV 110,32; Tiverios, Lydos, pis. 22-23.
are o f this form, but they are probably not earlier than about 530 B.C . Beazley hesitated over the vase and wrote cautiously, " T h e chief pic
(cf. Canciani, p. 154). tures, and the animals on the neck are thoroughly Lydan and seem to
15. Some good examples are illustrated by Schauenburg, 1973, be by Lydos h i m s e l f . . ." The attribution to Lydos is accepted by
pp. 18-19, 21, 24-25, 30-31, 34-37. Schauenburg, 1973, p. 38 n. 4 list s Tiverios, Lydos, pp. 3638.
six "Tyrrhenians" w i t h one animal frieze beneath the main scene.
18 Shapiro

E a c h side o f the neck is o c c u p i e d b y a p a i r o f antithetical


lions, their heads averted. F r o n t and back are d i s
t i n g u i s h e d o n l y b y the f i l l i n g ornament: o n Side A , t w o
dot clusters, c o n s i s t i n g o f a single dot s u r r o u n d e d b y a
circle o f six o r seven dots; o n Side B , an inverted lotus
and palmette. T h e l i o n m o t i f i n this p o s i t i o n is m o s t
unusual, and the o n l y close parallel I a m aware o f for
such neck o r n a m e n t is o n the M u n i c h a m p h o r a close to
L y d o s , w h e r e the t w o l i o n s are s o m e w h a t further apart
and a s p h i n x has been squeezed i n between (figs.
8ab). 23
T h e dot clusters are s i m i l a r to those o n the
neck o f Side A o n L y d o s ' Florence a m p h o r a (fig. 3a),
w h e r e they f i l l the spaces a m o n g t w o panthers a n d a
flying Siren. 24
D i e t r i c h v o n B o t h m e r has called attention
to the prevalence o f the dot patterns o n E u b o e a n vases, 25

but these do not have quite the same arrangement as that


Figure 5. Fragmentary neck-amphora by Lydos. Side used b y L y d o s , his circle, and the painter o f the K y k n o s
B. Paris, Muse du Louvre, 10634. Photo,
amphora. 26
T h e lotus b e t w e e n l i o n s o n Side B o f the
Runion des Muses Nationaux, Paris.
K y k n o s a m p h o r a (fig. l b ) does r e m i n d one o f a n e c k -
a m p h o r a p r o p o s e d tentatively as E r e t r i a n b y D a r r e l l
same scheme, b u t o m i t t e d the a n i m a l frieze (fig. 5 ) . 1 8
A m y x and later, w i t h m o r e c o n v i c t i o n , b y B o t h m e r ,
His close " c o m p a n i o n , " the Painter o f Vatican 309, w h i c h has panthers instead o f l i o n s and has m o v e d the
however, used it twice, o n his name vase (fig. 6 ) 1 9
and o n g r o u p f r o m the neck to the b o d y . 27

another vase, i n the V i l l a G i u l i a (fig. 7 ) . 2 0


A n amphora T h e a n i m a l frieze o n the K y k n o s a m p h o r a is c o m
i n M u n i c h (figs. 8ab), w h i c h B e a z l e y considered v e r y posed o f l i o n s and Sirens, m o s t l y i n alternation, except
close to early L y d o s , also belongs h e r e . 21
The only sig for a remarkable g r o u p o f a little m a n b e t w e e n two
nificant difference a m o n g these vases is the treatment o f antithetical l i o n s (fig. l a ) . T h e r e is n o other f i l l i n g o r n a
the neck, s o m e t i m e s w i t h animals (the Florence, V i l l a ment, such as the rosettes and palmettes and lotus buds
G i u l i a , and M u n i c h amphorae), s o m e t i m e s o n l y lotus o n L y d o s ' a m p h o r a i n Florence (figs. 3ad). T h e m o s t
and palmette (the n a m e vase o f the Painter o f V a t i c a n distinctive feature is the little m a n , w h o recalls the extra
309). T h e t w o G e t t y amphorae, w h i c h also differ f r o m o r d i n a r y lekanis i n P a l e r m o , w h i c h B e a z l e y considered
one another i n this respect, t h o u g h otherwise they are so close to L y d o s ' early w o r k and g r o u p e d w i t h the n e c k -
s i m i l a r , seem to c o n f i r m the flexibility i n the h a n d l i n g a m p h o r a i n M u n i c h (figs. 8ab). 28
T w o elaborate zones
o f neck o r n a m e n t i n this p e r i o d . 2 2
o n the l i d o f this lekanis i n c l u d e a n y w h e r e f r o m one to
five figures s a n d w i c h e d b e t w e e n sphinxes and l i o n s .
THE KYKNOS AMPHORA S o m e o f the h u m a n figures, as C h r i s t o p h C l a i r m o n t
L e t us n o w take a closer l o o k at each o f the G e t t y p o i n t e d out, appear to be excerpted f r o m a J u d g m e n t o f
v ases, starting w i t h the K y k n o s a m p h o r a (figs, lad). Paris, but others are purely decorative. 29
Lydos' compan-

18. Louvre E 868, ABV 110,30, Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 3; Louvre neck-amphora related to the Painter o f Akropolis 606: Antichit della
C 10634, AB 1/110,31, CVA Louvre 12, pi. 127. Collezione Guarini (Galatina, 1984), pi. 29 and p. 39 (L. Todisco). The
19. Vatican 309; ABV 121,7; C . Albizzati, Vasi antichi dipinti del vase was found at San Donato, near Taranto. Yet another example is an
Vaticano, fase. 4 (Rome, 1925-1939), pl. 31. unpublished cup from Sindos brought to my attention by M . Tiverios.
20. ABV121,6;JbBerlMus 1 (1959), pp. 15-17. 25. Review o f J. J. Pollitt and S. M . Burke, eds., Greek Vases at Yale,
21. M u n i c h 1435; ABV 114,1; CVA M u n i c h 7, pi. 325. Robert G u y in ArtB 58 (1976), p. 614. Cf. Bothmer, MMAJ, 1969, p. 30.
has suggested to me that the two Getty neck-amphorae may be by the 26. O n the shoulder o f the Euboean lekythos at Yale (Bothmer,
same hand as this vase. MMAJ, 1969, p. 40), two o f the clusters are i n the form o f a square, the
22. Lydos himself used a lotus-palmette on the neck o f one ovoid third o f a circle without the central dot. The Lydan pattern does ap
n eck-amphora (Louvre E 868, above [note 18]). The neck o f the other pear on the hydria i n Manchester (AJA 48 [1944], p. 253) that Beazley
is lost. made the name vase o f his (Attic) Atalanta Group (ABV 91, below, 3);
23. Above (note 21). Bothmer, MMAJ, 1969, p. 30, would now assign it to Euboea.
24. Above (note 17). Lydos' "old-fashioned companion," the 27. Boston 13.75; D. A . A m y x , " T h e G o r g o n Hydria from
P ainter o f Louvre F 6, uses this dot cluster, too, e.g., on the c o l u m n - Eretria," AJA 45 (1941), p. 69 n. 38; Bothmer, MMAJ 1969, p. 31.
k rater Oxford 190; ABV 124,16; CVA Oxford 2, pi. 12.4. It occurs at 28. Palermo (no inventory number); ABV 114,2; A . Rumpf,
least twice i n the work o f painters a little earlier than Lydos, on the Sakonides (Leipzig, 1937), pi. 6.
n ame vase o f the Omaha Painter (below [note 87]; fig. 17a) and on a 29. C . Clairmont, i n Beazley, ABV 115.
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 19

Figure 6. Neck-amphora. Name vase o f the Painter o f Figure 7. Neck-amphora by the Painter o f Vatican 309.
Vatican 309. Side A . Photo, courtesy Musei Side A . Rome, Museo di Villa Giulia. Photo,
Vaticani. D A I , Rome.

Figure 8a. Neck-amphora. Side A . M u n i c h , Staatliche Figure 8b. Side B o f figure 8a.
Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, 1435.
Photos, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und
Glyptothek.
20 Shapiro

Figure 9. Neck-amphora by the Painter o f London Figure 10. A m p h o r a signed by Lydos. Side B . Paris,
B 76. Side A . Taranto, Museo Nazionale M u s e du Louvre, F 29. Photo, R u n i o n des
Archeologico, 52.148. Photo, D A I , Rome. Muses Nationaux, Paris.

ion, the Painter of Louvre F 6, used a similar compo - T H E C O M B A T OF H E R A K L E S A N D KYKNOS


sition, a youth i n l o n g mantle between antithetical Herakles' duel w i t h K y k n o s occurs o n well over a
sphinxes, as the p r i n c i p a l scene o n one o f his neck- h u n d r e d A t t i c vases, as w e l l as o n a b o u t h a l f a d o z e n
amphorae, 30
and the Painter o f Vatican 309 put this n o n - A t t i c ones, f r o m the s e c o n d quarter o f the sixth
g r o u p o n the n e c k o f his V i l l a G i u l i a a m p h o r a (fig. 7). century to the early years o f the fifth. 31
The Getty

30. M u n i c h 1446; ABV 128,84; CVA M u n i c h 7, pi. 327.1-2. A 33. Louvre F 29; AB V 109,21; Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 18.
further link between this vase and the Kyknos amphora is the dot 34. Cf. Brommer (note 7), p. 203. T h o u g h Athena often fights
cluster between the lions' legs on the reverse. vigorously alongside Herakles, an unarmed Athena is not u n k n o w n i n
31. For full lists, cf. F. Brommer, Vasenlisten zur griechischen later Kyknos scenes: e.g., the neck-amphora Worcester 1966.63; Attic
Heldensage (Marburg, 1973), pp. 102107. O n the iconography, see
3
Vase-Painting in New England Collections, Cambridge, Mass., Fogg A r t
F. Vian, " L e combat d'Hrakls et de Kyknos d'aprs les documents Museum, 1972, no. 19 (catalogue by D. M . Buitrn).
figurs du V I et du V sicle," REA 47 (1945), pp. 5-32, and, most
e e
35. O n this figure, which occurs i n a half dozen other Kyknos
recently, H . A . Shapiro, "Herakles and Kyknos," AJA 88 (1984), scenes, cf. Shapiro (note 31), p. 527, with n. 55. O n the Getty
pp. 523529, w i t h earlier references. amphora, B r o m m e r (note 7), p. 205 wanted to call her Aphrodite, on
32. Taranto 52.148; Paralipomena, p. 33,13 bis; ASAtene 33-34 the analogy o f Euphronios' Kyknos krater i n the H u n t collection,
(1955-1956), p. 34, fig. 34 (top left). O n this vase, cf. also E . Paribeni, where the goddess is present behind Ares (and labeled): J. F.
in Lavinium, vol. 2 (Rome, 1975), p. 378, who dates it circa 570. O n the Tompkins, ed., Wealth of the Ancient World, Fort Worth, K i m b e l l A r t
painter, see now the comments o f H . - P . Isler, " U n idria del Pittore di Museum, 1983, no. 6 (catalogue entry by J. Cody). B u t on earlier
Londra B 76 con i l riscatto di Ettore," Numismtica e Antichit Classiche vases, this woman is sometimes elderly and cannot be Aphrodite,
15 (1986), pp. 102-108. as M a r t i n Robertson had pointed out: "Euphronios at the Getty,"
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 21

amphora, w h i c h , as I believe, s h o u l d be dated circa 560 tween these t w o scenes. O n the Getty amphora, all three
or s l i g h t l y after, m u s t be r e c k o n e d as one o f the v e r y combatants fight w i t h a spear, w h i l e o n the Taranto vase
earliest versions. T h e o n l y ones that c o u l d p l a u s i b l y be a o n l y K y k n o s has a spear, and H e r a k l e s dispatches h i m
little older ( t h o u g h there are, o f course, n o absolute w i t h a s w o r d . In fact there is n o consistency i n the
dates i n this p e r i o d , and relative d a t i n g o n the basis choice o f H e r a k l e s ' w e a p o n o n later K y k n o s vases,
o f style can be hazardous, w h e n differences are less than t h o u g h the spears o n the G e t t y a m p h o r a suggest a fa
a decade) are an o v o i d n e c k - a m p h o r a b y the Painter m i l i a r i t y w i t h the b e s t - k n o w n A r c h a i c literary v e r s i o n
o f L o n d o n B 76 (fig. 9 ) 3 2
and L y d o s ' signed a m p h o r a o f the story, the p s e u d o - H e s i o d i c Aspis. 38
A n o t h e r fea
i n Paris (fig. 10), one o f his v e r y earliest w o r k s . 3 3
The ture m a y also p o i n t to the same poetic source: the B o e o
Taranto a m p h o r a (fig. 9) has a n u m b e r o f interesting tian shield carried b y K y k n o s , bearing as insigne a large
resemblances to that i n M a l i b u . T h e w o m a n b e h i n d w h i t e t r i p o d . In the Aspis, K y k n o s is said to have preyed
Herakles, w h o m w e m u s t take to be A t h e n a , is o n b o t h u p o n p i l g r i m s m a k i n g their w a y to D e l p h i (478480),
vases c u r i o u s l y not characterized i n any w a y as a m a r t i a l and H e r a k l e s opposes h i m at the instance o f A p o l l o
goddess, but holds o n l y a s i m p l e w r e a t h . 34
On the (6869). T h i s is the earliest K y k n o s vase that displays
Taranto vase, she is balanced by a w o m a n s t a n d i n g be the t r i p o d p r o m i n e n t l y as a shield device. Its prevalence
h i n d K y k n o s and g e s t u r i n g as i f i n distress, p r o b a b l y to i n later K y k n o s scenes does suggest a deliberate refer
be i d e n t i f i e d as his w i f e or m o t h e r . 35
She recurs o n the ence to D e l p h i , t h o u g h o f course the same device occurs
G e t t y a m p h o r a , b e h i n d A r e s , as a " p e n g u i n w o m a n , " i n m a n y other contexts as w e l l . 3 9

her arms h i d d e n beneath her c l o a k (fig. I d ) . T h e fuller In general, then, the v e r s i o n o n the G e t t y a m p h o r a
scene o n the G e t t y a m p h o r a , w i t h four subsidiary fig fits c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h i n the A t t i c i c o n o g r a p h y o f H e r
ures instead o f t w o , can be e x p l a i n e d i n part b y the akles and K y k n o s . U n u s u a l is the presence o f H e r m e s at
broader p r o p o r t i o n s o f the vase and the fact that the the extreme left (fig. l c ) . 4 0
C l e a r l y his m a i n c o m p o s i
figure zone stretches a l l the w a y f r o m one handle to the t i o n a l f u n c t i o n is to m a i n t a i n s y m m e t r y a m o n g the fig
other, whereas o n the Taranto vase it is a m u c h nar ures and the alternating arrangement o f o n l o o k e r s b y
rower, framed rectangle. It is the Taranto amphora that is gender. N o n - A t t i c K y k n o s scenes always depart i n some
rather eccentric i n terms o f the later i c o n o g r a p h i e t r a d i significant w a y f r o m the conventions o f A t t i c i c o n o g r a
t i o n o f H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s , i n w h i c h A r e s is nearly phy. So, for example, a C o r i n t h i a n fragment depicts part
indispensible, w h i l e " P e l o p e i a " s e l d o m appears. The o f the sanctuary w h e r e the combat t o o k place, a detail
painter seems s i m p l y to have adapted the basic scheme that m a y also derive f r o m the Aspis but that had n o
o f a fight w i t h t w o w o m e n o n l o o k e r s , w h i c h he h a d influence i n A t t i c a . 4 1
O n a E u b o e a n l e k y t h o s at Yale, the
used for the anonymous combat on another neck- combatants are flanked by four a n o n y m o u s o n l o o k e r s ,
amphora, in London. 3 6
For the Taranto amphora, t w o draped m e n and t w o nude youths (one o f w h o m
Beazley even hesitated over the identification as K y k n o s , does not even l o o k o n , but turns a w a y ) . 42
Attic Kyknos
preferring to call the subject " H e r a k l e s i n battle," but scenes never have extraneous "filler" figures; all the " e x
the new Getty amphora, with its a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , tras" have some i n v o l v e m e n t i n the narrative. A " C h a l -
unarmed A t h e n a , c o n f i r m s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the k i d i a n " a m p h o r a i n M u n i c h (on w h i c h H e r a k l e s ' and
vase i n Taranto as an early, p r e - c a n o n i c a l v e r s i o n o f the K y k n o s ' names are b o t h inscribed) gives o n l y the m o n o -
Kyknos story. 37
m a c h y (fig. 11), w i t h n o other figures at a l l , a scheme
T h e r e are, to be sure, other s t r i k i n g differences be- also attested i n A t t i c b l a c k - f i g u r e . 43
The "Chalkidian"

GettyMusJ 9 (1981), p. 34. She is most conveniently named Pelopeia, cf. the hydria i n the Manner o f the Antimenes Painter, Naples 2777,
K y k n o s ' mother (Apollodoros 2.7.7). ABV276,3; CVA Naples 1, pi. 39.3.
36. London 97.7-21.2; A B J / 8 6 , 8 ; CVA British M u s e u m 3, pi. 35.1. 41. Amsterdam, Allard Pierson M u s e u m , 3410, H . Payne, Necro-
37. O n the variant traditions o f the myth, see now R. Janko, " T h e corinthia (Oxford, 1931), p. 330, fig. 45 bis.
Shield o f Heracles and the Legend o f Cycnus," C Q 36 (1986), 42. N e w Haven, Yale University A r t Gallery, 1913.110, J: J. Pollitt
pp. 38-59. and S. M . . Burke, Greek Vases at Yale, N e w Haven, Yale University A r t
38. Cf. J. Boardman, " T h e Kleophrades Painter's cup i n L o n Gallery, 1975, no. 31 (catalogue entry by J. Blanchard)there consid
don," Getty Mus] 1 (1974), p. 8 and, more generally, on the influence ered Attic; for the reattribution to Euboea, cf. Bothmer MMAJ 1969,
o f the Aspis on Attic vase-painters, Shapiro (note 31), pp. 524527. p. 614 and now J. P. Uhlenbrock, ed., Herakles: Passage of the Hero
39. Cf. H . A . Shapiro, "Herakles, Kyknos and Delphi," i n through a Thousand Years of Classical Art, Edith C . B l u m A r t Institute,
H . Brijder, ed., Ancient Greek and Related Pottery (Amsterdam, 1985), Bard College, 1986, p. 101 (catalogue entry by H . A . Shapiro).
pp. 271273. O n the tripod as shield device, see A . Vaerst, 43. M u n i c h 592, most recently illustrated and discussed by
"Griechische Schildzeichen v o m 8. bis z u m ausgehenden 6. J h . " R. Lullies, "Bemerkungen zu den 'chalkidischen Bauchamphoren,"
(Ph.D. diss., Salzburg, 1980), pp. 486-500 and, for Kyknos, p. 320. RA, 1982, p. 47, figs. 1-2.
40. For Hermes behind Athena in a scene o f Herakles and Kyknos,
22 Shapiro

Figure . "Chalkidian" amphora. Side A . M u n i c h , Figure 2. Neck-amphora. Side A . San Antonio M u


Staatliche Antikensammlungen und G l y p - seum o f A r t 86-134G[32], gift o f Gilbert
tothek, 592. Photo, Staatliche Antikensamm Denman, Jr. Photo, courtesy the San A n
lungen und Glyptothek. tonio Museum Association, Texas.

artist portrays H e r a k l e s a r m e d as a hoplite, as the l i t e r such as the one i n V u l c i recently p u b l i s h e d by F u l v i o


ary sources m i g h t lead us to expect, while on Attic Canciani. 46
T h e figure style o f the San A n t o n i o amphora
vases he i n v a r i a b l y wears the l i o n - s k i n , so p o w e r f u l wa s is r e m i n i s c e n t o f " T y r r h e n i a n " vases, but other elements
this artistic c o n v e n t i o n a m o n g A t t i c vase-painters. 44
argue against this a t t r i b u t i o n , such as the absence o f
We m a y add to the g r o w i n g list o f K y k n o s scenes i n animals and the b a n d o f palmettes beneath the figure
n o n - A t t i c black-figure an unusual neck-amphora r e panel. The m o t i f o f K y k n o s c o l l a p s i n g rather awk
cently acquired by the San A n t o n i o M u s e u m o f A r t (fig . w a r d l y and l o o k i n g back t o w a r d H e r a k l e s , w h o charges
12). 45
T h e o v o i d f o r m is not far f r o m that o f the G e t t y at h i m w i t h d r a w n s w o r d , s o m e w h a t recalls the c o m b a t
a m p h o r a e and others f r o m the w o r k s h o p o f L y d o s , b ut o n the " C h a l k i d i a n " a m p h o r a i n M u n i c h (fig. 11), w i t h
other differences are great. M o s t noticeably, the figur e one c u r i o u s difference. A p a r t f r o m his helmet, the San
panel is quite narrow, l e a v i n g large black-glaze segment s A n t o n i o K y k n o s is entirely (and i m p l a u s i b l y ) nude.
i n the handle areas. T h i s trait occurs m o s t n o t a b l y o n T h i s is also quite foreign to the A t t i c i c o n o g r a p h y o f
several so-called pseudo-Chalkidian neck-amphorae , K y k n o s and makes one suspect that the vase m a y have

44. Cf. Boardman (note 38), p. 8. der friihen etruskischen Kunst (Mainz, 1964), pp. 110 and pis. 15.
45. San A n t o n i o M u s e u m Association inv. 86134G[32], pub 48. Cf. Janko (note 37), pp. 48-50.
lished here w i t h the k i n d permission o f Carlos Picn. The reverse 49. For a good recent summary o f views on this problem, cf.
shows a frontal quadriga. Lullies (note 43), pp. 5356 and the bibliography collected by C a n
46. Canciani, Jdl 1980, p. 141, figs. 12. For other examples among ciani, Jdl, 1980, p. 147 n. 15.
" C h a l k i d i a n " vases, cf. Rumpf, CPfpls. 97101. 50. Louvre C 10634 (note 18).
47. Heidelberg 5715; R. Hampe and E . Simon, Griechische Sagen in 51. Above (note 21).
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 23

o r i g i n a t e d i n a w o r k s h o p i n E t r u r i a that k n e w the sub heads away. B u t there is one r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r detail,


ject f r o m i m p o r t e d A t t i c and other vases, b u t created it s i n the mantles o f the male figures: an i n c i s e d v o l u t e to
o w n v a r i a t i o n . A g o o d parallel m i g h t be the P o n t i c indicate w h e r e the fabric is r o l l e d up over the concealed
a m p h o r a i n H e i d e l b e r g , w h i c h seems to c o n t a i n an ech o right hand. O n side A o f the M u n i c h a m p h o r a , w h i c h
o f the K y k n o s m y t h , but i n a v e r s i o n that an A t h e n i a n has so m a n y other s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h the G e t t y vases (fig.
v i e w e r w o u l d have been hard-pressed to r e c o g n i z e . 47
8a), 51
four " p e n g u i n " w o m e n stand i n a r o w between i n -
T h e San A n t o n i o amphora also w i l l f u l l y ignores the A t t u r n e d sphinxes.
tic t r a d i t i o n by o m i t t i n g A t h e n a , w h o o t h e r w i s e alway s T h e scene o f H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s o n the Getty
seconds H e r a k l e s w h e n A r e s supports his s o n K y k n o s . a m p h o r a , aside f r o m s u p p o r t i n g the A t t i c o r i g i n o f the
Interestingly, the new amphora thereby illustrates, vase, m a y also help to localize it i n a w o r k s h o p . First, it
w h e t h e r i n t e n t i o n a l l y or not, better than any A t t i c vase, c o n f i r m s o u r s u s p i c i o n that the a m p h o r a and its c o m
an early v e r s i o n o f the K y k n o s story that was so famou s p a n i o n s h o u l d n o t be placed i n the " T y r r h e n i a n " w o r k
that it became p r o v e r b i a l : W h e n H e r a k l e s first c o n shop, despite the m a n y elements that they share w i t h the
fronted K y k n o s , the hero had to back away because A r e s "Tyrrhenians," for the subject o f K y k n o s d i d not interest
o p p o s e d h i m too, and n o t even H e r a k l e s c o u l d go the painters o f " T y r r h e n i a n " vases and is not f o u n d once
against t w o at once: orre HpaK.T]s i r p s fro. T h i s v e r
c
i n their w o r k . Rather, the subject leads us once again to
s i o n seems to have o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the poet Stesichoros, the w o r k s h o p o f L y d o s , w h e r e w e have already f o u n d
a native o f H i m e r a , o n the n o r t h shore o f S i c i l y . 48
T h i s is the closest parallels for shape and ornament. In the years
not far f r o m R h e g i o n , w h i c h n o w seems to be the bes t a r o u n d the m i d - s i x t h century, w h e n depictions o f this
candidate for the h o m e o f " C h a l k i d i a n " vases, 49
an d m y t h were still relatively few, L y d o s h i m s e l f was clearly
the M u n i c h " C h a l k i d i a n " a m p h o r a does i n d e e d rende r i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o m o t i n g it and shaping its i c o n o g r a
the monomachy o f H e r a k l e s and Kyknos much as phy. H i s earlier version, o n the Louvre amphora (fig. 10), 52

Stesichoros w o u l d have described it. Is it too farfetche d is p r o b a b l y a little earlier than the G e t t y a m p h o r a ; about
to t h i n k that a painter i n n o r t h e r n Italy m i g h t hav e 550 he p a i n t e d a m o r e a m b i t i o u s v e r s i o n o n a plate to be
chosen to depict the earlier episode i n the Stesichorea n dedicated o n the A k r o p o l i s . 5 3 T h e n , near the e n d o f his
version, when Herakles went against two at once ? career, he created w h a t m i g h t be termed the " d e f i n i t i v e "
K y k n o s ' nudity w o u l d then suggest not s i m p l y that he is v e r s i o n , o n the beautiful o i n o c h o e potted by K o l c h o s
vulnerable, but that he is protected b y his d i v i n e father. and n o w i n East B e r l i n . 5 4 A l s o attributable to L y d o s '
T h o u g h his s i t u a t i o n l o o k s precarious i n d e e d and H e r w o r k s h o p are a fragmentary krater f o u n d o n D e l o s and
akles' onslaught fearsome, it m a y be significant that h e a remarkable fragment f r o m an a m p h o r a , i n C o r t o n a . 5 5

has not been w o u n d e d l i k e the K y k n o s o n the M u n i c h T h e latter is l i n k e d to the early w o r k o f Lydos by the tall
a m p h o r a , w h o bleeds profusely. neck ( n o w m o s t l y lost), w h i c h o n the C o r t o n a a m p h o r a
T h e reverse o f the G e t t y K y k n o s a m p h o r a (fig. l b ) bore a figured frieze. T h e style is also close to L y d o s ' ,
presents a quiet gathering c o m m o n o n A t t i c vases o f but m o r e exuberant, less refined. T h i s vase s h o u l d j o i n
this p e r i o d , c o m b i n i n g h u m a n s and monsters i n i n t i the L o u v r e , Taranto (fig. 9), and G e t t y amphorae, as
mate but not very meaningful proximity. Here a w e l l as a cup related to the C P a i n t e r , as the earliest
56

bearded m a n stands b e t w e e n nearly i d e n t i c a l " p e n g u i n preserved A t t i c versions o f H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s .


w o m e n , " and the threesome is s u r r o u n d e d by a pair o f W i t h i n this group, t w o distinct i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i
sphinxes. T h e s e seem almost to be eavesdropping o n the tions can be discerned. O n his L o u v r e a m p h o r a (fig. 10),
conversation, their pointy noses virtually pressing L y d o s i n t r o d u c e d the majestic central figure o f Z e u s
against the ladies' l o n g hair. A g a i n the best parallels are s t r i d i n g b e t w e e n his t w o sons i n combat. H e repeated
i n the w o r k o f Lydos. and his c o m p a n i o n s , for e x a m p l e this figure o n his A k r o p o l i s plate and o n the K o l c h o s
the reverse o f L y d o s ' early n e c k - a m p h o r a i n the L o u v r e o i n o c h o e , and it exerted a s t r o n g influence o n the m a n y
(fig. 5 ) . 5 0
T h e sphinxes there, however, are a different painters w h o t o o k up the story i n the last t h i r d o f the
breed, m o r e bestial, less elegant, and they t u r n their century. 57
T h e C o r t o n a fragment also includes Z e u s ,

52. Louvre 29 (note 33). pp. 394-395 and pi. 66a.


53. Akropolis 2410, ABV 111,10; Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 82. 56. Basel B S 428, ABV60,6; CVA Basel 1, pi. 25.8.
54. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin F1732, ABV 110,37; Tiverios, 57. Akropolis plate: above (note 53); Kolchos oinochoe: above
Lydos, pis. 5758. (note 54). In the generation after Lydos the subject is most popular i n
55. Delos 593, ABV 122,22; C . Dugas, Fouilles de Dlos, vol. 10 the workshop o f the Antimenes Painter: cf. Shapiro (note 31).
(Paris, 1935), pl. 44. The Cortona amphora: E . Paribeni, " U n gruppo
di frammenti attici a figure nere da Cortona," StEtr 40 (1972),
24 Shapiro

r o o m for an i n t e r v e n i n g g o d . T h e a m p h o r a i n Taranto
(fig. 9) and the cup i n B a s e l f o l l o w a s i m i l a r scheme,
w h i c h is then echoed o n a few later vases, i n c l u d i n g the
n o n - A t t i c examples w e have c o n s i d e r e d . 58
T h e poet o f
the Aspis n o w h e r e m e n t i o n s Z e u s ' i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the
fight b e t w e e n H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s , and there is n o
evidence that Stesichoros d i d i n his n o w lost p o e m e i
ther. 59
It seems quite possible that the god's appearance is
a b o l d artistic i n n o v a t i o n o f L y d o s h i m s e l f . T h e painter
o f the G e t t y a m p h o r a , however, adheres to a m o r e o l d -
fashioned formula for depicting single combat witnessed
by several onlookers (as o n the amphora i n Taranto, fig. 9)
w h i l e s h o w i n g his f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the recently p o p u
larized m y t h b y p u t t i n g A r e s b e h i n d K y k n o s .

THE JUDGMENT AMPHORA


Turning to the second amphora in Malibu (figs.
2ad), w e f i n d that, w h i l e the overall scheme o f decora
tion corresponds closely w i t h that o f the Kyknos
amphora, there are significant and unexpected dif
ferences at every t u r n . M o s t s t r i k i n g l y , the treatment o f
the neck is entirely different: vegetal o r n a m e n t instead
o f the l i o n s o f the K y k n o s a m p h o r a . O b v e r s e and re
verse o f the neck are also d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m each other,
the former subtler and m o r e c o m p l e x . It has a festoon o f
alternating lotus and palmette, w i t h s i x elements i n a l l ,
w h i l e Side B has o n l y a lotus c h a i n c o m p r i s i n g five
elements. O n b o t h sides the elements are relatively
broad, densely packed, and carefully d r a w n . I a m not
aware o f an exact parallel for either arrangement. The

Figure 13. Neck-amphora. Side A . Boulogne, Muse u n u s u a l " f i g u r e - o f - e i g h t " palmettes o n Side A are rare
C o m m u n a l , 104. Photo, Devos, Boulogne. i n A t t i c a , l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y to n e c k - a m p h o r a e o f the
Botkin Class. 6 0
Otherwise they occur especially i n
t h o u g h not i n the m i d d l e , as elsewhere, but m o v i n g u p " C h a l k i d i a n " and " p s e u d o - C h a l k i d i a n . " T h e o r i g i n o f
6 1

behind Herakles. T h e somewhat chaotic c o m p o s i t i o n the pattern o n Side A m a y lie i n the elaborate floral
that results stands i n r o u g h l y the same relationship ornament o f the K o m a s t G r o u p . A cup b y the K X
to Lydos' neatly s y m m e t r i c a l ones as the energetic Painter i n Samos, for example, has a s i m i l a r oval p a l
d r a u g h t s m a n s h i p stands to L y d o s ' t y p i c a l finesse. mette b e t w e e n lotuses, o n l y the w h o l e is e n r i c h e d b y
T h e G e t t y a m p h o r a does not have the figure o f Z e u s m u c h i n c i s i o n , and the h o r i z o n t a l c h a i n l i n k i n g the ele
at all (fig. l a ) . Instead, the c o m b a t is i n full s w i n g , the ments is d o u b l e d . 62

t w o protagonists closed i n battle, so that there is n o T h e a n i m a l frieze o n the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a shares

58. Euboean (note 42); Chalkidian (fig. 11; above [note 43]). The 63. E.g., the neck-amphora M u n i c h 1449; CVA M u n i c h 7, pi. 328.4
influence o f the monomachy is well illustrated by the Amasis Painter's (compared by E . Kunze-Gtte, p. 32, with Akropolis 606 and dated
amphora, Louvre F 36; ABV 150,6; The Amasis Painter and his World, circa 570 or slightly later). Here one o f the men is unbearded, and on
N e w York, The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art, 1985, no. 81 (catalogue the other side o f the vase a similar youth with spear stands opposite a
by D. von Bothmer). In his second version o f the Kyknos myth, on woman. A slightly later neck-amphora, also i n M u n i c h , has, on both
the new tripod-pyxis from Aegina ( M . O n l y in Amasis Painter, p. 236), sides, two bearded men w i t h spears: M u n i c h 1448, ABV 88; CVA
the Amasis Painter does include Zeus. Here Herakles grasps the base o f M u n i c h 7, pi. 329.23. Beazley calls it "a rough piece near the Painter
Kyknos' helmet crest, the same motif we find on the Getty amphora. o f L o n d o n B 76."
59. Cf. Shapiro (note 31), p. 526; cf. Janko (note 37), p. 55. 64. Louvre C 10634 (above [note 18]).
60. E.g., N e w York 64.11.13, Paralipomena, p. 71; CVA N e w York 4, 65. This also occurs on the recently discovered column-krater i n
pi. 52.1 and 4. Polygyros assigned by Tiverios to the Painter o f Louvre F 6: Tiverios
61. Cf. Canciani, Jdl, 1980, p. 152, w i t h several examples. (below [note 73]), pi. 12 (here fig. 15).
62. Samos 1184, AB V26,27; AthMitt 54 (1929), pi. 4. 66. Boulogne 104 (previously unpublished); discussed by B o t h -
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 25

some features w i t h that o n its c o m p a n i o n n o t a b l y th e models. F o r the scene o n the reverse, the G e t t y a m p h o r a
p r e d o m i n a n c e o f Sirens and l i o n s b u t i n detail it i s c o u l d have been one such m o d e l .
rather different. H e r e the l i o n s are relegated to the sid e
areas, and, w i t h a generally keener sense o f s y m m e t r y , a T H E J U D G M E N T O F PARIS
pair o f facing creatures occupies the exact center o f eac h W h e n w e t u r n to the p r i n c i p a l scene o n the J u d g m e n t
face. T h e p r i n c i p a l side is once again s l i g h t l y enhanced , amphora i n M a l i b u , some o f the same observations
by the u n e x p e c t e d s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a c o c k for one o f th e about w o r k s h o p and choice o f subject matter made i n
Sirens. T h e m e e t i n g o f t w o Sirens o n Side B seems t o regard to H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s apply. T h o u g h the story
echo, at the subhuman level, the meeting o f t w o bearde d was inordinately popular with Attic vase-painters
gentlemen j u s t above, and one is t e m p t e d to v i e w th e throughout the s i x t h century, it d i d not interest the
breast-to-breast encounter o f male and female birds o n painters o f " T y r r h e n i a n " vases: o n l y one e x a m p l e is
Side A as a subtle p a r o d y o f the i m p e n d i n g encounte r known. 6 7
N o r is the J u d g m e n t m u c h o f a subject for
b e t w e e n the Trojan prince and the eager goddesses. n o n - A t t i c art i n the s i x t h century, even t h o u g h the v e r y
T h e reverse o f the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a (fig. 2b) pres - earliest representations o f the m y t h , back i n the seventh
ents a l i v e l y conversation b e t w e e n t w o m e n i n chiton s century, are f o u n d outside A t h e n s , o n the C o r i n t h i a n
and l o n g mantles, one o f t h e m h o l d i n g a spear. T h e y are C h i g i Vase 68
and o n an i v o r y c o m b f r o m S p a r t a . 69
On
flanked by t w o large sphinxes, w h i c h avert their heads , t w o " C h a l k i d i a n " examples, the departure f r o m A t t i c
u n l i k e their n o s y counterparts o n the K y k n o s a m p h o r a t r a d i t i o n that is m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s is that the
(fig. l b ) . T h e m o t i f o f m e n w i t h spears goes back t o p r o c e s s i o n moves f r o m right to l e f t , 70 since o n A r c h a i c
vases o f the early second quarter o f the century, i n th e A t t i c vases the d i r e c t i o n is i n v a r i a b l y f r o m left to right.
n e i g h b o r h o o d o f the Painter o f L o n d o n B 76 and th e A single B o e o t i a n e x a m p l e is also r i g h t to l e f t , 71 sug-
Painter o f A k r o p o l i s 6 0 6 . 63
R e m o v i n g the spear an d gesting that these n o n - A t t i c artists were perhaps i n -
beards, L y d o s has the same c o m b i n a t i o n o f t w o m e n spired directly f r o m early P e l o p o n n e s i a n m o d e l s ; o n
b e t w e e n antithetical sphinxes o n one o f his early o v o i d b o t h the C h i g i Vase and the L a c o n i a n i v o r y c o m b the
n e c k - a m p h o r a e i n the L o u v r e (fig. 5 ) . 6 4
T h e s e sphinxe s d i r e c t i o n is r i g h t to left. T h e one certain E r e t r i a n v e r -
and those o n the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a even share an u n - sion, o n the other hand, f r o m about 550, follows the
usual decorative feature: a large lotus b u d o n a l o n g , A t t i c m o d e l i n this respect, as i n m a n y others (fig. 14). 72

w i n d i n g stem, w h i c h seems to g r o w out o f the creature's T h e artist does, however, s h o w his o r i g i n a l i t y i n charac-
front p a w s . 65
terizing the three goddesses w i t h greater variety than his
A n even closer parallel for the w h o l e c o m p o s i t i o n o n A t h e n i a n contemporaries. T h e i r garments are quite dif-
the reverse o f the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a is a n e c k - a m p h o r a ferent f r o m one another, and the f o r w a r d - m o s t holds
i n B o u l o g n e , w h i c h B o t h m e r has p r o p o s e d to assign t o w h a t l o o k s l i k e a scepter, p r e s u m a b l y designating her as
Euboea. 66
T w o bearded m e n between sphinxes each h o l d H e r a . M o s t interestingly, Paris holds out a spear, parallel
a spear. T h e i r garments are rather less elaborate than o n w i t h H e r m e s ' k e r y k e i o n . A s an attribute the spear does
the G e t t y a m p h o r a , and their hair is short and caplik e not really suit Paris, either as shepherd or as Trojan
instead o f l o n g w i t h flowing locks. T h e front o f th e prince, and it is never g i v e n h i m b y the m o r e t h o u g h t f u l
B o u l o g n e a m p h o r a shows a d u e l over a fallen w a r r i o r , A t t i c painters. B u t this v e r y m o t i f P a r i s w i t h spear and
watched by w o m e n and m e n , a c o m p o s i t i o n that, as H e r m e s w i t h k e r y k e i o n facing each otherdoes o c c u r
Bothmer notes, is t h o r o u g h l y A t t i c , except for th e i n the w o r k o f the Painter o f L o u v r e F 6, i n less careful
women's garments (fig. 13). I f i n d e e d E u b o e a n , the vas e versions o f the J u d g m e n t (fig. 15), and these m u s t be the
is u n u s u a l l y fine and u n u s u a l l y dependent o n its A t t i c E r e t r i a n painter's s o u r c e . 73

mer, MMAJ, 1969, pp. 2830. I thank Franois Lissarrague for his help 464 A , Rumpf, CV, pi 134.
in obtaining a photograph. 71. Kantharos, W r z b u r g 466, E . Langlotz, Griechische Vasen
67. Once Havana, Lagunillas collection, Paralipomena, p. 39 (there (Munich, 1932), pi. 134.
said to be destroyed); Basel, M n z e n und Medaillen, sale 16 (1956), 72. The Judgment appears on the neck o f the great Eretrian " W e d -
no. 86. The ovoid neck-amphora i n a private collection published by ding A m p h o r a , " Athens 1004; Boardman, BSA, 1952, pp. 32-35 and
Schauenburg, 1973, pp. 1516, has many similarities to "Tyrrhenian" pi. 9; for details o f the neck, cf. BICS 6 (1959), pi. 2. A second
vases but does not i n his opinion belong to the group. candidate for a Euboean Judgment o f Paris is a hydria recently on the
68. E . Simon, Die Goiter der Griechen (Munich, 1969), p. 243, Basel market, M n z e n und Medaillen, sale 51 (1975), no. 118. Herbert
fig. 229. A . C a h n considered it Attic and near the Painter o f L o n d o n B 76, but
69. R. Hampe, "Das Parisurteil auf dem Elfenbeinkamm aus John Boardman, in Gnomon 49 (1977), p. 430, assigns it to Euboea.
Sparta," in R. Lullies, ed., Festschrift B. Schweitzer (Stuttgart, 1959), The bulls and dot-circles on the neck do recall Euboean ornament.
pp. 77-86. 73. Especially the column-krater in Polygyro recently published by
70. Amphora, Taranto 65, Rumpf, CV, pis. 114-115; hydria, B o n n M. A . Tiverios, npo(3.T|(xaTa T T | S fxe\ovofxop(j)f|s O L T T L K T J S
26 Shapiro

Figure 14. Detail o f Eretrian neck-amphora. Athens, National Archaeological


Museum, 1004. Photo, D A I , Athens.

Figure 15. Column-krater by the Painter o f Louvre F 6. Side A . Polygyro, Archaeological Museum,
235. Photo, courtesy M . Tiverios.
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 27

T h e J u d g m e n t o f Paris is one o f the few subjects f r o m


the epic cycle that A t t i c vase-painters were already re
peating w i t h some frequency i n the second quarter o f
the sixth century T h e Painter o f L o n d o n B 76, for e x a m
ple, w h o m we had occasion to deal w i t h because o f his
early v e r s i o n o f H e r a k l e s and K y k n o s (fig. 9 ) , 7 4
returned
to the subject o f the J u d g m e n t h a l f a d o z e n t i m e s . 75

A r o u n d the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y it is i n the w o r k


shop o f L y d o s that the J u d g m e n t o f Paris is m o s t p o p u
lar. L y d o s h i m s e l f painted four or five versions o f the
subject i n the early years o f his career, circa 560550,
one o f t h e m o n the o v o i d n e c k - a m p h o r a i n Florence,
which offers so many parallels with both Getty
amphorae i n shape and o r n a m e n t (fig. 3 a ) . 76
In these Figure 16. Fragment. Athens, Akropolis, 1174 (from
Graef and Langlotz, Die Antiken Vasen von
same years several o f L y d o s ' c o m p a n i o n s also t o o k up
der Akropolis zu Athen, vol. 1, pi. 67).
the subject. 77
B u t by the m i d d l e o f the century, i n t e r
estingly, the J u d g m e n t seems to have gone out of
voguethe rather static c o m p o s i t i o n perhaps c o n s i d r o w e d f r o m C o r i n t h i a n art, where it occurs already o n
ered old-fashioned compared to the "action scenes" n o w the C h i g i V a s e . 79

i n favorto be r e v i v e d some t w e n t y to t h i r t y years l a T h e G e t t y a m p h o r a belongs, o f course, to the first,


ter, b y the A n t i m e n e s P a i n t e r . 78
T h e l e a d i n g artists o f m o r e u n u s u a l g r o u p and adds an ever m o r e u n u s u a l
the t h i r d quarter o f the centurythe A m a s i s Painter, detailthat Paris greets H e r m e s w i t h a handshake. T h i s
E x e k i a s , G r o u p E , the P r i n c e t o n P a i n t e r a l l seem to is paralleled o n o n l y one later v e r s i o n o f the J u d g m e n t ,
avoid the subject entirely. A date for the G e t t y a m p h o r a o n a fragment f r o m the A k r o p o l i s (fig. 1 6 ) . 80
Whether
i n the p e r i o d circa 560 or s l i g h t l y after thus places it at the type w i t h Paris greeting his guests, rather than r u n
the t i m e o f the subject's greatest p o p u l a r i t y a m o n g early n i n g away f r o m t h e m , was u l t i m a t e l y o f C o r i n t h i a n
A t t i c vase-painters. o r i g i n or not, it was certainly f a m i l i a r to A t t i c painters
I r m g a r d Raab has recently collected all the k n o w n o f the second quarter o f the s i x t h century. T h e P t o o n
representations o f the J u d g m e n t o f Paris and arranged Painter and the Painter o f L o n d o n B 76 each use it
t h e m a c c o r d i n g to different schemata. In A t t i c b l a c k - once, 81
t h o u g h the latter elsewhere prefers the " A t t i c "
figure there are t w o p r i n c i p a l types: In one, Paris waits type w i t h Paris fleeing.82
O n c e again, the painter o f the
c a l m l y to greet H e r m e s and the three goddesses, w h i l e G e t t y a m p h o r a shows a c o n s e r v a t i s m i n his i c o n o g r a p h y
i n the other he turns to flee, as i f terrified by the sudden compared w i t h the i n n o v a t i v e and m o r e up-to-date
appearance o f the dread O l y m p i a n s and b y the prospect L y d o s . W e n o t i c e d this i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H e r a k l e s and
o f the choice he w i l l have to make. Raab regards the K y k n o s , where the G e t t y a m p h o r a does not add the
latter type as a p u r e l y A t t i c i n v e n t i o n , and it is n u m e r central figure o f Z e u s , but sticks to the o l d scheme o f
ically the m o r e frequent, w h i l e the former m a y be b o r - d u e l w i t h o n l o o k e r s . So, too, here, for the J u d g m e n t o f

Kpa|jLLKf)s (Thessaloniki, 1981), pis. 119, esp. pi. 7. O n the basis o f Akropolis, 637, ABV 115,1, Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 73a. O f the latter
this vase, Tiverios identifies the same subject on the Painter o f Louvre Beazley wrote, "may be by the painter himself," and Tiverios, p. 114
F 6's lebes gamikos, Houston 34.129; ABV 125,32; Tiverios (this note), n. 149, argues for the attribution to Lydos.
pi. 28. Beazley did not have a full description o f the vase, and 77. ABV1S, bottom; 119, top.
H . Hoffmann, Ten Centuries that Shaped the West, Houston, Institute o f 78. AB V 268,32; 269,33; 271,76-78. Cf. the mythological index i n
the Arts, Rice University, 1970, p. 351, mistook the figure o f Hermes ABV 727.
for a female. O n other vases o f the same workshop Beazley recognized 79. Raab, Zu den Darstellungen des Parisurteils in der griechischen
what he called a "deheroized version o f Paris, Hermes, and the G o d Kunst (Frankfurt, 1972), p. 21. Cf. also the earlier iconographical study
desses" (ABV 115) or "the Judgment o f Paris deheroized" (ABV 130). o f C h . W. Clairmont, Das Parisurteil in der antiken Kunst (Zurich, 1952)
74. Cf. above, pp. 2021 and note 30. and, now, LIMC, vol. 1, pp. 498-500, s.v. Alexandres (R. Hampe).
75. AB V 86,12-13; 87,16.21.23; Paralipomena, p. 33,16 bis; and possi 80. A k r . 1174, B . Graef and E . Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der
bly AB V 87,15. Akropolis zu Athen, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1925), pi. 67. O n the motif o f the
76. Above (note 17). The others by Lydos are: the column-krater, handshake, cf. K . Schauenburg, Jdl 79 (1964), p. 128.
London 1948.10-15.1, ABV 108,8, Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 8a, here fig. 18; the 81. Ptoon Painter: ABV 84, top, 3; Painter o f London B 76:
fragmentary plate, Florence 102a, AB V 111,45, Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 71a; ABV 87,16.
an unpublished loutrophoros i n Athens, Paralipomena, p. 45 (cf. below 82. E.g., ABV 86,13 (now Copenhagen 13440, Paralipomena, 32);
[note 95]); and probably the fragment o f a column-krater, Athens, F 87,21.
28 Shapiro

Figure lia. Neck-amphora. Name vase o f the Omaha Figure 17b. Side B o f figure 17a.
Painter. Side A . Omaha, Joslyn A r t M u -
seum, 1963.480, gift o f M r . and M r s .
Thomas C . Woods, Jr. Photos, courtesy
Joslyn A r t Museum.

Paris, the painter e m p h a t i c a l l y rejects the figure o f Paris B u t it becomes m o r e difficult to e x p l a i n the o w l as a n y -
fleeing, w h i c h w i t h L y d o s w i l l w i n out as the A t t i c t h i n g m o r e than a decorative filler w h e n it appears i n a
version par excellence, even adding the detail o f the prof- non-narrative scene, as o n the M u n i c h a m p h o r a close to
fered handshake, as i f to say, this is w h a t w e w o u l d the early Lydos (fig. 8 a ) . 86
There were i n fact t w o owls
expect o f any w e l l - b r e d prince. here, but o n l y a tiny bit o f the one at the left is preserved.
Nevertheless, there are details here that u n q u e s t i o n - L y d o s h i m s e l f m a y not have been the first to use this
ably s h o w a familiarity w i t h L y d o s ' w o r k , most conspic- o w l , f o n d as he was o f it. A recently p u b l i s h e d early
u o u s l y the o w l b e t w e e n H e r m e s and Paris. T h e o w l is n e c k - a m p h o r a i n O m a h a has an o w l b e t w e e n the o u t -
a l m o s t s o m e t h i n g o f a trademark o f L y d o s and his c o m - stretched legs o f a nude G r e e k w h o attacks a f a l l i n g
p a n i o n s : t w i c e L y d o s placed it b e t w e e n the outstretched A m a z o n (fig. 17a). 87
B o t h m e r connected this vase w i t h
legs o f H e r m e s i n scenes o f the J u d g m e n t o f Paris one i n P a r i s 88
and christened the artist the Omaha
(fig. 3 a ) . 83
S c h a u e n b u r g assumed that the o w l alludes to Painter, and i n Paralipomena B e a z l e y added h i m to his
the presence o f A t h e n a , even t h o u g h it is n o t a n y w h e r e chapter o n " N e a r c h o s a n d O t h e r s . " 89
The symposium
near h e r . 84
F o l l o w i n g this l i n e o f a r g u m e n t w e w o u l d o n the reverse o f the O m a h a vase (fig. 17b) l i n k s it w i t h
have to suppose that the o w l b e t w e e n T h e s e u s ' legs o n a b o t h the early a m p h o r a i n N e w Y o r k (fig. 4 a ) 90
and
later a m p h o r a b y L y d o s refers to his A t h e n i a n o r i g i n . 8 5
L y d o s ' a m p h o r a i n Florence (fig. 3 b ) , 91
and c h r o n o l o g i -

83. The Florence amphora (above [note 17]) and the fragments 86. M u n i c h 1435 (above [note 20]).
A k r . 637 (above [note 6]). O n owls i n black-figure, see the recent 87. Omaha, Joslyn A r t M u s e u m , 1963.480; Paralipomena, p. 34;
comments o f J. Chamay and D. von Bothmer, i n AntK 30 (1987), W. G. M o o n and L . Berge, Attic Vase-Painting in Midwestern Collections
pp. 59, 64. (Chicago, 1979), no. 25; CVA Omaha 1, pis. 10-11.
84. Schauenburg, 1973, p. 26. 88. Louvre E 861, Paralipomena, p. 33; P. Ghiron-Bistagne, Re-
85. Taranto, AB V 109,26; Tiverios, Lydos, pi. 28a. cherches sur les acteurs dans la Grce antique (Paris, 1976), p. 295,
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 29

Figure 8. Column-krater by Lydos. Side A . London, British Museum, 1948.10-15.1. Photo, courtesy Trustees o f the
British Museum.

cally it s h o u l d be i n t e r m e d i a r y b e t w e e n those t w o . I n M a l i b u also provides an interesting l i n k w i t h the w o r k


terestingly, the animal frieze on Side A (fig. 17a) o f L y d o s ; the "extra" w o m a n w h o stands b e h i n d Paris,
contains a dot-cluster o f the type o n the G e t t y K y k n o s facing the handle (fig. 2d). A s Schauenburg has ob
a m p h o r a (fig. la) and, as w e have seen, taken up by the served, the presence o f such extraneous figures is e x
L y d a n w o r k s h o p (fig. 3a). We m a y have i n the O m a h a tremely rare i n scenes o f the J u d g m e n t o f Paris, t h o u g h
Painter a s l i g h t l y older c o n t e m p o r a r y o f Lydos, who c o m m o n p l a c e i n certain other heroic subjects. 93
A nota
exerted an i m p o r t a n t influence o n h i m . 9 2
ble exception is L y d o s , w h o several times puts "extras"
Indeed, i n t e r p r e t i n g the o w l as an attribute o f A t h e n a i n scenes o f the J u d g m e n t : o n the n e c k - a m p h o r a i n F l o r
w o u l d violate the spirit o f early A r c h a i c scenes o f the ence (fig. 3c), a m a n and w o m a n i n conversation b e h i n d
J u d g m e n t o f Paris, w h i c h consistently and resolutely re the last o f the goddesses; o n his c o l u m n - k r a t e r in
fuse to d i s t i n g u i s h a m o n g the three contestants i n dress L o n d o n , a threesometwo m e n and a w o m a n a l s o at
or attribute. A s i n L y d a n and other c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r the left (fig. 18) ; 9 4
and, o n the u n p u b l i s h e d l o u t r o p h o r o s
sions, the goddesses o n the G e t t y a m p h o r a are rendered f r o m the A k r o p o l i s , again a m a n and w o m a n . 9 5
As in
as " p e n g u i n w o m e n , " the o n l y variado c o n s i s t i n g i n the the matter o f the o w l , it may be noted that the painter o f
alternating colors and patterns o f their garments. the G e t t y amphora, a l t h o u g h clearly i n s p i r e d by L y d o s ,
O n e s e e m i n g l y i n c i d e n t a l detail o n the a m p h o r a i n is n o t a slavish i m i t a t o r . H e c o u l d have put his o w l

figs. 152153. Cf., however, below (note 92). o f Attic vases to Euboea, see also below (note 97).
89. Paralipomena, pp. 33-34, to ABV91. 93. Schauenburg, 1973, p. 25.
90. Above (note 16). 94. L o n d o n 1948.10-15.1, above (note 76).
91. Above (note 17). 95. Above (note 76). A tiny picture o f this vase appears in a
92. A . Steiner, i n CVA Omaha 1, p. 7, reports that Bothmer now "group photo" o f loutrophoroi from the sanctuary o f N y m p h e , i n
believes the painter's name vase may be Euboean. O n the reassignment J. Travlos, Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens (New York, 1971),
30 Shapiro

b e t w e e n H e r m e s ' legs, as L y d o s didthere is plenty o f G e t t y amphorae to the same hand.


r o o m therebut he gave it a m o r e p r o m i n e n t and d i g n i B u t before c o n s i d e r i n g the question o f hands, it is
fied place, and the creature i t s e l f is m u c h taller and state more important to locate our amphorae i n the right gen
lier than L y d o s ' o w l s . L i k e w i s e , he h a d r o o m for o n l y eral area w i t h i n the great f r a m e w o r k o f black-figure
one " e x t r a " and w i s e l y shifted her to the right, lest she vase-painting created b y B e a z l e y and others. First, o u r
be confused w i t h the contestants. analysis suggests that b o t h amphorae fit c o m f o r t a b l y
i n t o the m a i n s t r e a m d e v e l o p m e n t o f A t t i c b l a c k - f i g u r e
CONCLUSIONS i n the second quarter o f the s i x t h century. M u c h p r o g
W e m a y n o w t r y to s u m m a r i z e the results o f this ress has been made i n the last few decades i n i s o l a t i n g
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the t w o G e t t y neck-amphorae. First, n o n - A t t i c w o r k s h o p s i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y that d r e w
however, it is i m p o r t a n t to stress that for such s i n g u inspiration from Athens and perhaps even employed artists
lar and exceptional vases w e are not l i k e l y to f i n d d e f i n i trained there. Especially indebted to A t t i c black-figure are
tive answers, especially i n the matter o f a t t r i b u t i o n . the workshops active at Eretria and perhaps elsewhere o n
W h e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h w o r k s o f such fine and d i s t i n c E u b o e a , n o w m u c h better k n o w n thanks to e x c a v a t i o n 96

tive draughtsmanship, our first i m p u l s e is to assume that and to clay a n a l y s i s , 97


as w e l l as to the careful studies o f
they m u s t be a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h i n the oeuvre o f some J o h n B o a r d m a n , A . D . U r e , and D i e t r i c h v o n B o t h m e r . 98

known master. B u t a glance t h r o u g h the pages o f B u t there m a y also be a danger that w e too q u i c k l y say
Beazley's ABV and ARV2 quickly reveals how many of " E u b o e a n " w h e n an ostensibly A t t i c vase l o o k s n o t
the finest and m o s t u n u s u a l vases r e m a i n orphans, or quite right, instead o f a l l o w i n g for the variety, even ec
m e m b e r s o f e x t r e m e l y s m a l l f a m i l i e s n o t to m e n t i o n centricities o f A t t i c painters i n this f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d . 9 9

all the vases that B e a z l e y d i d not i n c l u d e i n his lists at a l l T h e second quarter o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y m u s t have
for this v e r y reason. It is, o f course, hard to believe that been a t i m e o f i m m e n s e a c t i v i t y and n o little t u r m o i l i n
a m a n o f considerable talent and excellent t r a i n i n g o n l y the A t h e n i a n Kerameikos. T h e sudden and insatiable de
decorated one or t w o vases i n his life, and almost as hard m a n d for A t t i c vases i n E t r u r i a , starting about the t i m e
to believe that he decorated five h u n d r e d , o f w h i c h , due o f the F r a n o i s Vase, a l o n g w i t h a g r o w i n g m a r k e t i n
to the vicissitudes o f ancient history and m o d e r n archae M a g n a G r a e c i a and elsewhere, gave rise to m a n y n e w
ology, o n l y one or two survive. Some may think w o r k s h o p s w i t h i n a decade or t w o . S o m e were p r o b a b l y
B e a z l e y was o v e r l y cautious i n d i s c e r n i n g subtle dif s m a l l and s h o r t - l i v e d , because they c o u l d n o t compete
ferences a m o n g s i m i l a r styles and that it w o u l d be m o r e w i t h a large, w e l l - o r g a n i z e d o p e r a t i o n l i k e the L y d a n
e c o n o m i c a l to consider several related hands as aspects w o r k s h o p or that o f the C Painter. O n e w o r k s h o p that
o f a single artistic personality. B u t i n a w o r l d o f rela arose and prospered i n response to the E t r u s c a n m a r k e t
t i v e l y few n a m e d painters and masses o f a n o n y m o u s was the " T y r r h e n i a n . " O r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t to have been
ones, there is little to be gained b y e c o n o m i z i n g , and made i n E t r u r i a because o f their provenance, " T y r r h e
Beazley's m e t h o d often has the advantage o f e m p h a s i z n i a n " vases were l o n g ago r e c o g n i z e d as A t t i c . Yet they
i n g the uniqueness and integrity o f each vase, something s t i l l suffer a s t i g m a , as i f they were not quite "full-
far m o r e i m p o r t a n t than a d d i n g one m o r e i t e m to the b l o o d e d " A t h e n i a n , or were at any rate something apart.
putative list o f w o r k s b y a (usually) a n o n y m o u s artist. It C a r p e n t e r refers to the " T y r r h e n i a n " G r o u p as a " s i d e -
is i n this spirit that I w o u l d also prefer to leave the s t r e a m " and notes that Beazley, i n his m a g i s t e r i a l De
q u e s t i o n o f a t t r i b u t i o n open, as w e l l as to be m o r e c a u velopment of Attic Black-Figure, does not m e n t i o n the
tious than earlier w r i t e r s about assigning b o t h o f the "Tyrrhenians" once. 100
Yet the " T y r r h e n i a n " w o r k s h o p ,

p. 363, fig. 466 (top row center). Beazley, i n Paralipomena, does not say pp. 631-636.
where the two "extras" are, but Michalis Tiverios, who also drew this 98. M o d e r n scholarship starts w i t h John Boardman s seminal arti
illustration to my attention, tells me they are around the back, under cle, BSA, 1952, and its follow-up, "Early Euboean Pottery and H i s
the vertical handle. Tiverios (note 73), pp. 2528, shows that these tory," BSA 52 (1957), pp. 1-29. O f A . D. Ure's many studies, the most
"extras" at the Judgment o f Paris were borrowed by the Painter o f recent is "Observations on Euboean Black-figure," BSA 68 (1973),
Louvre F 6 from Lydos (figs. 15, 18), but they do not occur outside the pp. 25-31. Bothmer, MM A], 1969, p. 28, with n. 4, collects literature
workshop. The only exception is an amphora i n a private collection up to that time. Before Boardman, pioneering work was done by
published by Schauenburg, 1973, p. 16, fig. 3. Darrell A m y x i n a Berkeley dissertation, which is unpublished except
96. Cf. J.P. Descoeudres, " A u s g e w h l t e eretrische Keramik aus for a brief article (above [note 27]).
dem siebten und sechsten Jahrhundert v. Chr.," AntK 11 (1968), 99. It is worth noting that Beazley was especially cautious about
pp. 102-105. reattributing vases to Euboea. In Paralipomena, p. 50,5, for example, he
97. J. Boardman and F. Schweizer, " C l a y Analysis o f Archaic notes Ure's suggestion that the hydria i n Reading, listed i n ABV 121,5
Greek Pottery," BSA 68 (1973), pp. 267-283, esp. p. 273 on Euboean; as being by the Painter o f Vatican 309, is Eretrian. B u t rather than
R . E . Jones et al., Greek and Cypriot Pottery (Athens, 1986), pp. accepting this outright, he says only, " T h i s is perhaps not by the
Two Black-figure Neck-Amphorae 31

h o w e v e r specialized it m a y have been, surely s t o o d side L y d o s . N o r is it the style o f L y d o s ' m o r e p r o l i f i c c o m -


by side w i t h others i n the potters' q u a r t e r , 101
and it is panions, the Painter o f V a t i c a n 309 (figs. 6, 7) or the
u n t h i n k a b l e that potters and painters and influences d i d Painter o f L o u v r e F 6 (fig. 15), for he has a finer, m o r e
not o c c a s i o n a l l y m o v e back and forth and around. 1 0 2
m e t i c u l o u s h a n d than either o f t h e m , especially i n his
H e n c e it is n o t so a s t o n i s h i n g that an u n u s u a l vase l i k e use o f i n c i s i o n . H e is lavish i n his use o f w h i t e and red,
the a m p h o r a Florence 70995, w h o s e figure w o r k B e a z l e y s o m e t h i n g he observed i n the " T y r r h e n i a n " w o r k s h o p .
attributed to L y d o s (figs. 3ad), s h o u l d have so m a n y In his choice o f m y t h o l o g i c a l subjectsthe J u d g m e n t o f
other features i n c o m m o n w i t h the " T y r r h e n i a n s " that Paris and H e r a k l e s f i g h t i n g K y k n o s h e was v e r y m u c h
Karl Schefold c o u l d describe it as a "Tyrrhenische i n the A t h e n i a n m a i n s t r e a m . In these years it was L y d o s
A m p h o r a des L y d o s . " 1 0 3
w h o d i d m o r e than anyone else to p o p u l a r i z e these t w o
B u t even i f some o f the d i s t i n c t i o n s m a y become subjects and to establish their i c o n o g r a p h y for the next
fuzzy a r o u n d the edges, m o s t " T y r r h e n i a n " vases are generation. T h e " T y r r h e n i a n " painters, notorious for
v e r y distinctive, and w e can certainly isolate a core: their eccentric iconography, were not interested i n either
ovoid neck-amphorae o f elongated proportions with subject, and the few n o n - A t t i c adaptations u n d e r A t t i c
m u l t i p l e a n i m a l friezes and a n a r r o w figure panel at the influence c o m e s o m e ten to t h i r t y years later.
level o f the handles. T h a n k s to the w o r k o f D i e t r i c h v o n In his interpretation o f these same m y t h o l o g i c a l
B o t h m e r , w e can even i d e n t i f y a l m o s t a d o z e n different scenes, o u r painter shows his considerable independence
hands o n "Tyrrhenian" vases. 104
T h e t w o G e t t y amphorae from the d o m i n a t i n g influence o f L y d o s . H i s noble,
clearly do n o t b e l o n g to this core, either i n their overall s t r i d i n g H e r m e s and the resolute handshake w i t h Paris
c o n f i g u r a t i o n o r i n their figure style, t h o u g h m a n y o f produce a very different effect f r o m the s e m i - c o m i c tone
the animals and other o r n a m e n t a l details w o u l d be at o f L y d a n Judgments, w h i l e his K y k n o s scene emphasizes
h o m e o n a " T y r r h e n i a n " vase. the i m m e d i a c y o f single c o m b a t b y o m i t t i n g the figure
O f A t h e n i a n painters w h o were established before the o f Z e u s i n the m i d d l e . B o t h scenes have l i n k s w i t h an
m i d d l e o f the s i x t h century, the t w o w h o r e m a i n e d ac- older artist, the Painter o f L o n d o n B 76 (fig. 9). T h o u g h
tive and consistently p r o d u c t i v e the longest were L y d o s conservative i n his iconography, i n his figure style the
and the A m a s i s Painter. T h e latter d i d n o t have m a n y painter is a n y t h i n g but. Rather, he shows considerably
close associates who have been identified, whereas m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n than the v e r y early L y d o s , whose
L y d o s h a d several, a m o n g w h o s e large o u t p u t B e a z l e y l i n e is often unsteady and the p r o p o r t i o n s a little o d d .
often found it hard to differentiate. 105
Collaboration on a T h e G e t t y amphorae are the w o r k o f a mature artist,
single vase, as o n the Florence a m p h o r a w h o s e figures, sure o f his technique, n o t o f a m a n at the b e g i n n i n g o f
but not the animals, Beazley considered Lydan his career. A s his conservative i c o n o g r a p h y also s u g -
(figs. 3ad), was perhaps m o r e frequent than is u s u a l l y gests, he s h o u l d be regarded as an older c o n t e m p o r a r y
thought. It is easy to i m a g i n e a s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n a large o f L y d o s , w h o was i n his p r i m e w h e n L y d o s was start-
and busy w o r k s h o p i n w h i c h one painter specialized i n i n g out. H e n c e a date for these vases o f about 560, possi-
animals w h i l e another, m o r e gifted, d i d c o m p l e x n a r r a - b l y a little later but certainly n o earlier, seems m o s t
tive scenes. appropriate.
In t r y i n g to situate the t w o G e t t y amphorae, w e have Finally, the q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r b o t h amphorae are the
f o u n d the closest parallels for details o f o r n a m e n t and w o r k o f a single hand. T h e q u e s t i o n is perhaps n o t so
i c o n o g r a p h y i n the L y d a n w o r k s h o p , t h o u g h the artist urgent, since w e have n o t succeeded i n i d e n t i f y i n g his
has a d i s t i n c t i v e style and p e r s o n a l i t y that is n o t that o f h a n d o n other vases, despite the m a n y affinities w i t h

painter himself." A t present, casual reattribution o f vases to Euboea is 100. Carpenter (note 10), p. 279.
very much i n fashion, but should wherever possible be tested against 101. In his second study, Carpenter proposes to locate the " T y r r -
scientific evidence. Jones (note 97), p. 635, writing o f an Attic vase henian" workshop outside Athens, perhaps i n northern Attica: " T h e
that had been reassigned to Euboea but was confirmed as Attic by clay Tyrrhenian Group: Problems o f Provenance," OJA 3 (1984), pp. 4556.
analysis, calls it "a fair warning against the application o f trivial stylis- 102. This point is particularly emphasized by M . A . Tiverios, " O i
tic criteria." Perhaps the pendulum w i l l one day swing back to the ' TUppTjVlKoV ((XTTIKOL) pxpopes. H axo~T TOUS fX TOUS
situation o f 1941, when Darrell A m y x , the first serious student o f 'nwTiaKous' (eTpoixTKiKOJs) K a i T V NiKoa-frviq,'' ArchEph 1976
Eretrian black-figure, wrote, " O f the numerous pieces attributed to (1977), pp. 47-48.
the ware by various scholars, nearly all may now easily be recognized 103. Frhgriechische Sagenbilder (Munich, 1964), pl. 67b.
as Attic, thanks to recent gains i n our knowledge o f Attic b.f." (above 104. Bothmer (note 9). Many o f Bothmer's attributions o f "Tyrr-
[note 27], p. 69 n. 38). A recent review o f the whole problem is that o f henian" vases are recorded in Paralipomena, pp. 3642.
Tiverios (note 73), pp. 102106. A s he points out, it is likely that some 105. Cf. his comments i n ABV114.
Attic painters worked i n Eretria and that some Eretrian painters re-
ceived their training i n Athens.
32 Shapiro

L y d o s and his large circle. T h e m a n y superficial s i m w i t h l o n g tendrils (fig. 2d). F u r t h e r m o r e , there are s m a l l
ilarities b e t w e e n the t w o vases, as w e l l as their reporte d rosettes scattered t h r o u g h o u t the a n i m a l frieze and a
provenance, are certainly an a p r i o r i a r g u m e n t for c o m large i n v e r t e d lotus-palmette b e t w e e n l i o n s w i t h their
m o n authorship, a n d i n the figure panels there is n o heads averted, a more elaborate and finely d r a w n version
difficulty i n seeing the style and temperament o f a singl e o f the m o t i f o n the neck o f the K y k n o s amphora's re
artist. H i s very precise hand, along w i t h his fondness fo r verse (fig. l b ) .
decorative detail (e.g., o n garments) and for m u c h w h i t e T h e same love o f o r n a m e n t a l detail carries over to the
and red, are u n m i s t a k a b l e . 106
W h e n w e c o m p a r e the a n i animals o n the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a . T w o o f the l i o n s
m a l friezes and ornament, however, differences seem t o there have lavish use o f i n c i s i o n for the manes (fig. 2c),
o u t w e i g h s i m i l a r i t i e s . T h e radically different treatmen t and all the l i o n s ' tails have considerably m o r e s w i n g
o f the neck is not i n i t s e l f an obstacle, since w e hav e than o n the K y k n o s a m p h o r a . W e may, then, be d e a l i n g
n o t e d that other artists, i n c l u d i n g L y d o s h i m s e l f , d i d w i t h t w o o r even threedifferent hands o n these t w o
not have a single pattern that they i n v a r i a b l y repeated. It vases, as o n L y d o s ' a m p h o r a i n Florence (figs. 3ad).
is rather i n t w o other respects that the difference is strik B u t i n spite o f any differences i n the subsidiary friezes,
i n g : the d r a w i n g o f the animals and the use o f f i l l i n g the artistic personality responsible for a l l the figure
ornament, w h i c h is largely absent f r o m the Kyknos panels is a distinctive one. H e helps to provide n e w l i n k s
a m p h o r a , b u t quite prevalent o n the J u d g m e n t a m p h o r a . a m o n g several o f his better (or longer) k n o w n c o n t e m
T h e latter has a large palmette u n d e r one handle (fig. 2c ) poraries i n the A t h e n i a n K e r a m e i k o s and at the same
and, t h o u g h the area b e l o w the other handle is u n d e c o - t i m e enriches the remarkable variety o f style and i c o
rated, a little lower, i n the a n i m a l frieze, is an especiall y n o g r a p h y that is the h a l l m a r k o f his age.
elaborate c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f palmette w i t h side-palmette s
Stevens Institute o f T e c h n o l o g y
H o b o k e n , N e w Jersey

106. The Kyknos amphora has unfortunately lost much o f its added
white in recent years. The photographs reproduced in Schauenburg,
1973, pp. 2627, figs. 3336, show much more preserved.
Giants at the GettyAgain
Mary B. Moore

In Greek Vases in The J. Paul Getty Museum 2 (1985) , m e n t shows m o r e o f the giant's r o u n d shield, and the
the v o l u m e i n h o n o r o f D i e t r i c h v o n B o t h m e r , I p u b device o n it seems to be a finely incised eagle flying to
lished a fragmentary T y r r h e n i a n d i n o s b y the K y l l e n i o s the left and painted w h i t e . B e l o w and to the left, seen i n
Painter that depicts i n its m a i n zone a G i g a n t o m a c h y 1
profile, is the rest o f the r o u n d shield that protects the
B e l o w that is a b a n d o f lotus-palmette festoon and the n giant already felled b y Z e u s . T h e e m p t y space b e t w e e n
a frieze o f animals. In the article, I tried to s h o w i n a the shield r i m and the l o w e r right o f the fragments i n d i
reconstruction d r a w i n g h o w I thought the fragments fit cates that the name o f this giant w i l l either have to be
ted i n t o the c o m p o s i t i o n o f b o t h the G i g a n t o m a c h y an d shortened or the p o s i t i o n o f the first letter w i l l have to
the a n i m a l frieze. Since that article was p u b l i s h e d , th e be changed. I have opted for the former. M o s t important
G e t t y M u s e u m has acquired several m o r e fragments o f for the c o m p o s i t i o n i n this area are the five snake's heads
b o t h the figurai and the o r n a m e n t a l zones and i n th e o n the left o f the fragment j u s t at the break, for they
case o f one fragment, already k n o w n to me, j o i n e d it t o indicate that the r i m o f Z e u s ' shield was fringed w i t h
another. S o m e o f the n e w fragments c o n f i r m the s u g snakes, j u s t as it is o n L o u v r e E 732, the unattributed
gested c o m p o s i t i o n , others offer n e w possibilities, an d o v o i d n e c k - a m p h o r a useful for reconstructing Z e u s '
t w o create p r o b l e m s that s t i l l await solutions. In v i e w o f h e l m e t o n o u r d i n o s as h a v i n g a d o u b l e crest. 3

this and the i m p o r t a n c e o f the dinos for A t t i c blac k Other fragments, 85.AE.194.C, E , and I (joining
figure, I t h o u g h t it w o r t h w h i l e to present these n e w 8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 5 [fragment e] and 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A.17 [frag
fragments and to s h o w h o w they have m o d i f i e d th e m e n t q]) augment the figure o f D i o n y s o s and the t w o
c o m p o s i t i o n . In a d d i n g the n e w fragments to the o l d giants b e h i n d h i m : one w h o has fallen o n his face and
drawing, I have not attempted to fill i n all o f each figure, one w h o attacks to the left (figs. 4 a - b ) . 85.AE.194.C
as I d i d before, but have s i m p l y sketched i n a partia l and E s h o w the rest o f the legs o f the fallen giant, except
c o n t o u r or o u t l i n e . I shall b e g i n w i t h the t w o fragment s for the heel o f his left foot. H i s calves are protected by
o f the a n i m a l frieze, then proceed to the G i g a n t o m a c h y . 2
red greaves. To the r i g h t o f his feet is the right leg f r o m
T h e first fragment, 85. A E . 1 9 4 . D , j o i n s 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . l l the knee d o w n (also greaved) o f the giant w h o strides to
(fragment k i n m y 1985 article) and n o w preserves th e the left and w h o s e left l e g appears j u s t above the t h i g h
rib cage, m o s t o f the left foreleg, and part o f the lef t o f his fallen c o m p a n i o n . T h e ungreaved leg i n the b a c k
h i n d leg o f the boar facing to the left (figs, lab). In th e g r o u n d belongs to D i o n y s o s , w h o appears to the r i g h t
first d r a w i n g , these legs s h o u l d have been closer to on e o f these giants. In the upper r i g h t is one foreleg and the
another. T h e second fragment f r o m the a n i m a l frieze, head o f his pantherskin. J o i n i n g break-to-break is
81. A E . 2 1 1 . A.45 (figs. 2 a - b ) , shows the belly, part o f th e 85.AE.194.I, w h i c h gives the left foreleg and ear o f the
rib cage, and the start o f the hindquarters o f the panther pelt and part o f the left leg o f D i o n y s o s . T h e right break
on 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 6 (fragment / ) . A c c e s s o r y red a r t i c u o f this s m a l l fragment j o i n s 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A.17 (fragment q)
lates the rib cage o f each a n i m a l . and preserves m o s t o f the tail o f the panther w h o at
T u r n i n g n o w to the G i g a n t o m a c h y : 8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 3 4 tacks D i o n y s o s ' opponent, as w e l l as the e n d o f this
j o i n s 8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 1 4 and 15 (fragments n and o), th e giant's shield seen in profile and painted white.
group o f Zeus and Polybotes (figs. 3ab). T h e n e w frag 8 5 . A E . 1 9 4 . E gives m o r e o f the lotus-palmette festoon.

1. M . B . Moore, "Giants at the Getty," Greek Vases in The J. Paul 2. Since their publication i n Greek Vases 2, the individual frag
Getty Museum, 2. Occasional Papers on Antiquities, 3 (1985), pp. ments have been renumbered making the letter I assigned to each one
2140. I wish to thank Marion True for inviting me to publish the new obsolete. To avoid confusion, i n this article I shall cite the new n u m
fragments as well as to study them at the Getty M u s e u m and for being ber, but put the old letter i n parentheses. The reader may find it
helpful i n so many ways. If ever there was a case o f going back to the helpful to have the earlier article at hand while reading the present one.
drawing board, this is surely one o f them, but the pleasure has been all 3. Paris, Louvre E 732 (Greek Vases 2, p. 39, fig. 21).
mine.
34 Moore

Figure a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Figure lb. Reconstruction drawing o f figure l a .
8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A l l (top) and 85.AE.194.D (bot
tom).

Figure 2b. Reconstruction drawing o f figure 2a.

T h e next fragment, 8 5 . A E . 1 9 4 . G , preserves the crest


and crest support o f A p o l l o ' s h e l m e t as w e l l as m o r e o f
the t o n g u e pattern o n the s h o u l d e r at the j u n c t i o n o f the
neck (figs. 5 a - b ) . It j o i n s 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 0 (fragment t).
85.AE.194.F (figs. 6ab) is a n o n j o i n i n g fragment,
which preserves the helmeted head o f Euphorbos,
whose left elbow and greaved calves appear on
81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 1 (fragment u). H i s helmet, p a i n t e d red, is
a l o w - c r e s t e d C o r i n t h i a n one. A t the top o f the frag
m e n t is m o r e o f his r o u n d shield, seen i n profile. T h e
glaze and i n c i s i o n b e t w e e n the rim o f his shield and the

Figure 2a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, top o f his h e l m e t crest represent the fingers and t h u m b
81. AE.211. A.6 and 81. AE.211. A.45 (lower left). o f his r i g h t h a n d clenched r o u n d the shield grip. It m a y
be that his left h a n d h e l d the shaft o f the object b e l o w
the B o e o t i a n shield, t h o u g h it is n o t clear w h y he h o l d s
his shield w i t h his r i g h t h a n d . A t the r i g h t break, above
the helmet crest, are traces o f red b e l o n g i n g to the initial
letter o f his name. B e l o w E u p h o r b o s ' face is part o f a
palmette f r o m the o r n a m e n t a l b a n d separating the t w o
figurai scenes.
We m a y t u r n n o w to the t w o fragments that create
problems rather than solve them. The first is
Giants at the GettyAgain 35

Figure 3a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, Figure 3b. Reconstruction drawing o f figure 3a.
81.AE.211.A.14 (top), 81.AE.211.A.15 (bot
tom), and 81. AE.211. A.34.

8 5 . A E . 1 9 4 . H , w h i c h j o i n s 8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 6 (fragment v) p l a n a t i o n for w h a t takes place i n this i m p o r t a n t part o f


(figs. 7ab). It preserves the forehead and part o f the the c o m p o s i t i o n .
hair o f E u b o i o s , w h o has fallen face d o w n w a r d , as w e l l O u r last fragment, 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 3 (fragment w) is
as m o r e o f his r o u n d shield seen f r o m the inside and his also p r o b l e m a t i c (figs. 6a and 8). In the Greek Vases 2
left h a n d g r i p p i n g his spear, m a k i n g clear that his left article, I suggested that this fragment and 81. AE.211. A.24
a r m was not bent b a c k w a r d as I h a d p r e v i o u s l y thought. (fragment x) b e l o n g e d near one another, but I was u n
T h e shaft o f the spear and the i n t e r i o r o f the shield are able to tell for sure w h e r e they b e l o n g e d i n the c o m p o s i
painted red. T h e red o f the spear overlaps the t h u m b , t i o n . Since that p u b l i c a t i o n , 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 3 was seen to
but it is unclear what the position o f the giant's a r m was. j o i n 81. A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 1 (fragment u). It preserves the right
R o u n d the edge o f the shield's r i m are dots. O n the far forearm and h a n d w i t h spear o f the giant w h o s e name
right o f the fragment is the left heel and ankle and above begins w i t h O P A [. To the right is part o f the forearm and
it to the left the l o w e r border o f the l o n g c h i t o n o f a hand o f a w o m a n h o l d i n g a sword (the w h i t e o f her flesh
figure s t r i d i n g to the right. Since the flesh is black, this has flaked); then c o m e parts o f four snakes g r o w i n g out
figure o u g h t to be male and h e r e i n lies the p r o b l e m . o f a red object that p r o b a b l y s h o u l d be an aegis, t h o u g h
First o f all, giants d o n o t wear l o n g garments. Secondly, it is s t i l l unclear to m e exactly h o w it was draped. W h i l e
g i v e n the place i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d b y this fig the identification o f the sword has been clarified, the rest
ure, he m u s t be the o p p o n e n t o f A t h e n a w h o s e name o f the fragment o n l y raises questions. T h e presence o f
ends in ]AO/V . A t h e n a appears on the far left of the snakes suggests that this figure o u g h t to be A t h e n a ,
81. AE.211. A.13 (fragment m), or so I thought i n the ear and w h i l e Z e u s , H e r a k l e s , and A t h e n a n o r m a l l y fight as
lier v e r s i o n o f this r e c o n s t r u c t i o n (see b e l o w for a n e w a triad i n the b i g G i g a n t o m a c h i e s , it is n o t u n t h i n k a b l e
identification). G i v e n the space a l l o w e d i n this part o f that A t h e n a c o u l d fight s o m e w h a t apart f r o m the others.
the c o m p o s i t i o n , the goddess' s h i e l d w o u l d have to H a v i n g her fight w i t h a s w o r d instead o f the spear is
overlap this o p p o n e n t considerably. A l t h o u g h a s t r i d i n g unusual, but m a y be paralleled o n the o v o i d neck-
figure fits fairly w e l l i n this part o f the c o m p o s i t i o n , the a m p h o r a i n the L o u v r e that was helpful for reconstruct
i d e n t i t y o f this giant is difficult to determine, and there i n g Z e u s ' h e l m e t as one w i t h a d o u b l e crest. 4
I f this
does n o t seem to be a parallel for his garment. Even figure is A t h e n a , she m u s t be s t r i d i n g past the giant o n
t h o u g h it is w e l l k n o w n that the T y r r h e n i a n painters 8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 2 (fragment v) (fig. 7), w h o stumbles t o -
often deviated b o l d l y f r o m the c o n v e n t i o n s g o v e r n i n g
m y t h o l o g i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s and offered up i m a g i n a t i v e
versions o f their o w n , this w o u l d be rather a lame e x - 4. See above (note 3).
36 Moore

Figure 4a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 81.AE.211.A.5 (far left),
81.AE.211.A.17 (top right), and 85.AE.194.C, E , and I (center left
to right).

Figure 4b. Reconstruction drawing of figure 4a.


Giants at the GettyAgain 37

Figure 5a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 81. AE.211. A.20 and 85.AE.194.G (bottom left).

w a r d E u b o i o s , and her o p p o n e n t s h o u l d be c o m i n g t o
w a r d this giant. T h e p r o b l e m w i t h this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
seems to be that the legs o f the goddess' opponent
s h o u l d appear s o m e w h e r e against the clay b a c k g r o u n d
above and b e l o w E u b o i o s ' torso or his left calf, but there
are no traces o f a figure i n these places (figs. 7ab). A l s o
e l u d i n g interpretation is the object covered w i t h added
red that appears above the goddess' a r m . Perhaps it is a
h e l m e t crest. In any case, i f w e w a n t to i d e n t i f y this Figure 5b. Reconstruction drawing o f figure 5a.
goddess as A t h e n a , another name w i l l have to be g i v e n
to the goddess b e h i n d H e r a k l e s , w h o fights the giant
n a m e d ] A O A . So far, the o n l y female O l y m p i a n besides i d e n t i f i c a t i o n is made certain b y an i n s c r i p t i o n w r i t t e n
Athena w h o appears i n this Gigantomachy is A r t e m i s o n o n the b a c k g r o u n d next to her face. She m a y also have
8 1 . A E . 2 1 1 . A . 2 0 (fragment t) (figs. 5 a - b ) . T h i s leaves as taken part i n the G i g a n t o m a c h y o n the n o r t h frieze o f
possibilities D e m e t e r , A p h r o d i t e , and H e r a . D e m e t e r is the S i p h n i a n Treasury, o n l y here her presence is c o m
not yet accounted for i n any representation o f this bat pletely conjectural. B y process o f e l i m i n a t i o n , I w o u l d
7

tle, t h o u g h she m a y have appeared o n the P e r g a m o n suggest that the goddess opposite ] A C M is H e r a . Hera's
A l t a r , for there is an i n s c r i p t i o n n a m i n g a giant called presence is accounted for i n the Gigantomachy by
E r y s i c h t h o n w h o m K a l l i m a c h o s tells us was an o p p o Lydos, and here she fights directly behind Zeus'
nent o f D e m e t e r . 5
A p h r o d i t e appears i n the Gigan chariot. 8
She m a y have appeared o n the fragmentary
t o m a c h y painted b y L y d o s o n his famous fragmentary kantharos b y N e a r c h o s , A k r o p o l i s 612, but one cannot
9

dinos f o u n d i n the A k r o p o l i s excavations. 6


H e r e , her be c o m p l e t e l y certain. O n the S i p h n i a n frieze, she ap-

5. Kallimachos, Hymn V I , 25-70; M . B . Moore, " T h e Gigan Gigantomachy," AJA 83 (1979), pl. 12, fig. 5.
tomachy o f the Siphnian Treasury: Reconstruction o f the three 7. BCH, Suppl. 4, Etudes Delphiques (1977), pp. 314-316.
Lacunae," BCH, Suppl. 4, Etudes Delphiques (1977), p. 324 n. 70. 8. Akropolis 607 (note 6); Tiverios (note 6), pi. 48(3; AJA 83
6. Athens, Akropolis, 607, ABV 107,1; M . Tiverios, 'O Au KCXI (1979), p. 82, pi. 11, fig. 2 and ills. 1-2.
T ep7o T O V (Athens, 1976), pl. 48a; M . B . Moore, "Lydos and the 9. ABV83,3.
38 Moore

Figure 6a. M a l i b u , The J. Paul Getty Museum, 81. AE.211. A.21 and 81.AE.211. A.23 (right) and 85.AE.194.F (bottom left).

Figure 6b. Reconstruction drawing o f figure 6a.


Giants at the GettyAgain 39

Figure 7a. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 81. AE.211.A.22 (left fragment), 81.AE.211.A.26 (bottom of lower right
fragment), 85. AE.194.H (top o f lower right fragment), and 81. AE.211. A.13 (top right fragment).

Figure 7b. Reconstruction drawing o f figure 7a.


40 Moore

Figure 8. Reconstruction drawing o f Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum,


81.AE.211.A.23 (top center) and 81.AE.211.A.22 (bottom center).

pears near Z e u s ' chariot, s t u m b l i n g t o w a r d a giant w h o T h u s , a few m o r e pieces o f this t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l


tries to crawl away. 10
Identifying the goddess i n question j i g s a w p u z z l e have f o u n d their places, and one can o n l y
o n the d i n o s as H e r a seems to m a k e the m o s t sense i n hope that i n the n o t too distant future, n e w pieces w i l l
v i e w o f her p a r t i c i p a t i o n near Z e u s i n at least t w o other c o m e to l i g h t and help to nil i n the rest o f the gaps.
Gigantomachies.
Hunter College
N e w York

10. Slab C , BCH, Suppl. 4, Etudes Delphiques (1977), p. 313 and fig.
IB.
East Greek Influences in Sixth-Century Attic
Vase-Painting and Some Laconian Trails
B. B. Shefton

The period under r e v i e w here, the m i d d l e a n d the p e r i t y u n d e r the r u l e o f P o l y k r a t e s .


t h i r d quarters o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y B . C . , saw considerable T h i s b r i n g s us straightaway to one o f the difficulties
upheaval o n the eastern shores o f the A e g e a n b y reason encountered i n the assessment o f influence emanating
o f the a r r i v a l o f the Persians after t h e i r capture o f the f r o m the East. T h o u g h w e can often i d e n t i f y the style
L y d i a n k i n g d o m i n 547/546 B . C . W e k n o w f r o m l i t e r a r y that i n f l u e n c e d this o r that feature o f A t t i c art, w e are
sources that it even l e d to the w h o l e s a l e m i g r a t i o n o f n o t necessarily able to place this style geographically. In
entire c o m m u n i t i e s , and the diaspora o f East G r e e k art- other w o r d s , w e d o not, o r d i d n o t u n t i l v e r y recently,
ists is often a n d p l a u s i b l y associated w i t h these events. 1
k n o w w h e n c e p r e c i s e l y a p a r t i c u l a r influence emanated,
W h e t h e r this i r r u p t i o n i n t o a p r e v i o u s l y settled state even i n cases w h e r e w e can i d e n t i f y the carrier. " E a s t
affected the currents o f influence, artistic or others, G r e e k " is even n o w a rather a m o r p h o u s b l a n k e t term
across the A e g e a n i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s is b y n o means c o v e r i n g t o o vague an area to be really useful, h o w e v e r
clear. Indeed its effect i n this respect m a y have been i n d i s p e n s a b l e it m a y be. O n this p o i n t , however, p r o g -
largely masked by the c o n t i n u i n g independence and ress is b e i n g m a d e t h r o u g h clay analyses, w h i c h l o o k as
flourishing o f E a s t G r e e k centers such as Samos, the t h o u g h they w i l l a l l o w decisive place a t t r i b u t i o n o f fab-
i s l a n d that at this v e r y t i m e e x p e r i e n c e d heights o f p r o s - rics a n d thereby to a large extent also o f s t y l e s . 2

Two o f the three pieces published here for the first time are i n the (1933-1934), pp. 1-98.
J. Paul Getty M u s e u m . I am deeply indebted to the curatorial au- Jackson: D. A . Jackson, East Greek Influence on Attic
thorities there, particularly to M a r i o n True, for permission to work on Vases. Society for the Promotion o f Hellenic
them. For the third cup, i n Osborne House, Isle o f Wight, I am Studies, Supplementary Paper 13 (London,
similarly beholden to the Royal Household, particularly the Assistant 1976).
Comptroller and to the Surveyor o f the Queens Works o f A r t , for Kunze, Kleinmeister: E . Kunze, "Ionische Kleinmeister," AthMitt 59
ready access and full facilities accorded to me. For allowing me to (1934), pp. 81-122.
consult them for photographs and other help, I am especially grateful Kunze, Bronzereliefs: E . Kunze, Kretische Bronzereliefs (Stuttgart,
to Adriana Calinescu (Bloomington, Indiana), Nicolas Coldstream 1931).
(London), Reynold Higgins (Godalming), Vassos Karageorghis ( N i c - Markoe, Bowls: G. Markoe, Phoenician Bronze and Silver Bowls
osia), Norbert Kunisch (Bochum), Maria Antonietta Rizzo (Rome, from Cyprus and the Mediterranean. University
V i l l a Giulia), Thomas Schfer (Athens), Klaus Sthler (Munster/ o f California Publications, Classical Studies,
Westf), Veronica Tatton-Brown (London), Nancy Thomas (Los A n - vol. 26 (Berkeley, 1985).
geles), and Michael Vickers (Oxford). O n the Phoenician bowls, I had Shefton: B. B . Shefton, "Three Laconian Vase-
the advantage o f being able to consult Gioacchino Falsone (Palermo), Painters," BSA 49 (1954), pp. 299-310.
to w h o m I am much indebted. Stibbe: C. M . Stibbe, Lakonische Vasenmaler des sechsten
This article is based upon the paper given at the Amasis Painter fahrhunderts v. Chr. (Amsterdam and London,
Symposium at M a l i b u i n M a r c h 1986, which was held i n connection 1972).
with the exhibition then opening at the Los Angeles C o u n t y M u s e u m Walter, Samos: H . Walter, Friihe Samische Gefsse: Chronologie
o f Art. I am truly grateful to the organizers o f the symposium for the und Landschaftsstile ostgriechischer Gefsse.
original invitation. I also had the good fortune o f being able to attend Samos, vol. 5 (Bonn, 1968).
to the final stages o f the paper i n the congenial surroundings o f the Walter-Karydi, Samos: E . Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefsse des 6. fahr-
J. Paul Getty M u s e u m and the Getty Center, and I deeply appreciate hunderts v. Chr.: Landschaftsstile ostgriechischer
the help and encouragement I enjoyed from all sides. Dorothy O s a k i Gefsse. Samos, vol. 6, part 1 (Bonn, 1973).
of the Antiquities department o f the Museum put order into my manu- 1. For example, J. M . Hemelrijk, Caeretan Hydriae (Mainz, 1984),
script and prepared it for publication. To her, m y particular thanks. p. 160; cf. also J. Boardman, fHS 78 (1958), p. 12. In general, for these
Abbreviations East Greek migrant vase-painters, see also M . Martelli Cristofani,
Centre Brard 1978: Les Cramiques de la Grce de Vest et leur diffusion Prospettiva (Siena) 27 (October 1981), pp. 214; eadem, Centre Brard
en occident. Centre Jean Brard, Institut Fran - 1978, pp. 192-194.
ais de Naples, 67 juillet, 1976 (Paris and N a - 2. Recent work is extensively summarized i n R. E . Jones, Greek
ples, 1978). and Cypriot Pottery: A Review of Scientific Studies. BSA, Fitch Labora-
C o o k , Fikellura: R. M . C o o k , "Fikellura Pottery," BSA 34 tory, Occasional Paper 1 (1986), pp. 288-290 (Samos), p. 309
42 Shefton

Figure la. Samian Little-Master cup by the Osborne House Painter. Side A . Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 86.AE.57.

Figure lb. Underside, side B o f cup, figure l a .


East Greek Influences 43

Figure lc. B o t t o m o f cup, figure l a .

A t a t i m e w h e n p r e v a i l i n g o p i n i o n gave p r i m a c y i n w i t h a n u m b e r o f t e l l i n g observations and a r g u m e n t s . 3

the artistic development d u r i n g the seventh and s i x t h It is perhaps at this stage w o r t h w h i l e i l l u s t r a t i n g


centuries to Ionia and to the East G r e e k w o r l d i n g e n t h r o u g h some n e w material the k i n d o f m u t u a l b o r r o w
eral, searching out East G r e e k influences u p o n c o n t i i n g o f shapes and m o t i f s that w e n t o n at that t i m e be
nental Greek centers was a particularly attractive t w e e n centers i n East Greece and those o n the G r e e k
endeavor to buttress such assumptions. T h r o u g h the i n m a i n l a n d . T h i s w i l l a l l o w the u n d o u b t e d East G r e e k
fluential w o r k o f H u m f r y Payne and Andreas R u m p f the influence o n A t t i c to be seen i n a w i d e r context, as part
role o f the G r e e k m a i n l a n d was then, however, put i n t o of a mutual commerce i n ideas passing across the
the f o r e g r o u n d as the generative force i n G r e e k art, and A e g e a n i n b o t h directions. T h e i m p o r t a n t centers at that
consequently t r a c k i n g d o w n East G r e e k elements came time were Attica, East G r e e c e p a r t i c u l a r l y perhaps
to be seen as less r e w a r d i n g . M o r e recently again reac S a m o s a n d L a c o n i a . Interestingly e n o u g h the role o f
t i o n against these v i e w s is i n t u r n perhaps l e a d i n g t o C o r i n t h was m u c h less evident b y then.
w a r d a m o r e balanced p o s i t i o n . C e r t a i n l y a perceptive T h r e e cups shall p r o v i d e the basis for o u r discourse:
and i n t e l l i g e n t study has attempted not l o n g ago to Two o f t h e m are East G r e e k , m o r e precisely S a m i a n ,
b r i n g the East G r e e k influence to o u r attention again and decorated by the same hand; the t h i r d one is A t t i c .

(Miletos), pp. 665666 (archaeological conclusions). Pierre Dupont's Istrosand Naucratisturned out when tested to originate in
work i n Lyons is o f particular relevance; cf. his early report, i n Centre Miletus"). Some o f the individual results w i l l be quoted where appli
Brard 1978, pp. 290297, and esp. the results embodied i n Dacia 27 cable, i n the lists below, pp. 5253.
(1983), pp. 1944, esp. p. 33 (Samos for fine cups), and p. 34 ("apart 3. Jackson.
from a proportion o f local imitations all the Fikellura imported to
44 Shefton

technique o f p a i n t i n g i n some examples resembles that


o f F i k e l l u r a i n that the linear details are i n d i c a t e d by
reserve, not i n c i s i o n . O t h e r examples, however, d o use
i n c i s i o n , o u r t w o cups a m o n g t h e m . T h e r e is, i n c i d e n
tally, at least one fine cup, f o u n d i n the H e r a i o n at
Samos, w h i c h is e n t i r e l y F i k e l l u r a and therefore, as clay
analysis has n o w s h o w n , l i k e l y to have been made i n
Miletos. 5
It has the characteristic slip and uses the
reserved-line technique. This e x c e p t i o n a l piece with
elaborate figurai d e c o r a t i o n inside and outside was pre
s u m a b l y p r o d u c e d as a challenge to w h a t was g o i n g o n
at Samos; even a l i m i t e d amount o f incision was p e r m i t
ted o n this one, w h i c h was to t r u m p any S a m i a n w o r k !
We b e g i n w i t h the cup i n M a l i b u , f o r m e r l y i n the
Walter and M o l l y Bareiss c o l l e c t i o n 6
(figs, lah). T h e
shape and the outside d e c o r a t i o n are v e r y m u c h l i k e
those o f an A t t i c l i p - c u p o f the smaller k i n d , and n o
doubt the shape, i n c l u d i n g that o f the foot, and the de
tails are d e r i v e d f r o m such cups. T h e r e are some features
that m a k e one t h i n k o f rather earlier types o f A t t i c cups,
l i n k e d to Sianas, o n w h i c h w e are liable to find an i v y
w r e a t h o n the l i p ( t h o u g h o n o u r cup the sinuous stalk,
the w h i t e dots a l o n g the straight branch, and the a m p l i
tude o f the leaf are v e r y East Greek!). T h e h a n d l e -
palmette w i t h its use o f i n c i s i o n l i k e w i s e l o o k s early i n
A t t i c terms (fig. I d ) .

Figure id. Detail o f handle palmette o f cup, figure l a . A cup i n O x f o r d , once i n the S p e n c e r - C h u r c h i l l c o l
l e c t i o n , b y the C P a i n t e r s u r p r i s i n g l y e n o u g h not a
7

O f these, o n l y the first cup has p r e v i o u s l y been made Siana, but i n shape almost a canonical l i p - c u p h a s b o t h
p a r t i a l l y k n o w n ; the other t w o are e n t i r e l y u n p u b l i s h e d the w r e a t h o n the l i p and a palmette not u n l i k e ours. It
and w e are grateful to the o w n e r s for their p e r m i s s i o n m a y be w o r t h n o t i n g that the enthusiastic use o f c o n
to present t h e m here. E a c h o f these w i l l , I trust, contrib v o l u t i o n s for the base o f o u r palmette is specifically East
ute i n a different w a y to i l l u s t r a t i n g the active i n t e r G r e e k and not i n this measure often f o u n d i n A t t i c . 8

relationship b e t w e e n various areas o n b o t h sides o f A p a r t f r o m the r e g u l a t i o n reserved n a r r o w band, the


the A e g e a n . rest o f the b o w l o f the O x f o r d cup is e n t i r e l y black, as
T h e t w o East G r e e k cups first. T h e y are so-called w e m i g h t expect. O n the M a l i b u cup, however, w e have
I o n i a n L i t t l e - M a s t e r cups o f a k i n d that ever since they at the base o f the b o w l a zone o f short rays i n close
were first i d e n t i f i e d tended to be assigned to Samos, an f o r m a t i o n s p r o u t i n g f r o m the stem o f the foot, t o p p e d
a t t r i b u t i o n that has n o w been c o n f i r m e d b y clay anal rather i n the m a n n e r o f F i k e l l u r a by a b a n d o f short
ysis. T h e appearance o f the clay is close to Attic; there is
4
bars, dark and light i n turn (fig. l b ) . T h e general scheme
fine and subtle p o t t e r y w o r k and n o use o f slip. T h e m a y have been suggested by A t t i c Siana cups, w h i c h

4. Kunze, Kleinmeister, pp. 81122 (fundamental); cf. also Walter - this portion o f the rosette is modern restoration. Additional color ap
Karydi, Samos, pp. 2426. For assignment to Samos: Kunze, Kleinmeis pears to be used for alternate fronds o f the palmette and extensively to
ter, pp. 118, 121. Clay analysis: see Dupont (note 2). set off the different parts o f the birds' bodies, plumages, and ex
5. For cup (here figs. 20ab), see below (note 79); for Miletos, see tremities. It is not now easy to describe the nature o f this yellow-
Dupont, Dacia (note 2). brown coloring, but it seems to be the result o f the application o f a
6. M a l i b u 86.AE.57. H : 9.0 cm (bowl: 4.7 cm, foot: 4.3 cm); diame pigment rather than the firing. White is used additionally for the lower
ter at lip: 14.2 cm (including handles: 19.2 cm); diameter o f footplate : body o f a proportion o f the birds and also for the upper part o f their
6.1 c m (see p. 52, no. 3 for bibliography). Incision widely used for legs (as on the Alexandria fragment, see below [note 57] w i t h our
handle-palmette, for plumage and contour o f the birds, and for con fig. 13b). White also for dots along the i v y branch, though much o f
touring the elements o f the central rosette inside. The outer petals are this has faded. Reddish-brown clay, finely levigated. N o discernible
bounded by an incised circle, which was probably compass-drawn, mica. The cup was found i n Etruria (previous owner's information).
even though the pivot point at the center is no longer discernible, as 7. ABV57,1\2. Paralipomena, p. 23; L . B u r n and R . G l y n n , comps.,
East Greek Influences 45

Figure le. Interior o f cup, figure l a .

t e n d to have rays a n d t o n g u e s near the base o f t h e i r b a n d o f short bars, d a r k a n d l i g h t i n t u r n , as w e f o u n d


b o w l . T h e s e are, however, by n o means the o n l y p o s above the rays o n the outside. T h e rest o f the b o w l is
sible source for this feature. 9
Altogether the Attic black u n t i l the offset l i p , w h i c h features a p r o g r e s s i o n o f
i n f l u e n c e s a n d these are the p r e d o m i n a n t ones o n the water b i r d s p r a n c i n g a l o n g " a k i n d o f shore to this p o o l
o u t s i d e o f the c u p s u g g e s t a date before the m i d d l e o f o f the ' w i n e - d a r k sea.' T h u s the w a t e r b i r d s that parade
the c e n t u r y rather t h a n after. a r o u n d it i n v a r i o u s stances are a pleasant, b u t n a t u r a l
T h e i n t e r i o r o f the b o w l (fig. l e ) s h o w s a central r o c o n c e i t , " to quote f r o m the apt d e s c r i p t i o n i n the first
sette pattern s u r r o u n d e d b y the same " F i k e l l u r a - t y p e " f u l l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the i n t e r i o r o f the c u p . 1 0
T h e birds

Beazley Addenda (Oxford, 1982), p. 5; (R. Blatter, AA, 1973, p. 69, these feet has i n all three cases been doubted ( M . Martelli Cristofani,
fig. 2profile view); description: J. D . Beazley, JHS 52 (1932), p. 182. Centre Brard 1978, p. 191 n. 130; Walter-Karydi, Samos, p. 102 n. 81).
8. Cf. Kunze, Kleinmeister, p. 107. Note also the lozenge betwee n O n e has to assume that the doubts and even condemnation are justi
palmette and stalk and again below the volute on our cup. T h e latt er fied, yet one may be permitted to wonder h o w it came about that the
recurs on the cup i n Riehen, Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 48.427, wher e restorer i n the last century managed to provide feet with so "correct" a
the palmette is close to ours. decoration, whose appropriateness he could not have known.
9. For the bars, see C o o k , Fikellura, p. 71, fig. 10.5. B u t they are For possible Laconian precedents to the rays on the bottom o f the cup
not confined to Fikellura. Apart from our (Samian) cup, note the bars bowl, see below (note 54).
below the rays on the stems o f the three face-kantharoi from Chius i, 10. Greek Vases: Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection, M a l i b u , The
presumably Samian products, too. (ARV 2
1529, nos. 2, 4, 5); see J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 1983, p. 10 (catalogue by M . True). Kunze,
E. Paribeni, Prospettiva 5 (April 1976), p. 53, figs. 23 (Florence ); Kleinmeister, p. 97, took the same water birds on the Alexandria frag
Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 57.482483 (East Berlin). T h e pertinence o f ment from Naukratis (here fig. 13 and note 57) to be o f an Egyptian
46 Shefton

Figure if Detail o f interior r i m o f cup, figure l a .

Figure ig. Detail o f interior r i m o f cup, figure l a .

Figure h. Detail o f interior r i m o f cup, figure l a .


East Greek Influences 47

have their p l u m a g e and claws rendered i n fine i n c i s i o n by s i x m o r e . 1 4


S u c h a c o n f i g u r a t i o n also shaped the
and there is some enhancement i n w h i t e (figs. Ifh). A l l voids b e t w e e n the petals i n t o an a u t o n o m o u s and v i s u -
this is i n the t r a d i t i o n o f East G r e e k plastic figure ally equivalent pattern o f spherical triangles, a feature
vases, 11
w h i c h n o d o u b t p r o v i d e d the m o d e l for details often emphasized by stippling or other surface treatment
o f s t y l i z a t i o n , for this w a y o f r e n d e r i n g birds h a d n o o f the area. A l l this is clearly illustrated b y the P h o e -
previous h i s t o r y i n East G r e e k vase-painting. n i c i a n b r o n z e b o w l N 49 f r o m N i m r u d i n L o n d o n ,
It is the central m e d a l l i o n (fig. l e ) , w h i c h m u s t attract w h i c h by p e r m i s s i o n o f the B r i t i s h M u s e u m ' s Trustees
o u r special interest, for it presents us w i t h a rosette and the k i n d n e s s o f D r . J. E . C u r t i s o f the D e p a r t m e n t
m o t i f that, w h i l e it is n o t often f o u n d i n G r e e k art, has a o f Western A s i a t i c A n t i q u i t i e s , is r e p r o d u c e d here 15

story to it o f considerable interest, one that has o n l y (fig. 3). N e a r E a s t e r n specialists date the b o w l to the
partially been e x p l o r e d b y p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s . 12
e i g h t h century.
T h a t the m o t i f is o f N e a r E a s t e r n o r i g i n is u n i v e r s a l l y Clearly, the sudden appearance o f such a pattern i n the
acknowledged, and I can do no better than quote the late repertoire o f G r e e k ornaments f r o m the e i g h t h c e n t u r y
R i c h a r d Barnett's c o m m e n t a r y o n the P h o e n i c i a n and o n w a r d is u n l i k e l y to be sheer coincidence, but rather
S y r i a n i v o r y lids and panels f r o m N i m r u d , d a t i n g to the due to exposure to N e a r E a s t e r n prototypes. T h e r e is
eight and seventh centuries B . c . : " . . . a n e t w o r k i n g o f indeed, as w e shall see, some reason to believe that
intersecting circles . . . , a g e o m e t r i c pattern, the l a y i n g a m o n g the carriers o f the m o t i f to the G r e e k w o r l d were
out o f w h i c h b y means o f compass was w e l l u n d e r s t o o d precisely the P h o e n i c i a n b o w l s , o f w h i c h w e have j u s t
i n Western A s i a f r o m an early date, since it f o r m e d the seen an example. O n the w h o l e , however, the G r e e k
subject o f a m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o b l e m o n a clay tablet o f the repertoire used the net patterns o n l y v e r y rarely, i n c o n -
o l d B a b y l o n i a n p e r i o d . It appears o n A s s y r i a n reliefs o f trast to the N e a r E a s t e r n p a r a d i g m e x e m p l i f i e d here, i n
the e i g h t h c e n t u r y d e p i c t i n g carpets, on Phoenician a d d i t i o n to the N i m r u d b o w l j u s t cited, by w o r k s i n
b o w l s , and o n G r e e k reflections o f N e a r E a s t e r n a r t " 13
B a g h d a d (fig. 2; note 13), L o s A n g e l e s (fig. 4; note 15,
(fig. 2). W h a t this " n e t w o r k o f i n t e r s e c t i n g c i r c l e s " p r o - i t e m e), and, at one remove, i n N i c o s i a (fig. 5; note 15,
duced is a p r o f u s i o n o f rosettes w h e r e each petal serves end). U n l i k e the N e a r East, G r e e k practice preferred the
t w o units, w i t h the result that any one rosette, w h e n i n d i v i d u a l u n i t , albeit w i t h the circumference o f the s i x
p l u c k e d out o f the net, n o t o n l y has its c o m p l e m e n t o f a d d i t i o n a l petals, thereby i n d i c a t i n g its o r i g i n a l setting
six petals r a d i a t i n g f r o m the hub, but is c i r c u m s c r i b e d as part o f a net. It is perhaps n o t w i t h o u t interest to note

breed, noting particularly the white breast and the white down cover- 14. The construction o f this compass-created pattern, though i n
ing the upper part o f the legs. This point, made o f course in ignorance fact extremely basic and elementary, has fascinated the modern geome-
o f the birds' heads (which are missing on the Alexandria fragment), ter archaeologist, too; thus E . Reisinger, Jdl 31 (1916), p. 289; Board-
has not been taken up by commentators o f either the M a l i b u cup or man (note 12), p. 86 n. 3; B . Schweitzer, Greek Geometric Art (London
the Boston face-kantharos (Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 55.480, here figs. and N e w York, 1971), p. 215; cf. also Lenerz-de Wilde (note 12),
14ab) where the bird friezes are identical i n kind. pp. 1618; E . H . Gombrich, The Sense of Order, N i n t h Wrightsman
11. J. Ducat, Les vases plastiques rhodiens archaques en terre cuite Lectures, N e w York University, Institute o f Fine A r t (Oxford, 1979),
(Paris, 1966), pl. 12.3-4; cf. also A . P. Kozloff, ed., Animals in Ancient p. 69.
Art from the Leo Mildenberg Collection, Cleveland M u s e u m o f Art, 1981, 15. A . H . Layard, The Monuments of Niniveh, second series (London,
no. 99 (with bibliography-Jenifer Neils). 1853), pi. 62A, whence Kunze, Bronzereliefs, fig. 15. B . Borell, Attisch
12. Kunze, Bronzereliefs, pp. 123127; P. Jacobsthal, Early Celtic Art Geometrische Schalen (Mainz, 1978), p. 75, O r . 29. Here as (a) Other
(1944; Oxford, 1969), p. 73 n. 2; J. Boardman, The Cretan Collection in Phoenician bowls w i t h the pattern; (b) L o n d o n N 15, Layard (this
Oxford (Oxford, 1961), pp. 8486; M . Lenerz-de Wilde, Zirkelornamen- note), pi. 61 A ; Borell (this note), p. 75, Or. 27, picture also i n
tik in der Kunst der Latnezeit (Munich, 1977), pp. 6567. S. Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians (London, 1968), p. 69, fig. 18;
13. R. D. Barnett, Catalogue of the Nimrud Ivories. British M u s e u m see below p. 50; (c) Louvre A O 20135 from Idalion, Cyprus; Borell
(1957; L o n d o n , 1975), p. 64 (extended net pattern w i t h i n circle and on (this note), p. 77, Or. 69. H . M a t t h u s , Metallgefdsse und Gefass-
flat panel). Other examples: La Terra tra i Due Fiumi, Turin and other untersatze der Bronzezeit, der geometrischen und archaischen Priode auf
cities, 1985-1987, no. 177, fig. p. 405 =. Baghdad, Iraq M u s e u m , from Cypern. Prhistorische Bronzefunde, A b t . 2, vol. 8 (Munich, 1985),
N i m r u d . Carved ivory tusk w i t h figurai decoration on its sides (under no. 431, pi. 39. Markoe, Bowls, pp. 242-243 ( i l l ) ; (d) Sibari, Calabria,
its cut base, an extended net pattern circumscribed by oval-shaped from Francavilla M a r i t i m a , see below (note 35); (e) Los Angeles
frame; here fig. 2. "8th century B . c . " ) , apparently not published be- C o u n t y M u s e u m o f A r t , Ancient Near East Department, M 76.97.385.
fore. J. W and G. M . Crawfoot, Early Ivories from Samaria (London, G. Markoe, d., Ancient Bronzes, Ceramics, and Seals: The Nasli
1938), p. 41, pi. 21.8 (extended net pattern "first half o f ninth century M. Heeramaneck Collection of Ancient Near Eastern, Central Asiatic and
B . c . " ) . The latter examples from Samaria are the earliest ones k n o w n European Art, Gift of the Ahmanson Foundation (Los Angeles, 1981),
to me, i f indeed their early date can still be maintained; cf. I. J. Winter, p. 249, no. 1311 ("Phoenician. Second half eighth century B . C . " ) : three-
AJA 80 (1976), p. 203; Iraq 43 (1981), pp. 123-125; B . Freyer- hub net pattern w i t h i n circle, stippled voids; here fig. 4; (f) L o n d o n
Schauenburg, Elfenbeine aus dem samischen Heraion (Hamburg, 1966), 91420, from N i m r u d ; Borell (this note), p. 76, O r . 50 bis; R. Barnett,
p. 68 w i t h n. 353. For the pattern on metal and pottery bowls, see BMQ 32 (1967-1968), pis. 57-59a; idem, RivStudFenici 2 (1974), p. 21,
note 15. For carpets and the like, see note 43; cf. also note 15 on (e) for fig. 2, pi. 2; cf. also the remarks ibid. pp. 2122. This is a unique piece
earliest occurrence. i n that it has a single six-petaled rosette as center ornament w i t h the
48 Shefton

Figure 2. Carved ivory tusk from N i m r u d . Design un Figure 3. Phoenician bronze bowl from N i m r u d . Inte
der cut base. Baghdad, Iraq Museum, rior. London, British Museum, Department
79508-7ND.6A/6B (from La Terra ira i Bue of Western Asiatic Antiquities, N 49. Photo,
Fiumi, p. 405, no. 177). courtesy Trustees o f the British M u s e u m .

that the few occurrences o f the extended net pattern i n w i t h i n a c i r c u l a r area, it is o t h e r w i s e rarer than we
the N e a r E a s t e r n m a n n e r are either v e r y early i n the m i g h t have expected. S i x t h - c e n t u r y examples (apart
h i s t o r y o f the m o t i f i n the A e g e a n o r concentrated at a f r o m the East G r e e k ones, a m o n g t h e m the M a l i b u cup)
p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y i n East Greece. O f are few indeed. F o r A t t i c a w e can cite the early s i x t h -
that, however, m o r e presently. century l e k a n o i d b o w l w i t h cup handles, once attributed
T h e m o s t c o m m o n occurrence o f the rosette as an by B e a z l e y to the Panther Painter, but e l i m i n a t e d f r o m
i n d i v i d u a l u n i t is as a s h i e l d device, w h e r e it is, o f his later l i s t ; 18
and a little later, there is the s t r i k i n g plate,
course, j u s t one u n i t . H e r e it has a l o n g career f r o m the C o p e n h a g e n A B c 1017, w h i c h h a d been assigned to
early seventh c e n t u r y to the second h a l f o f the s i x t h , C o r i n t h i a n by K n u d F r i i s J o h a n s e n and E m i l Kunze,
w i t h a special c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the second and t h i r d but n o w is c l a i m e d for A t t i c b y D e n i s e C a l l i p o l i t i s -
quarters o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y i n A t t i c b l a c k - f i g u r e . 16
In Feytmans. 19
In b o t h cases, the m o t i f is the central device
O l y m p i a , i n fact, a m i n i a t u r e b r o n z e s h i e l d w i t h the o f a tondo.
s i m p l e s i x - p e t a l e d rosette ( w i t h o u t the a d d i t i o n a l c i r It is the e i g h t h and the seventh centuries, however,
cumference petals that m a k e u p the special character o f that s h o u l d c l a i m o u r special attention, for there w e
our rosette) has survived, t h o u g h it w o u l d not be easy to approach the t i m e w h e n the m o t i f m a d e the t r a n s i t i o n
assign a close date to i t . 1 7
A s a central t o n d o device f r o m the N e a r East to the G r e e k w o r l d ; therefore, each

spherical triangular voids picked out by stippling. The outer corona o f 16. F r o m the Painter o f Akropolis 606, ABV 81.5 (Tubingen) to the
petals is, however, omitted and, unlike the Greek central ornament o f Swing Painter, Paralipomena, p. 133, no. 18 ter, dated by E . Bohr, Der
this type (as on the M a l i b u cup), the rosette floats unhugged w i t h i n a Schaukelmaler (Mainz, 1982), no. 54, pi. 57, to circa 525-520 (p. 57).
much wider circle. M o r e i n Kunze, Bronzereliefs, p. 123 n. 186; also, Jacobsthal (note 12),
We append a striking C y p r i o t adaptation on the Bichrome I V clay p. 73 n. 2. A d d , e.g., the black-figure fragments (hydria?) from Cyrene
bowl, Nicosia B 1962 (fig. 5), which has on its underside the net (Demeter sanctuary), D. White, Expedition 17.4 (1975), p. 10, fig. 3
pattern (five hubs w i t h i n a circle), P. Dikaios, Guide to the Cyprus shield device, early; the kantharos, P. C o u r b i n , BCH 76 (1952),
Museum, 3rd ed. (Nicosia, 1961), p. 83, pi. 15.3; M . Y o n , Manuel de pis. 1617, very early; amphora fragment from Ampurias, J.-J. Jully,
cramique chypriote, vol. 1 (Lyons, 1976), p. 187 w i t h fig. 71b. A s a RBPhil 54 (1976), pp. 25-51, pis. 3 - 4 ("3rd quarter sixth century");
seventh-century piece it is appreciably later than its Phoenician m o d black-figure lekythos, circa 520 B . C . , Reggio, Calabria, from Caulonia
els, and the pattern is i n fact garbled and disorganizedthere is a necropolis.
supernumerary pair o f petals to each rosette! For further examples o f 17. A . Furtwngler, Olympia, vol. 4 (Berlin, 1890), pi. 62.1005.
the pattern i n phoenicianizing Cypriot, see below (note 44). 18. ABV 18.6; not i n the reconstituted list i n Paralipomena,
This is also the place to point to some Phrygian and post-Phrygian pp. 1112. Full publication, Basel, M n z e n und Medaillen, Sale 40,
period pottery fragments from Boghazky, published i n K . Bittel and Kunstwerke der Antike (December 13, 1969), no. 57.
H . G. G t e r b o c k , Bogazky, Neue Untersuchungen in der hethitischen 19. D. Callipolitis-Feytmans, Les plats attiques figures noires (Paris,
Hauptstadt (Berlin, 1935), p. 59, pi. 14.6 (single unit w i t h i n circle; 1974), pp. 67-69, pi. 16 below. CVA Copenhagen 2, pi. 92.2; cf. Kunze,
hatching for the voids = H . T h . Bossert, Altanatolien [Berlin, 1942], Bronzereliefs, pp. 123-124 ("Corinthian"); H . Payne, JHS 47 (1927),
fig. 1064); pi. 18.2 (three hubs w i t h i n circle; hatching for voids); pi. 18.1 p. 158 ("perhaps Attic"). For more instances on rather minor plates
(similar pattern?); pi. 18.4 (degenerate; several units?). The net pattern during the period, see Callipolitis-Feytmans, pp. 169170 n. 2, p. 183,
suggests a Near Eastern source ultimately. and index p. 498 ("toile de ptales encadre de ptales").
East Greek Influences 49

example deserves scrutiny. The earliest occurrence


k n o w n to m e is o n the underside o f a M i d d l e G e o m e t r i c
A t t i c p y x i s f r o m the K e r a m e i k o s , that is to say s o m e
t i m e i n the second quarter o f the e i g h t h c e n t u r y . 20
Even
t h o u g h that p e r i o d saw p a r t i c u l a r l y l i v e l y contacts be
t w e e n A t t i c a and the N e a r East and w o u l d therefore
p r o v i d e a plausible scenario for transference, 21
the p o s
sibility, advocated by B e r n h a r d Schweitzer, that w e have
here a case o f M y c e n a e a n s u r v i v a l cannot be d i s m i s s e d
out o f h a n d . 2 2
C e r t a i n l y it is a s u r p r i s i n g l y early o c c u r
rence o f the m o t i f i n its full c a n o n i c a l manifestation.
Another somewhat later eighth-century example is
p r o v i d e d b y the C r e t a n shield r e l i e f f r o m the Idaean
Cave, where o u r rosette appears as the central device o n
the o m p h a l o s . T h e s e b r o n z e shields are considered to be
o f l o c a l w o r k m a n s h i p for l o c a l cult use, but under
strong N e a r E a s t e r n i n f l u e n c e . 23

Other eighth-century occurrences tend to be un-


canonical i n some w a y o r other. T h e r e is a L a t e G e o
m e t r i c krater i n R h o d e s , where the m o t i f consists o f a
quatrefoil rosette w i t h half-leaves o n four sides o f the
Figure 4. Phoenician bronze bowl, second half o f
metope. 24
A t the v e r y e n d o f the century, w e have f r o m eighth century B . C . Interior. Los Angeles
a votive deposit i n the H e r a i o n at Samos a terracotta tray County M u s e u m o f A r t , M.76.97.385, The
w i t h o u r m o t i f o n the b o t t o m surface, but as an e i g h t - Nasli M . Heeramaneck Collection of Ancient
petaled device and therefore rather different in ap Near Eastern and Central Asian A r t . Gift o f
the Ahmanson Foundation. Photo, courtesy
pearance f r o m w h a t w e have c o m e to e x p e c t . 25

Los Angeles County M u s e u m o f Art.


F o r the e n d o f the e i g h t h or the b e g i n n i n g o f the
seventh century, C r e t e provides a pithos l i d "shaped l i k e
a t i n helmet" o f possibly Late Geometric or more proba
b l y E a r l y O r i e n t a l i z i n g date. H e r e o u r rosette forms the
centerpiece i n a series o f concentric zones d e s c e n d i n g
the side o f the l i d . 2 6
M o r e interesting perhaps are the
t w o C r e t a n seventh-century flat trays w i t h r e l i e f pattern
that K u n z e d r e w attention to w h e n d i s c u s s i n g o u r pat
tern. T h o u g h its rosette is not quite c a n o n i c a l i t lacks

20. K . Kbler, Kerameikos, vol. 5, part 1 (Berlin, 1954), p. 276


(inv. 795), pi. 65; cf. J. N . Coldstream, Greek Geometric Pottery
(London, 1968), p. 26 ( " M G II").
21. Coldstream (note 20), p. 349, as against P. J. Riis, Sukas, vol. 1
(Copenhagen, 1970), p. 163, who rather soft-pedals on the Attic links.
22. Schweitzer (note 14), p. 34 with figs, l i b and e.
23. Kunze, Bronzereliefs, p. 18, no. 27, pi. 34. CI. Rolley, Greek Minor
Arts: The Bronzes (Leiden, 1967), fig. 161. For the eighth-century dat
ing, cf. apart from Kunze: Dadalische Kunst, H a m b u r g M u s e u m fr
Kunst und Gewerbe, 1970, pp. 1618 (article by J. Boardman); also
idem, The Greeks Overseas (London, 1980), pp. 58-60; J. N . C o l d
stream, Geometric Greece (London, 1977), pp. 287288. Figure 5. Cypriot Bichrome I V bowl. Design on bot
24. CIRh 4 (1931), p. 345, fig. 381 (Kameiros, Checraci Gr. 200); cf. tom underside. Nicosia, Cyprus Museum,
Coldstream (note 20), p. 274. B 1962. Photo, courtesy Cyprus Museum.
25. R. Eilmann, AthMitt 58 (1933), p. 110, Beilage 33.2. Walter,
Samos, pp. 28-30, fig. 16, pi. 18.105; cf. Coldstream (note 23), p. 254
with fig. 82b (reverse side).
26. H . Payne, BSA 29 (1927-1928), p. 246, no. 60 bis, figs. 34, 41,
pis. 89. I owe help with the dating o f this and other Cretan material
to Nicolas Coldstream.
50 Shefton

the peripheral petalsthe fragment f r o m Knossos shows L o n d o n (from Thebes?) has a design w h i c h , too, was
that the o r n a m e n t here was part o f an extended c i r c u l a r taken f r o m N e a r E a s t e r n art, t h o u g h here the o b v i o u s
net pattern. T h e other tray, f r o m near M i r a b e l l o , has p r o t o t y p e is o n i v o r y dishes f r o m M e g i d d o , 3 1
w h i c h are
inserted i n t o an area o f crescents an extract f r o m an substantially earlier, reaching back i n t o the Late B r o n z e
extended rosette net quite i n the N e a r Eastern m a n n e r , 27
A g e . H o w e v e r , that gap m a y be apparent rather than real
and there can be little d o u b t about the nature o f the and due to chance o f s u r v i v a l .
m o d e l i n b o t h these instances. F o r A t t i c a , w e s h o u l d recall for this p e r i o d the p r o t o -
It is t i m e n o w to return to the G r e e k m a i n l a n d and A t t i c terracotta v o t i v e s h i e l d o f the first h a l f o f the sev
consider the pair o f gigantic B o e o t i a n b o w fibulae o f enth century that shows o u r rosette as a single u n i t i n
bronze, n o w i n West B e r l i n , but once i n P a u l A r n d t ' s full canonical f o r m . 3 2
Sparta, too, provides an e x a m p l e
c o l l e c t i o n i n M u n i c h . T h e y have been dated to the e n d o n the w e l l - k n o w n i v o r y relief d e p i c t i n g a ship full o f
o f the e i g h t h or the b e g i n n i n g o f the seventh c e n t u r y . 28
warriors, where the rosette serves as s h i e l d device. Its
Intriguingly, w e see here o u r rosette as a circular m o t i f date is put t o w a r d the e n d o f the t h i r d quarter o f the
indeed, but as part o f a larger c o m p l e x o f three hubs seventh c e n t u r y . 33

across each way. It is a net, therefore, but one that is Attica, Boeotia, Sparta, Cretethese w i t h the addition
encompassed i n a circle. K u n z e r i g h t l y saw that this o f some uncanonical strays from Rhodes and Samosare
exactly repeats the P h o e n i c i a n b r o n z e b o w l f r o m N i m - the areas that seem to p r o d u c e the earliest G r e e k o c c u r
rud, B r i t i s h M u s e u m N 15. 29
T h e r e the central tondo, rences o f o u r m o t i f i n the e i g h t h and seventh centuries.
w i t h i n a large central star pattern, is f o r m e d by o u r Is it j u s t b y chance that these areas c o r r e s p o n d m o r e or
motif. T h e rest o f the b o w l is filled w i t h concentric less b r o a d l y to the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P h o e n i c i a n m e t a l
animal friezes interrupted by j a n i f o r m "herms" or b o w l s d u r i n g that same p e r i o d i n the G r e e k w o r l d ? 3 4
Of
rather " m u m m i e s . " T h i s particular one comes from course, the p o i n t cannot be pressed too far. N e i t h e r is
N i m r u d and w i l l not have g i v e n the i m p e t u s to G r e e k the correspondence total, n o r do w e k n o w w h a t other
work, but a sister piece p r e s u m a b l y f r o m the same l u x u r y i m p o r t s f r o m the N e a r East reached the same
workshop d i d reach the Greek world, having been areas w i t h o u t s u r v i v i n g . H o w e v e r , the general p o i n t is
found i n O l y m p i a . 3 0
Its central m e d a l l i o n is practically v a l i d . T h e areas that h a d adopted the N e a r E a s t e r n r o
identical to the one f r o m N i m r u d , but the inner tondo, sette pattern are b y and large those that w e k n o w f r o m
w h i c h s h o u l d have s h o w n o u r motif, was i n this i n other evidence to have been recipients o f l u x u r y i m p o r t s
stance left u n w o r k e d . It is, however, entirely l i k e l y that f r o m the eastern M e d i t e r r a n e a n .
another c o m p a n i o n piece was one o f the carriers that A w o r d s t i l l o n the early occurrences o f the m o t i f i n
b r o u g h t or reinforced k n o w l e d g e o f and taste for the Italy. T h e earliest is w e l l outside the E t r u s c a n area, but,
rosette pattern to the G r e e k w o r l d . R e v e r t i n g to the o f course, a l o n g P h o e n i c i a n trade routes to the West. I
B o e o t i a n pair o f fibulae i n B e r l i n , w e m i g h t recall at refer to the b o w l i n Sibari, f r o m Francavilla M a r t i m a ,
this stage that the m a t c h i n g pair o f b o w fibulae i n w h i c h has been dated to the second h a l f o f the e i g h t h

27. Knossos: P. O r s i , AJA (Second Series) 1 (1897), p. 261, fig. 9. Megiddo Ivories (Chicago, 1939), pi. 29.151.
Mirabello: J. P. Droop, BSA 12 (1905-1906), p. 35. figs, 15-16. 32. D. B u r r (Thompson), Hesperia 2 (1933), p. 612, no. 287, fig. 79.
28. E . Reisinger, Jdl 31 (1916), pp. 289-290, pis. 17-18 (drawing); 33. R. M . Dawkins, ed., The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia at Sparta.
U . Gehrig, A . Greifenhagen, and N . Kunisch, Fiihrer durch die An- Society for the Promotion o f Hellenic Studies, Supplementary Paper 5
tikenabteilung. Berlin, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz (London, 1929), pp. 214-215, pis. 109-110; J. S. M o r r i s o n and R. T.
(Berlin, 1968), pp. 2829, pi. 6. R. Hampe, Frhe griechische Sagenbilder Williams, Greek Oared Ships (Cambridge, 1968), p. 83 (Arch. no. 31),
in Bbotien (Athens, 1936), pis. 45; cf. also Schweitzer (note 14), pi. lOddrawing; E . - L . I. Marangou, Lakonische Elfenbein- und Bein-
pp. 215216; Coldstream (note 23), p. 206 w i t h fig. 66c. schnitzereien (Tubingen, 1969), pp. 8390, fig. 68 (photograph; shield
29. See above (note 15), (b). device invisible).
30. Furtwangler (note 17), p. 141, col. 1, pi. 52, bottom row, left and 34. Distribution maps i n Borell (note 15), p. 80, fig. 12; Markoe,
center; Borell (note 15), p. 78, Or. 96; Markoe, Bowls, pp. 204 (G3), Bowls, end map. For Athens, a sizable group o f Late Geometric deep
316319 (ill.); Moscati (note 15), p. 73, fig. 22. The correspondence cups is held to have been influenced by these Phoenician metal bowls;
w i t h the N i m r u d bowl, L o n d o n N 15, was already noted by I. Strom, Schweitzer (note 14), p. 52; Borell (note 15), passim.
Problems Concerning the Origins and Early Development of the Etruscan 35. P. Zancani Montuoro, AttiMGrecia 11-12 (1970-1971), pp. 9-33, pi. 8
Orientalizing Style (Odense, 1971), p. 118 with n. 211, and before by (drawing); Borell (note 15), p. 78, Or. 102; Markoe, Bowls, pp. 161-162,
H . Frankfort (below [note 43]), pp. 198-199. 232 (ill.), 143-144. R. D. Barnett, RivStudFenici 2 (1974), pp. 22-23
31. L o n d o n fibulae and the M e g i d d o ivories: Schweitzer (note 14), called it a "local, perhaps Sicilian-Phoenician variant o f the one-handled
pp. 213214, figs. 125126 w i t h p. 334 n. 62. Similar pattern on bowl," but he never to my knowledge expanded on this. In fact, the
seventh-century Etruscan silver cista from Praeneste (tomba Cas- handle is evidently a later ''local" addition, though apparently o f Near
tellani): Civilt del Lazio Primitivo, Rome, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Eastern origin, too. U n l i k e the other Phoenician bowls, this one is
1976, p. 218, no. 1, pi. 44c. Ivory disc, T J. Dunbabin, ed., Perachora, lipped like the ones from Mesopotamia; cf. R. W. H a m i l t o n , Iraq 28
vol. 2 (Oxford, 1962), pi. 186, A 198. M e g i d d o ivories: G. L o u d , The (1966), pp. 117. There seems no good reason not to accept this piece
East Greek Influences 51

century. 35
H e r e the central r o u n d e l consists o f a circular m e n t i d e c o r a t i v i " says M a r i a Santangelo, speaking for
net o f rosettes w i t h five hubs across each way, therefore, many. Yet despite the exotic material ( w h i c h c o u l d have
larger than the N i m r u d b o w l , L o n d o n N 15, w h i c h has been i m p o r t e d u n w o r k e d , as i v o r y was), the case is not
three hubs. T h e rest is filled w i t h concentric zones o f as conclusive as this statement i m p l i e s , and arguments
animals and e g y p t i a n i z i n g motifs. In this area o f S o u t h can be deployed for Italian w o r k m a n s h i p , a d m i t t e d l y o f
Italy, however, n o reflections o f this i m p o r t e d influence oriental i n s p i r a t i o n . T h e presence o n the underside o f
are as yet discernible. T h e situation is o t h e r w i s e in o u r m o t i f as a single large unit, c o v e r i n g the w h o l e o f
E t r u r i a . H e r e , d u r i n g the seventh century, there are n u - the available space, i f a n y t h i n g , speaks against oriental
merous examples o f the motif, always to m y k n o w l e d g e p r o d u c t i o n . Since the other decorative elements too are
as single units, never as part o f a net. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n quite at h o m e i n o r i e n t a l i z i n g E t r u r i a , I a m i n c l i n e d to
m a y have some relevance to the q u e s t i o n o f where and consider seriously an Italic o r i g i n for the piece.
h o w the Etruscans obtained their k n o w l e d g e o f this pat- Further n o r t h but s t i l l a l o n g the coastal stretch we
tern. A g a i n s t w h a t one w o u l d be i n c l i n e d to assume o n find o u r rosette i n M a r s i l i a n a d ' A l b e g n a and i n V e t -
general grounds, namely that the influence came directly u l o n i a . F r o m M a r s i l i a n a w e have the w e l l - k n o w n i v o r y
t h r o u g h N e a r Eastern i m p o r t s , it is arguable that the p y x i s f r o m the C i r c o l o d e g l i A v o r i . Its underside has the
k n o w l e d g e came v i a G r e e k w o r k s , w h i c h , as w e have crisply engraved rosette o f o u r type c o v e r i n g the w h o l e
seen, tended to a v o i d the net pattern and confine the use o f the resting surface. Here again the date is mid-seventh
to the single unit. century. F r o m V e t u l o n i a w e have the hoplite stele for
T h e E t r u s c a n examples have been collected and c o m - A v e l e Feluske, equipped w i t h C o r i n t h i a n h e l m e t and a
m e n t e d u p o n by K u n z e and Jacobsthal (above [note 12]), shield w i t h o u r device, quite i n the G r e e k manner. T h e
and o n l y v e r y few additions need be made. It is, h o w - stele is dated m i d w a y i n the second h a l f o f the seventh
ever, w o r t h l o o k i n g at t h e m again as a w h o l e , n o t i n g century. 36

their d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t i m e and place. W e b e g i n w i t h the Rather further i n l a n d , but s t i l l w i t h i n the a m b i t o f


g u i l l o c h e - f r a m e d rosettes a l o n g the side c l a d d i n g o f the V u l c i , a l o n g the F i o r a Valley, is Sovana, where the n o w
chariot i n the Regolini-Galassi t o m b at Cerveteri and the lost T y s z k i e w i c z b r o n z e b o w l was f o u n d . T h i s b o w l has
corner rosettes placed o n the head platform o f the bronze been assigned to a variety o f p r o d u c t i o n centers, but
b e d f r o m the same grave. C e r v e t e r i too is the f i n d place persuasively been argued by Friedrich H i l l e r to be E t r u s -
o f the p u z z l i n g perfume bottle o f dark steatite-like stone, can w o r k . A date i n the t h i r d quarter o f the seventh
w i t h g o l d - l e a f enhancement, f r o m the t o m b a d e g l i A l a r i century seems l i k e l y e n o u g h . H e r e o u r rosette is again
o f the B a n d i t a c c i a cemetery, dated i n the later second the central m o t i f o f the internal display surface, w h i c h i n
h a l f o f the seventh century. Its neck is f o r m e d by a t u r n is s u r r o u n d e d by a fringe o f insubstantial tongues
woman's head w i t h a p o l o s and l o n g H a t h o r tresses. T h e o n t o w h i c h six g r i f f i n protomes are grafted i n sur-
piece is generally considered to be a N e a r E a s t e r n i m - prisingly inorganic j u n c t i o n . 3 7

port, "chiaramente orientale per materia, f o r m a ed ele- T u r n i n g to E t r u r i a Interna w e have to cite t w o i n -

as a genuine Near Eastern import; cf. also the description and analysis monumenti etruschi (Novara, 1960), p. 149. Marsiliana dAlbegna: A.
in G. Hlbl, Beziehungen der dgyptischen Kultur zu Altitalien (Leiden, M i n t o , Marsiliana dAlbegna (Florence, 1921), p. 223, fig. 14c; F. Nicosia,
1979), vol. 1, pp. 311312; vol. 2, catalogue no. 1265. The very early in Etrusker in der Toskana, Hamburg, M u s e u m fr Kunst und
date for the grave group advocated i n the original publication is now Gewerbe, 1987, no. 1.213 (pp. 158-160, fig. 213after restoration, w i t h
lowered to Late Geometric, as Juliette de L a Genire tells me. important discussion). The suggestion by Markoe, Bowls, p. 141 that
36. Cerveteri: Regolini-Galassi tomb. Chariot: H e l b i g vol. 1, under
4
the pyxis may be Phoenician or Syrian import founders on the nu-
no. 670; O. Montelius, La civilisation primitive en Italie (Stockholm, merous specifically Etruscan features o f the piece, among which we
1895-1910), pi. 339.13; L . Pared, La tomba Regolini-Galassi (Vatican may also number the presence o f the single rosette rather than the net
City, 1947), pi. 25.227; J. Swaddling, ed., Italian Iron Age Artefacts in the pattern. Vetulonia stele: G. Q. Giglioli, Larte Etrusca (Milan, 1935),
British Museum (London, 1986), p. 428, fig. 15 (details, H . Salskov pi. 59.1.
Roberts). Contrast the Etruscan guilloche-framed single rosette w i t h 37. MarbWinckProg 1963, pp. 2732with reproduction. Primary
the N i m r u d ivory tusk similarly framed but w i t h the oriental net publication: W. Froehner, La Collection Tyszkiewicz (Munich, 1892),
pattern (here fig. 2). Bronze bed: H e l b i g vol. 1, no. 672; Montelius
4
p. 13, pi. 15 ("from Sovana, o f bronze. Diameter: 24 cm"); Paris,
(this note), pi. 336.15; Pareti (this note), pi. 30 top. Steatite-like stone Salle Drouot, (sale June 8-10, 1898), no. 144no illustration
bottle: Fully illustrated only by A . Rathje, i n K . Ascani et al., eds., (W. Froehner). Henceforth: "lost." The error i n Luschey and Beazley
Studia Romana in honorem Petri Krarup Septuagenarii (Odense, 1976), pp. (see below, this note) that the bowl is o f silver may be due to a
1019, figs. 14; eadem, i n D. and F. Ridgway, eds., Italy before the confusion w i t h the silver Phoenician b o w l from Pontecagnano, also
Romans (London, 1979), pp. 171174, fig. 11.13. The rosette, being once i n the Tyszkiewicz collection (Drouot, 1898, sale 220), and now
carved here, lacks precision. A curving band snakes behind the petals, i n Paris, Petit Palais; cf. Markoe, Bowls, p. 198 E 10.
as it does behind the pendant arcs along the side o f the vessel. For the For other stylistic attributions, East Greek: Furtwngler (note 17),
tomb, see G. Ricci, Mon Ant 42 (1955), cols. 329-345. H e l b i g , vol. 3,
4
p. 142 (no. 883); W. Lamb, Greek and Roman Bronzes (London, 1929),
no. 2592 (Dohrn/Parlasca). Quotation from M . Santangelo, Musei e p. 68, pl. 18b; F. Villard, MonPiot 48 (1956), p. 37 n. 1 (with survey o f
52 Shefton

stances, b o t h o f w h i c h fall near e n o u g h w i t h i n the sam e L e t us briefly survey the relevant material. First, the
t i m e s p a n as the ones f r o m coastal E t r u r i a . T h e first o c rosette as single u n i t s e r v i n g as t o n d o m o t i f :
currence is o n the l i d o f the b r o n z e a m p h o r a w i t h e n
1. C u p . Samos, H e r a i o n , N o r t h G a t e no. 131. H . P.
graved d e c o r a t i o n n o w i n West B e r l i n . T h e piece, l o n g
Isler, i n Centre Brard 1978, p. 79 (e variant), p i . 37,
k n o w n o n l y f r o m the d r a w i n g i n M o n t e l i u s , has n o w
figs. 2 6 - 2 8 ; i d e m , Samos, v o l . 4 ( B o n n , 1978), p. 94,
been illustrated i n a collective p h o t o g r a p h . It is reporte d
no. 131, pis. 4849, B e i l a g e 1 " m i d - s i x t h century."
to c o m e f r o m C h i u s i and is u s u a l l y considered to hav e
N o t e that the rosette is eight-petaled, b u t the general
been p r o d u c e d there d u r i n g the second h a l f o f the sev
appearance is e n t i r e l y canonical. T h e i n s i d e o f the b o w l
enth century. H e r e o n the l i d o u r m o t i f is the cente r
w i t h its a n i m a l frieze and the z o n e o f " s k i t t l e s " sur
piece s u r r o u n d e d b y a frieze o f palmettes l i n k e d b y i n
r o u n d i n g the central t o n d o r e m i n d s one o f s o m e o f the
terlacing arcs. Finally, again f r o m the area s u r r o u n d i n g
P h o e n i c i a n b o w l s , but this m a y be c o i n c i d e n c e . T h e cup
L a k e Trasimene, w e have the stele f r o m M o n t e G u a -
is s l i p p e d and has its linear details i n reserved technique.
l a n d r o at the border b e t w e e n P e r u g i a and C o r t o n a , an d
L i g h t b r o w n clay, micaceous. S h o u l d be F i k e l l u r a , i.e.,
n o w i n the m u s e u m at Perugia. H e r e i n the combat scen e
Milesian.
b e t w e e n t w o w a r r i o r s o u r rosette serves as s h i e l d devic e
2. C u p . Histria; fragmentary. Rosette is eight-
o f one o f t h e m i n the G r e e k m a n n e r . 38

petaled, as i n (1). M a i n zone o f inside w a l l consists o f


It seems then that b o t h i n the coastal and i n the i n l a n d
interlaced pomegranates. P. A l e x a n d r e s c u , Histria, vol. 4
areas o f E t r u r i a the c u r r e n c y o f o u r m o t i f was restricte d
(Bucharest and Paris, 1978), no. 199, p i . 20 " m i d - s i x t h
to the m i d d l e and the second h a l f o f the seventh century,
centuryFikellura." Central fragment only:
p r o b a b l y i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h G r e e k m o d e l s rather tha n
E . C o n d u r a c h i , Histria, v o l . 1 (Bucharest, 1954), p. 403,
t h r o u g h any direct N e a r Eastern influence.
fig. 273; W a l t e r - K a r y d i , Samos, no. 325, p i . 39, p. 47,
It is t i m e n o w to r e t u r n to the M a l i b u cup, w h i c h ha s
fig. 80. P D u p o n t , Dacia 27 (1983), p. 34 (clay analysis:
been the starting p o i n t o f o u r s u r v e y W e have alread y
Miletos).
o b s e r v e d that o u r m o t i f does n o t appear to have a s o l i d
t r a d i t i o n i n East Greece. T h e v e r y early examples f r o m 3. C u p . E t r u r i a . M a l i b u , T h e J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m ,

R h o d e s a n d S a m o s were u n c a n o n i c a l . F r o m the full sev 8 6 . A E . 5 7 , ex-Bareiss no. 208. H e r e figs, lah, see above

enth century, K u n z e was o n l y able to cite the ivory (note 6). Bareiss (see note 10), p. 10 (inside o f cup), p. 69,

p i n h e a d f r o m K a m e i r o s i n the B r i t i s h M u s e u m , 3 9
an d no. 22 ("circa 530 B . C . " ) . E . L a n g l o t z , Studien zur Nord-

subsequent finds have not, as far as I a m aware, m o d i f i e d ostgriechischen Kunst ( M a i n z , 1975), p. 193 n . 78, p i . 67,

this picture. In v i e w o f the r i c h N e a r E a s t e r n i m p o r t s t o fig. 8 (part o f i n s i d e o f l i p ) ; cf. also K . S c h a u e n b u r g , i n

the sanctuaries at E p h e s o s , Samos, and L i n d o s , this m a y Studien zur Griechischen Vasenmalerei, AntK, Beiheft 7

seem rather s u r p r i s i n g . 40
T h e n s u d d e n l y i n the m i d - (1970), p. 35 n . 26. P r e s u m a b l y S a m i a n .

s i x t h century, a spate o f instances can be observed, ap (1) and (2) are stemless cups w i t h r i n g foot. F o r these,
p a r e n t l y centered o n Samos or M i l e t o s . M o r e than tha t cf. Kunze, Kleinmeister, p. 117 n. 2; Cook, Fikellura,
even. A t this t i m e , the use o n the m a i n l a n d , v i r t u a l l y pp. 4446, p. 58, fig. 7, G r o u p W , " e n d o f the first h a l f
c o n f i n e d to A t t i c a , is essentially as a s h i e l d device. N o t o f the s i x t h century." (3) is a s t e m m e d c u p o n the m o d e l
so o n Samos. H e r e w e have it as a central t o n d o decora o f the A t t i c L i t t l e - M a s t e r cup.
t i o n (as o n o u r M a l i b u cup) and, m o s t s u r p r i s i n g o f all, We turn n o w to the rosette-net patterns. These are not
as a net pattern, quite i n the P h o e n i c i a n m a n n e r an d the l i m i t e d net circles that w e have met b o t h o n P h o e n i
v i r t u a l l y unprecedented i n A e g e a n lands. O n c e noted, cian b o w l s and o n the B e r l i n B o e o t i a n fibulae, but nets
this p h e n o m e n o n deserves l o o k i n g i n t o . w i t h i n f i n i t e lateral spread. H e n c e , they appear o n the

previous opinions); E . Walter-Karydi, i n Studien zur grieschischen Vasen- confusion. It has now reemerged, and a small picture is i n W . - D .
malerei. AntK, Beiheft 7 (1970), p. 16 "Aeolian." Corinthian: Froehner Heilmeyer, Antikenmuseum Berlin. Die ausgestellten Werke. Staatliche
(this note); Kunze, Bronzereliefs, pp. I l l , 282addenda; H . Payne, Necro- Museen, Preussischer Kulturbesitz (West Berlin, 1988), p. 200.1. For
corinthia (Oxford, 1931), p. 271 n. 1; H . Luschey, Die Phiale (Bleicher- the l i d , however, Montelius remains the only published source. For
ode, 1939), pp. 36 n. 240, 140 n. 786; F. Matz, Geschichte der griechischen bibliography on this amphora, cf. also I. Str0m, i n Swaddling (above
Kunst, vol. 1 (Frankfurt, 1950), pp. 424-425, 528 n. 530, fig. 30; J. D . [note 36]), p. 56 n. 9. It is usually discussed i n connection w i t h the
Beazley, AntK 4 (1961), p. 61; H . V. Herrmann, OlForsch, vol. 11, part 2 closely related Cannicella bronze amphora i n Florence from Orvieto,
(Berlin, 1979), p. 129 n. 31. See now also M . Martelli Cristofani, thus: C I . Laviosa, i n Nuove letture di monumenti etrusche. Soprinten-
Centre Brard 1978, pp. 168-170 ("Etruscan"). denza allAntichit d'Etruria (Florence, 1971), pp. 53-59, pis. 17-20.
38. Bronze amphora: West Berlin, inv. Misc. 7031. H : 61.7 cm. The Camporeale, i n Aspetti e problemi dell'Etruria Interna. V I I I Convegno
o

piece, published i n drawings i n Montelius (above [note 36]), pi. 228.1, Nazionale di Studi Etruschi e Italici (Florence, 1974), pp. 117-118. A m
was subsequently lost sight of, considered "lost" or even as figment o f ple photographic coverage with discussion i n F. Johansen, Reliefs en
East Greek Influences 53

outsides o f vessels (except for no. 8 b e l o w ) . 88.6-1.556z. R . M . C o o k , CVA B r i t i s h M u s e u m 8, p i . 14


(Great B r i t a i n 581), fig. 3. O u t s i d e pattern. Inside: b i t c h .
T h e pieces are listed b y shape:
I dem, Fikellura, p. 45 (no. W 6), p l . lac (a is upside
1. O i n o c h o e . Naukratis; fragmentary. London d o w n ) , "about 560550 B . C . " F i k e l l u r a ( M i l e t o s ) .
1949.5-16.18; 1949.5-16.16; 88.6-1.556b; 88.6-1.556c; and 8. S t e m m e d cup. N o provenance. B l o o m i n g t o n , I n
other fragments not s h o w i n g o u r m o t i f . R . M . C o o k , d iana U n i v e r s i t y A r t M u s e u m , 83.39 (fig. 9). I o n i a n
CVA B r i t i s h M u s e u m 8, p i . 9 (Great B r i t a i n 575), fig. 4. L i t t l e - M a s t e r cup, t h o u g h the shape is m o r e l i k e that o f
Walter-Karydi, Samos, no. 43, p i . 3 (better picture). a c o n v e n t i o n a l " I o n i a n c u p " w i t h h i g h foot. Inside
Fikellura (Miletos). r o u n d e l : t w o komasts (incision). Inner l i p : c o n t i n u o u s
2. O i n o c h o e . H i s t r i a V 1225; fragmentary. P. A l e x - n et o f three-quarter rosettes o f o u r type. I a m most
andrescu, Histria, v o l . 4 (1978), no. 188, p i . 20; cf. R . M . g rateful to A d r i a n a Calinescu, C u r a t o r o f A n c i e n t A r t at
C o o k , CVA B r i t i s h M u s e u m 8, p. 3, no. U 9, " m i d - I ndiana U n i v e r s i t y A r t M u s e u m , for b r i n g i n g the cup to
s i x t h century." F i k e l l u r a . P. D u p o n t , Dacia 27 (1983), m y attention and a l l o w i n g m e to illustrate it here. H e r
p. 34 (clay analysis: M i l e t o s ) . p u b l i c a t i o n o f the cup is i n Indiana University Art Mu
3. O i n o c h o e . P a n t i k a p a i o n ; fragmentary. Moscow, seum Bulletin 2.2 (1986) ("Recent A c q u i s i t i o n s " ) . The
P u s h k i n M u s e u m , M-1120, M - 6 3 , and more, fragments d ate s h o u l d be i n the second quarter o f the century.
f r o m 1963 season. N . A . S i d o r o v a , Soobshcheniya Gosu- Presumably Samian.
Muzeya Izobrazitelnykh Iskusstv imeni A. S. To these eight East G r e e k examples, an A t t i c single
Pushkina, v o l . 4 ( M o s c o w , 1968), pp. 110-111, no. 1, fig. 1 t o n has to be added; a piece w h i c h , I have little doubt,
(whence here fig. 6), " m i d - s i x t h century." Fikellura w as directly i n s p i r e d by such S a m i a n or M i l e s i a n p r o t o
(Miletos). t ypes as the B o c h u m aryballos, number 5 i n our list here.
4. O i n o c h o e . Samos; fragmentary. Mentioned in 9. A t t i c black-figured " o o n " fragment. From the
C o o k , Fikellura, p. 43 (no. U 2). F i k e l l u r a ( M i l e t o s ) . K e r a m e i k o s cemetery. Athens, Kerameikos M u s e u m .
5. A r y b a l i o s . N o provenance. B o c h u m University R . L u l l i e s , Jdl 6 1 - 6 2 (1946-1947), pp. 6 4 - 6 5 , p i . 13,
S 1030 (fig. 7). N . K u n i s c h , A A, 1972, pp. 5 5 3 - 5 6 7 ; n o. 43 ("second h a l f o f s i x t h c e n t u r y " ) .
idem, Antiken der Sammlung J. C. und M. Funcke ( B o c h u m ,
E x c e p t for n u m b e r 8, each o f these vases has the r o
1977), no. 56; H . C . E b e r t h u s e r and M . Waltz, Vasen-
s ette net o n the outside surface. A further piece m a y
Bronzen-Terrakotten des klassischen Altertums ( M u n i c h , 1981),
h ave to be placed here: P. Jacobsthal, Early Celtic Art
p. 102, fig. 120; I. Scheibler, Griechische Tdpferkunst
(1944; O x f o r d , 1969), p. 73 n . 2 " f r a g m e n t i n Scheur-
( M u n i c h , 1983), p. 25, fig. 17. F i k e l l u r a ( M i l e t o s ) .
l eer c o l l e c t i o n , the H a g u e . " D r . R o b e r t L u s i n g h S c h e u r -
6. Krater. Taranto; fragmentary. Whereabouts un l eer v e r y k i n d l y tells me that the fragment is not n o w i n
k n o w n (fig. 8); cf., however, below, this page. C o n s i d t he A l l a r d Pierson M u s e u m , A m s t e r d a m , and that he has
ered b y its p u b l i s h e r ( w h o h a d not seen the fragment) to n o knowledge o f its whereabouts. Jacobsthal could hardly
be R h o d i a n ; cf., however, W a l t e r - K a r y d i , Samos, p. 106 h ave h a d i n m i n d o u r n u m b e r 6, w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y
n . 149 ( " L a c o n i a n w i t h use o f S a m i a n m o t i v e . " T h i s p recedes it i n his list?
seems u n l i k e l y , but is not i m p o s s i b l e ) . E . H o m a n n - W h a t this survey o f the material o f the m i d d l e de
Wedeking, Archaische Vasenornamentik (Athens, 1938), c ades o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y has revealed for Samos above
p. 68, fig. 7. T h e picture there suggests the presence o f a ll is truly remarkable. Whereas the list o f tondo devices,
slip, partly r u b b e d off. w h i c h includes o u r M a l i b u cup, is not p a r t i c u l a r l y large,
7. C u p (stemless w i t h r i n g foot). N a u k r a t i s . L o n d o n t hat o f the extended net pattern is. T h e r e was, one sus-

bronze d'Etrurie ( N y Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, 1971), pis. addition to Rhodes also i n Gordion (disc as furniture decoration,
3840. O f these only Laviosa has published pictures after the cleanin g Megaron 3; later eighth-century context, unpublished. Information
consequent upon the inundation disaster. A picture i n the cleane d kindly supplied by Elizabeth Simpson, Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art)
state, which has revealed many new details, also i n M . Pallottino, et and Perachora (Dunbabin [note 31], pi. 186, A 222disc; pis. 183-185,
al., Rasenna. Storia e civilt degli Etruschi (Milan, 1986), fig. 492. Deta il A 134, A 155, A 157central device on ivory spectacle fibulae; seventh-
before cleaning also i n Swaddling (above [note 36]), p. 428, fig. 14 century "Protocorinthian strata"; perhaps local manufacture, ibid,
(Salskov Roberts). The animal friezes allow dating and placement o f p. 433J. M . Stubbings).
this amphoralate seventh century. The B e r l i n amphora must be o f 40. For an analysis o f "foreign" imports and dedications at selected
similar date. Monte Gualandro stele: G i g l i o l i (above [note 36]), pi. 59. 4. Greek sanctuaries, including Samos, during the eighth and much o f
39. D. G. Hogarth, Excavations at Ephesus (London, 1908), pi. 31.5. the seventh centuries, see I. Kilian-Dirlmeyer, RGZM 32 (1985),
Actually the device as a single unit is current on small-sized ivory discs pp. 235ff.
quite widely and i n areas where it is not otherwise found. Thus i n
54 Shefton

Figure 6. Fikellura oinochoe fragments from Pantikapaion. Moscow, Pushkin Museum, M-1120+ (from
Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Muzeya Izobrazitelnykh Iskusstv imeni A. S. Pushkina, vol. 4 [1968],
pp. 110-111, fig. 1).

Figure 7. Left, Fikellura aryballos. Bochum, Archae


ological Institute o f the University, S 1030.
Photo, courtesy Archaeological Institute o f
the Ruhr University.

Figure 8. Above, Krater fragment. From Taranto,


present whereabouts unknown (from E .
Homann-Wedeking, Archaische Vasenorna-
mentik [Athens, 1938], fig. 7).
East Greek Influences 55

Figure 9. Ionian Little-Master cup. Interior. B l o o m i n g t o n , Indiana University A r t M u s e u m ,


83.39. Photo, courtesy Indiana University A r t M u s e u m , B l o o m i n g t o n , Michael C a v -
anagh and K e v i n Montague.

pects, s o m e t h i n g before the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h century, u n t i l it e x p e r i e n c e d a renaissance o n black-and-white


p r e s u m a b l y i n M i l e t o s or Samos, w h i c h engaged the floor mosaics of the early Roman empire,4 2 harking
a t t e n t i o n o f one or m o r e artists, w h o for a short w h i l e b ack, i f one may put it that way, to its s i m i l a r use in
adopted the pattern and influenced their colleagues to do A s s y r i a n palaces i n the early first m i l l e n i u m . 4 3

l i k e w i s e . Thereafter, the pattern lapsed i n t o o b s c u r i t y 4 1


It is, o f course, p u r e s p e c u l a t i o n to suggest that w h a t

41. There are some few classical occurrences, such as the late fifth- and S. Anamali, Mosaques de lAlbanie (Tirana, 1975), p. 17 below
century bronze sieves (single unit, perforation pattern) from Ugento, (Apollonia Illyrica; three-hub net pattern w i t h i n circle); C . Balmalle
Apulia, and from Youroukler, Turgovishte, Bulgaria (Lo Porto, et al., Le dcor gomtrique de la mosaque romaine (Paris, 1985), pis. 45c
AttiMGrecia 11-12 [1970-1971], pl. 5 1 D - E , p. 126, no. 10; I. Velkov, (single unit i n a series), 241c (single unit i n central roundel), 391eg
BlABulg 5 [1928-1929], p. 41, fig. 52). Rather interesting is the pres- (extended net pattern)all i n France.
ence o f our pattern as an extended net covering the belly all the way Presumably the pattern was a Roman reinvention. If there was any
round on the fragmentary early Celtic spouted bronze flagon from influence from the past, it is perhaps, i n view o f the extensive use o f
Eygenbilzen, now i n Brussels, probably o f late fifth-century date, see the net pattern, more likely to have come from the Near East than
Jacobsthal (note 12), p. 202, no. 390, pis. 194.390, 266.144. Flagons o f from the Greek world. We note i n this respect the facade o f the
this kind, as the more famous pieces i n Reinheim and Waldalgesheim Parthian-period palace at Assur, W. Andrae and H . Lenze, Die
show, were decorated w i t h most intricate compass-drawn extended Partherstadt Assur (Leipzig, 1933), pi. 15df, 14 (reconstruction o f net
patterns (ibid., pp. 73, 81), and likely enough the creation o f ours on pattern).
the Eygenbilzen flagon was quite independent o f any Mediterranean or 43. Barnett (note 13), quoted on p. 47; cf. also, Kunze, Bronzereliefs,
Near Eastern model; cf. also Lenerz-de Wilde (note 12), pp. 99, 117 pp. 126127. Assyrian floor slabs: H . R. H a l l , Babylonian and Assyrian
(Somme-Bionne). Sculpture in the British Museum (Paris, 1928), pi. 56 ("carpet," extended
42. E . Pernice, Hellenistische Kunst in Pompei, vol. 6 (Berlin, 1938), net pattern) from Kuyunjik; H . Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of
pis. 28.1 ("carpet," extended net pattern), 33.4 (net pattern within cir- the Ancient Orient (Harmondsworth, 1954), p. 103, fig. 40 ("carpet,"
cle), 44.6 (central tondo, net pattern w i t h i n circle); R. H i n k s , Catalogue extended net pattern) from Khorsabad. For the extended net pattern as
of the Greek, Etruscan and Roman Painting and Mosaics in the British cladding on the sides o f ceremonial war chariots, see B . Hrouda, Die
Museum (London, 1933), no. 10 (Carthage; extended net pattern); Kulturgeschichte des assyrischen Flachbildes (Bonn, 1965), pi. 27.4 (seventh
F. Baratte, Catalogue des mosaques romaines et palochrtiennes du Muse century); W. Orthmann, Der alte Orient (Berlin, 1975), pi. 239 (chariot
du Louvre (Paris, 1978), no. 24 (Utica; extended net pattern); S. Adhami o f Assurbanipal, seventh century).
56 Shefton

Figure 10. C y p r i o t terracotta torso. F r o m Salamis. Bichrome V. London, British M u s e u m , A 107113. Photo, courtesy Trustees
o f the British M u s e u m .

s p a r k e d o f f the interest was a display, available i n th e have set o f f this t e m p o r a r y f a s h i o n (fig. 10). 44
It is, of
S a m i a n H e r a i o n or at D i d y m a , o f P h o e n i c i a n or p h o e n i - course, also possible that we have here a delayed effect o f
c i a n i z i n g w o r k dedicated i n the sanctuary. H e r e the fac t the K o l a i o s dedications at S a m o s o f W e s t e r n P h o e n i c i a n
that there was so s t r o n g and for the Greek w o r l d un finery or luxury objects f r o m Tartessos. T h o u g h the
p a r a l l e l e d a stress o n the net pattern suggests that N e a r K o l a i o s dedications h a d b y the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h c e n
E a s t e r n or C y p r i o t objects, perhaps textiles, m a y i n fac t t u r y l a r g e l y been swept away or covered already, s o m e

44. The piece figured here as representative o f such Cypriot phoeni- stone sculpture; thus: (in analogy) Amasis' linen corslet at Lindos and
cianizing textiles is the w e l l - k n o w n terracotta torso from the Toumba one intended for Sparta (Lindian Temple Chronicle C 36 X X I X ;
site near Salamis (perhaps still o f seventh-century date, as Veronica Hdt. 11.182, 11.47); cf. also J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece,
Tatton-Brown suggests to me), H . B . Walters, Catalogue of Terracottas vol. 2 (London, 1898), p. 243, on 1.21,7; for elaborately worked C y p r i o t
in the British Museum (London, 1903), A 107-113, fig. 4; H . Bossert, textiles: at D e l p h i (Ath. II.48b), at Tegea (Paus. VIII.5,3), at Rhodes
Altsyrien (Tubingen, 1951), figs. 6970; Veronica W i l s o n (Tatton- (Plut. De Alex. fort. 34,684c " w o r k o f Helikon"); see for all this still
Brown), i n Salamine de Chypre: Histoire et Archologie, Lyons C o l l o E. Buschor's M u n i c h dissertation o f 1912, Beitrage zur griechischen Tex-
quium 1978 (Paris, 1980), p. 62 w i t h fig. 7, p. 67 (discussion); tilkunst, pp. 45-50; also F. von Lorentz, RomMitt 52 (1937), pp.
V. Karageorghis and J. des Gagniers, La cramique chypriote de style 211-212.
figur (Rome, 1974), pp. 114-115; see ibid., pp. 131-133, and 138-140 for In addition to the terracotta torsos we find our rosette pattern i n
similar pieces from Kazafani (Kyrenia district), on which also Dikaios single row, laterally extended, on several Bichrome V vases, thus:
(note 15), p. 88. Whether they represent linen corslets (the Kazafani Karageorghis and des Gagniers (this note), pp. 8488 (Nicosia 1951/
ones wear a baldric and dagger fitting; cf. also S. Tornquist, XI-27/1 and L o n d o n C 839), pp. 127-139 (Nicosia B 333); D. Morris,
MedelhavsmusB 6 [1972], p. 16) or special ceremonial vestments (as on The Art of Ancient Cyprus (Oxford, 1985), pi. 275; cf. also above
the limestone statue i n N e w York o f the advanced sixth century, J. L . (note 15, end) as net pattern on Bichrome I V bowl, here fig. 5.
Myres, Handbook of the Cesnola Collection, no. 1267), they or rather the 45. B . B . Shefton, i n H . G. Niemeyer, ed., Phonizier im Westen.
real thing may well have been visible i n Greek sanctuaries, especially Madrider Beitrge, vol. 8 (Mainz, 1982), p. 344; references to the
East Greek ones w i t h their massive imports o f C y p r i o t terracottas and literature, to which add now: H . Kyrieleis, Fhrer durch das Heraion von
East Greek Influences 57

o f them were still available for Herodotos to report o n i n


the fifth c e n t u r y . 45
Perhaps some ivories s u r v i v e d the
clean-up i n the t h i r d quarter o f the seventh century.
Certainly, the western Phoenician products o f the south-
ern Iberian p e n i n s u l a d i d use o u r rosette b o t h as single
units and as net pattern, as w e k n o w f r o m A n d a l u s i a n
finds o f ivories; w e also k n o w that some o f those
reached the H e r a i o n at S a m o s , 46
but b e y o n d that w e
cannot even speculate. A l l i n a l l , however, b e a r i n g i n
m i n d the evidence w e have actually at o u r disposal,
C y p r i o t o r n a m e n t a l fabrics (in t u r n dependent u p o n
P h o e n i c i a n inspiration) seem the m o s t l i k e l y source.
T h e M a l i b u cup then represents an i n t r i g u i n g a m a l -
Figure 11. Ionian cup. Exterior. Osborne House,
g a m o f A t t i c influence i n the shaping o f the vessel and i n
Cowes, Isle o f Wight. Photo, author.
certain o f the decorative details o n the outside. T h e i n -
side, however, is essentially East G r e e k i n that it adopts
as t o n d o device a N e a r E a s t e r n pattern, w h i c h h a d t e m - her death there, has o n its g r o u n d s the so-called Swiss
porarily, a r o u n d the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h century, for C o t t a g e i n w h i c h there were deposited the acquisitions
reasons w e can o n l y surmise, achieved a fashionable ap- and m e m o r a b i l i a collected b y several o f the royal princes
peal i n Samos. T h e figure-zone o n the inside l i p , too, is d u r i n g their y o u t h f u l voyages to the M e d i t e r r a n e a n i n
s o m e t h i n g w e really o n l y encounter o n " I o n i a n " L i t t l e - the late '50s and early '60s o f the last century. Par-
M a s t e r cups and w o u l d not expect to find anywhere ticularly noteworthy are the gatherings b y the then
else. H e r e the cups elaborate o n the c o n v e n t i o n a l l i n e - P r i n c e o f Wales (later E d w a r d V I I ) i n R h o d e s d u r i n g
fill often encountered o n " I o n i a n c u p s " o f the o r d i n a r y M a y 1862. 50
O u r cup, however, came to O s b o r n e H o u s e
type, 47
some o f w h i c h may w e l l precede the sophisticated t h r o u g h the prince's y o u n g e r brother, A l f r e d , D u k e o f
"Little-Master cup." Nearest are the internal l i p friezes o n E d i n b u r g h , i n 1859. 51
It was n o d o u b t acquired d u r i n g
Laconian cups, w h i c h are frequently, particularly i n w o r k s P r i n c e A l f r e d ' s first extended t o u r o f d u t y that year, at
by the Arkesilas and the Naukratis painters, decorated the age o f 15, as m i d s h i p m a n o n H M S Euryalus, which
w i t h vegetal friezes o f several k i n d s . 48 It is quite conceiv- t o o k h i m v i a G i b r a l t a r to M o r o c c o , M a l t a , Tunis ( C a r -
able that those w h o first developed the "style" o f the " I o - thage), E g y p t , Palestine, Syria, and R h o d e s . H e was i n
nian" Little-Master cup lifted the idea o f f these Laconian R h o d e s i n late A p r i l 1859, and w e k n o w f r o m C . T.
cups. B u t o f Laconian influence more presently. N e w t o n ' s account that he v i s i t e d the excavations at
K n i d o s and H a l i k a r n a s s o s as w e l l as K o s . 5 2
T h e r e is
T h e second East G r e e k cup is i n O s b o r n e H o u s e o n n o precise i n d i c a t i o n w h e r e o u r cup or a second one
the Isle o f W i g h t . T h i s house, b u i l t b e t w e e n 1845 and (fig. 11) was acquired, but R h o d e s is as l i k e l y a place as
1848 to Italianate designs i n s p i r e d b y the p r i n c e consort any. T h e cup has a h a n d w r i t t e n label: " D u k e o f E d i n -
Albert, 49
and a favorite residence o f Q u e e n V i c t o r i a u n t i l b u r g h '59."

Samos (Athens, 1981), pp. 8890 (on ship base, without, however, 1980), pl. 20D; R. Laffmeur, L'orfvrerie rhodienne orientalisante (Paris,
mention o f Buschor's Kolaios hypothesis). 1978), p. 212 n. 1. I am greatly indebted to D r . Higgins for c o m m u -
46. For the pattern: M . E . Aubet, Marfiles fenicios del Bajo Guadal- nicating to me his findings i n the correspondence between B i l i o t t i and
quivir, vol. 1 (Valladolid, 1979), p. 23 ( C N 8), p. 30 (extended net N e w t o n , and to D r . Brian C o o k for allowing me access to this corre-
pattern on comb), p. 32 (commentary), pi. 4 from C r u z del Negro ; spondence at the British M u s e u m .
ibid., vol. 2 (Valladolid, 1980), pp. 29, 37 (A 22) single units, pi. 7 51. B o r n 1844, pursued a naval career; married the grand duchess
(from Acebuchal). For these ivories i n Samos, see above all B . Freyer - Marie o f Russia, only daughter o f Czar Alexander II, i n 1874; died
Schauenburg, MadrMitt 7 (1966), pp. 89108; i n general, also M . E . 1900 i n C o b u r g as duke o f Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (accession 1893). M r .
Aubet, Hamburger Beitrage zur Archdologie 9 (1982), pp. 1570. E . A . Sibbick, until recently curator o f the Swiss Cottage M u s e u m at
47. See below (note 87). Osborne House, not only briefed me on various details o f the prince's
48. Thus, on the Arkesilas cup itself, Shefton, p. 301, no. 16; Stibbe, life and career, but also very generously supplied me w i t h valuable
p. 279, no. 194, pi. 61; or on the Louvre banqueting cup by the N a u - notes on his tutor (the later Sir) John C o w e l l , first appointed i n A p r i l
kratis Painter, Shefton, p. 303, no. 2; Stibbe, p. 270, no. 13, pi. 6. B u t 1856, who would have accompanied the prince during the 1859 cruise.
these two are not the only Laconian painters to have used this way o f A n officer i n the Royal Engineers, C o w e l l later became Master o f the
decorating the inner lip o f their cups. Queens Household and subsequently Governor o f Windsor Castle un-
49. See, e.g., W. Ames, Prince Albert and Victorian Taste (New Yor k, til his death i n 1894 at the age o f 72.
1968), pp. 61-71, figs. 12-13. 52. C . T. N e w t o n , Travels and Discoveries in the Levant, vol. 2
50. Cf. R. A . Higgins, Greek and Roman Jewellery, 2nd ed. (London , (London, 1865), p. 264 (there he also speaks o f purchases o f Turkish
58 Shefton

Figure 12a. Samian Little-Master cup by the Osborne Figure 12b. Underside, side B o f cup, figure 12a.
House Painter. Side A . Osborne House,
Cowes, Isle o f Wight. Photos, author.

Figure 12c. Interior o f cup, figure 12a. Figure 2d. Tondo o f cup, figure 12a.
East Greek Influences 59

Naukratis Painter especially, though not exclusively.


S u c h elements i n c l u d e the rays o n the u p p e r part o f the
s t e m and p r o b a b l y also the ones at the bottom of the
bowl. The same can certainly be maintained about
the i n t e r l a c i n g l o t u s - b u d frieze o f the h a n d l e - z o n e w i t h
the characteristic bar immediately below the bud 5 4

(figs. 12ab). T r u e e n o u g h the stalks o n L a c o n i a n bud


friezes are u s u a l l y s i m p l e i n v e r t e d arcs rather t h a n i n t e r
l a c i n g ; yet e n o u g h e x a m p l e s o f i n t e r l a c i n g can be f o u n d
to m a k e the d e r i v a t i o n e n t i r e l y c o n v i n c i n g , even i f the
m a j o r i t y o f L a c o n i a n e x a m p l e s alternate the c l o s e d bud
w i t h one that has o p e n petals o n the sides. 55
The lip,
t h o u g h , w i t h its dense w r e a t h o f i v y leaves o n s i n u o u s l y
b e n d i n g stalks, w h i c h g r o w out o f a branch peppered
Figure 2e. Detail of internal lip frieze of cup,
w i t h w h i t e dots, is p u r e East G r e e k , m o r e so t h a n the
figure 12a.
m o r e l o o s e l y spread i v y o n the M a l i b u cup.
The i n s i d e is n o less i n t e r e s t i n g . T h e floral frieze on
The cup 5 3
(figs. 12ae) has the stouter s t e m o f a L a c o the l i p (fig. 12e) is rather refined E a s t G r e e k , 5 6
and here
n i a n cup rather t h a n that o f an A t t i c L i t t l e - M a s t e r , and too we are perhaps to t h i n k o f a bed o f flowers s u r r o u n d
the shape as a w h o l e is closer to L a c o n i a n t h a n to Attic. i n g a p o o l o f water. E a s t G r e e k also is the d e c o r a t i o n o f
The decorative scheme has many Laconian elements, the central r o u n d e l w i t h its quartet o f v o l u t e cradles (or
too, p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c h as are f o u n d o n the work of the "cup spirals," as J a c o b s t h a l called t h e m ) , each e n c l o s -

embroidery made by the prince at B o d r u m ) . I owe this reference to Samos, E . Homann-Wedeking, Archaische Vasenornamentik in Attika,
Dr. Higgins, who has prepared an account o f the classical antiquities at Lakonien und Ostgriechenland (Athens, 1938), pp. 2627, fig. 6; Walter-
Osborne House, which he generously allowed me to consult. There is Karydi, Samos, no. 145, p. 38, fig. 35, pi. 16, where incidentally, the
also the earlier report by C . C . Vermeule and D. von Bothmer, A]A 60 flowers are hardly distinguishable from those on the lip-frieze o f our
(1956), pp. 339340, which needs amendment, though, on a number cup. Laconian comparanda for the other features: Rays on the stem,
o f points (see below [note 53]). M u n i c h 382 by the Naukratis Painter, CVA M u n i c h 6, pi. 289.1; profile
53. Dimensions (taken from a profile drawing): H : 10.7 cm; diame drawing w i t h ornament i n Stibbe, p. 24, fig. 11. Rays on the bottom of
ter: (at lip) 15 cm, (including handles) 19.5 cm; diameter o f footsole: bowl, M u n i c h 384, by the Naukratis Painter, CI^4 M u n i c h 6, pi. 289.4;
6.5 cm. Deep bowl ( H : 6.4 cm) on relatively short stem and foot Shefton, p. 305, fig. 3; (Stibbe assigned the piece to the painter's man
(H: 4.3 cm). Intact, apart from the broken-off stem, which has been ner); also, L o n d o n B 4, the Naukratis Painter's name piece, Shefton,
neatly reattached. Reddish clay, finely levigated, no perceptible mica. pi. 52a. These features are not confined to the Naukratis Painter nor
Limited use o f incision inside the cup (floral frieze on lip; see below indeed to Laconian. Thus, the rays on the stem are found i n Attic, too,
[note 56]; central ornament i n roundel). Purple for top o f the buds on though quite rarely and rather later i n the century; two cups related to
the inner lip frieze and on the j o i n i n g bars between the palmette the Lysippides Painter have them: Berlin 800 (Paralipomena, p. 117), and
cradles i n the central tondo. White dots along the straight i v y branch Toledo, Ohio, 63.25 (Jdl 86 [1971], pp. 81-84, figs. 1-6, and p. 98,
on the outer lip. fig. 22); the Toledo cup is also i n CVA Toledo 1, pi. 35.2. The rays are
Having first seen and photographed the cup i n 1960, I was able to likewise found on several o f the Perizoma Group o f kyathoi (AB V,
reexamine it in November 1986 w i t h the generous help o f M r . John p. 346; Paralipomena, p. 158); cf. J. D. Beazley and F. M a g i , La raccolta
Paton, who is responsible for the monuments at Osborne House and Benedetto Guglielmi nel Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, vol. 1 (Vatican City,
to w h o m I am greatly indebted for most courteous and hospitable 1939), pi. 19.58; also, F. Gilotta, i n Civilt degli Etruschi (note 37),
reception. pp. 204, 206 (fig. 7.7 9.). O n most o f these tall stems, the rays are
The second East Greek cup (fig. 11) also bears the label: " D u k e o f placed rather further down. Finally, see above (note 9) (East Greek).
Edinburgh 1859" and w i l l probably have been acquired on the same 55. Thus, here fig. 16b (see below [note 65]) by the Naukratis
occasion. It is o f the simpler kind, w i t h an olive branch along the lip, Painter; also, fragment i n Samos, probably by the Naukratis Painter,
the stalk being spotted w i t h white dots; cf. CVA M u n i c h 6, pi. 294.1. Shefton, p. 304, no. 5 (second list); Stibbe, p. 270, no. 22, pi. 11.3. For
The foot is missing. the lotus buds and their variants i n the painter's work, see the tables,
These two pieces are mentioned as "two Laconian cups" by Ver Stibbe, pp. 5556.
meule and Bothmer (note 52), p. 340, a judgment that had to be based It is interesting to reflect that i n 1934 Kunze (Kleinmeister, p. 97)
on inadequate photographic documentation, but one that was none could still express surprise at Laconian elements on an Ionian Little-
theless sufficient to reveal the Laconian features to be detailed below. Master cup fragment"eher unerwartet"! Here A r t h u r Lane's work,
54. This last feature was already recognized by Kunze, Kleinmeister, which appeared at practically the same time (BSA 34 [19331934])
p. 97 when he published the Alexandria fragment (which on its outside made a great deal o f difference, and on pp. 185186 he sketched out
is a replica, as far as it goes, o f our cup), see below (note 57), w i t h our almost all the important points to be made over East Greek receptive-
fig. 13. A m o n g the Laconian comparanda, we may note the fragmen ness to Laconian influence; see also below (note 80, beginning).
tary cup by the Naukratis Painter i n Samos (see below [note 65], with 56. Double line incision on buds and the flower leaves. The identi
our figs. 16ab). Occasionally, we find this bar below the buds and cal convention on the Fikellura amphora fragments i n Samos (Walter-
flowers i n Fikellura, too, thus on the fine amphora fragments i n Karydi, Samos, no. 145) has been noted already, see above (note 54).
60 Shefton

i n g a p a l m e t t e (figs. 12cd). N o t e w o r t h y is the careful


w a y i n w h i c h the v o l u t e cradles are t i e d t o g e t h e r w i t h
p r o n o u n c e d t r i p l e bars e m p h a s i z e d w i t h i n c i s i o n and
touches o f p u r p l e . T h e s u r r o u n d i n g z o n e o f rather t h i n
i n t e r l a c i n g l o t u s b u d s is again d e r i v e d f r o m Laconian
but is perhaps too attenuated to keep the pristine charac
ter o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g frieze o n the h a n d l e - z o n e o u t
side, though even there the buds are more refined,

Figures 3a-b. Fragment o f Samian Little-Master cup denatured than the coarser, fleshier L a c o n i a n prototypes.
by the Osborne House Painter. From It m a y seem s u r p r i s i n g , but it is v e r y l i k e l y that the
Naukratis. Left: exterior. Right: interior. O s b o r n e H o u s e cup is b y the same h a n d as the Malibu
Alexandria, Graeco-Roman Museum,
one, despite the differences i n shape. T h e s e , o f course,
17154 (from E. Kunze, AthMitt 59
are l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n the m o d e l chosen by the
[1934], pi. 7.2).
potter: L a c o n i a n for this cup, A t t i c for the one i n M a l
ibu. A glance at a fragment from Naukratis in the

57. Alexandria, Graeco-Roman M u s e u m , 17154; Kunze, Kleinmeis


ter, pp. 94, no. 9. 97, pi. 7.2, whence our figs. 13ab; also, Walter-
Karydi, Samos, pi. 49.442, w i t h pp. 24, 129, no. 442; very fine incision
contours the birds' bodies. O n these, see also above (note 10).
58. Apart from the three cups i n M a l i b u , Osborne House, and
Alexandria, the face-kantharos i n Boston, w i t h the inner lip-frieze o f
water birds (Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 55.480 [here figs. 14ab]) can be
assigned to the same hand as a later work. The birds are like the ones
i n M a l i b u and i n Alexandria, w i t h the same incised details, apart from
the claws, which on the Boston piece are only i n added red; also the
contours o f the birds are not there outlined i n incision, as they are on
the two cups (information kindly communicated by Michael Padgett
o f the M u s e u m o f Fine Arts, Boston). Whether this takes w i t h it the
other face-kantharoi w i t h the dolphin friezes, I dare not say. It is not
improbable, especially since they have been shown to be all taken from
the same mold (E. Walter-Karydi, CVA M u n i c h 6, on pi. 295). They
w o u l d then be late works, from about 540 B . C . or even a little after
(Walter-Karydi, Samos, p. 30 " i n the thirties"). The dolphin kantharoi
may take w i t h them also the cup fragment from Samos, K 1384 (ibid.,
pi. 49.443), which has rays on the outside b o w l rather like those on the
Osborne House cup. The available illustration is, however, insufficient
for a reasoned determination. We w o u l d then on a maximal count
have the following list for the Osborne House Painter:
Cups:
(1) Osborne House, probably from Rhodes (see above
[note 53]; figs. 12ae).
(2) M a l i b u , "from Etruria" (see above [note 6]; figs, lah).
(3) Alexandria, from Naukratis (see above [note 57]; figs.
13a-b).
Face-kantharoi:
(4) Boston 98.925, "bought i n Rome" Walter-Karydi,
Samos, pi. 55.480 (ARV 1529, no. 1), figs. 14a-b.
2

(5) M u n i c h 2014, from Vulci, Walter-Karydi, Samos,


pi. 56.484; CVA M u n i c h 6, pis. 295-296.1-2 (ARV 2

1529, no. 3).


I have insufficient details about the other dolphin-decorated face-
kantharoi and, as I observed already, for the Samos dolphin cup frag
ment. The attribution o f the face-kantharoi would imply a long career
for the Osborne House Painter, ranging over three decades, granted
that the early date suggested for the cup is sustainable. Where then is
Figures 14a-b. Samian face-kantharos by the Osborne the output one is entitled to expect from such an extended period o f
House Painter. Top, side A . Bottom, inte activity?
A l l these, w i t h the exception o f the two new pieces i n M a l i b u and
rior r i m . Boston, M u s e u m o f Fine Arts,
Osborne House, are assigned by Walter-Karydi to her R a m Painter,
H . L . Pierce Fund, 98.925. Photos, cour
whose floruit is, however, later and whose work has to be separated
tesy M u s e u m o f Fine Arts.
from that o f the Osborne House Painter, see below (note 62).
East Greek Influences 61

Graeco-Roman Museum in Alexandria (figs. 13ab), further comment. Its motif is quintessentially East
first p u b l i s h e d b y K u n z e , 5 7
s h o w s a c u p w i t h the o u t s i d e G r e e k , even t h o u g h it is o c c a s i o n a l l y f o u n d also i n o t h e r
exactly like the O s b o r n e H o u s e cup (lip and handle- parts o f the Greek w o r l d . 5 9
In E a s t Greece it can be
zone), whereas the i n s i d e l i p - z o n e has the frieze o f wa traced b a c k at least to the mid-seventh century, and
ter b i r d s w e k n o w f r o m the M a l i b u cup. The fragment f r o m t h e n it r u n s c o n t i n u o u s l y i n t o the s i x t h , and on
l i n k s the two intact cups m o s t fortunately. I c a n n o t at rustic, o l d - f a s h i o n e d w o r k even i n t o the fifth century. 60

present say that I k n o w o t h e r pieces that can, w i t h a b s o By the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h century, the s m a l l c i r c l e that
lute confidence, be assigned to the same h a n d apart f o r m e d the central e l e m e n t o f the quartet o f v o l u t e s h a d
f r o m the w e l l - k n o w n face-kantharos i n B o s t o n , which b e e n e n r i c h e d to f o r m a k i n d o f quatrefoil star device.
also has a p r o c e s s i o n o f b i r d s 5 8
(figs. 14ab). So w e have it o n the O s b o r n e H o u s e cup and so also o n

I f one had to d i s t i n g u i s h i n the dating between the a close repeat o f the i n t e r i o r d e s i g n d o n e perhaps a g e n

two cups, the O s b o r n e H o u s e one may be s l i g h t l y ear e r a t i o n later o n fragments found on S a m o s and first

l i e r t h a n the one in Malibu, so perhaps nearer to 560 p u b l i s h e d b y E r n s t H o m a n n - W e d e k i n g (fig. 15). These

t h a n to 550 B . C . come from a remarkable piece, 61


h i g h l y assimilated to

It is the central m e d a l l i o n again (fig. 12d) that calls for the A t t i c l i p - c u p , w i t h m a g n i f i c e n t a n i m a l fights o n the

59. A . Crete: West B e r l i n F 35, lekythos o f globular shape: leg, sandaled, ornament on calf (no center pattern).
Gehrig, Greifenhagen, and Kunisch (note 28), Early sixth century. Is this Centre Brard 1978, p. 206,
p. 42, pi. 35; Dddalische Kunst (note 23), no. 16 (which, however, is called there left leg)
pp. 113-114 (E 3), pl. 51b-d; S. Wide, Martelli Cristofani?
AthMitt 22 (1897), pi. 6 (drawing o f all U p to here the center o f the ornament was formed by a small circle,
sides). First half seventh century B.C. w h i c h i n the following examples is replaced by a quatrefoil star pat
B. Cyclades: Plate: C . Dugas, Exploration de Dlos, vol. 10 tern. A variety o f shapes are n o w so decorated, but not apparently
(Paris, 1928), pi. 5.31. plates any more.
C. (?) Etruscan: Louvre, bronze bowl, from Tarquinia, late k. N e w Y o r k 66.11.27, silver alabastron (bottom outside):
seventh century: Fr. Villard, MonPiot 48 D . v o n Bothmer, i n H . de Meulenaere and L . L i m m e ,
(1956), pp. 25-28, 37-38, pi. 5b ("East eds., Artibus Aegypti. Festschrift B. V. Bothmer (Brussels,
Greek, Rhodian"; so also E . Akurgal, Art of 1983), p. 21, fig. 59.; i n part, also, idem, " A Greek and
Greece: Its Origins [New York, 1968], p. 217); R o m a n Treasury," BMMA, Summer 1984, no. 45. The
contra F. Hiller, MarbWinckProg, 1963, pattern is residual and the piece perhaps rather later than
pp. 3235 ("Etruscan"). I do not k n o w the is suggested by the present place i n this list.
piece apart from the illustrations, which are 1. Osborne House cup (figs. 12cd).
insufficient for a conclusive opinion. m. Samos, Fikellura amphora: Walter-Karydi, Samos,
As decoration o f seals and other small objects, it is also found out pi. 12.108, p. 42, fig. 57 (reconstruction o f ornament);
side the East Greek sphere; cf. some material in the list, Walter-Karydi, C o o k , Fikellura, p. 18 K 3 ("early second half o f sixth
Samos, pp. 105-106 n. 145. century"); G . P. Schaus, BSA 81 (1986), pp. 253-254,
60. Some examples (all East Greek): no. 11, p i . 13f."Altenburg Painter. "
Seventh-century dinoi (exterior device at bottom of bowl): n. Athens, cup fragments from Samos, K 1383 (see below
a. Samos: Walter, Samos, p. 124, no. 560 w i t h ref. to [note 61] w i t h fig. 15).
illustrations. o. Delphi, from Delphi. G o l d sheet probably from
b. Knossos, Medical School site. Rhodian. chryselephantine figure. N o center pattern i n ornament.
c. G t t i n g e n : Walter, Samos, p i . 131, no. 631. BCH 63 (1939), p. 102, no. 42, p i . 32 middle.
Plates: Fifth-century Klazomenian sarcophagi (references to R . M . C o o k ,
d. L o n d o n , Euphorbos Plate: Walter, Samos, p i . 129, Clazomenian Sarcophagi [Mainz, 1986]):
no. 623 (inner backing o f shield). p. Izmir 512: C o o k , p i . 3 4 . 1 - 2 , p. 29 (F 16) ("510-500
e. R o m e , V i l l a Giulia: Walter-Karydi, Samos, p. 60, B . C . " ) , star pattern i n center,
fig. 127, no. 651; M . Martelli Cristofani, i n Centre q. Cambridge GR7.1902: C o o k , p i . 97 top, p. 62 ( H 5);
Brard 1978, p l . 78, fig. 14. p. 64 ("450 B . C . " ) ; star pattern center.
Votive shieldclay: Paul Jacobsthal (JHS 71 [1951], pp. 89ff. with list [B] on pp. 94-95)
f. Izmir, from O l d Smyrna, end o f seventh century: called the ornament, w i t h or without the palmette, "cup spiral" and
E . A k u r g a l , Alt-Smyrna, v o l . 1 (Ankara, 1983), set it i n a wider context. H e too stressed the East Greek and more
pi. 109b. particularly the Island character o f the pattern. H i s list and mine c o m
fewels and small objects: plement each other; cf. also Fr. V i l l a r d , MonPiot 48 (1956), pp. 37-38.
g. Ephesos gold and ivory ornaments: Hogarth (note 39), 61. Athens, fragments from Samos (Heraion) K 1383 and K 1419 +
pis. 4.31, 8.11 and 23-26, 9.33-36 and 41-47; Walter- K 1956, Homann-Wedeking (note 54), p. 26, figs. 45; . k e r s t r m ,
K a r y d i , Samos, p. 105 n. 145. Die architektonischen Terrakotten Kleinasiens (Lund, 1966), p. 58, fig. 18.2
Sixth-century plates (central inner medallion): (tondo ornament), p. 210, fig. 68 (lip fragments). A l l these publications
h. L o n d o n , from Naukratis: Walter-Karydi, Samos, as well as our fig. 15 lack the additional fragment K 1956 (bull's body).
pi. 99.730. H . Walter, Das griechische Heiligtum (Munich, 1965), p. 73, figs. 7374
i. Palermo, from Selinus: Walter-Karydi, Samos, ("circa 550 B.C."); idem, Das Heraion von Samos (Munich, 1976), p. 101,
pi. 120.981 (p. 85, fig. 156attempted reconstruction). fig. 94 ("540-530 B . C . " ) ; Walter-Karydi, Samos, p. 129, no. 440, p. 70,
j. Cerveteri, from Cerveteri. East Greek plastic vase, right fig. 70 (reconstruction o f ornament), pi. 49.440"Ram Painter." There
62 Shefton

outside l i p , w h i c h i n c i d e n t a l l y a l l o w it to be l i n k e d to a
n u m b e r o f other fine but fragmentary cups o f appar
ently similar shape. 62
T h a t the ornamental structure is so
very close to that o f the O s b o r n e H o u s e cup ( d o w n to
the m u l t i p l e b o n d s l i n k i n g the v o l u t e cradles), t h o u g h
o n a m u c h larger scalethe t o n d o fills the b o w l c o m
pletelyis surely due to the fact that the quartet o f v o l
utes w i t h their palmettes was so characteristic o f Samian
ornamental grammar.
T h e s e palmettes are w o r t h l o o k i n g at m o r e carefully.
T h e y are o f the characteristic type described b y K u n z e
w h e n he analyzed the East G r e e k features o f the I o n i a n
L i t t l e - M a s t e r cup i n V i e n n a : " I h r zerfaserter F c h e r legt
sich u m einen d u r c h b r o c h e n e n K e r n u n d dieser s u b -
stanzlosen B i l d u n g entsprechen die z a h l r e i c h e n E i n -
r o l l u n g e n der V o l u t e n . " 63
T h i s absence o f v o l u m e i n the
palmette (plucked asunder i n t o t h i n fronds and its core
opened up i n t o voids) is f o u n d often i n East G r e e k ,
especially F i k e l l u r a o f the t i m e , 6 4
but h a d been quite
alien to A t t i c and to m a i n l a n d practice. A n d yet this
palmette s u d d e n l y begins to appear b o t h o n certain L a c
o n i a n products and o n examples o f A t t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n
the w o r k o f the A m a s i s Painter. T h e s e features, I have
n o doubt, c o m e f r o m Ionia and are a direct influence
u p o n L a c o n i a n and A t t i c , reversing the better r e c o g
n i z e d flow i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n .
First to L a c o n i a n . T w o examples o n l y need be cited.
First, the fragments o f a cup b y the N a u k r a t i s Painter
f r o m Samos, i n i t i a l l y p u b l i s h e d b y H o m a n n - W e d e k i n g
(figs. 16ab). Here, instead o f the palmette types n o r m a l
for the painter, w e have the characteristic East Greek one

has been some difference i n the date assigned to the cup by various
investigators. " N o t much after 550 B . C . " has been proposed by A k e r -
strorn and by C o o k , Clazomenian Sarcophagi (note 60), p. 100 n. 31.
This high date can hardly be sustained. The type o f lion led W. L .
Figure 5. Fragmentary Samian Little-Master cup by B r o w n , The Etruscan Lion (Oxford, 1960), p. 76, to think o f Caeretan
the R a m Painter. Top: exterior. Bottom: i n hydriai, especially the one once i n Berlin, thus i m p l y i n g a date i n the
terior. From Samos, K 1383 and K 1419. 520s, a chronology that would agree well enough with Walter-Karydi's
placing o f her R a m Painter (Walter-Karydi, Samos, pp. 2425 and here,
Athens, National Museum. Photo, courtesy
see below [note 62]). Compare also J. Boardman, Archaic Greek Gems
D A I , Athens (neg. Samos 2223).
(London, 1968), pp. 132134, pi. 31 (Aristoteiches Group, East Greek;
very late sixth century B.c.) where the lions are o f similar physique
and demeanor. Note also Boardman s down-dating (ibid., p. 134) into
the last quarter century o f the clay revetments for which k e r s t r o m
had claimed a date i n the third quarter, and w i t h which he had c o m
pared our Samos cup fragments. Again Hemelrijk (note 1), p. 153,
dates the Berlin Caeretan hydria (no. 8), which B r o w n brought into
the argument, to the end o f the sixth century.
62. Walter-Karydi, Samos, pp. 2425, 30, collects a number o f
pieces including our cup, Samos K 1383, and attributes them to one
hand, her R a m Painter, named after the picture on a Samos fragment.
The core o f these attributions is surely valid, but she boldly extends
them to include the earlier works (as far as they were k n o w n to her)
that we have assigned to the Osborne House Painter, see above
(note 58). I find it hard to follow her i n this and prefer, at present, to
keep the two apart while recognizing links between them.
The R a m Painter's activity w o u l d then lie w i t h i n the 20s o f the sixth
East Greek Influences 63

Figure 16a. Laconian cup fragments by the Naukratis Figure 16b. Interior fragments o f cup, figure 16a (from
Painter. From Samos, K 1188. Exterior E . Homann-Wedeking, Archaische Vasenor
(from E. Homann-Wedeking, Archaische namentik [Athens, 1938], fig. 11).
Vasenornamentik [Athens, 1938], fig. 12).

as d e s c r i b e d j u s t now. M o r e d o u b t f u l l y , the t o n g u e s o f not altogether s u r p r i s i n g as that painter m o r e t h a n any


the h a n d l e - z o n e o f the cup, too, may have E a s t G r e e k o f the o t h e r L a c o n i a n artists reveled i n the richness o f
connections. 65
Similarly, a fragment o f a cup, again b y o r n a m e n t o f pattern, which after a l l was the special
the N a u k r a t i s Painter, of unknown whereabouts and s t r e n g t h o f E a s t G r e e k , I o n i a n arta case o f elective
p u b l i s h e d b y C o n r a d Stibbe, has exactly the same E a s t affinity, i f ever there was one. T h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s do i n
G r e e k palmette, this t i m e e x t e n d e d i n t o a m o r e e l a b o deed stir up certain chronological problems, partic
rate c o m p l e x . 6 6
W e w i t n e s s here an i n t e n s i v e c u r r e n t o f u l a r l y for L a c o n i a n ; but this is perhaps not the place to
influence flowing b o t h w a y s across the A e g e a n b e t w e e n p u r s u e t h e m i n detail.
Samos and L a c o n i a i n the decade or so before the middle W e t u r n n o w to A t t i c . T h e same E a s t G r e e k palmettes
o f the s i x t h century. T h a t this is p a r t i c u l a r l y t i e d to the o c c u r about the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y and actually quite
p e r s o n o f the N a u k r a t i s P a i n t e r is m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g but a bit later i n the w o r k o f several A t t i c vase-painters.

century, and it would comprise the following (all unspecified refer ("590-580 B.C.").
ences are to Walter-Karydi, Samos): p. 129, no. 439 (riders), no. 44 0 65. Homann-Wedeking (note 54), figs. 1112, whence here
(see above [note 61], our fig. 15), no. 441 (rams confronting; also, figs. 16a-b; Shefton, p. 304, no. 6 (second list); Stibbe, p. 270, no. 10,
Kunze, Kleinmeister, pi. 6.3), p. 131, no. 498 (handle fragments w i t h pi. 5.3 (present state o f fragments), p. 59, fig. 8 (drawing o f palmette).
pattern related to that on her no. 440). Nos. 439441 are on her pi. 49; The East Greek character o f the frieze o f tongues is, however, quite
no. 498 on pi. 61. A l l the pieces are from Samos, except no. 445, which problematical. The prime "East Greek" example o f this frieze, the cup
comes from Naukratis. To these F. Boitani Visentini, Centre Brard from Tocra, J. Boardman and J. Hayes, Excavations at Tocra, vol. 1
1978, p. 219 adds fragments o f a kantharos (?) from Gravisca, the (London, 1986), pi. 47.821 (datable perhaps to the late 70s or early 60s
emporion o f Tarquinia, ibid., pi. 91.8 ( = NSc, 1971, p. 253, fig. 71 o f the century; cf. also Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 100.838 " C h i o s " ) has
fewer fragments). A s far as can be judged from the pictures, which are now through clay analysis been shown to be most likely o f Boeotian
not very clear, the attribution is convincing enough, though the piece origin (Jones [note 2], p. 704). In any case, the style o f the cup and its
may turn out to be by his less skillful companion, the painter o f the sister pieces by the same hand is strongly corinthianizingso perhaps
Naukratis fragments, Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 50.445 ( = Kunze, it is the work o f a Corinthian immigrant to Boeotia. For the frieze, cf.
Kleinmeister, pi. 7.1) i n Alexandria (ibid., pp. 2526). The lip cup frag also P. Alexandrescu, Histria, vol. 4 (Bucharest, 1978), pi. 70.774 ("East
ment from the same site, ibid., pi. 91.7 ( = NSc, 1971, p. 252, fig. 69.3) Greek, imitating Attic").
belongs to Walter-Karydi's and Kunze's L i o n Painter (Samos, p. 24), 66. Stibbe, p. 270, no. 11, pi. 5.5. Palmette drawn i n Stibbe, p. 59,
whose work is a good bit earlier. fig. 9; he also refers there to the palmette on the fragmentary Tocra
63. Kunze, Kleinmeister, p. 107, on the cup i n Vienna (Walter- cup, Boardman and Hayes (note 65), pi. 61.91; also by the Naukratis
Karydi, Samos, pi. 52.447). Painter, a cup that both Stibbe and I agree on placing i n the middle 60s
64. Amphora, L o n d o n B 117, now Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 88.683. o f the century.
A m p h o r a fragments, Samos, Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 12.60. M o r e puzzling is the palmette that is characteristic o f much o f the
Amphora fragments from Berezan, Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 87.639. Boreads Painter's work, e.g., his Boreads cups i n Rome, Samos, and
A l l these are Fikellura. M u c h closer still to the palmettes o f the O s M a l i b u (Stibbe, pi. 41.39). Here the East Greek palmette has been
borne House cup: "Rhodian" plastic vase from Cerveteri i n the shape transmuted into a strange idiosyncracy.
o f a left leg, M . Moretti, MonAnt 42 (1955), col. 1120, no. 30(1), fig. 16;
M . A . Rizzo, i n Civilt (note 37), p. 207, 6b, p. 210 (ill.) top left
64 Shefton

L y d o s used t h e m for his o i n o c h o e i n East B e r l i n signed a g o o d picture o f the one in Oxford (ex-Spencer-
by K o l c h o s as potter. 67
A n o t h e r artist w h o evidently had C h u r c h i l l , no. 36, p. 161), but several m o r e o i n o c h o a i
a l i k i n g for these insubstantial palmettes is the Princeton (and ones earlier i n his career) have it as w e l l , a m o n g
Painter, w h o s e n e c k - a m p h o r a e i n L o n d o n , Paris, and t h e m one i n the L o u v r e that m a y be the earliest instance
L e n i n g r a d s h o w the influence, albeit a little garbled, o f o f the reception i n t o A t t i c o f this p a l m e t t e . 69

the East G r e e k palmette and even the v o l u t e c o m p l e x R e t u r n i n g to the n e c k - a m p h o r a e o f the shouldered


w i t h the quatrefoil star device i n b e t w e e n . 68
W e are, i n type, w e recall that D . A . J a c k s o n , i n his study o f East
all these cases, i n the '40s o f the s i x t h century. It is, G r e e k influence o n A t t i c vases, p o i n t e d out that the r o w
however, the A m a s i s Painter, w h o shows i n a n u m b e r o f o f i n v e r t e d s m a l l triangles u n d e r the handles (a k i n d o f
his w o r k s these East G r e e k features i n their m o s t u n euthynteria) is taken over f r o m F i k e l l u r a and appears
adulterated f o r m . here o n a l l three o f the A m a s i s Painter's n e c k - a m p h o r a e
O n t w o o f the three n e c k - a m p h o r a e o f the " s h o u l o f the shouldered m o d e l , the ones w e have j u s t d i s
dered m o d e l " s t r a d d l i n g the A m a s i s Painter's m i d d l e cussed. T h e triangles also appear o n a l m o s t a l l o f the
a n d late periods (ABV 152,2527) the palmette orna amphorae o f the B o t k i n Class, w h i c h i n d e e d have the
m e n t b e l o w the handle shows this p r o f o u n d East G r e e k a d d i t i o n a l F i k e l l u r a feature o f a frieze o f u p s t a n d i n g rays
influence; it w o u l d also have s h o w n it o n the t h i r d one, r u n n i n g r o u n d the outside o f the l i p . 7 0
T h e B o t k i n Class
B o s t o n 01.8026, Amasis Painter (see note 69), no. 24, amphorae d o not, however, s h o w the East G r e e k p a l
were it n o t that the handle o r n a m e n t o n this one was mette, t h o u g h they d o tie some o f their volutes together
replaced b y the figure o f D i o n y s o s ! T h e a m p h o r a i n the w i t h m u l t i p l e bars quite i n the East G r e e k fashion.
C a b i n e t des M d a i l l e s (Amasis Painter, no. 23) has this T h e t w o cups i n M a l i b u and i n O s b o r n e H o u s e , re
palmette n o less than five times u n d e r each handle, o n l y spectively, w h i c h w e have discussed here, are o b v i o u s l y
the large up-pointing bunch on either side o f the o f great i m p o r t a n c e , for surely they stand early i n the
h a n d l e - r o o t b e i n g m o r e A t t i c . I f w e t u r n to the B o s t o n series o f " I o n i a n " L i t t l e - M a s t e r cups, even i f they are
a m p h o r a , a late piece, Amasis Painter, no. 25, w e again not the v e r y earliest. Yet, i n the w o r k o f their creator,
observe the same East G r e e k palmette, this t i m e used the O s b o r n e H o u s e Painter as I w o u l d l i k e to call h i m ,
b o l d l y even for the large lateral pair. M o r e than that w e w e are s t i l l at a stage w h e n the various i m p u l s e s that
note the p r o n o u n c e d bonds, d o u b l e d and even t r i p l e d , went i n t o the m a k i n g o f a n e w s c h o o l are clearly d i s
w h i c h here a n d o n the Paris a m p h o r a secure the volutes cernible. It seems natural e n o u g h that w h e n Samos e n
to each other. T h e s e are quite u n - A t t i c , but are h o w e v e r tered this n e w market, the makers s h o u l d l o o k to the
seen as single ties o n the P r i n c e t o n Painter's a m p h o r a i n m o s t successful producers o f s t e m m e d cups at the t i m e
L e n i n g r a d , w h i c h w e already h a d o c c a s i o n to adduce as i n the G r e e k w o r l d , n a m e l y A t t i c a and L a c o n i a , par
the carrier o f the East G r e e k palmette and v o l u t e c o m t i c u l a r l y w h e n , i n the case o f Sparta, w e bear i n m i n d
plex w i t h even the star m o t i f i n the center. T h e A m a s i s the v o l u m e o f L a c o n i a n cup i m p o r t s found i n the
Painter also used the East G r e e k palmette b e l o w the S a m i a n H e r a i o n . W e have, however, n o t e d that there
h a n d l e - r o o t o n a n u m b e r o f his o i n o c h o a i shape III, the is no slavish copying, but judicious adaptation and every
so-called chous. T h e catalogue, Amasis Painter, gives w h e r e a strong and u n m i s t a k a b l y East G r e e k c o m p o -

67. ABV 110,37, "late mannered"; but see Paralipomena, p. 48, "per palmettes, the neck-amphora i n Geneva, AntK 30 (1987), pi. 7
haps a close imitation." Conveniently now i n J. Boardman, Athenian (quatrefoil star device w i t h i n the volute complex) w i t h Bothmer's
Black Figure Vases (London, 1974), fig. 68. comments, ibid., pp. 63, 67.
68. L o n d o n : ABV 297,1 (good side view now: Jackson, p. 28, 69. For this, A . J. Clark, MMAJ 15 (1980), pp. 35-51; for the pal
fig. 15); Louvre: ibid., p. 298, no. 2; Leningrad: Paralipomena, p. 130, mettes, ibid., pp. 4446; for the Louvre chous, ibid., p. 40, fig. 14. It is
no. 1 bis, K . S. Gorbunova, Chernofigurnye atticheskie vazy v Ermitazhe dated by Bothmer, The Amasis Painter and His World: Vase-Painting in
(Leningrad, 1983), no. 14 (side view: ibid., p. 31, showing quatrefoil Sixth-Century B.C. Athens, N e w York, The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f
star pattern i n center). The influence o f the East Greek palmette i n A r t and other institutions, September 1985-April 1986, pp. 157-158,
Attic black-figure o f the second half o f the century was, however, to shortly after the middle o f the sixth century.
quite pervasive and can readily be spotted by looking, for example, at 70. Jackson, pp. 26, 31 ("euthynteria"), 32 (Fikellura rays).
P. Jacobsthal, Ornamente griechischer Vasen (Berlin, 1927), pi. 22a ( E x - Amphorae o f the B o t k i n Class are now conveniently i n Amasis Painter
ekias), pi. 22b (Painter o f L o n d o n B 213), pi. 30b (Painter o f (note 69), p. 127, figs. 7679. A d d now for the Leningrad amphora (ex-
Louvre F 117, Nikosthenic), pi. 39d (neck-amphora, L o n d o n B 260). Botkin) Gorbunova (note 68), no. 18 (side view there on p. 37).
See also many o f the skyphoi o f Ure's Class A 1, e.g., E . Rohde, 71. Jackson, chapter 2, esp. pp. 1323.
A A, 1955, cols. 109-110, figs. 10-11 {Paralipomena, p. 84, no. 15). M o s t 72. For the Louvre chous, see above (note 69); for the wider adop
o f these tend to be more like the palmettes seen on the Princeton tion i n Attic, see above (note 68). Consider also the Amasis Painter's
Painter's work than the refined version o f the Amasis Painter, which cups i n the Vatican and i n Oxford (Amasis Painter [note 69], nos. 62,
really is very close to the original model. 63; for the ornament best perhaps J. D. Beazley, JHS 51 [1931], p. 273,
Postscript: A d d to the list o f the Princeton Painter's East Greek type fig. 15, pi. 11). These cups are very lateBothmer puts them about
East Greek Influences 65

n e n t n o w h e r e m o r e so than i n the choice o f t o n d o de o n its outside apart f r o m the m u l t i - c o l o r e d p u p i l , the


v i c e s w h i c h indeed contributes greatly to the special w h i t e o f the eye, and the brows, forehead m a r k i n g s , and
c h a r m o f these delicate and graceful products, o f w h i c h , nose, these b e i n g executed i n v e r y t h i n lines. T h e h a n
alas, o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n can have s u r v i v e d , dles are flanked by a r i s i n g t e n d r i l o n either side, start
j u d g i n g by their rarity i n relation to the substantial i n g f r o m a d o w n - p o i n t i n g lotus flower ( w h i c h was
p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h they were e v i d e n t l y p r o d u c e d . capped by an u p - p o i n t i n g palmette, n o w lost) u n d e r the
What about the reverse? W h y s h o u l d Sparta and handle and t e r m i n a t i n g above i n a scroll. T h e b o w l ,
A t h e n s take up elements f r o m East Greece? Were there therefore, has a v e r y l i g h t - c o l o r e d aspect. T h i s l i g h t ap
not strong and w e l l - m a t u r e d l o c a l traditions that had pearance and the t h i n lines i n w h i c h the decoration is
evolved w i t h o u t m u c h i n the w a y o f i m p u l s e s from executed r e m i n d one a little o f the cups by the A m a s i s
across the Aegean? T h i s is, o f course, b e g g i n g the ques Painter i n the Vatican, i n O x f o r d , and i n Florence
t i o n a n d as far as the A t t i c a m p h o r a is concerned, the (Amasis Painter [see note 69], nos. 62, 63 and fig. 114).
recent w o r k by D . A . Jackson has reminded us again that T h e y cannot be far apart i n date. A g a i n , a cup i n Schloss
we cannot take such generalizations for granted. 71
I f we Fasanerie (fig. 18) is very close to the M a l i b u cup b o t h i n
recall w h a t w e have learnt just n o w about the m i g r a t i o n the handle ornament and i n the Gorgoneion i n the roundel
o f the East G r e e k palmette to the G r e e k m a i n l a n d , it is as w e l l as i n the l i g h t appearance o f its outside aspect. 74

perhaps w o r t h n o t i n g that w h i l e i n L a c o n i a its a d o p t i o n It is the internal decoration o f the Malibu cup


by the Naukratis Painter precedes the Persian takeover o f (fig. 17c) that once again invites o u r special attention. In
the A n a t o l i a n coastline by an appreciable m a r g i n , that the center, a v e r y fragmentary G o r g o n e i o n o f some size
m a y not have been the case i n A t t i c a . H e r e even the and evident quality is framed by a zone o f lozenges ar
earliest occurrence, that o n the L o u v r e o i n o c h o e (chous) ranged i n a reticulate pattern o f a k i n d that is f a m i l i a r
by the A m a s i s Painter, m a y already have c o m e after the f r o m F i k e l l u r a vases o f the t i m e . 7 5
A r o u n d this r i n g , i n
conquest o f L y d i a . C e r t a i n l y its w i d e r a d o p t i o n i n A t t i c t u r n , there is a circular frieze o f d o l p h i n s i n a t i g h t l y
comes subsequently and is best represented in the packed f o r m a t i o n , a l l s t r i v i n g t o w a r d the center. T h e n
A m a s i s Painter's m a t u r i n g m i d d l e p e r i o d and i n his follows a b r o a d belt o f u n r e l i e v e d black u n t i l w e reach a
latest w o r k s . 7 2
A t the b e g i n n i n g o f his career, w e s h o u l d reserved zone just b e l o w the l i p edge, w h i c h is filled w i t h
r e m i n d ourselves, there is n o evidence o f East G r e e k an i v y wreath s k i r t i n g the edge along its way round.
influence. L e t us consider the d o l p h i n s c r o w d i n g a r o u n d the
central G o r g o n e i o n . In p r i n c i p l e the c o m p o s i t i o n re
I s h o u l d like, as postscript to these observations, to m i n d s one o f a w e l l - k n o w n earlier l i p - c u p i n T a r q u i n i a ,
conclude w i t h a b r i e f l o o k at a remarkable A t t i c T y p e A w h o s e central m e d a l l i o n o f H e r a k l e s w r e s t l i n g w i t h T r i
cup i n M a l i b u , w h i c h gives us a rare i f not u n i q u e e x t o n is framed by a circle o f nereids engaged i n a dance. A
ample o f an East G r e e k figurai c o m p o s i t i o n taken over s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the cup i n t e r i o r is f o u n d o n a
in toto o n an A t t i c b l a c k - f i g u r e d vase. w o r k by the C Painter f r o m the r i c h T o m b 2 o f the
T h e cup, M a l i b u 8 2 . A E . 1 2 0 (figs. 1 7 a - c ) , 73
w h i c h can M a r m a r o cemetery i n Ialysos (fig. 1 9 ) , 76
where the c e n
be dated to about 530520 B . C . , has m i n i m a l d e c o r a t i o n tral m e d a l l i o n is s u r r o u n d e d b y d o l p h i n s speeding ele-

520515 B.C. (Amasis Painter, no. 62). Here, too, the palmettes are 74. Adolphseck (Schloss Fasanerie), inv. 29, cup " o f special shape
influenced by the East Greek type. It is interesting i n this context to and technique," F. Brommer, CVA Schloss Fasanerie 1, pis. 22.5, 23,
note the double (and triple) bars, which we have come to k n o w so 24.1; also J. Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period
well on the Samian Little-Master cups and also on some earlier work (London, 1975), fig. 19 for handle ornamentnear the Painter o f the
by the Amasis Painter, where i n every case they served to bond to Vatican Horseman (ARV 159, no. 1second list). B o t h the
2

gether volutes (see above; pages 5960, 64). Here on the cups, Gorgoneion (as inside roundel) and the handle ornament (here fig. 18)
however, the bars are functionless, and the ones below the flowers are very comparable indeed to the M a l i b u cupthey may i n fact turn
remind one i n fact o f the laconizing bar below the buds on the handle- out to be by the same hand. Beazley felt himself reminded o f the
zone o f the Osborne House cup (see above, p. 59). palmettes on the Amasis Painter's cups referred to in our text, while
For the late conversion o f the Amasis Painter to East Greek tenden Brommer (this note), p. 17 aptly recalls the outside ornament on the
cies, see Jackson, pp. 3334. East Greek cup, here see below (note 82), fig. 21a. This nexus is not
73. Very fragmentary. Foot entirely missing, taking w i t h it most o f without significance i n view o f what is said here about these cups for
the central portion o f the Gorgoneion. The present foot is a modern quite independent reasons.
re-creation. H o f bowl: circa 4.5 cm; diameter at lip: 18.2 cm; includ 75. For example, C o o k , Fikellura, p. 79, no. 19, p. 48 ( Y 13),
ing handles: 23.2 cm; diameter o f Gorgoneion: 6.7 cm. Purple for alter pi. 15bamphoriskos i n Athens, from Aegina; other side in: Greek Art
nate rows o f hair and for the tongue o f the Gorgoneion, for every of the Aegean Islands, N e w York, The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t ,
third dolphin, and for the iris o f the eye o f the outside wall device. 1979, no. 124.
White for teeth o f the Gorgoneion and for the white o f the eye on the 76. J. D. Beazley, JHS 52 (1932), p. 178, fig. 14; P. Arias, M . Hirmer,
outside wall. and B . B . Shefton, A History of Greek Vase Painting, (London, 1962),
66 Shefton

Figure 17a. Attic black-figure eye-cup (modern foot). Side A . Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 82. AE.120.

Figure 17b. B o t t o m o f cup, figure 17a.


East Greek Influences 67

Figure Tic. Interior o f cup, figure 17a.


68 Shefton

Figure 18. Attic cup near the Painter o f the Vatican Figure 19. Attic black-figure cup by the C Painter.
Horseman. Underside and handle. A d o l p h - From Rhodes. Interior. Rhodes, Archae
Schloss Fasanerie, inv. 29 (from CVA ological Museum (from CIRh 8 [1936],
Schloss Fasanerie 1 [Munich, 1956], pi. 24.1). p. 72, fig. 58).

g a n t l y i n a circle r o u n d T r i t o n , v e r y m u c h as the nereids p o o l o f the cup h a d f o u n d a specifically E a s t G r e e k f o r


d o o n the T a r q u i n i a cup. T h e M a l i b u cup, o n the other m u l a t i o n d u r i n g the m i d d l e o f the s i x t h c e n t u r y i n j u s t
hand, differs profoundly i n this respect, for the dol this r i n g o f c e n t r i p e t a l d o l p h i n s , a f o r m u l a t i o n n o d o u b t
phins, instead of swimming round the central Gor i n s p i r e d b y the F i k e l l u r a l i k i n g for crescent f r i e z e s ; 77
for
g o n e i o n , c o n v e r g e u p o n it i n a c e n t r i p e t a l m o v e m e n t . In a n i m a t e d crescents these d o l p h i n s are, and as such the
this the artist departs f r o m A t t i c precedence and con pattern fits perfectly i n t o a l i v e l y E a s t G r e e k t r a d i t i o n .
f o r m s c l o s e l y to E a s t G r e e k practice. It was, however, a l i e n to contemporary Attic, which
T h e f i c t i o n that the d o l p h i n s are f r o l i c k i n g w i t h i n the h a r d l y ever f o u n d a satisfactory w a y o f f i t t i n g a s c h o o l

pis. X I V and 49; E . Simon, Die griechischen Vasen (Munich, 1976), lower key and tend to be distinctly pedestrian, thus: Hermitage, G o r
p. 81, pi. 21 (the report i n the latter and i n another recent publication bunova (note 68), no. 9; Basel, Mnzen und Medaillen, sale 16 (June 30,
that Beazley had, at one time, connected the cup w i t h the potter 1956), no. 103.
Xenokles is based upon a misreading o f Beazley's text). For the Ialysos The dolphins o f the Exekias cup i n M u n i c h are not o f direct rele
cup, see ABV52,16; CIRh 8 (1936), pp. 71-74, figs. 57-60 (whence our vance here, but we may notice how Exekias skillfully modifies the
fig. 19). norm (also found on the Demarateion) by which the natural curve o f
77. C o o k , Fikellura, p. 73. the dolphins hugs the curvature o f the roundel frame. N o t so here.
78. Kleitias cup, ABV 78,13; now Boardman (note 67), fig. 108.2; Each time, the dolphin deliberately moves counter to this curve, creat
J. D. Beazley, Development of Attic Black-Figure, rev. d., D. von B o t h ing no unison, but rather counterpoint.
mer and M . B . Moore, eds. (Berkeley, 1986), pi. 44.13. For the m o There are actually a few Attic examples o f centripetal dolphins, but
tive, ibid., p. 48 ( = 1st ed. [Berkeley, 1951], p. 52); cf. also, M . I. they are not so much a round o f crescents as a whirligig. Thus on
Davies, i n W. Childs, ed., Athens Comes of Age: From Solon to Salamis phialai i n Six's technique, which may i n fact betray East Greek influ
(Princeton, 1978), p. 95. The composition o f the central roundel can, ence, Boardman (note 67), pp. 178179, fig. 314Vienna; B . Graef and
in fact, be understood as a variation o f what was to become the Attic E. Langlotz, Die Antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, vol. 2
way o f using dolphins i n a tondo. Here they are arranged into some (Berlin, 1933), pi. 86.1202. The whirligig can be thought o f as a sym
thing o f a Catherine wheel or whirligig as they eddy w i t h i n a pool or bol o f speed, fittingly here, seeing that the dolphin was considered the
rather " w i t h i n a round harbour"Beazley. The remarkable Siana cup speediest thing alive (Pliny, HN IX.7,20); cf. Simon (note 76), p. 95, on
in the V i l l a Giulia, on the other hand (Simon [note 76], pi. 61), where pi. 95. Note also the underside o f the foot o f a large Little-Master cup
one o f the dolphins has turned into a professional flute player, phorbeia from the Aphaia sanctuary on Aegina, A . Greifenhagen, Jdl 86 (1971),
and all, is nearer to the Attic norm, as far as the composition is pp. 90, 100, fig. 24.
concerned. A l l three dolphins proceed i n the same direction, perhaps 79. Kunze, Kleinmeister, pp. 118 n. 1, 122 bottom postscript
i n the open sea rather than i n a harbor (as E r i k a Simon prefers to ("Nachtrag"), Beilage 11, 1-2 (upside down!), Beilage 10, 3-4; Walter-
think). The few remaining Attic roundel compositions are on a vastly Karydi, Samos, pp. 22, 127, no. 335, pi. 40 ("mid-sixth century"); cf.
East Greek Influences 69

Figure 20a. Fikellura cup fragments. From the Heraion Figure 20b. Interior o f cup, figure 20a. Photo, courtesy
at Samos. Exterior. Photo, courtesy D A I , D A I , Athens (neg. Samos 1997).
Athens (neg. Samos 1998).

of dolphins into the small tondo of the Attic cup. this, w e need l o o k no further t h a n the earlier, m i d - s i x t h
K l e i t i a s , i n his cup i n West B e r l i n ( f r o m G o r d i o n ) , suc c e n t u r y fragments o f a cup f r o m the H e r a i o n at S a m o s
ceeded i n the attempt, but he was alone i n this. O t h e r in Fikellura technique 79
to w h i c h we have already re
contemporary Attic attempts a m o u n t to hardly more ferred at the b e g i n n i n g o f this paper (figs. 20ab). H e r e ,
t h a n the equivalent o f an indifferent s h i e l d d e v i c e . 78
too, there is a central G o r g o n e i o n (the o n l y one on a
T h e M a l i b u cup t h e n s h o w s a deliberate d e c i s i o n b y a F i k e l l u r a vase), w h i c h is e n c i r c l e d by a w h o l e l e g i o n o f
painter i n A t h e n s to adopt an E a s t G r e e k s o l u t i o n for w i n g e d sprites c o p i e d (once again) v e r y c l o s e l y f r o m a
the i n s i d e d e c o r a t i o n o f the cup, and to demonstrate L a c o n i a n cup b y the N a u k r a t i s P a i n t e r . 80
These, i n turn,

also, Cook, Fikellura, p. 46, x no. 1 ("middle o f third quarter o f cen cessors, more especially Lane's Rider Painter, charitably resuscitated
tury"). A much later date for the cup, w i t h i n the last quarter o f the by Rolley and Stibbe. A s far as the Samian Little-Master cups were
century, has recently been advocated by G. P. Schaus, BSA 81 (1986), concerned, apparently only the ornamental bands o f Laconian cups
pp. 287288. H e assigns it to his Painter o f the Running Satyrs, ibid., were copied. The C h i o t painters, on the other hand, copied figure-
p. 271, no. 64; p. 282 (shape); pi. 16.3 and 5. This does seem distur w o r k as well as ornamental friezes, but only one hand seems to have
bingly late and w i l l require further argument. been at w o r k (cf. Boardman, loc. cit.).
80. This was noticed straightaway by E . A . Lane, BSA 34 Here are some comparisons to justify the specific link o f these Chiot
(1933-1934), p. 185 n. 7, and the point was repeated by Stibbe, p. 46 pieces w i t h the Boreads Painter's figure-work. The Chiot cup from
n. 1. The obvious models are cups such as the name piece, L o n Naukratis, O x f o r d G . 133, 2 and 6 (sphinx), Stibbe, pi. 60.2-3, both
don B 4, from Naukratis,-Shefton, pi. 53c, or, since we are thinking o f inside and outside (faultily poised; better in J . Boardman and C . E .
Fikellura, the cup i n Samos, which is geographically closer to Miletos, Vaphopoulou-Richardson, eds., Chios: A Conference at the Homereion
Stibbe, pi. 13.1. For the winged creatures on the cup, cf. now also in Chios, 1984 [Oxford, 1986], p. 256, fig. 3), can be compared w i t h
H . Luschey, i n Praestant Interna. Festschrift U. Hausmann (Tubingen, the cup by the Boreads Painter in Samos, Stibbe, pi. 36.12 (Siren).
1982), pp. 299-300. For the Chiot chalice fragment from Naukratis, Cambridge G . 39
We k n o w , o f course, that the Naukratis Painter was not the only (likely to be by the same hand as the O x f o r d cup), see n o w also
Laconian vase-painter to have been copied in East Greece. The Boardman and Vaphopoulou-Richardson (this note), p. 254 n. 12,
Boreads Painter, too, had his fans as was noticed by Lane (this note), fig. 4. This might almost be said to copy, w i t h sides reversed, the
pp. 185-186, and by J . Boardman, BSA 51 (1956), p. 61 n. 1. The Boreads Painter's L o n d o n cup from Naukratis, Stibbe, p i . 49.11. The
fragments are all from one cup (Lane [this note], pl. 36e; Walter- tail feathers on the Cambridge fragment, o f whatever the monster
K a r y d i , Samos, p i . 54.466). Other Samian fragments, on the top half was, are on the right. Again, the way the silhouette o f the far human
o f Walter-Karydi, pi. 54, show in their ornament obvious influence by leg barely protrudes from behind the hither one is characteristic o f the
other Laconian painters (if indeed they are Samian and not misiden- Boreads Painter's formula for "pairs." For the Chiot fragment in
tified Laconian originals), including the Arkesilas Painter and his suc Berlin, nothing need be added to Lane's observations, loc. cit., p. 186.
70 Shefton

are surrounded by the packed shoal o f dolphins converg


i n g u p o n the center, precisely as w e f i n d t h e m o n the
M a l i b u cup. T h e Samos cup, b e i n g fully F i k e l l u r a i n
technique, is l i k e l y to have been made i n M i l e t o s rather
than Samos, but from Samos there is a fragment, probab
ly o f a locally produced Little-Master cup, that preserves
v i r t u a l l y the same m o t i f . 81
Its date is l i k e l y to be not too
Figure 21 a. East Greek footless cup. Side A . West
far o f f that o f the F i k e l l u r a cup. Later, t o w a r d the e n d o f
phalia, private collection. Photos, courtesy
the century, w e have the same d o l p h i n d e c o r a t i o n used
R. Stupperich.
once again o n the remarkable footless cup T y p e A at one

with T y p h o n (Bufolareccia, T o m b 999), Stibbe, p. 288, no. 341 ("Ty


phon Painter"). G o o d pictures in M . Moretti, Cerveteri (Novara,
1977), fig. 74, and in M . Cristofani, The Etruscans: A New Investigation
(London, 1979), p. 67; both these are in color, which for this cup is
quite important. M . A . Rizzo, in Cristofani, Civilt (note 37), p. 211,
no. 9.2 with apt commentary, p. 210 (ill.). The body-snake combina
tion o f T y p h o n is the one that was to be used also for the Gorgons
serving as handles on the Peloponnesian bronze volute-kraters. The
fragment in the Antiquario Forense (Stibbe, no. 343) should also
be his.
A s to the third piece attributed by Stibbe to his (nonexistent) T y
phon Painter, the cup from Bisenzio i n the V i l l a Giulia (capture o f
Silenos; Stibbe, no. 342), it is best left where I put it in the first
instance, as Manner o f the Arkesilas Painter, near the Sparta demon
cup (Shefton, p. 302, no. 5). The fragment from Cyrene, Schaus (this
note), pi. 9.158 (poised askew) should be by the Arkesilas Painter,
too, as Schaus thinks, but I cannot be quite certain.
It is unfortunate that Stibbe in his careful and lovingly elaborate
study abandoned a sensible organization o f his " M i n o r Painters." H i s
division divorced d i m practitioners, who plied their trade under the
shadow o f the several important workshops, from their proper attach
Figure 21b. Interior o f cup, figure 21a. ments, dignified them with names, sometimes rather cheaply (when a
name is given to a hand without so much as a second w o r k having
been attributed to it), and left them to flounder alone i n a spuriously
I take this opportunity to make some further observations on sev autonomous existence. This method does little to further our under
eral Laconian vase-painters. Reverting to the Boreads Painter, I accept standing o f Laconian vase-painting. A m o n g his " M a j o r Painters,"
that the evidence accrued since 1954 has done nothing to support m y too, the Rider Painter has had his importance vastly inflated, though I
view that his w o r k is an early stage o f the Arkesilas Painter's output , realize n o w that I should not have allowed h i m , w h o had been identi
though the links between the two remain uncannily close. It is righ t fied by Lane, to be submerged anonymously under the Manner o f the
therefore to separate the two, and I follow Stibbe in adopting the Arkesilas Painter and his successors, where he obviously belongs.
name first suggested by Paola Pelagatti (BCH 82 [1958], p. 493). M o r e N o w that the T y p h o n Painter has gone, only one new personality
o f the Boreads Painter's w o r k has become k n o w n recently, notabl y o f substance has emerged. It is Stibbe's contribution to have identified
the two reasonably complete cups in M a l i b u (one o f them, Bareiss h i m as the Chimaira Painter (Stibbe, p. 289), w h o together w i t h the
[note 10], p. 68, no. 16, n o w published by C . H o y t - G r i m e s , in Greek author o f the fine Taranto cup with the n y m p h Cyrene and the lion
Vases in The J. Paul Getty Museum 3 [1986], pp. 2834) and severa l (Shefton, p. 308; Stibbe, p. 289, no. 358) is the last producer o f
fragments from places as diverse as Amathous-J. P. Thalmann, i n sophisticated Laconian. U n d e r the strong challenge and influence o f
E . Gjerstad et al., Greek Geometric and Archaic Pottery Found in Cyprus Attic black-figure, there was a sudden upsurge in quality o f Laconian
(Stockholm, 1977), p. 81, p i . 18.9-10, and C y r e n e G . Schaus, The vase-painting, w i t h a deliberate harking back to the three or four
East Greek, Island and Laconian Pottery: The Extramural Sanctuary of classic Laconian vase-painters o f the preceding generation or so
Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene Libya, v o l . 2 (Philadelphia, 1985), (among w h o m , be it repeated, the Rider Painter cannot claim a place),
nos. 155157, p l . 9, o f which I consider no. 155 alone as certain. Thi s particularly the Naukratis and the H u n t painters (cf. Shefton, p. 289).
fragment is illustrated upside down; furthermore, it does not sho w Since Stibbe's work, fragments o f more cups by the Chimaira
"remains o f a floral m o t i f w i t h some added purple" (Schaus), bu t Painter have turned up and I, therefore, append a new list o f his
remains o f a woman's leg to right, shod i n high boots; remains o f a works, which also in some other respects slightly modifies Stibbe's.
w i n g that may belong to a monster lying in the exergue portion o f the Works in Stibbe's list are referred to by his numbers only. B e
roundel rather than attached to a boot? Perhaps from a Gorgon; cf. hind each entry, the name o f the original author o f the attribution
Stibbe, pi. 48.2. M e n t i o n should also be made o f the publication o f taken over appears in brackets where applicable. This was Beazley's
hitherto u n k n o w n fragments from Naukratis in the Graeco-Roma n practice, which one w o u l d wish to have seen adopted in Stibbe's
M u s e u m i n Alexandria, M . S. Venit, AJA 89 (1985), pp. 395-396 , work, too.
nos. 13, 18, 19. 1. Shahhat (Cyrene), from Demeter sanctuary. Schaus (this note),
A s to the Arkesilas Painter: T o the corpus o f his w o r k establishe d pi. 13.221. Apparently porthole composition recalling the fash
by A r t h u r Lane, Paola Pelagatti, and Erika D i e h l and taken over b y ion o f the H u n t Painter, as noted by Schaus.
myself and by C o n r a d Stibbe, add the remarkable cup from Cerveter i 2. Athens, National Archaeological M u s e u m , 13910. Shefton,
East Greek Influences 71

t i m e i n B e r l i n and n o w i n private hands i n Westphalia i n t o d o l p h i n s . N e a r e r the center and f o l l o w i n g a belt o f


(figs. 21ab). 82
T h e piece is considered b y those w h o black, the Westphalia cup again has a r i n g o f massed
have studied it first-hand to be East G r e e k 8 3
and placed d o l p h i n s s t r a i n i n g i n w a r d t o w a r d the tondo, w h i c h this
w i t h i n the t h i r d quarter o f the s i x t h century, a c o n t e m t i m e is f o r m e d by a r u n n i n g w a r r i o r . T h e early date
p o r a r y perhaps o f the M u n i c h cup b y E x e k i a s , to w h o s e assigned to the cup can, however, h a r d l y be m a i n t a i n e d ,
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n it is, o f course, relevant since the decora t h o u g h d o w n - d a t i n g it nearer the e n d o f the c e n t u r y 84

t i o n o f the Westphalia cup has a l o n g the i n n e r l i p edge w i l l not, o f course, affect its i m p o r t a n c e for the study o f
one o f the t w o earliest indisputable representations o f the m y t h n o r its relevance to the E x e k i a s c u p . 8 5

the m y t h , k n o w n from the H o m e r i c H y m n to D i T h e M a l i b u cup fits w e l l e n o u g h i n t o the c h r o n o l o g i


onysos, o f the m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f the T y r r h e n i a n pirates cal span covered by the East G r e e k examples j u s t

p. 306, no. 6, "manner o f Naucratis Painter"; Stibbe, p. 274, 85. The cup has gained additional interest since the publication o f
no. 103 "manner o f Naucratis Painter; his succession"; cf. also, the Etruscan black-figured hydria now i n Toledo, Ohio, CVA
ibid., p. 85 about links w i t h the C h i m a i r a Painter. A s to the Toledo 2, pi. 90 ("510500 B . C . " ) ; previously ("in private collection"):
enigmatic subject, Stibbe's suggestion (p. 84, " P r i a m , ransom o f H . C . Ebertshuser and M . Waltz, Vasen, Bronzen, Terrakotten des
Hector") ignores the "helper's" right hand clasped around the klassischen Altertums (Munich, 1981), p. 139, fig. 159 ("circa 500 B.C.").
neck o f " P r i a m , " w h i c h suggests constraint rather than The piece, attributed by Cedric Boulter and Kurt Luckner, the authors
assistance. of the C VA fascicule, to the M i c a l i Painter or his workshop, has now
Therefore, Philoktetes after all? been assigned to one o f his followers, the Painter o f Vatican 238 (J. D .
3. Aegina, inv. 856, from town site. Gorgon. H . Walter, ed., Beazley, Etruscan Vase-Painting [Oxford 1947], p. 16) by T Rasmussen
Alt-Agina, vol. 2, part 1 (Mainz, 1982), pi. 8.115 [W. Felten]. and N . J. Spivey, Prospettiva, 44 (January 1986), pp. 28 (with an
4. Heidelberg, University, 30, from Boeotia. Chimaira. Stibbe, overcautious view on the interpretation o f the East Greek cup); also:
no. 352 [Stibbe]. N . J. Spivey, The Micali Painter and His Followers (Oxford, 1987), p. 43,
5. Grand Rapids, Michigan. L i o n . Stibbe, no. 354 [Stibbe]. no. 3.
6. Cambridge, Mass., Fogg A r t M u s e u m , 1964.8. C o c k . Stibbe, The Greek cup and the Etruscan hydria are very close to each other
no. 355 [Stibbe]. in date, and it w o u l d be hazardous, i f not pointless, to claim priority
7. Sparta. Lakaina. Stibbe, no. 355 [Stibbe]. for one or the other. What is worth noting, though, is the difference i n
I am less confident about Stibbe's attribution o f the w e l l - k n o w n cup the treatment o f the composition. The Westphalian cup has its frieze o f
in Kassel (his no. 353) and prefer for the time being to leave it where I metamorphosed dolphins rather i n the East Greek manner, as a
had put it (Manner o f Naukratis Painter no. 5) while recognizing its crescent-inspired, centripetal frieze. N o t so the Etruscan hydria, and
closeness to the C h i m a i r a Painter, whose work it may well turn out to here the difference i n the way the picture is constructed is only par
be. For dating, cf. Shefton, p. 310; Stibbe, p. 190. tially due to the different shape o f the area to be decorated. Another
The attribution o f the Laconian from the Heraion on Samos, admi factor, one may suspect, is Attic influence used here to extremely
rably published by Stibbe, pp. 203267, had been made by me many telling effect. Certainly, the steep dive o f the men-dolphins chimes i n
years previously during brief but intensive visits to the site i n 1954 and well enough with the idea o f panic-stricken pirates precipitating them
in 1957. A l l the fragments were sorted by me into trays according to selves into the waves, but it is also remarkably like the Attic way o f
painters and their workshops, documented i n photography according depicting a shoal o f dolphins over an extended surface. In most cases,
to my groupings, and deposited i n the excavation store. The statement the dolphins are set out i n a closely serried row, suspended perpen
in Stibbe, p. 203 n. 2, amounts to a total puzzle and is only intelligible dicularly as though by their tails, w i t h no feel for the situation, w h i c h
if, i n the years between 1957 and 1968, the contents o f the various trays is that they are just about to reenter the water after their leap into the
were hopelessly jumbled up. Buschor at the time wanted me to pub air. This entirely unfortunate formula appears first on the peculiar
lish the material, but I found it impossible to obtain clearance from proto-"chalice-krater," Louvre C A 2988 (CVA Louvre 12, pi. 193),
Homann-Wedeking who had a longstanding claim on the material which reminded Beazley o f Nicosthenic w o r k (Development, p. 107
since before the war. n. 44). There follow the column-krater i n Cerveteri, from Tomb 429,
81. Samos K 1384, Walter-Karydi, Samos, pi. 49.443, p. 129, no. 443. M o n t e Abatone (battle scenes); the dinos i n Copenhagen
See above (note 58). CVA Copenhagen 3, pi. 124); and the dinoid in Vienna (Masner,
82. E . Rohde, AA, 1955, pp. 102-111 ("540-530"); Jackson, no. 236; Isler [note 82], p. 26, fig. 3); cf. also B . B . Shefton, Annales
pp. 6870, fig. 33; H . P. Isler, Quaderni Ticinesi, Numismtica e Antichit Archologiques Arabes Syriennes 21 (1971), p. 109. In all these, the friezes
Classiche 6 (1977), p. 24; Walter-Karydi, Samos,, p. 29 w i t h fig. 28, are on the inside wall o f the neck. The same scheme is also found on
p. 130, no. 476, pi. 53; Griechische Vasen aus westflischen Sammlungen, handle-zones o f band-cups and the like; thus, CVA Cambridge 2,
M n s t e r / W e s t f , 1984 (B-. Korzus and K . Sthler, eds.), no. 87 w i t h pi. 21 (G. B . 500), 22 (rather broad band, perhaps skyphos rather than
bibl. (R. Stupperich: "soon after the middle o f century"). cup); Alexandrescu (note 65), pi. 42.392; Walter, Alt-gina (note 80),
83. I note, however, the rather noncommittal statement by p. 30, pi. 7.224, where, however, the scheme is modified and the d o l
A . Greifenhagen, Jdl 86 (1971), p. 90. It is possible, though, that he had phins' leap more adequately represented. It is against these Attic d o l
no opportunity to see the cup i n the original. phin pictures that the Etruscan black-figure picture can be measured
84. Walter-Karydi, Samos, p. 102 n. 77, aptly compares the Attic and its merits assessed. It is part o f a tradition that was to encompass
cups i n the " G r o u p o f Camirus Palmettes" (ABV, p. 215), w h i c h are also the dado frieze o f the Tarquinia Tomba del Letto Fnebre and later
nearer the end o f the century. The footlessness o f the shape can also be the bronze krater from the Curunas Tomb 1 i n Tuscania (S. Haynes,
paralleled i n Attic o f that time, both i n red-figure and i n black-glaze; Etruscan Bronzes [London, 1985], no. 162).
cf. B . A . Sparkes and L . Talcott, The Athenian Agora, vol. 12, part 1 We might i n this respect note that this Attic manner is not to my
(Princeton, 1970), pp. 9899 (beveled foot; "from end o f sixth century knowledge found i n East Greek vases o f corresponding shapes, where
to 480 B . c . " ) ; red-figured examples, loc. cit., n. 1 to w h i c h Brian we can cite the dinoid i n Z u r i c h University (Isler [note 82], p. 21,
Sparkes, w h o m I consulted on this shape, adds the possible stemless fig. 1; also, Das Tier in der Antike, Z u r i c h , Archologisches Institut,
cup by Oltos i n Odessa (ARV 67, no. 137).
2
1974, pl. 32.197) and, as equivalent to the Attic band-cup, the East
72 Shefton

quoted. Whether, however, so u n i q u e an a d o p t i o n o n an whether birds or flowers or even dolphins. Transpose the
A t t i c cup suggests that the painter h i m s e l f was an East scheme to the continuous curve o f a cup Type A , atticize
G r e e k i m m i g r a n t w o r k i n g i n A t h e n s is a q u e s t i o n that the floral m o t i f s i n t o the i v y branch, and y o u have pre
can h a r d l y be answered at present. T h e p o s s i b i l i t y is, o f cisely w h a t w e f i n d o n the M a l i b u cup. T h i s l i p - z o n e
course, there, a n d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f further w o r k b y can thus be e n t i r e l y u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n the East G r e e k
the same h a n d m a y i n due course p r o v i d e a m o r e s o l i d t r a d i t i o n . T h e r e were i n d e e d b y this t i m e A t t i c cups
base for further i n q u i r y . 8 6
w i t h i n t e r n a l figure friezes a l o n g the l i p ; but theirs were
A final w o r d o n the placement o f the i v y w r e a t h i n a recent fashion w i t h o u t any past t r a d i t i o n . T h e y de
side the l i p edge o f the M a l i b u cup. T h i s practice is quite p e n d e d i n the first instance u p o n the practice that g r e w
alien to A t t i c . O n the outside it is, o f course, c o m m o n up s o m e t i m e i n the t h i r d quarter o f the c e n t u r y o f u s i n g
e n o u g h at the t i m e o f the M a l i b u cup o n s k y p h o i and the i n n e r neck surface o f kraters (especially v o l u t e - and
m i x i n g b o w l s o f various descriptions. N o t so, however, c o l u m n - k r a t e r s ) and d i n o i as placement for ships, es
o n the inside. Yet clearly a feeling that the inside o f a pecially warships, m a k i n g their w a y across the waves o f
cup s h o u l d have a l i g h t - c o l o r e d center alternating w i t h a the sea (so indicated) above the level o f the m i x e d w i n e
dark w a l l surface and then again a l i g h t (offset) l i p is contained i n the e x p a n d i n g b e l l y o f the b o w l . 8 8
From
precisely w h a t i n f o r m s the decorative scheme o f the there, the idea f o u n d its w a y i n t o cups T y p e A as w e l l ,
c o m m o n I o n i a n cups that are f o u n d b y the hundreds o n where, o f course, it was n o t v e r y suitable as the ships,
sites especially i n East Greece and i n I t a l y . 87
T h i s , too, i n the absence o f an offset, were l i k e l y to be s u b m e r g e d
was the scheme adopted w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n o n the i n the l i q u i d ! T h e idea has n o t h i n g East G r e e k about it
sophisticated L i t t l e - M a s t e r cups decorated b y the O s and has to be kept w e l l away f r o m w h a t w e see o n the
borne H o u s e Painter, as w e called h i m . T h e l i p left re Malibu cup. 8 9

served p r o v i d e d the space for a n a r r o w decorative frieze,


The University
Newcastle upon Tyne

Greek cup i n B o c h u m . N . ' Kunisch, Antiken der Sammlung J. C und It is interesting to reflect that the Chalkidian Phineus cup i n
M. Funche: Die zweite Stiftung (Bochum, 1980), pp. 22-23, no. 169. W r z b u r g , E . Langlotz, Griechische Vasen (Munich, 1932), no. 164;
There is none o f the Attic rigidity i n these delightfully frolicking E. Simon et al., Fhrer durch die Antikenabteilung des Martin von Wagner
dolphins, to which there are all too few matches i n Attic, at any rate Museums der Universitt Wrzburg (Mainz, 1975), pp. 8485, pis. 1819,
until the splendid mounted dolphins on the Norbert Schimmel psyk- which i n its inner frieze derives from these Attic cups, is a step further
ter by Oltos (ARV 1622, no. 7 bis; Paralipomena, p. 326; L . B u r n and
2
away from the original conception as found on the neck o f the Attic
R. G l y n n , comps., Beazley Addenda [Oxford, 1982], p. 80). kraters and dinoi. The choppy waves above which the Harpies are
Addendum: Some o f the Attic material is now listed in M . B . Moore making their getaway are not an integral part o f the general black (sea)
and M . Z . Pease Philippides, The Athenian Agora, vol. 23 (Princeton, o f the bowl, but are separated from it by a reserved area and dividing
1986), pp. 263-264, no. 1353. base-line. The arrangement reminds one o f Attic cups from quite late
86. Compare above (note 74). in the sixth century, such as Florence 3889 (Schauenburg [this note],
87. CVA M u n i c h 6, pi. 294; CVA Gela 2, pp. 5-7, on pi. 35 p. 34 n. 17, pi. 15.1). Attic cups like it must have served as the i m m e d i
( M . Martelli Cristofani); Centre Brard 1978, pp. 123-130 (P. G. ate model for the Phineus cup, for here, too, the frieze is sharply
Guzzo); ibid., pp. 163-166, 195-204 ( M . Martelli Cristofani). That separated from the black background (as against the "ship cups," ibid.,
many o f the cups i n the West are likely to be local imitations does not, pis. 12-13).
o f course, affect this issue. It is worth pointing out, too, that the Phineus cup (uniquely, as far
88. O n dinoi and dinoids, apart from M o r r i s o n and Williams as I am aware, among Chalkidian) adopts the East Greek palmette
(note 33), pis. 14, 16-18, 21, see esp. CVA Boston 2, pp. 9-10 ( M . True above the nose on side A o f the cup, the side where the central area
and D. von Bothmer); H . Williams, in W. G. M o o n and L . Berge, eds., is cruelly worn away and, therefore, never illustrated (not even i n
Greek Vase-Paintings in Midwestern Collections, A r t Institute o f Chicago, Langlotz [this note]) apart from the drawing i n the text o f FR, vol. 1,
1979, no. 37. M o r e references i n Aspects of Ancient Greece, A l l e n t o w n p. 219 (top picture, whence Jackson, p. 64, fig. 30). Furtwngler (loc.
A r t M u s e u m , 1979, no. 24. cit.), as one might expect, was alive to its special status"eine Pal
89. O n these Attic cups w i t h inner lip-friezes, see K . Schauenburg, mette, deren offener Blattfcher zu beachten ist." It is a feature i n line
in Studien zur griechischen Vasenmalerei. AntK, Beiheft 7 (1970), with other East Greek elements i n the Phineus Painter's work, a late
pp. 3346, esp. p. 45 (list A)ship friezes. In tondo: Gorgoneion. but noticeable ripple o f the East Greek diaspora.
Oddities of Very Early Red-figure and a New
Fragment at the Getty
Beth Cohen

W h i l e it m a y have b e g u n m e r e l y as another e x p e r i - figure w o r k s , m o s t l y singletons and dead ends, have


m e n t i n the 520s B . C . , 1
w i t h i n a generation red-figure been preserved. O u r k n o w l e d g e o f this p e r i p h e r y has
b o l d l y d o m i n a t e d p r o d u c t i o n i n the A t t i c p o t t e r y i n d u s - been e n r i c h e d i n recent years by vases i n A m e r i c a n c o l -
t r y . T h i s technique, essentially the reverse o f c o m m o n
2
lections, e.g., a red-figured oinochoe o f black-figure
black-figure, a l l o w e d a vase's background to be covered shape i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m , N e w Y o r k (see
w i t h m e t a l l i c black glaze, forms to be reserved i n the fig. 7), and a b i l i n g u a l eye-cup i n the J o s e p h Veach N o -
bright reddish-orange local clay, and details to be ble C o l l e c t i o n , Tampa M u s e u m o f A r t (see fig. 3). N o w
painted, rather than i n c i s e d . 3
T h e n e w ware c o u l d be a t i n y fragment o f v e r y early red-figured p o t t e r y i n the
fired, w i t h n o special precautions, r i g h t next to the o l d , J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m , M a l i b u (fig. 1) helps focus the
i n the three-stage process already e m p l o y e d by estab- i m a g e o f such rare h y b r i d oddities m o r e sharply by
lished b l a c k - f i g u r e w o r k s h o p s . Red-figure, therefore, p r o m p t i n g a fresh l o o k at figure style, iconography, and
was c o m m e r c i a l l y viable f r o m the start. T h e i n t r o d u c - vase-shape d u r i n g the i n f a n c y o f the n e w technique.
t i o n o f the a l l - i m p o r t a n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n v e r s i o n often T h e G e t t y fragment, i n v . 77.AE.7, i t s e l f c o m p o s e d o f
is credited to a particular artist, k n o w n as the A n d o k i d e s four smaller, j o i n i n g pieces, measures o n l y 3.7 c m i n its
Painter. Significantly, a straight line may be d r a w n f r o m
4
longest d i m e n s i o n . O f quite delicate fabric, it u n d o u b t -
this master's m o n u m e n t a l vase-paintings to the later e d l y b e l o n g e d to a d r i n k i n g vessel, the specific shape o f
A r c h a i c red-figure o f E u p h r o n i o s and the Pioneer G r o u p w h i c h shall be o f central c o n c e r n later. T h e fragment's
and, i n the early fifth century, o f the K l e o p h r a d e s and i n i t i a l attraction for the v i e w e r is the bit o f red-figure
B e r l i n painters. v a s e - p a i n t i n g preserved o n its c o n v e x exterior surface:
Alongside the mainstream, certain miniaturists of part o f the upper torso and head o f a bearded male. T h a t
black-figure orientation, contemporary w i t h the Ando- this red figure m u s t date f r o m the e x p e r i m e n t a l o p e n i n g
kides Painter, also practiced the n e w technique. Their phase o f the n e w technique is m a d e clear b y the f o l l o w -
efforts preceded those o f such fine b i l i n g u a l artists as i n g elements o f its e x e c u t i o n : 5
Neither contour stripe
O l t o s and E p i k t e t o s , and a h a n d f u l o f their slight r e d - n o r r e l i e f l i n e crisps the edge o f the reserved silhouette;

I w o u l d like to thank Dietrich v o n Bothmer for reading the man- Attisai Weissgrundige Keramik, Maltechniken, Werkstatten, Formen, Ver-
uscript o f this article and making many invaluable suggestions. wendung (Mainz, 1983), pp. 59; D. C . Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi:
Abbreviations Patterns and Painters (Oxford, 1975), pp. 911, 116117; Mertens,
ABFV: J. Boardman, Athenian Black Figure Vases: A Hand- pp. 1314, 3040; B . Cohen, "Observations on Coral-red," Marsyas 15
book ( N e w Y o r k , 1974). (19701971), pp. 112. For polychromy on terracotta plaques, see
ARFV: J. Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic A . Greifenhagen, "Fragmente eines rotfigurigen Pinax," i n L . B o n -
Period (London, 1975). fante and H . von Heintze, eds., Essays in Archaeology and the Human-
Bilingual: B . Cohen, Attic Bilingual Vases and Their Painters ities, Otto J. Brendel in Memoriam (Mainz, 1976), pp. 4348; Bilingual,
( N e w Y o r k , 1978). pp. 226-229.
GPP: R. M . C o o k , Greek Painted Pottery (London, 1972). 2. GPP, pp. 162, 164-169; ABFV,?. 113.
Greifenhagen: A . Greifenhagen, " M a s t o i , " in U . H c k m a n n and 3. J. V. Noble, The Techniques of Painted Attic Pottery (New York,
A . K r u g , eds., Festschrift fir Frank Brommer (Mainz, 1965), pp. 51, 54-58, 60-61, 72-81, 84-85; GPP, p. 161; D. von B o t h -
1977), pp. 133-137. mer, "Andokides the Potter and the Andokides Painter," BMMA 24
Mertens: J. R. Mertens, Attic White-ground: Its Development on (1965-1966), pp. 205-206; ABFV, p. 103.
Shapes Other than Lekythoi ( N e w Y o r k , 1977). 4. ARV2 3-5, 1617; Bilingual, pp. 105-193, 245-252; Bothmer
1. Experiments i n vase-painting technique included outline, (note 3), pp. 207-208. Cf. ARV 2; ABFV, p. 105; ARFV, pp. 15-17;
2

white-figure, Six's technique, white-ground, and coral-red glaze; on W illiams (note 1), p. 36.
these see: ABFV, pp. 106, 178; Bilingual, pp. 262-263, 153, 155-156, 5. A n incrustation on the surface o f the Getty fragment, which,
45-46, 199-203, 513-519; D. Williams, Greek Vases (London, 1985), a ccording to J i n Frel, restorers have been unable to remove, mars the
pp. 3537; GPP, pp. 169170; J. Six, "Vases Polychromes sur fond noir reserve o f the red figure's flesh.
de la period archaque," Gaz Arch 13 (1888), pp. 193210; I. Wehgartner,
74 Cohen

equine? A r e the facial features coarse because this figure


is s u b h u m a n a n d / o r because the vase-painter's h a n d was
unsteady? G i v e n the scant remains, questions such as
these m a y never be answered definitively. B y t u r n i n g to
relevant c o m p a r a n d a , however, certain suggestions can
be made about the red-figured G e t t y fragment as w e l l as
about its contextthe earliest phase o f the n e w technique.
S u i t a b i l i t y o f subject d e c o r a t i o n for shape f u n c t i o n
was n o t necessarily the n o r m i n A t t i c v a s e - p a i n t i n g , yet
Exekias, the potter and painter o f the prototypical black-
figured eye-cup o f type A ( M u n i c h 2044, circa 530 B . C . )
set D i o n y s o s asail u p o n a coral-red sea w i t h i n the b o w l .
T h e mast o f the god's d o l p h i n - p r o w e d craft serves to

Figure I. Red-figured fragment o f drinking vessel. E x - stake w o n d r o u s grapevines l a d e n w i t h heavy b u n c h e s . 7

terior. Actual size. M a l i b u , The J. Paul Getty A s w e shall see, such special i c o n o g r a p h i e associations
Museum, 77.AE.7. o f the d r i n k i n g vessel w i t h the g o d and the fruit o f the
v i n e appear to have been translated i n t o red-figure i n
d i l u t e glaze alone has been applied a r o u n d the profile, the w o r k s h o p o f the potter A n d o k i d e s , and several i n i -
resulting i n smudged imprecision; inner anatomical tial artisans o f the n e w technique were m o v e d to i n v o k e
m a r k i n g s , e.g., the collar bone, apparently have been the p o w e r o f w i n e i n their p a i n t e d w o r k w h e n d e c o -
o m i t t e d ; i n c i s i o n , rather than reserve, is used to d e l i n e - r a t i n g vases designed for s e r v i n g o r c o n s u m i n g the
ate i n d i v i d u a l l o c k s i n the G e t t y figure's l o n g hair, as potent l i q u i d .
w e l l as to m a r k the w a v y l i n e at the upper c o n t o u r o f First place a m o n g early red-figure examples o f d r i n k -
the beard and for the series o f strokes i n d i c a t i n g hairs i n g vessels b e l o n g s to B u d a p e s t 51.28 (fig. 2). T h i s eye-
a l o n g its l o w e r border; finally, the b r i g h t p u r p l e - r e d o f cup, e v i d e n t l y a p r o d u c t o f A n d o k i d e s ' shop, appears to
the beard is p a i n t e d over black glaze, as i n black-figure, have been decorated b y the A n d o k i d e s Painter h i m s e l f
rather than over reserve. C u r i o u s l y , it retains a standard b l a c k - f i g u r e d eye-cup
A l t h o u g h this little figure is as s i m p l e as can be, his scheme, w i t h grapevines g r o w i n g b e t w e e n handles and
p h y s i o g n o m y is as d i s t i n c t i v e as the technique i n w h i c h eyes, instead o f the palmettes that are c a n o n i c a l i n this
it is delineated. T h e large nose and p r o t r u d i n g lips b r i n g location o n red-figured exteriors. 8
A single figure i n -
to m i n d the A r c h a i c r e n d e r i n g o f h a l f - w i l d creatures: habits the space b e t w e e n the eyes o n each side o f this
satyrs, the horsetailed m a l e followers o f the g o d D i - cup. O n the reverse a r u n n i n g m a e n a d carries vines,
onysos, a n d the h o r s e - b o d i e d tribe o f C e n t a u r s . 6
Unfor- w h i l e o n the obverse a male, bearded and naked, half-
tunately, the G e t t y fragment preserves neither telltale sits, h a l f - r e c l i n e s h i s specific i d e n t i t y is n o w s o m e w h a t
l o w e r body, n o r e n o u g h o f the head to s h o w the ear. enigmatic. One red fillet b i n d s his hair; another is
Was the latter r o u n d e d , hence h u m a n , or p o i n t e d , hence draped over his shoulder. T h e t i n y seat beneath h i m is

6. O n satyrs, see below (esp. notes 2122). O n Centaurs, see ARV2 5, no. 5; Bilingual, pp. 509-510; B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die
P. V. C . Baur, Centaurs in Ancient Art: The Archaic Period (Berlin, 1912); antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1933), p. 57,
the earliest red-figure Centaur k n o w n to me appears on N e w York pi. 56. Cf. D. von Bothmer, The Amasis Painter and his World: Vase-
1974.11.4, see Bilingual pp. 510-511, pi. 124 and here fig. 7 (unfor - Painting in Sixth-Century B.C. Athens (Malibu, 1985), no. 62,
tunately, most o f his face is missing). pp. 223225 for the Amasis Painter's komast balancing a "chalice-
7. ABV 146,21; Development (Berkeley, 1964), pp. 67-68; P. Arias shaped cup" on Vatican 369A (ABV 157,87) and the evidence for
and M . Hirmer, A History of Greek Vase Painting, B . Shefton, trans. ceramic chalices.
(London, 1962), pp. 301-302, pi. 16; C o h e n (note 1), pp. 2 - 3 ; 10. ARV2 1617; cf. Szilgyi (note 8), pp. 15-16.
E. Simon and M . and A . Hirmer, Die Griechischen Vasen (Munich, 11. For the bilingual amphora Munich 2301: ARV2 4, no. 8; ABV
1976), p. 86, pi. 24; D. A . Jackson, East Greek Influences on Attic Vases 255,3; Bilingual, p. 182 n. 197, pp. 183-185, 90-92; R. Lullies and M .
(London, 1976), pp. 6870; K . Schefold, Goiter- und Heldensagen der Hirmer, Griechische Vasen der reifarchaischen Zeit (Munich, 1953), pis.
Griechen in der sptarchaischen Kunst (Munich, 1978), pp. 7071. 27. Cf. i n black-figure: London B 302, Manner o f the Lysippides
8. ARV2 1617; for a full discussion of the Budapest cup: Painter, ABV 261,40; Development, pi. 36.1 and i n red-figure: M u n i c h
J. G. Szilgyi, " U n e coupe du peintre d A n d o k i d s , " BullMusHong 28 2302, by Psiax, ARV2 6, no. 1; CVA Munich 4, pl. 1.
(1966), pp. 13-29 and Bilingual, pp. 249-253, pl. 48. A s on black- 12. ARV2 3, no. 5; W. Technau, "Eine Amphora des Andokidesmalers
figured cups, i n addition, a Gorgoneion appears on its interior. malers i n der Sammlung des Conte Faina zu Orvieto," i n Corolla
9. A fragmentary red-figured chalice w i t h subsidiary decoratio n Ludwig Curtius (Stuttgart, 1937), vol. 1, p. 139; vol. 2, pi. 46.2.
in black-figure has been preserved, Athens, Akropolis, 726; see 13. C . Houser, Dionysos and His Circle (Cambridge, Mass., 1979),
Oddities of Very Early Red-figure 75

Figure 2.. Detail o f red-figured exterior o f eye-cup attributed to the Andokides Painter. Side
A . Budapest, Szpmvszeti M z e u m , 51.28 (from Bilingual, pi. 48.2).

o u t l i n e d i n red. H i s left hand, extended to the g r o u n d , cap o f black hair, dotted w i t h red c u r l s . 12
O n the other
provides further support. F o r comfort's sake, he has re hand, the B u d a p e s t drinker's total n u d i t y w o u l d be u n
m o v e d his h i m a t i o n , w h i c h hangs above h i m , neatly seemly for an i m a g e o f the g o d o f w i n e this early i n
folded o n a h o o k . T h e season m u s t be late summer, and Greek art. 13
H i s distinctive d r i n k i n g vessel, i n fact,
the heat s t i l l intense, for heavy, ripe bunches o f grapes m i g h t c o u n t against his b e i n g either m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g
h a n g f r o m the cup's handle-vines. T h e red figure clasps ure. In the A r c h a i c p e r i o d D i o n y s o s usually is repre
his o w n d r i n k i n g vessel by its foot i n the p a l m o f his sented w i t h a r h y t o n or a kantharos (especially i n r e d -
right hand. T h e height o f its stem suggests a shape m e figure) 14
and H e r a k l e s w i t h a phiale or, o n occasion, a
tallic i n conceptionperhaps a chalice rather than a kantharos a s . w e l l . 1 5
W h i l e neither i d e n t i f i c a t i o n h e r o
c o m m o n skyphos. 9
T h i s w i n e - v e s s e l m u s t be f i l l e d to or deitycan be proved absolutely, nor ruled out
the b r i m . T h e m a n s l i p s reach t o w a r d it, and its r i m entirely, a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y has been o v e r l o o k e d : T h e
seems equally d r a w n to t h e m . B u d a p e s t d r i n k e r m i g h t be a m o r t a l m a n . 1 6

To J o h n D . B e a z l e y the B u d a p e s t d r i n k e r was H e r T h e fragmentary male figure i n M a l i b u (fig. 1) has


akles rather than D i o n y s o s . 1 0
T h i s interpretation b r i n g s m u c h i n c o m m o n w i t h the B u d a p e s t d r i n k e r . E a c h has a
to m i n d representations o f H e r a k l e s r e c l i n i n g as b a n large nose, a t h i n mustache, and a short red beard w i t h
queter. 11
T h e eye-cup figure's short hair m i g h t indicate incised contours. E a c h has p r o t r u d i n g lips. T h o s e o f the
that he is indeed the athletic hero, i f o n l y the A n d o k i d e s d r i n k e r are p u r p o s e l y pursed, but a s i m i l a r functional
Painter's D i o n y s o s o n the a m p h o r a i n O r v i e t o , Faina 64, intent need not be ascribed to those o f the G e t t y fig
d i d not sport the same coiffure: delicate bangs f r i n g i n g a ure. 1 7
Significantly, the preserved p o r t i o n o f the coiffure

p. 12. See also T. Carpenter, Dionysian Imagery in Archaic Greek Art: ARFV fig. 376.
Its Development in Black-figure Vase Painting (Oxford, 1986) and 16. Cf. the black-figured skyphos, Heidelberg, University M u
A . Henrichs, " M y t h Visualized: Dionysos and H i s Circle i n Sixth- seum, 277, Paralipomena, p. 93,2; ABFV, fig. 182; for its interpretation
Century Attic Vase-Painting," i n M . True, ed., The Amasis Painter and as "the drunkard alone i n the vineyard," see J. Boardman, " A Curious
His World (Malibu, 1987), pp. 95-96. Eye C u p , " ^4^4, 1976, p. 284. Cf., for Greek and maenad appearing on
14. Ibid. E.g., with rhyton: N e w York 31.11.11 by Lydos, ABV 108,5; opposite sides o f the same vase, Psiax' alabastron, Karlsruhe 242
BMMA, 31 (1972), no. 7; M u n i c h 2044 (above [note 7]). W i t h kan (B 120), ARV 7, no. 4; Bilingual, pi. 39.1-2.
2

tharos: N e w York 17.230.5, Development, pis. 2425; L o n d o n B 210 by 17. The open mouth and protruding lips o f the Getty red figure
Exekias, ABV 144,7, Arias and H i r m e r (note 7), pi. 65; N e w York appear to be a sign o f animation and, perhaps, excitement; however,
63.11.6 by the Andokides Painter, ARV2 1617, no. 2 bis, BMMA, 24 no teeth are indicated, any false suggestion o f which is due to the
(1966), fig. 4; M u n i c h 2344 by the Kleophrades Painter, ARV 182, 2
incrustation (see above, note 5). Teeth are rare in early red-figure,
no. 6, Lullies and H i r m e r (note 11), pis. 3839. See also Carpenter where they usually signify beastiality, e.g., on the Centaur, N e w York
(note 13), pp. 117-118. 1974.11.4 (here fig. 7), and/or pain, e.g., on Antaios, Louvre G 103,
15. W i t h phiale: L o n d o n 1902.12-18, ABFV, fig. 246. W i t h kan ARV 14, no. 2; Arias and H i r m e r (note 7), pi. 108, or death, e.g., on
2

tharos: M u n i c h 2648 by Douris, ARV 2


441, no. 185; Lullies and Sarpedon, N e w York 1972.11.10, BMMA, 31 (1972), no. 15.
H i r m e r (note 11), pi. 88. See Carpenter (note 13), pp. 98, 111-114, 117.
For Herakles w i t h phiale and Dionysos w i t h kantharos, feasting to
gether, see L o n d o n E 66 by the C l i n i c Painter, ARV 808, no. 2;
2
76 Cohen

ble cup also provides a parallel for the h a n d l i n g o f l o n g


h a i r i n c i s i o n separating the l o c k s at their roots. Several
other details o f the d r a w i n g , however, suggest that the
G e t t y fragment is not b y the N o b l e master either. T h e
profiles o f heads o n the N o b l e cup have m o r e compact
and r o u n d e d features. H e r e beards sprout d i r e c t l y b e l o w
l o w e r lips, whereas o n the G e t t y fragment a space has
been left b e t w e e n l i p and beard. M u s t a c h e meets beard
i n a s i m p l e arc o n the N o b l e cup, but i n a c u r v e l i k e h a l f
o f a c o m p o u n d b o w o n the G e t t y fragment.
T h e painter o f the N o b l e cup differentiates facial-type
o f satyr f r o m that o f g o d ; the former's j u t t i n g nose c o n
Figure 3. Fragment o f bilingual eye-cup. Side A .
trasts w i t h the latter's straight classical p r o f i l e (fig. 3).
Tampa M u s e u m o f A r t , 86.49, Joseph Veach
Noble Collection, Tampa, Florida (from Bi T h e face o f the G e t t y figure closely resembles that o f
lingual, pi. 53.3). the N o b l e satyr. C o u l d he have been another satyr serving
w i n e to an early red-figure D i o n y s o s ? W h i l e it m a y be
t e m p t i n g , at first glance, to b r a n d h i m as a beast, he
o f the G e t t y f i g u r e l o n g l o c k s , separated one f r o m the need n o t have been one. In late A r c h a i c vase-painting,
other b y i n c i s i o n n o t o n l y differs f r o m the short hair for example, satyrs c o m m o n l y have r o u n d e d pug noses
o f the B u d a p e s t d r i n k e r but is not k n o w n elsewhere i n rather than long, pointed ones. 21
Significantly, dots
the A n d o k i d e s Painter's oeuvre. T h e B u d a p e s t cup, a l cover the b o d y o f the N o b l e satyr, an i n d i c a t i o n o f hair.
t h o u g h a m i n o r w o r k o f the A n d o k i d e s Painter, displays H a i r o n the chest o f the C e n t a u r o n the N e w Y o r k
a certain refinement i n the d r a w i n g o f its lively, s l i g h t l y o i n o c h o e (see fig. 7) is painted i n dilute g l a z e . 22
T h a t the
a w k w a r d figures, as w e l l as a certain m a t u r i t y i n the G e t t y red figure has neither dots n o r m a r k i n g s i n dilute
h a n d l i n g o f red-figure t e c h n i q u e , 18
w h i c h are m i s s i n g to s h o w b o d y hair m i g h t be a further i n d i c a t i o n that he
o n the G e t t y fragment. T h e Getty's e x a m p l e o f early was fully h u m a n i n f o r m .
red-figure cannot be by the great master, but it is n o t far B e a z l e y placed the N o b l e cup near the Painter o f the
f r o m his h a n d . Vatican H o r s e m a n , and here the closest parallels for the
A p a r t i a l l y preserved eye-cup i n the J o s e p h Veach N o G e t t y fragment are to be f o u n d . H e attributed two
ble C o l l e c t i o n , T a m p a M u s e u m o f A r t (fig. 3), bears a w o r k s to the artist's o w n hand, b o t h fragmentary eye-
s i m i l a r relationship to the oeuvre o f the A n d o k i d e s cups o f fine fabric, a b n o r m a l i n o r n a m e n t . 23
T h e y ap
Painter. Its d e c o r a t i o n is b i l i n g u a l : the o l d technique, pear to be the earliest o f the vessels i n the n e w technique
black-figure, has been e m p l o y e d for the t o n d o o n the discussed here; i n fact, their little red figures resemble
cup's i n t e r i o r and the n e w one for its e x t e r i o r . 19
Our black-figure miniatures. C e r t a i n features o f style and or
c o n c e r n m u s t be the little red figures b e t w e e n the large n a m e n t recall the black-figure w o r k o f the Amasis
eyes. T h e obverse is best preserved: A satyr extends an Painter, others foretell the b i l i n g u a l w o r k o f P s i a x . 2 4

o i n o c h o e to p o u r w i n e for D i o n y s o s . 2 0
The reclining P r e l i m i n a r y sketch lines, i m p r e s s e d i n t o the clay, are
deity m u s t have h e l d not o n l y the extant vine, but a used extensively o n the Painter o f the V a t i c a n H o r s e
d r i n k i n g vessel as w e l l . In p h y s i o g n o m y and technique man's n a m e piecea distinctive, technical trait shared by
o f d r a w i n g these early red figures, l i k e the Budapest the G e t t y f r a g m e n t . 25
T h e second eye-cup b y this p e c u
drinker, have m u c h i n c o m m o n w i t h the Getty one, e.g., liar little master was put together by B e a z l e y f r o m frag
p r o t r u d i n g lips, t h i n mustaches, and red beards (the ments at present dispersed between the Museo
c o l o r applied over black) w i t h i n c i s e d borders. T h e N o - N a z i o n a l e d i V i l l a G i u l i a , R o m e ; the A s t a r i t a C o l l e c t i o n

18. Szilgyi (note 8), pp. 14-16, 21-22, 28-29. 22. Bilingual, pp. 256266, for hair on satyrs and Centaurs i n early
19. ARV 159-160,
2
1617; Bilingual, pp. 263-272 and pi. 53.3-5. red-figure and contemporary black-figure.
20. O f the reverse, only a single fragment, w i t h satyr-head and 23. ARV 159-160 and 159, nos. 1-2; 37, nos. (ii) 2 - 3 ; Bilingual,
2

vine, remains, but the scene should have been similar, Bilingual, pis. 50-52.
pi. 53.5. 24. Bilingual, pp. 256262, see also pp. 266272. Comparable i n
21. E.g., on N e w York 63.11.6 (above, note 14); M u n i c h 2302 (above, these aspects as well is the Mildenberg bilingual cup, A . P. Kozloff,
note 11); L o n d o n E 3 by Epiktetos, ARV 70, no. 3, Schefold (note 7),
2
ed., Animals in Ancient Art from the Leo Mildenberg Collection (Cleve
figs. 7475. In black-figure, cf. satyrs by the Amasis Painter, e.g., on land, 1981), no. 102, pp. 121123. N o w , having seen this cup, I recog
W r z b u r g 265, AB V 151,22; Bothmer (note 9), no. 19. Earlier Archaic nize its importance as a transitional piece; cf. Bilingual, pp. 301302.
satyrs have pointed noses, cf. N e w York 31.11.11 (above, note 14). For experimental aspects o f the black-figure technique o f the Amasis
Oddities of Very Early Red-figure 77

o f the Vatican; and the C a b i n e t des M d a i l l e s o f the


Bibliothque Nationale, Paris. The cup corresponds
i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y to those d r i n k i n g vessels that have
been o u r special concern. T h e R o m e and V a t i c a n p o r -
tions give the artist's characteristic, albeit unusual, o r n a -
m e n t a l flowers (instead o f palmettes) at the cup-handles,
parts o f the eye-cup eyes, and the l o w e r h a l f o f each o f
the pair o f D i o n y s o i , seated o n campstools, i n the c e n -
tral spaces o n opposite sides o f the cup's e x t e r i o r . 26
The
A s t a r i t a fragment also shows the b o t t o m o f a kantharos
h e l d i n the god's extended left hand. T h e heretofore
u n p u b l i s h e d fragment i n the C a b i n e t des M d a i l l e s (ex-
Froehner) (fig. 4) is the most i m p o r t a n t of all. 2 7
As
B e a z l e y noted, it j o i n s A s t a r i t a 247 and preserves not
o n l y part o f the left-hand large eye and brow, but the
upper h a l f o f the g o d , the handle o f his kantharos, and
the rear p o r t i o n o f his stool.
T h i s D i o n y s o s is a distinctive character, i m m e d i a t e l y
recognizable as a v e r y early red figure. N e i t h e r c o n t o u r Figure 4. Red-figured fragment of eye-cup attributed to
stripe, n o r true r e l i e f l i n e appear o n the C a b i n e t des the Painter o f the Vatican Horseman. Paris,
M d a i l l e s fragment. T h i c k black d r a w i n g lines, applied Cabinet des Mdailles, ex-Froehner, B i b l i -
othque Nationale. Photo, courtesy B i b l i -
w i t h a brush, o u t l i n e the god's right a r m and hand, the
othque Nationale.
rear o f his torso, and the shoulder closure o f his h i m a -
t i o n . T h i s garment is p u l l e d t i g h t l y a r o u n d the s i m p l e
f o r m o f the red figure's b o d y ; its end, draped over his p i c k e d out by i n c i s i o n , not o n l y against the black
back, falls i n i m p r e c i s e l y d r a w n , but v e r y straight folds. g r o u n d but also against the reserve o f his body. The
H i s right a r m bends u p w a r d tensely, f o r m i n g a sharp C a b i n e t des M d a i l l e s deity's mustache is g i v e n careful
angle at the elbow. B e t w e e n h i m a t i o n and c r o o k o f d e f i n i t i o n : the o u t l i n e o f its l o n g , u p w a r d - c u r v i n g end,
e l b o w the b a c k g r o u n d accidentally was not filled in w h i c h overlaps his beard, is incised. T h e G e t t y figure's
w i t h black glaze. T h e l o n g black l o c k s o f D i o n y s o s ' mustache stops j u s t short o f his beard, also a special
hair, although wavy, are spiky rather than undulating. In feature. O n b o t h heads a bit o f the c h i n beneath the
s u m , the d r a w i n g suggests the p a i n s t a k i n g labor o f a l o w e r l i p is left free o f hair.
craftsman intense at an u n f a m i l i a r task. E x a m i n i n g the profile-types o f the N o b l e and C a b i -
T h i s e m b r y o n i c f o r m o f red-figure technique brings net des M d a i l l e s D i o n y s o i (figs. 34) has a special rele-
to m i n d the G e t t y fragment (fig. 1). T h e type and h a n d - vance here. Whereas the fine nose o f the former c o n t i n -
l i n g o f D i o n y s o s ' head l i k e w i s e recall that o f the G e t t y ues the line o f his brow, the protruding nose o f the latter
red figure. T h e god's eye is too large for the size o f his is l o n g and p o i n t e d . T h e p h y s i o g n o m y o f the C a b i n e t
head. T h e vase-painter carefully left a reserved spot des M d a i l l e s D i o n y s o s strengthens the evidence s u g -
w i t h i n the black o f the iris for the p u p i l . D i o n y s o s ' head gesting that the l o n g - n o s e d G e t t y figure need not be a
is encircled by a w r e a t h , s i m p l y indicated by red dots, beast f r o m G r e e k m y t h o l o g y . It is also n o t e w o r t h y that
and the upper border o f his h a i r is i n c i s e d . A s o n the the god's ear is placed rather high, because such an ear o f
G e t t y figure, the upper border o f his l u x u r i a n t beard is h u m a n type c o u l d w e l l have appeared, above the break,
incised. A l o n g its l o w e r border i n d i v i d u a l hairs are o n the G e t t y figure's head. C o m p a r i s o n w i t h the C a b i -

Painter and their relationship to red-figure, see J. R. Mertens, "The cups, not necessarily earlier i n date, e.g., Hamburg 1922.119,
Amasis Painter: Artist and Tradition," i n M . True, ed., The Amasis ABV 209,2, CVA Hamburg 1, pl. 1; Villa Giulia 773, ABV 381,298,a
Painter and His World (Malibu, 1987), pp. 168-182. Ddalo 3 (1922), p. 73; Chicago, University o f Chicago, ABV 632,1,
25. For preliminary sketches, see Noble (note 3), pp. 50, 85 and AJA 47 (1943), p. 399, fig. 15A, ABFV, fig. 290.1; see also Louvre C
figs. 191-193; G. M . A . Richter, The Craft of Athenian Pottery: An 10451, ABV653,1, CVA Louvre 10, pi. 117.6 and Louvre C 10456, ABV
Investigation of the Technique of Black-figured and Red-figured Athenian 653,2, CVA Louvre 10, pi. 119.2.
Vases (New Haven, 1923), pp. 3839; on their special importance i n 27. I am grateful to Irene A g h i o n for permission to study vases i n
red-figure and the Andokides Painter: Bothmer (note 3), p. 205 and the Cabinet des Mdailles and to M i c h e l A m a n d r y for help i n the
Szilgyi (note 8), p. 21. storeroom.
26. D i o n y s o i seated on campstools also occur on black-figured eye-
78 Cohen

Figure 5.. Red-figured fragment o f lip-cup near the Painter o f the Vatican Horseman. Interior o f lip. London, British
Museum, E 134.2. Photo, courtesy Trustees o f the British Museum.

net des M d a i l l e s D i o n y s o s , o n the other hand, indicates H i s legs extend t o w a r d the left, but he l o o k s back t o
that the h u m b l e figure o n the G e t t y fragment is neither w a r d the right. H i s profile is especially delicate. L i k e the
d i v i n e n o r heroic. bearded D i o n y s o s b y the Painter o f the V a t i c a n H o r s e
B e a z l e y also placed a v e r y early red figure i n L o n d o n m a n (fig. 4), however, he has an o u t s i z e d eye. I n c i s i o n
"near the Painter o f the Vatican H o r s e m a n . " 2 8
T h i s little defines not o n l y his h a i r - c o n t o u r but his w r e a t h as w e l l .
f e l l o w is preserved o n a l i p - c u p fragment i n the B r i t i s h H i s upper torso, d r a w n i n front view, is nude: his h i m a -
M u s e u m , E 134.2 (fig. 5), w h i c h is the s u r p r i s i n g final t i o n has been let d o w n to his waist and is w r a p p e d
example i n the great scholar's fundamental study, " L i t t l e - neatly a r o u n d the l o w e r part o f his body. H e holds a
Master C u p s . " 2 9
T h e L o n d o n figure is s t i l l a beardless phiale i n his r i g h t hand. T h i s vessel, n o r m a l l y used for
y o u t h . H e reclines o n the i n n e r edge o f the offset l i p . d r i n k i n g o n l y i n a heroic or d i v i n e context, is d r a w n

28. ARV 159,


2
no. 2. (above [note 15]). O n the phiale and its metal prototypes, see G. M . A .
29. JHS 52 (1932), pp. 203-204. For L o n d o n E 134.2, see also M . Richter and M . J. M i l n e , Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases (New
Venit, "Painted Pottery from the Greek Mainland found i n Egypt, York, 1935), pp. 2930; see also M . Kanowski, Containers of Classical
650-450 B . C . " (Ph.D. diss., N e w York University, 1982), pp. 144, 504, Greece: A Handbook of Shapes (St. Lucia, 1984), pp. 116117. For a
pi. 250, no. C 56; Bilingual, pp. 255-256, pi. 50.1 and Williams (note 1), complete run o f preserved phialai, see D. von Bothmer, " A Greek and
p. 36, fig. 42; (my thanks go to D y f r i Williams for providing a print o f Roman Treasury," BMMA, 42 (1984), p. 21, esp. no. 12, 1981.11.13,
his fig. 42, reproduced here as fig. 5). p. 26, and nos. 20-21, 68.11.64 and 1970.11.16. See ARFV, p. 60 for
30. Elsewhere i n red-figure, patterns on metal phialai are drawn in a relationships between the crafts o f potting and metalworking.
more clearly three-dimensional manner, cf. the fragmentary panel- 31. J. D. Beazley, JHS 52 (1932), p. 204. For the omission o f couches
amphora i n Taranto and Reggio by the Andokides Painter, ARV 3, 2
in symposia to enhance the shape o f the cup's bowl, cf. interior: O x
no. 6; 1617; Bilingual, pi. 33.12; B e r l i n 2278 by the Sosias Painter, ford 1974.344 (black-figured eye-cup), J. Boardman, A A, 1976, pp. 281,
ARV 2
21, no. 1; Schefold (note 7), figs. 42-43; and L o n d o n E 66 283, fig. 5, p. 284; exterior: Berlin 2298, ARV 364, no. 52, ARFV, fig.
2
Oddities of Very Early Red-figure 79

w i t h a black o u t l i n e u p o n the reserve o f his flesh, and its E u e r g i d e s Painter. T h e o c c a s i o n represented is extra
surface is dotted w i t h black glaze, perhaps to indicate o r d i n a r y i n that A t h e n a l o o k s o n w h i l e a vase-painter
h a m m e r e d bosses i n a precious, m e t a l o b j e c t . 30
The fig decorates a cup.
ure's left a r m , outstretched to the right, rests u p o n a A strange thing is that the cup shown here is not like a
c u s h i o n ; the left h a n d is m i s s i n g . T h e a w k w a r d s i m red-figured cup at all: it looks like black-figured kylikes
p l i f i c a t i o n o f the b o d y - c o n t o u r resembles the h a n d l i n g of the 'Little Master' type, a form almost obsolete by the
o f the C a b i n e t des M d a i l l e s D i o n y s o s . A n o t h e r s i m time this vase was painted. The Euergides Painter may
i l a r i t y is that n o relief l i n e was e m p l o y e d for either fig never have handled such kylikes, but evidently he liked
ure. P h i a l e and c u s h i o n suffice to i d e n t i f y the figure o n the shape. 35

the L o n d o n fragment as a symposiast. T h e vase-painter, T h i s pretty scene m u s t hark back to the formative stage
t a k i n g clever advantage o f the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the potted o f red-figure w h e n for some artists, especially m i n i a t u r
shape, has omitted a couch. T h e L o n d o n red figure must ists, boundaries b e t w e e n the o l d and n e w i n b o t h p a i n t
have been a y o u n g m e m b e r o f a d r i n k i n g party that "ran i n g technique and vase-shape were not yet so distinct.
right r o u n d the inside o f the r i m . " 3 1
A l t h o u g h , i n b o t h style and technical execution, the
C o m p a r i n g the G e t t y mature male (fig. 1) w i t h the bearded red figure at the G e t t y is a close k i n to the
L o n d o n y o u t h (fig. 5) helps to reveal an error i n the L o n d o n y o u t h , he, unfortunately, c o u l d not have been
a n a t o m y o f the former. T h e u n i o n o f the G e t t y figure's one o f the lost d r i n k e r s i n this l i p - c u p ' s s y m p o s i o n . A s
head w i t h his body, concealed beneath his beard, is i m w e have seen, the red-figure y o u t h resides o n the c o n
possible: the edge o f the neck aligns w i t h the tip o f the cave i n t e r i o r surface o f his cup's l i p , but the G e t t y figure
chin. 3 2
O n the other hand, i n terms o f b o t h p h y s i o g appears o n the c o n v e x exterior o f his A t t i c fragment.
n o m y and technical execution, the G e t t y fragment once F u r t h e r m o r e , whereas preserved red figures comparable
again displays k i n s h i p w i t h the red-figure style o f the to the G e t t y one decorate cups, the fragment o n w h i c h
Painter o f the V a t i c a n H o r s e m a n . T h e preserved p o r t i o n he h i m s e l f survives m u s t have c o m e f r o m another type
o f the G e t t y figure is v i r t u a l l y a m i r r o r i m a g e o f the o f vessel. Its c u r v i n g profile, w h i c h preserves a s m a l l
pose o f the L o n d o n y o u t h . A bit o f reserve at the l o w e r segment o f the r i m , suggests a deep, yet delicate f o r m .
edge o f the G e t t y fragment m a y indicate that the figure's Since its concave i n n e r surface is black, the fragment
left a r m and h a n d were extended across his body, per surely came f r o m an o p e n shape, w i t h an i n t e r i o r visible
haps to h o l d a d r i n k i n g vessel. to the user and readily covered w i t h glaze by the maker.
T h e s e t w o red figures m a y be related i n a c u r i o u s w a y A glazed interior, furthermore, o b v i o u s l y prevented ab
by the v e r y sherds o f pottery o n w h i c h they survive. A s s o r p t i o n o f l i q u i d b y the porous clay. Significantly, the
a l i p - c u p fragment, L o n d o n E 134.2 is a u n i q u e piece. m o s t suitable candidates for the shape appear to be ves
T h e l i p - c u p , p o p u l a r i n the m i d d l e t h i r d o f the s i x t h sels that, l i k e the l i p - c u p , n o r m a l l y were decorated i n
century B . C . , was a black-figured shape, w h i c h n o r m a l l y black-figure.
bore decoration o n its reserved exterior and frequently, T h e first possibility, a mastos, was described by Gisela
i n a d d i t i o n , o n a t o n d o reserved at the center o f its R i c h ter and M a r j o r i e M i l n e as a " c u p i n the shape o f a
bowl's black-glazed interior. 33
The British Museum woman's breast;" it ends i n a n i p p l e at the bottom. 3 6

fragment's unprecedented a d o r n m e n t i n the n e w tech M a s t o i h a d a particular c u r r e n c y at the t i m e o f v e r y


n i q u e appears i n an equally unprecedented l o c a t i o n o n early red-figure. Several scholars have n o t e d l i n k s i n
the i n n e r surface o f the cup's offset l i p . 3 4
L o n d o n E 134.2 potting and/or painting among the heretofore pub
b r i n g s to m i n d the earliest red-figure d e p i c t i o n o f a lished, preserved s p e c i m e n s a l l o f w h i c h are either
p o t t e r y shop B e a z l e y knew, o n A k r o p o l i s 166 by the b l a c k - f i g u r e d or glazed b l a c k . 37
T h e fine, s m a l l m o d e l i n

305. For the black-figure tradition o f decorated zones, see K . Schauen 34. Beazley (note 31), p. 203 and Bilingual, p. 256: L o n d o n E 134.2
burg, " Z u attisch-schwarzfigurigen Schalen mit Innenfriesen," AntK, also may have been decorated i n black-figure i n the normal location(s)
Beiheft 7 (1970), pp. 33-46. and, hence, could have been a bilingual vase.
32. A short vertical line beneath the Cabinet des Mdailles D i 35. J. D. Beazley, Potter and Painter in Ancient Athens (London,
onysos' beard (fig. 4) appears to begin the front outline o f his neck; i f 1946), p. 8, pi. 1.3; ARV 92, no. 64; ARFV, fig. 101.
2

extended upward it w o u l d end too close to the tip o f his chin. For 36. Richter and M i l n e (note 30), p. 30. See also Greifenhagen,
anatomical distortions i n overlapped forms, cf. the wrestlers by the pp. 133-136, and Kanowski (note 30), pp. 104-106.
Andokides Painter on B e r l i n 2159, ARV 3, no. 1; Bilingual, p. 142 and
2
37. J. D. Beazley, Greek Vases in Poland (Oxford, 1928), p. 4;
n. 106, pi. 25.3. D . von Bothmer, review o f ABFV, Art Bulletin 57 (1975), p. 122;
33. Beazley (note 31), p. 168; F. Villard, "L'volution des coupes G reifenhagen, pp. 134135.
attiques figures noires," REA 48 (1946), pp. 162166; Development,
p. 53; ABFV, p. 59.
80 Cohen

W r z b u r g , w i t h w h i c h J o h n B o a r d m a n illustrated the uous curve; it has n o offset. T h e c o m b i n e d evidence o f


class, is the n a m e piece o f the M a s t o s Painter, a b l a c k - profile and early date suggest this r i m fragment could
figure f o l l o w e r o f the L y s i p p i d e s Painter, the c o l l a b o w e l l have b e l o n g e d to a mastosthe o n l y k n o w n r e d -
rator o f the A n d o k i d e s P a i n t e r . 38
Psiax, a b i l i n g u a l m a s figured one! 46
A n o t h e r o d d red-figure w o r k , however,
ter o f early red-figure, who sometimes worked in introduces a note o f c a u t i o n regarding the nature o f the
Andokides' shop, was especially f o n d o f the shape. shape. A l t h o u g h called a mastos by Beazley, an unlipped
A l l examples attributed to his h a n d are decorated in breast-shaped cup i n the National Museum, Athens
black-figure. 39
(fig. 6), apparently m u s t have been fitted w i t h a foot
A pair o f disparate handles is the n o r m for the shape rather than a nipple, for a section o f a fillet is preserved
i n black-figure; w o u l d the equivalent have been f o u n d at the b o t t o m o f its b o w l . 4 7
T h e A t h e n s cup, w h i l e its
o n a red-figured m o d e l ? 4 0
A d o l f Greifenhagen likened profile does resemble that o f a mastos, technically had to
m a s t o i to other vases e n d i n g i n a p o i n t w h i c h were have been either a special m a s t o i d or a v e r y early P i s t i a n
designed to rest o n stands, 41
but their u n u s u a l handles s k y p h o s (decorated e x c e p t i o n a l l y i n red-figure). Unfor
m a y suggest s o m e t h i n g further about h o w such cups tunately, its handles are not preserved. Its d e c o r a t i o n i n
were used and stored. In order to d r i n k m o s t c o m f o r t a the n e w technique, however, is a m o n g the first extant.
b l y f r o m its deep b o w l , one m u s t h o l d the mastos l i k e a C o m p o s i t e monsters, a s p h i n x , and a siren, related sty
m u g , by the vertical strap handle. T h e mastos c o u l d listically to the m o n u m e n t a l w o r k o n amphora panels by
have been h u n g o n a w a l l w h e n not i n use, suspended by the A n d o k i d e s Painter, stand b e t w e e n gigantic flowers,
the h o r i z o n t a l cup-handle. These distinctive handles, w h i c h g r o w i n the spaces b e t w e e n the (lost) handles.
therefore, s h o u l d have been characteristic o f the n i p p l e d L u m b e r i n g beasts i n an exotic setting recall the red-
f o r m regardless o f the technique o f decoration. F o r flat- figured oinochoe o f black-figure shape, New York
b o t t o m e d o r footed versions, however, disparate handles 1974.11.4 (fig. 7). T h e G e t t y fragment's m i n i a t u r e r e d -
are n o t e s s e n t i a l . 42
figure appears to be aligned aesthetically m o r e closely
W h e n a breast-shaped cup has a flat resting surface, it w i t h b l a c k - f i g u r e d w o r k s than w i t h such early A n d o -
is called a m a s t o i d . M a s t o i d s need n o t have handles and, cidean products. O n the other h a n d , whereas b l a c k -
generally, are characterized b y a flaring offset l i p . T h e figured m a s t o i generally bear either black lines or bands
earliest b l a c k - f i g u r e d m o d e l , decorated b y the A m a s i s o f o r n a m e n t near the upper edges o f their reserved exte
Painter, is special: it has vertical handles and a f o o t . 43 riors, 48
the g r o u n d o f the red-figured vessel i n A t h e n s
T h e standard shape is f o u n d i n early red-figure; e x a m (fig. 6) is glazed black r i g h t u p to the r i m ; and the G e t t y
ples near P s i a x and O l t o s and by the C h e l i s Painter have fragment shares the latter's lack o f special a r t i c u l a t i o n i n
been p r e s e r v e d . 44
In the final decades o f the s i x t h c e n this l o c a t i o n . S t r i c t l y speaking, g i v e n the t i n y preserved
t u r y another type o f d r i n k i n g vessel, w h i c h e v o l v e d p o r t i o n , it is i m p o s s i b l e to tell w h e t h e r the G e t t y vessel
f r o m the mastos, the s k y p h o s o f the Pistias C l a s s M , h a d a foot instead o f a n i p p l e and, thereby, w h e t h e r it
was popular. N o r m a l l y decorated i n black-figure, it has c o u l d have been a special m a s t o i d or P i s t i a n s k y p h o s
been considered Amasean i n derivation. Its breast- rather than a true mastos.
shaped b o w l curves i n w a r d at the b o t t o m , terminating Icono graphically, more often than not, mastos/
in a fillet and a foot. O n this shape the handles are m a s t o i d decoration was related to the vessel's f u n c t i o n
horizontal. 45
as a w i n e cup. T h i s feature b r i n g s to m i n d another
T h e c o n t o u r o f the G e t t y fragment f o l l o w s a c o n t i n - black-figure shape contemporary w i t h early red-figure

38. ABFV, pp. 105, 188, fig. 167; ABI/262,45; below (note 53). H . R. W. Smith, New Aspects of the Menon Painter (Berkeley, 1929),
39. J. R. Mertens, "Some N e w Vases by Psiax," AntK 22 (1979), pi. 6; Louvre C 10783, ARV 69; formerly Lausanne, private collection,
2

pp. 2230, pis. 910; one, pi. 9.56, is i n black-figure on white- Geneva market, ARV 1626, no. 3. The greatest popularity o f the
2

ground. For another white-ground mastos, M u n i c h 2003, see M e r mastoid was for black-figure work o f poor quality i n the early fifth
tens, pp. 87-88, pi. 12.3 and Schefold (note 7), fig. 124. century B . C . , e.g.: ABV557,449560,512 for the H a i m o n Group; ABV
40. Bothmer (note 37), p. 122. 648,238-649,246 for the Leafless Group. ABFV, pp. 149, 188; Mertens,
41. Greifenhagen, p. 133. pp. 8889 on white-ground examples.
42. The latest black-figured mastos, M u n i c h 2003 (above [note 45. A B F 627-628; on Amasean derivation, see Mertens, pp. 89-90
39]), dated by Mertens, p. 87, to 510-500 B . C . , which "has the handles and pi. 13, Wehgartner (note 1), p. 8; for the shape, see ABFV, p. 151
o f a normal skyphos" (Bothmer [note 37], p. 122), probably was influ and fig. 294. Dietrich von Bothmer has brought to my attention an
enced by the Pistias Class (below [note 45]). early black-figure model, N e w York, private collection, on loan to the
43. Louvre F 70, ABV 156,76; see Bothmer (note 9), no. 53, Metropolitan M u s e u m , L.1982.27.7, i n which links between the sky
pp. 198-199 See, in general, ABFV, p. 188 and fig. 274 and on the latest phos o f the Pistias Class M and the mastos still are readily apparent i n
mastoids, Mertens, p. 89. both shape and decoration.
44. L o n d o n , Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , 275.64, ARV 9, 2
46. O n the subject o f early red-figure pictures on black-figure
Oddities of Very Early Red-figure 81

Figure 6. Red-figured mastoid. Side A . Athens, Na Figure 7. Red-figured oinochoe. Front. N e w York, The
tional M u s e u m (from Dunbabin, Perachora, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1974.11.4,
vol. 2, pi. 145, top right). Arthur Darby Nock Fund in M e m o r y of
Gisela M . A . Richter, 1974. Photo, courtesy
The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t .

the k y a t h o s , designed, w i t h a single strap handle, for use seen, eye-cups f u r n i s h the best r e d - f i g u r e parallels for
as a w i n e d i p p e r . 49
Incidentally, a l o n e early e x a m p l e i n our fragment i n b o t h style and possible subject. W h i l e
the new t e c h n i q u e exists. It was decorated b y the bi large eyes or even large palmettes (the n o r m o n s k y p h o i
lingual painter Oltos. 5 0
In kyathos decoration, large o f the Pistias C l a s s M ) d o o c c u r o n the black-figured
eyes, r e c a l l i n g those o n cups, are c o m m o n . 5 1
A s w e have mastos, 52
the p i c t u r e field often is f i l l e d e n t i r e l y by fig-

shapes, see Beazley (note 37), p. 11, pi. 3.12 (oinochoai by the G o l u - 49. Richter and M i l n e (note 30), pp. 30-31; Kanowski (note 30),
chow Painter: Warsaw 14263, ARV 10, no. 1 and Warsaw 142308,
2
pp. 7275, see also M . Eisman, " A t t i c Kyathos Painters" (Ph.D. diss.,
ARV 10, no. 2) and J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-figured Vases in American
2
University o f Pennsylvania, 1971), pp. 18, 1114, 33, a shape, based
Museums (Cambridge, Mass., 1918), p. 5 (the neck-amphora, Bosto n on Etruscan models, intended for export and manufactured i n the
03.790, ARV 11, 2
no. 2(0); illustrated in L . D. Caskey and J. D. Beazley, workshop o f Nikosthenes.
Attic Vase Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, vol. 3 [Oxfor d, 50. ARV 54, no. 8; Eisman (note 49), pp. 57-58, 74-76; Bilingual,
2

1963], suppl. pi. 18.1). pi. 71.4 and pp. 338-339.


47. ARV 5, no. 6; on its correct shape: Mertens (note 39), p. 23
2
51. Eisman (note 49), pp. 31, 3640. For a white-ground eye-
n. 17 ( H . Payne and T. J. Dunbabin, eds., Perachora: The Sanctuaries of kyathos by Psiax, W r z b u r g 436, AB V 294,16; Mertens, pp. 37-38 and
Hera Akraia and Limenia, vol. 2 [Oxford, 1962], p. 351); and on its pi. 3.4. For the meaning o f eyes on vases, see Jackson (note 7),
decoration, see Bilingual, pp. 510511, pi. 123.14. pp. 67-68, and G. Ferrari, " E y e - C u p , " RA, fase. 1 (1986), pp. 11-20.
48. E.g., black lines: L o n d o n B 375, Richter and M i l n e (note 30), 52. Large eyes: L o n d o n B 376, Greifenhagen, p. 136, no. 10,
fig. 182; i v y : N e w York 1975.11.6, AntK 22 (1979), pi. 10.5-6; crenella - pi. 39.13; for the scheme w i t h vines and satyrs, cf. the kyathos for
tion: Swiss private collection, AntK 22 (1979), pi. 10.1-4; net pattern : merly Castle Ashby, the Marquess o f Northampton, ABV 609,1;
M u n i c h 2003 (above, note 39). CVA Castle Ashby, pi. 24.13, p. 15. Large palmettes: mastoi by Psiax,
82 Cohen

ural decoration. O n W r z b u r g 391, D i o n y s o s and satyrs definitive choice o f subject, however, depends as m u c h
appear i n the scenes o n b o t h s i d e s . 53
K r a k o w 1076, first u p o n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f its scantily preserved red fig
recognized as a mastos b y Beazley, has satyrs and ure as a r e c o g n i t i o n o f its shape does u p o n the r e a d i n g
maenads. 54
T h e N o r t h a m p t o n mastos, L o n d o n B 377, o f its scantily preserved profile. Was the G e t t y figure
bears a k o m o s o f m e n a n d m a e n a d s . 55
T h e s e vases b r i n g part o f an extended c o m p o s i t i o n , or was he isolated
to m i n d certain mastoids. O n the A m a s i s Painter's p r o (alone or i n a pair) b e t w e e n eyes, palmettes, or even
t o t y p i c a l m o d e l , L o u v r e F 70, male and female black flowers, o n the obverse or the reverse o f his vessel? B a r
figures h o l d vines, p o u r w i n e , and pass a lyre, and the r i n g the acquisition o f additional fragments, m u c h about
subject m a y w e l l be specifically D i o n y s i a c . R e d - f i g u r e this u n u s u a l piece never m a y be d e t e r m i n e d w i t h cer
m a l e a n d female revelers dance a r o u n d the Psiacian tainty. Nevertheless, the fragment i n the J. P a u l G e t t y
Brachas c u p . 5 6
M u s e u m , as w o r k i n the n e w technique b y a little master,
D r i n k i n g scene a n d k o m o s or thiasos surely c o u n t invites i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o a special aspect o f the A t t i c
a m o n g the themes that plausibly c o u l d be restored to the p o t t e r y i n d u s t r y at its m o m e n t o f greatest change.
m o s t l y lost exterior o f the G e t t y fragment's vessel. A
Columbia University
N e w York

AntK 22 (1979), pis. 9-10, above (notes 39, 48); on the Pistian 54. Beazley (note 37), p. 4; Greifenhagen, p. 136, no. 7; CVA
skyphos, Madison, Elvehjem M u s e u m o f Art, 1979.122, see W. G. M o o n K r a k o w 1, pi. 6.3.
and L . Berge, Greek Vase-painting in Mid-Western Collections (Chicago, 55. Greifenhagen, p. 135, no. 1, pis. 3738; the lost mastos, for
1979), p. 123, no. 70. merly Trieste, Fontana Collection, w i t h homoerotic scenes (Greifen
53. Above (note 38); Greifenhagen, p. 136, no. 4; for the theme on hagen, p. 136, no. 6), resembles the Northampton one i n style and
the reverse as Dionysos, Ariadne, and O i n o p h o n , see Schefold composition.
(note 7), p. 22 and fig. 12. 56. Above (notes 43-44).
Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe
Carina Weifi

Seit 1963 besitzt das B a d i s c h e L a n d e s m u s e u m , Karls- Die aus d e m K u n s t h a n d e l s t a m m e n d e Schale K a r l s -


ruhe, eine Schale m i t der dreifachen M a l e r s i g n a t u r des r u h e 63/104 ist aus F r a g m e n t e n zusammengesetzt u n d
Phintias (Abb. lai). 1
Sie fand u n t e r v e r s c h i e d e n e n G e - t r u g t e i l w e i s e v e r u n k l r e n d e oder s c h n e n d e m o d e r n e
sichtspunkten E i n g a n g i n die Forschung, d o c h steht eine Ubermalungen. B e i einer erneuten R e s t a u r i e r u n g im
umfassende P u b l i k a t i o n b i s l a n g n o c h a u s . 2
Diese soil Badischen L a n d e s m u s e u m w u r d e n samtliche Fehlstellen
n u n h i e r v o r g e l e g t w e r d e n , da die ebenfalls v o n P h i n t i a s im B e r e i c h der figrlichen Dekoration bis zur un-
signierte Schale Malibu 80.AE.31 (Abb. 3a-c) 3
die b e m a l t e n E r g n z u n g freigelegt u n d eine nachgedunkelte
nchste Parallle hinsichtlich Form, Stil und der L a s u r b e r d e m I n n e n b i l d entfernt. 4
D a b e i w u r d e n die
Eigenart der Palmettenkomposition bietet. Stilistisch rotgemalten Details und Inschriften wieder sichtbar.
n u r w e n i g j n g e r ais die K a r l s r u h e r Schale steht sie d i e - A u f d e n A u B e n b i l d e r n hat sich die rote B e m a l u n g teils
ser g l e i c h s a m g e s c h w i s t e r l i c h g e g e n b e r u n d b i l d e t m i t sehr gut erhalten, teils ist sie stark abgerieben.
ihr eine E i n h e i t u n t e r d e n S c h a l e n des Phintias. D i e Zum Formtypus B gehrig 5
s c h w i n g t das P r o f i l o h n e
V o r l a g e v o n K a r l s r u h e 63/104 g i b t die G e l e g e n h e i t , d i - Absatz vom FuB zur Lippe (Abb. lab). Der aus-
verse ikonographische und stilistische Problme zu gedrehte, t r o m p e t e n f r m i g e F u B steht n i c h t a u f einer
b e i d e n S c h a l e n aufzugreifen u n d i h r e z e i t l i c h e S t e l l u n g Standflche, w i e bei friiheren Schalenformen, 6
sondern
i m W e r k des P h i n t i a s z u d i s k u t i e r e n . setzt n u r n o c h m i t e i n e m t o n g r u n d i g e n S t a n d r i n g auf.

Fr die Erlaubnis zur Publikation und vielfltige U n t e r s t t z u n g JbKuSammlBadWrt 2 (1965), 294; Neuerw. Nr. und Abb. 21-22
der Arbeit danke ich M . MaaB, Karlsruhe. Weiterhin gilt mein Dank (J. Thimme); J. T h i m m e , Griechische Vasen: Bildhefte des Badischen Lan-
A . P. A . Belloli und A . Thompson, M a l i b u ; H . A . Cahn, Basel; H . desmuseums Karlsruhe 4
(1975), A b b . 2426; E . Petrasch, Hrsg.,
Froning, W r z b u r g ; W. Hornbostel, Hamburg; I. Krauskopf, H e i d e l - Bildkatalog: 400 ausgewahlte Werke aus der Schausammlung (Badisches
berg; D. M a r z o l i , M a d r i d ; E . Simon, W r z b u r g ; M . True, M a l i b u , Landesmuseum Karlsruhe, 1976), A b b . 50; K . Schauenburg, Jdl, 88
ebenso M . Boss, der die Zeichnung und den Schnitt anfertigte und (1973), 7f, A b b . 7; Boardman, ARFV, 35, 48, A b b . 39,1-2; B .
P. Stief, der mit der Restaurierung der Schale betraut war. Schiffler, Die Typologie des Kentauren in der antiken Kunst... (1976), 24,
In E r g n z u n g zu den Abkiirzungen u n d Sigeln gemB A A (1982), 249, Kat. N r . A66; C . M . Cardon, AJA 83 (1979), 171f, Taf. 24, 11; 25,
809ff., AA (1985), 757ff. und der Archologischen Bibliographie 13; B . Otto i n : Forschungen und Funde: Festschrift B. Neutsch (1980), 317;
werden die folgenden verwendet: Simon, Vasen , Taf. 9899. M . MaaB, Wege zur Klassik: Fiihrer durch die
2

Add: L. B u r n , R. G l y n n , und J. D . Beazley, Ad- Antikenabteilung des Badischen Landesmuseums... (1985), 84, 124f, Abb.
denda (1982). X I I , 92; J. T h i m m e , Antike Meisterwerke im Karlsruher Schlofi (1987),
Bloesch, FAS: H . Bloesch, Formen attischer Schalen (1940). 108ff, N r . Abb. 41; Y. Korshak, Frontal Faces in Attic Vase Painting of the
Boardman, ARFV: J. Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period (1987), 65, 118, 210, Abb. 53; C . WeiB, CVA Karlsruhe 3
Archaic Period (1975). (imDruck).
Brommer, Vasenlisten : 3
F. Brommer, Vasenlisten zur griechischen 3. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 80. AE.31: ARV21620, 12bis;
Heldensage* (1973). J. Frel in: Festschrift fr Leo Mildenberg (1984), 57ff, Taf. 8-9, Abb. 1-5;
Bruhn, Oltos: A . B r u h n , Oltos and Early Red-Figure Vase A . Dierichs, Erotik in der Kunst Griechenlands. Sondernummer Antike
Painting (1943). Welt (1988), 55ff, Abb. 91a-b. MaBe: H : 12,3 cm; D : 31,0 cm; FuB D :
Cohen, ABiV: B . Cohen, Attic Bilingual Vases and Their 10,7 cm; Spannweite 39,0 cm.
Painters (1978). 4. Diese verdeckte grBtenteils die rotgemalten Details der
Neuerw. : E . Petrasch, Hrsg., Badisches Landesmuseum Darstellung und die gleichfarbigen Buchstaben der Signatur.
Karlsruhe: Neuerwerbungen (19521965). 5. Bloesch, FAS, 41ff. Z u m FuBprofil vgl. Cambridge G71 (ebd.
Eine Auswahl (1966). 45, N r . 2, Taf. 12, 2a, b: Kachrylion), doch fehlt der fr Kachrylion
Schefold, SB II: K . Schefold, Gotter und Heldensagen der typische Absatz auf der Oberseite der FuBplatte, was z.B. "Pamphaios
Griechen in der spatarchaischen Kunst (1978). bei einer Anzahl grosser Schalen machte" (ebd. 121 mit A n m . 189).
Seki, UVGM: T Seki, Untersuchungen zum Verhltnis von V g l . daher auch L o n d o n E37 und E33 (ebd. 64f, N r . 14 und 22, Taf
Gefdfiform und Malerei attischer Schalen (1985). 17,3a, b; 4a, b: Pamphaios). Im Werk des Phintias steht M a l i b u
Simon, Vasen : 2
E . Simon, M . und A . Hirmer, Die grie- 80. AE.31, s. oben ( A n m . 3) am nchsten.
chischen Vasen (1981). 6. V g l . z . B . die v o n Deiniades getpferte und von Phintias
1. Inv. N r . 63/104. H : 11,9 cm; D : 30,6 cm; FuB D : 10,6 cm; Spann - gemalte Schale M n c h e n 2590: ARV , 24, 12; Add 74; Seki,
2
UVGM,
weite: 38,3 cm. 31, N r . 55, Taf. 13, 1-3 (FuBtypus A Z ) .
2. ARV , 2
1700, 12ter; Paralipomena, 323; Add, 74; J. T h i m m e ,
84 WeiJ]

Abb. a. Phintias. Att. rotfigurige Schale, Seite A ganz. H : 11,9 cm; FuB 10,6 cm; Spannweite: 38 cm. Karlsruhe, Badisches
Landesmuseum 63/104. Photo: B. Frehn, Hamburg, mit freundlicher Genehmigung Badisches Landesmuseum.

Abb. ib. Profil der Schale von Abb. la. Zeichnung: K . hrlein, Wrzburg, mit freundlicher Genehmigung Badisches
Landesmuseum.

D i e restliche S o h l e des FuBes ist schwarz, die v o m Stiel R a n k e n unter d e n H e n k e l n zusammentreffen und am
u m s c h l o s s e n e U n t e r s e i t e des B e c k e n s t o n g r u n d i g . 7
Ende jeweils eine Lotosbltenknospe tragen (Abb.
Den figrlich dekorierten AuBenseiten (Abb. la, 1 de). A u s d e m Z w i c k e l der R a n k e n entspringt unter
Ifg) dient je e i n umlaufender t o n g r u n d i g e r R e i f e n als dem H e n k e l eine dreiblttrige Palmette mit rhom-
S t a n d l i n i e b z w . als o b r e B i l d r a h m u n g d i r e k t unter der b o i d e m M i t t e l b l a t t u n d ebenso g e f o r m t e m "Tropfen."
Lippe. Zusammen mit dem tongrundigen Rand des A n den n e u n b l t t r i g e n P a l m e t t e n s i n d die l a n z e t t f r -
FuBes s i n d sie als H o r i z o n t a l g l i e d e r u n g i n der A u B e n a n - m i g e n K e r n e u n d M i t t e l b l t t e r gerippt. D e u t l i c h langer
sicht der Schale eingesetzt. Auf der Innenseite als die anderen Blatter berschneiden diese die
w i e d e r h o l e n sich die R e i f e n als Pendant u n t e r h a l b der Rankenrahmung. A u c h die L o t o s k n o s p e n w e i s e n M i t -
L i p p e u n d als T o n d o r a h m e n ( A b b . l c ) . D i e B i l d e r a u f A t e l r i p p e n a u f u n d s i n d so ausgerichtet, daB sie ihre S t e n -
u n d B werden jeweils v o n zwei groBen umschriebenen gelranke schneiden. D i e symmetrische Komposition
Palmetten eingefaBt, 8
deren Sfrmig geschlungene e r g n z e n eingerollte Seitentriebe, die z u d e n H e n k e l n

7. Z u m Bemalungskanon der FuBunterseite att. rf. Schalen vor 8. Z u den "PalmettenBildfriesschalen" ebd. 30ff.
der Wende des 6. z u m 5. Jh., s. Seki, UVGM, 108. 9. hnlich auch bei Schalen des Oltos. V g l . z . B . Berlin, (West),
Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe 85

Abb. le. Innenbild mit Henkeln der Schale von Abb. la. Photo: B . Frehn, Hamburg, mit freundlicher Genehmigung Badisches
Landesmuseum.

h i n aus der H a u p t r a n k e entwachsen; an d e m P a l m e t t e n - R a h m u n g der f i g r l i c h e n Szenen eingesetzt ist, s o n d e r n


paar zuseiten des l i n k e n H e n k e l s ( A b b . Id) w i r d die organisch m i t diesen v e r b u n d e n w i r d , laBt sich gut v e r -
Symmetrie durch verschiedenartige Triebe unterbro- gleichen: D i e F i g u r e n b e r s c h n e i d e n mit ihren E x -
chen; nach B h i n s c h m c k t eine L o t o s k n o s p e die R a n k e , t r e m i t t e n teilweise die P a l m e t t e n r a n k e n oder lehnen
nach A h i n eine weitere Volute. A n den P a l m e t t e n des sich gegen diese. A l s Gegengewicht entsenden die
rechten H e n k e l s ( A b b . le) fehlen diese Z u s t z e , dafur pflanzlichen G e b i l d e ihre B l t e n oder Palmettentriebe i n
w c h s t an der rechten Palmettenranke eine K n o s p e aus d e n A k t i o n s r a u m der F i g u r e n ( A b b . l e , l g , 3ac). 9

dem Z w i c k e l zwischen Volutentrieb u n d Hauptachse. Die zweifigurigen Szenen der AuBenseiten ent-
V i e l e der genannten D e t a i l s f i n d e n sich an der etwas sprechen sich k o m p o s i t o r i s c h u n d thematisch. A u f A
entwickelteren Palmettenkomposition der Schale in (Abb. I f ) 1 0
eilt v o n rechts ein Satyr auf einen gelagerten,
M a l i b u w i e d e r ( A b b . 3ac). A u c h die A r t , w i e die O r - L y r a spielenden J n g l i n g z u , a u f B ( A b b . l g ) luft eine
namentik nicht einfach ais F l l u n g der H e n k e l z o n e bzw. nackte F r a u d r o h e n d e i n e m z u B o d e n gegangenen S i l e n

Staatliche Museen PreuBischer Kulturbesitz F2263: ARV , 2


62, 85; Add, 10. Entgegen der von Seki, UVGM 16f. vorgeschlagenen Ver-
81; Seki, UVGM, 31, N r . 60, Taf. 11, 3. teilung der AuBenbilder nach dem Schema "Seite A ist die A u B e n -
86 WeiJJ

Abb. id. Linke Henkelansicht der Schale von Abb. la. Photo: B. Frehn, Hamburg, mit freundlicher Genehmigung
Badisches Landesmuseum.

Abb. e. Rechte Henkelansicht der Schale von Abb. la. Photo: B. Frehn, Hamburg, mit freundlicher Genehmigung
Badisches Landesmuseum.
Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe 87

Abb. if. Ausschnitt, Seite A der Schale von Abb. la. Photo: B. Frehn, Hamburg,
mit freundlicher Genehmigung Badisches Landesmuseum.

Abb. lg. Ausschnitt, Seite B der Schale von Abb. la. Photo: B . Frehn, Hamburg,
mit freundlicher Genehmigung Badisches Landesmuseum.

Abb. th. Vorzeichnung und Ausfiihrung der weiblichen


Figur, Seite B der Schale von Abb. la. Zeich-
nung: K . Ohrlein, Wrzburg, mit freund
licher Genehmigung Badisches Landesmuseum.
88 WeiJ]

f r i h n t y p i s c h e n Weise g e r i t z t . 11
R o t s i n d auch die W i r -
bel a m J o c h des B a r b i t o n ; seine Saiten geben Relief-
l i n i e n a u f d e m s c h w a r z e n G r u n d wieder. Z w e i Versehen
des M a l e r s sind nur bei genauem H i n s e h e n z u bemerken:
Der rechte F u B des J n g l i n g s hat sechs Z e h e n , die
a m M a n t e l s a u m b e r s e i n e m l i n k e n F u B begonnene
B o r t e ist b e i d e n folgenden Falten n i c h t fortgefhrt. 1 2

Am oberen B i l d r a n d l i n k s v o m K o p f des J n g l i n g s
b e g i n n t die i n r o t e n B u c h s t a b e n geschriebene Signatur
(DINTIA APA(D{sN. 13
Sie endet h i n t e r d e m M i t t e l b l a t t
der rechten Palmette.
A u f B ( A b b . l g ) w e i c h t e i n g l a t z k p f i g e r Satyr v o r
der geballten Faust einer Frau z u r c k u n d sucht m i t aus-
gestreckten A r m e n u n d a b w e h r e n d erhobener Rechter
( L i n k e verloren) i h r e n s t r m i s c h e n A n g r i f f z u b r e m s e n .
D e r Satyr, der sich auch d u r c h die h e l l e n A u g e n v o n
s e i n e m G e f h r t e n a u f A unterscheidet, t r a g i w i e dieser
einen r o t e n E f e u k r a n z a u f d e m K o p f , dessen H a a r die
typische R i t z k o n t u r aufweist. S c h n u r r b a r t u n d S c h a m -
haar sind i n v e r d n n t e m Firnis wiedergegeben. 14
Die A n -
greiferin (Gesicht verloren) ist bis auf eine gepunktete Haube
Abb. ti. Innenbild der Schale von Abb. la. Zeichnung:
u n d e i n e n O h r r i n g nackt. D i e eingetiefte V o r z e i c h n u n g
Martha Breen, Hamburg, mit freundlicher
Genehmigung Badisches Landesmuseum. lBt erkennen, daB die F i g u r m i t m n n l i c h e r B a u c h -
m u s k u l a t u r angelegt w a r ( A b b . l h ) . 1 5
A m oberen B i l d -
r a n d hat P h i n t i a s auch diese Seite signiert. D i e Inschrift
entgegen. B e i d e A n g r e i f e r , d e u t l i c h k l e i n e r als i h r j e - (rot) lautet w i e d e r u m (DINTIA APA0N.
w e i l i g e s l a n g hingestrecktes G e g e n b e r , s i n d heftig be- E i n drittes M a i erscheint dieselbe Signatur i m I n n e n -
w e g t m i t weitausgreifenden A r m e n und Beinen. Die bild ( A b b . l i ) . D i e heute stark abgeriebenen roten
Interpretation dieser Szenen lBt sich a m besten b e i B u c h s t a b e n s i n d entlang der T o n d o r a h m u n g um die
wechselseitiger B e t r a c h t u n g v o n A u n d B erschlieBen. D a r s t e l l u n g eines nach rechts sprengenden Kentauren
A u f A ( A b b . If) ist das s t r e n d e T r e i b e n des Satyrs m i t angeordnet. In der H h e des l i n k e n H e n k e l s b e g i n n e n d
s e i n e m G r i f f an das B a r b i t o n des J n g l i n g s a u s g e d r c k t . zieht sich die Inschrift i m U h r z e i g e r s i n n bis z w i s c h e n
Dieser, m i t g e s e n k t e m K o p f n o c h ganz i n sein S p i e l die Hinterhufe des Pferdeleibes. D a b e i wechselt die A u s -
v e r s u n k e n , halt die F i n g e r der L i n k e n an d e n Saiten u n d richtung der Buchstaben m i t d e m G a m m a unterhalb des
das P l e k t r o n m i t der r o t g e m a l t e n S c h n u r i n der R e c h - l i n k e n Vorderhufes, so daB k e i n e r der B u c h s t a b e n a u f
ten. U m U n t e r k r p e r u n d B e i n e t r a g i er e i n e n reichge- d e m K o p f steht u n d die Inschrift f r d e n T r i n k e r o h n e
f l t e l t e n M a n t e l ; i m H a a r w i e auch der S a t y r e i n e n D r e h u n g der Schale lesbar ist. D e r m i t F i c h t e n s t a m m
r o t e n E f e u k r a n z . B e i b e i d e n F i g u r e n hat P h i n t i a s die u n d F e l s b r o c k e n bewaffnete K e n t a u e r sprengt d i a g o n a l
Haarkontur, a m Satyr dazu die uBere Bartkontur, i n der zur Henkelachse. Sein menschlicher O b e r k r p e r und

seite, die am K o p f des Innenbildes ist," w i r d hier aus thematischen Phintias typischen A r t aus eingetieften Linien der Vorzeichnung, ver-
G r n d e n die konventionell eingebrgerte Verteilung von A und B d n n t e n Firnisstrichen und Relieflinien zusammen. Dazu ausfhrlich
b e r n o m m e n , die dem Schema entgegenluft. K . Reichhold in: FR 1, 171f D i e mnnliche Bauchmuskulatur der Frau
11. Z u r geritzten Haarkontur bei Phintias Cardon a. O. ( A n m . 2) g ibt Einblick, wie Phintias seine Figuren anlegte: Hinter der fertigen,
172, A n m . 34. i n ihrer Einfachheit monumental wirkenden Figur, deren Krper nur
12. Z u den I r r t m e r n auf rotfigurigen Vasenbildern s. M . m it einigen gezielt eingesetzten Relieflinien bzw. Strichen mit
Robertson, A History of Greek Art (1975), 215, 653, A n m . 104; D . v e r d n n t e m Firnis i n der Binnenzeichnung erscheint, steht eine sehr
Buitrn, Douris (im Druck, Reihe Kerameus) zu Kat. N r . 180 v iel reichere Vorzeichnung.
( M n c h e n 2647). 16. Z u m Typus s. Schiffler a.O. ( A n m . 2) 15ff, bes. 18ff, 24. K e n -
13. D i e Schreibweise entspricht sich auf A , B und I. Faksimile der t aurendarstellungen erscheinen relativ selten i m Mdaillon bilinguer
Inschriften werden i n CVA Karlsruhe 3 gegeben. Z u r verschiedenen b zw. rotfiguriger Schalen des 6. Jahrhunderts. Z u sf. Mdaillons vgl.
Schreibweise des Namens s. Boardman, ARFV, 35; M . M . Eisman, z .B. Augenschale des Oltos Vatikan, Astarita, 492: ARV 44, 81; 55, 22; 2

AJA 92 (1988), 237. Add, 77; Cohen, ABiV, 385, B 74, Taf. 87, 1. E b d . 388 Z u s a m -
14. Derartige Ausmalungen mit v e r d n n t e m Firnis sind charak- m enstellung weiterer Beispiele. Z u rf. Mdaillons vgl. z . B . die Schale,
teristisch fr Phintias: Pfuhl, Muz I, 443, 474. Sotheby's A u k t i o n 5.7.1982, 145, N r . 380 mit Abb. des A m -
15. A n alien Figuren setzt sich die Muskelwiedergabe i n der fr b rosiosMalers, der Kentaurendarstellungen besonders liebte (vgl.
Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe 89

der silenshafte K o p f 1 6
s i n d d e m Betrachter zugewendet.
In V e r b i n d u n g m i t den r a u m g r e i f e n d e n Bewegungen
und den geschickt eingesetzten Attributen fllt die
E i n z e l f i g u r das gesamte R u n d des M d a i l l o n . N u r der
Pferdeschwanz w i r d v o m T o n d o r a h m e n abgeschnitten.
A l s malerische D e t a i l s s i n d e r w h n e n s w e r t : D i e h e l l e n
Augen des Kentauren sowie m i t v e r d n n t e m Firnis
gemalte Partien w i e der F e l s b r o c k e n , der Schnurrbart
u n d der feingestrichelte F e l l s a u m b e r den H u f e n . D i e
Z i c k z a c k l i n i e der geritzten H a a r k o n t u r setzt sich u n t e r -
halb der O h r e n i n den Fransenhaaren fort. R o t waren ne-
b e n den B u c h s t a b e n die N a d e l n an d e n F i c h t e n z w e i -
gen 17
u n d der E f e u k r a n z b e r der S t i r n des K e n t a u r e n .
Bewaffnete u n d z u m S y m p o s i o n b e k r n z t e Kentauren
begegnen i n der Ikonographie der Kentauromachien, die
w h r e n d eines Festgelages z u m A u s b r u c h k a m e n . B e i
dem Mdaillon der Karlsruher Schale hatte man
Abb. 2. Att. rotfigurige Schale. Umkreis des
z u n c h s t an einen A u s s c h n i t t aus den Kampfszenen
Onesimos. Aufsicht auf Seite A und B von un
anlBlich der H o c h z e i t des P e i r i t h o o s g e d a c h t . 18
Hierbei ten. Norddeutscher Privatbesitz, Bremen.
waren die geladenen Kentauren b e r die w e i b l i c h e n Photo: mit freundlicher Genehmigung M u
H o c h z e i t s g s t e hergefallen und wurden v o n Theseus seum fr Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg.
u n d den L a p i t h e n b e k m p f t . 1 9
In der archaischen B i l d -
k u n s t w i r d b e v o r z u g t die Feldschlacht m i t der K a i n e u s - Phintias f h r t , 2 2
zeigt uns a u f den A u B e n b i l d e r n beide
episode dargestellt, seit der f r h e n K l a s s i k auch h u f i g e r E p i s o d e n vereinigt: A u f A die n o c h zechenden Freunde
das z u E i n z e l k m p f e n a u f g e l s t e Schlachtengetmmel Herakles u n d Pholos, bereits belstigt v o n z w e i begehrlich
bei der H o c h z e i t . 2 0
B e i diesen Szenen spielt der K a m p f heranstrebenden Kentauren, die sich i n E r w a r t u n g des
selbst eine besondere R o l l e . E i n einzelner, b e k r n z t her- bevorstehenden Genusses festlich als Symposiasten be
aneilender Kentauer paBt dagegen besser in die k r n z t haben; auf B den anschlieBenden K a m p f . E i n e v o n
Ikonographie der Auseinandersetzung zwischen den Pamphaios signierte Schale 23
fhrt n o c h n h e r an das
K e n t a u r e n der P h o l o e u n d H e r a k l e s , e i n T h e m a , das M o t i v des etwa gleichzeitig entstandenen Karlsruher Innen-
sich gerade a u f s p t a r c h a i s c h e n V a s e n b i l d e r n groBer B e - bildes heran: H i e r findet a u f A das Gelage statt, z u d e m
liebtheit erfreute. 21
A u c h hier w a r d e m K a m p f e i n Fest- a u f B die K e n t a u r e n i n R e i h u n d G l i e d heraneilen. A l s
m a h l vorausgegangen, bei dem Herakles mit seinem Ausschnitt einer solchen, wenngleich sicher qualittvoller
F r e u n d P h o l o s tafelte u n d gegen dessen a u s d r c k l i c h e n ausgestalteten Szene m c h t e i c h auch das K a r l s r u h e r I n -
Rat e i n FaB W e i n ffnete. W i e v o n P h o l o s vorausge- nenbild sehen. G l e i c h s a m angelockt vom Duft des
sehen, lockte der D u f t des Weines die w i l d e n Kentauren an, Weines, den das Schalenbecken t r g t , sprengt hier der
die m i t Felsen u n d B a u m s t m m e n bewaffnet herankom- K e n t a u e r aus d e m M d a i l l o n d e m T r i n k e n d e n entgegen
m e n , u m sich des Weines z u b e m c h t i g e n . E i n e r o t - u n d evoziert so die Sage v o n den K e n t a u r e n der P h o l o e
figurige Schale i n Basel, die in den Umkreis des u n d d e m v o n ihnen g e s t r t e n Festmahl v o n Herakles

ARV , 174, 12. 20; Add, 92).


2
21. Z u m Mythos s. Preller und Robert, Die griechische Heldensage II
17. Besonders gut sichtbar an den beiden den tongrundigen Pferde- 2\ 499ff. z / i r Bildberlieferung Brommer, Vasenlisten , 178 f f ; ders.,
3

leib berschneidenden Zweigen. Denkmlerlisten I, 140. V g l . auch K . Schauenburg, AM 86 (1971), 43ff,


18. Simon, Vasen , 97 zu Taf. 98. Inzwischen jedoch der hier
2
bes. A n m . 15; Schefold, SB II 125ff; H . P. Isler, Jdl 98 (1983), 31ff; D.
vorgezogenen Deutung zustimmend (mndlich). N o e l l i n : Image et Cramique Grecque: Actes du Colloque de Rouen 1982
19. Z u m M y t h o s s. Preller/Robert, Die griechische Heldensage II l , 5
(1983), 141ff.
4ff. 22. Basel, Antikenmuseum. 173, 6: ARV , 454, 1: H . P. Maler, Add,
2

20. Z u r Bildberlieferung s. Brommer, Vasenlisten , 223f, 499ff; B . 3


119; Schefold, SB II, 126f, Abb. 160f; Schauenburg a.O. 47, 48ff, Taf.
B. Shefton, Hesperia 31 (1962), 365ff; J. D. Beazley in: Caskey/Beazley 3436; CVA Basel 2, Taf. 23. Neuerdings w i r d die Schale i n die
III, 87; Schefold, SB II 154ff; F. Brommer, Theseus (1982), 104ff; B . frheste Phase des Berliner Malers eingereiht, i n der sich seine
C o h e n in: Ancient Greek Art and Iconography, Hrsg. W. G. M o o n Herkunft von Phintias dokumentiert: G. F. Pinney, AJA 85 (1981),
(1983), 171ff. E b d . 172 und F. Brommer Theseus, 105f. und Beazley 145ff, bes. 147ff, Taf. 32, Abb. 11; Taf. 33, Abb. 15-16.
a.O. 85 z u m Einsetzen der verschiedenen Bildtraditionen. A u f 23. Privatbesitz: Schauenburg a.O. 43ff, Taf. 29-31.
frhrotfigurigen Vasen ist das Thema selten (Cohen a.O. 176); vgl. die
Schale des Oltos, Kopenhagen 13407: ARV , 59, 57; Add, 80f; Sche
2

fold, SB II155, Abb. 207 (Kaineusepisode).


90 WeiJ]

Abb. 3a. Phintias. Att. rotfigurige Schale, Seite A ganz. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum 80. AE.31.

Abb. 3b. Ausschnitt, Seite A der Schale von Abb. 3a.

Abb. 3c. Ausschnitt, Seite B der Schale von Abb. 3a.


Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe 91

und Pholos. D i e m i m i s c h eindrucksvollen Gesten u n d Bewegungen


D a s T h e m a " g e s t r t e s F e s t m a h l " liegt, w i e E . S i m o n der F i g u r e n v e r l o c k e n , als H i n t e r g r u n d fr die D a r s t e l -
gesehen h a t , 24
auch den b e i d e n A u B e n b i l d e r n z u g r u n d e . l u n g e i n Satyrspiel a n z u n e h m e n . 31
N a t r l i c h lBt sich
D i e roten E f e u k r n z e der S a t y r n , des J n g l i n g s u n d des k e i n b e s t i m m t e s Stuck als V o r b i l d fassen, d o c h ist e i n
K e n t a u r e n stellen das v e r b i n d e n d e M o t i v dar. W e r a l - D e t a i l w i e die Stirnglatze des Silens a u f B ( A b b . l g )
lerdings die b e i d e n menschengestaltigen Figuren der nicht ohne einen gewissen N i e d e r s c h l a g v o n E l e m e n
A u B e n s e i t e n s i n d u n d w i e sie i n B e z i e h u n g z u den S a ten des Satyrspieles i n der B i l d k u n s t denkbar. In jener,
t y r n stehen, bleibt fraglich. G e h e n w i r z u n c h s t v o n z u r Entstehungszeit unserer Schale h o c h m o d e r n e n Gat-
Seite A aus. D a s M o t i v " S a t y r neckt J n g l i n g " ist selten t u n g w a r erstmals eine D i f f e r e n z i e r u n g i n altere u n d
und stellt die Abwandlung des vielfach gestalteten j n g e r e Satyrn erfolgt. 32
D e r bis dahin alterslosen m y t h i -
Themas " S a t y r s t r t ruhende M n a d e " dar. Beazley, schen Figurein gutes Beispiel dafr stellt der
d e m eine Z u s a m m e n s t e l l u n g letztgenannter Szenen ver- Satyr a u f Seite A ( A b b . I f ) dartritt n u n eine Schar
dankt w i r d , kennt n u r e i n B e i s p i e l , bei d e m der B e - v o n S a t y r n entgegen, die sich i n i h r e m A u B e r e n alters-
d r n g t e m n n l i c h e n Geschlechts i s t . 25
L e i d e r handelt es m B i g unterscheiden.
sich dabei nicht u m e i n V a s e n b i l d , so daB unsere Szene U n t e r der Voraussetzung, daB m i t der F r a u a u f B
bislang ohne direkte Parallelen bleibt. J e d o c h werfen ( A b b . l g ) w i r k l i c h eine M n a d e gemeint ware, m B t e
D a r s t e l l u n g e n w i e etwa die A u B e n b i l d e r einer Schale der J n g l i n g auf A (Abb. If) aufgrund der kom-
des E p i d r o m o s M a l e r s 26
oder aus d e m U m k r e i s des p o s i t o r i s c h e n u n d i n h a l t l i c h e n B e z i e h u n g e n der beiden
Onesimos (Abb. 2 ) 2 7
L i c h t a u f die Szene unserer Seite B . A u B e n s e i t e n ebenfalls eine m y t h i s c h e F i g u r darstellen.
N e c k e n dort S a t y r n liegende, nackte M n a d e n , so k a n n E i n junger G o t t oder H e r o s als Z i e l der N e c k e r e i e n
m a n a u f der K a r l s r u h e r PhintiasSchale die R e a k t i o n eines Satyrs ist aber n a t u r g e m B schwerer vorstellbar,
einer derartig g e s t r t e n S y m p o s i a s t i n gegen die a l l z u als w e n n m a n an seiner Stelle einen m e n s c h l i c h e n S y m -
v o r w i t z i g e Z u d r i n g l i c h k e i t eines S a t y r n erkennen. Z o r - posiasten a n n i m m t . M g l i c h e r w e i s e g e h r t e n der J n g
n i g aufgesprungen w e i B sich die Scheme lebhaft z u ver- l i n g u n d die Frau, die d a n n eine H e t r e ware, z u e i n u n d
teidigen; d e m v o r i h r e n geballten Fusten 2 8
zurck- demselben F e s t m a h l . D a s T h e m a ware P h i n t i a s nicht
w e i c h e n d e n u n d nach h i n t e n F a l l e n d e n bleibt n u r der fremd: Leierspieler u n d H e t r e f i n d e n w i r z . B . a u f den
erschreckte Abwehrgestus der erhobenen Hnde. 2 9

F r a g m e n t e n einer K a l p i s i n Privatbesitz ( A b b . 4 ) . 3 3 DaB


M n a d e n , die sich gegen die Z u d r i n g l i c h k e i t v o n S a t y r n e i n S y m p o s i o n v o n S a t y r n g e s t r t w i r d u n d so die m y
w e h r e n , s i n d i m f r h e n 5. J a h r h u n d e r t keine Seltenheit thische u n d m e n s c h l i c h e S p h r e ineinanderflieBen, ist
i m Repertoire attischer V a s e n m a l e r . 30
D e r B e g i n n dieser nicht u n g e w h n l i c h . D i e o b e n e r w h n t e Schale aus d e m
E n t w i c k l u n g ist n o c h v o r der J a h r h u n d e r t w e n d e z u U m k r e i s des O n e s i m o s ( A b b . 2) zeigt als Gegenseite z u
suchen. D a b e i z h l t n u n das B i l d der K a r l s r u h e r Schale S i l e n u n d M n a d e eine Gelageszene, i n der d e m S i l e n
z u den f r h e s t e n u n d i n der A n g r i f f s l u s t der vorher eine H e t r e beigesellt i s t . 34 A u f K i s s e n ausgestreckt u n d
B e d r n g t e n z u den a m weitesten gehenden B e i s p i e l e n . m i t e i n a n d e r p l a u d e r n d v e r k r p e r n dieser "gesittete" S i -

24. Simon, Vasen , 97 zu Taf. 98.


2
die M n a d e zu sich herab, u m sich mit ihr zu vergngen
25. J. D. Beazley in: Caskey/Beazley II, 95ff. zu Taf. 64 unten. E b d . Schauenburg a.O. ( A n m . 2) 8, nicht verifizieren lBt.
98 unteritalischer Bronzespiegel: Satyr attackiert Jngling. 30. Dazu ausfhrlich S. M c N a l l y , Arethusa 11 (1978), 106ff, bes.
26. Berlin (West), Staatliche Museen PreuBischer Kulturbesitz 3232: 119ff.
ARV , 117, 2; Add, 86; J. D. Beazley a.O. ( A n m . 25), 96, 4; Boardman,
2
31. So T h i m m e a.O. ( A n m . 28); Simon, Vasen , 97 zu Taf. 98.
2

ARFV, Abb. 113. 32. Z u m frhen Satyrspiel s. B. Snell, TrGF I (1971), 79ff, N r . 4; E .
27. Privatbesitz Bremen: W. Hornbostel, Hrsg., Kunst der Antike. Simon in: The Eye of Greece: Festschrift Martin Robertson (1982), 123ff,
Ausstellungskatalog (Hamburg, 1977), 307ff, N r . 263, Abb. auf S. 308 bes. 128. Z u den verschiedenen Altersstufen der Silene i m Satyrspiel
(H. Hoffman). D i e Zuschreibung an Onesimos w i r d bezweifelt; und auf den davon beeinfluBten Vasenbildern s. E . Buschor, SB-
zuletzt bei B . A . Sparkes in: Greek Art Archaic into Classical: Symposium Miinchen 5 (1943), 81ff, bes. 83 (zur Glatze); F. Brommer, Satyrspiele
Cincinnati 1982, Hrsg. C . G. Boulter (1985) 22f. (1959), 38; B . Seidensticker in: Das griechische Drama, Hrsg. G. A .
28. In Neuerw. zu Abb. 21 erklrte J. T h i m m e die vorgestreckte Seeck (1979), 233; E . Simon, SBHeidelberg 5 (1981), 26ff. A u c h den
Faust i n Anlehnung an L . Deubner, Jdl 58 (1943), 88ff als Geste des Malern der PionierGruppe waren Satyrn mit Stirnglatzen gelufig.
Gtterzwangs. Dagegen ist einzuwenden, daB die von Deubner an- V g l . z.B. Halsamphora Berlin (West), Staatliche Museen PreuBischer
gefhrten Beispiele betende Figuren meinen. Der Bedeutungsgehalt Kulturbesitz 1966.19: Paralipomena, 323, 3 bis: Smikros; Add, 74; A .
der Geste i n dieser Situation ist sicherlich ein anderer als in der leb Greifenhagen, AA (1974), 238ff, Abb. 1-2.
haft bewegten Szene mit erotischem Hintergrund aus Karlsruhe 33. Slg. H . A . Cahn, Basel: ARV , 24, 10. Unpubliziert. Fr die
2

63/104. Abbildungsvorlage und die groBzgige Erlaubnis der Publikation


29. A u c h die linke, verlorene H a n d des Satyrs muB erhoben danke ich H e r r n Professor Cahn.
gewesen sein. A m gut erhaltenen A r m der Frau sind keine F i n - 34. S. oben ( A n m . 27). V g l . auch die Pelike L o n d o n E382: ARV , 2

gerspuren erhalten, auch der schwarze Hintergrund weist keine 632; Add, 133; E . Keuls, MededRom N . S. 11 (1985), 29, Taf. 4, 23.
Uberschneidungen auf, so daB sich die Interpretation, der Satyr ziehe
92 WeiJ]

Sinne k n n t e a u f den beiden Seiten der Karlsruher


Schale das S t a d i u m gemeint sein, b e i d e m e i n S y m p o -
s i o n i n d e n m y t h i s c h e n B e r e i c h eines Dionysosfestes
hinbergleitet.
E i n d e u t i g i m B e r e i c h der r e i n m e n s c h l i c h e n S p h r e
b l e i b e n dagegen die erotischen A u B e n b i l d e r der P h i n -
tiasSchale i n M a l i b u ( A b b . 3ac). G e g e n die D e u t u n g
v o n J. F r e l , der i n den b e i d e n K l i e n t e n der H e t r e n d e n
Vasenmaler P h i n t i a s selbst sehen m c h t e , 3 5
erheben sich
j e d o c h Z w e i f e l . D i e U b e r g a b e des K r a t e r s ( A b b . 3ab)
erscheint m i r nicht unbedingt als H i n w e i s a u f einen
Vasenmaler oder Topfer, s o n d e r n entspricht eher der s i -
tuationsbedingten, manchmal spielerischen Handhabe
von WeingefBen b e i m Gelage. 36
D a r b e r hinaus s i n d
die b e i d e n Paare g e g e n s t z l i c h charakterisiert, meinen
also verschiedene M e n s c h e n : So haben a u f A ( A b b . 3b)
beide F i g u r e n helle A u g e n ; die H e t r e t r g t eine H a u b e
u n d O h r s c h m u c k . A u f B ( A b b . 3c) dagegen s i n d der
J n g l i n g , an dessen W a n g e n B a r t f l a u m sprieBt, u n d die
Abb. 4. Phintias. Att. rotfigurige Kalpis, Schulterbild. b a r h u p t i g e H e t r e d u n k e l u g i g . W e n n w i r auch B nicht
Schweizer Privatbesitz, H . A . Cahn, Basel. M i t
als F o r t s e t z u n g der Szene a u f A begreifen d r f e n , bleibt
freundlicher Genehmigung H . A . Cahn, Basel.
doch z u betonen, daB beide Seiten inhaltlich eng z u s a m -
mengehren. W i e s c h o n o b e n z u r Sprache gebracht,
l e n u n d seine " s t d t i s c h e " B e g l e i t e r i n e i n Gegensatzpaar stellt diese Schale b e z g l i c h der GrBenverhltnisse, 3 7

z u d e m w i l d e n W a l d b e w o h n e r u n d der M n a d e a u f der des P r o f i l v e r l a u f s , 38


der P a l m e t t e n d e k o r a t i o n 39
u n d des
anderen Seite. B e i der K a r l s r u h e r Schale ( A b b . If g) Stiles die n c h s t e P a r a l l l e z u der K a r l s r u h e r Schale dar.
s i n d die G e g e n s t z e einander k u n s t v o l l e r zugeordnet: B e i d e n Schalen fehlt jede A n d e u t u n g von FuBwulst
J n g l i n g u n d H e t r e als T e i l n e h m e r eines m e n s c h l i c h e n oder A b s a t z a u f der FuBplatte. Ihr j e w e i l i g e s V e r h l t n i s
S y m p o s i o n erscheinen chiastisch v e r s c h r n k t m i t den der D u r c h m e s s e r v o n F u B z u B e c k e n entspricht den
beiden S a t y r n , die die W e l t des D i o n y s o s vertreten. W e r t e n 0,35 : l . 4 0
D i e v o n T. S e k i untersuchten attisch
Gerade i m dionysischen Bereich ist die V e r q u i c k u n g v o n r o t f i g u r i g e n Schalen w e i s e n v o m letzten V i e r t e l des 6.
menschlicher und gttlicher S p h r e besonders leicht Jahrhunderts an b e r w i e g e n d das V e r h l t n i s 0,38 : 1 v o n
m g l i c h , da sich i n der A u s b u n g des K u l t u s M e n s c h e n FuB zu B e c k e n auf. 41
N u r w e n i g e Topfer l i e g e n m i t d e m
z u m Gefolge des Gottes w a n d e l n k n n e n . In d i e s e m M i t t e l der d i e s b e z g l i c h e n P r o p o r t i o n e n i h r e r Schalen

35. Frel a.O. ( A n m . 3) 58 n i m m t an, daB Phintias auf A und B ein kleinen Schalen (zur Definition " g r o B " und "klein" ebd. 39) liegt das
Selbstportrait gegeben htte; auf A bei der Bezahlung der Hetre, auf Verhltnis hufig ber 0,38 (ebd. 70ff); vgl. dazu hier A n m . 44.
B bei ihrer Gegenleistung. 42. E b d . 37, 77, 124 (Tabelle 2, 2).
36. V g l . etwa die Schalen B e r l i n (West), Staatliche Museen 43. E b d . 62, 122 (Tabelle 2, 2).
PreuBischer Kulturbesitz F2265: ARV , 88, 4; CVA, 2, Taf. 56, 1-3.
2
44. E b d . 55, N r . 285, 292, 293 (= 127, Tabelle 2, 3). Es handelt sich
R o m , V i l l a Giulia: ARV , 124, 1; 47, 143; Cohen, ABiV, 490f, C 7 2
2
u m nur i m Innenbild bemalte Schalen mit einem Beckendurchmesser
Taf. 115, 1-2. Weitere Beispiele ebd. Taf. 114, 3 (C70); 127, 2 (B131); unter 20cm und mit verhltnismBig groBem und hohem FuB, s. oben
Boardman, ARFV, Abb. 68, 78, 125; CVA Louvre 10, III I b, Taf. 15, ( A n m . 41). Z u den Profilen vgl. Bloesch, FAS, 61, Taf. 16, 2a, b.
3-4 (G12); Taf. 14, 6 (F129); Taf. 17, 3 (G14); Taf. 21, 6 (G73). Dazu jetzt 45. Heidelberg 70/13: Paralipomena, 323 (mit irrtmlicher Standort-
auch F. Lissarague, Un flot d'images: Une esthtique du banquet grec, 74f, angabe Karlsruhe); Ars Antiqua Auktion 5 (1964), 31f., N r . 126, Taf. 32;
Abb. 59-66. Cardon a. O. ( A n m . 2), 170, A n m . 20. H : 5,7 cm; H : mit Henkeln 7,7;
37. Z u den MaBen s. oben ( A n m . 1 und 3). D : 18,53 cm; D : FuB 7,5 cm; Spannweite: 24,1 cm. Daraus ergibt sich
Verhltnis D : FuB zu D : Becken: 0,35 : 1 (Malibu) das Verhltnis von 0,40 : 1 von FuB zu Becken. Baltimore, Johns
0,35 : 1 (Karlsruhe) Hopkins U n i v . B 4: ARV , 24, 14; E . Reeder Williams, The Archae-
2

Verhltnis H : zu D : Becken: 0,40 : 1 (Malibu) ological Collection of the Johns Hopkins Univ. (1984) 139ff, N r . 102 mit
0,39 : 1 (Karlsruhe) Abb. H : 7,0 cm; D : 18,5 cm; D : FuB 7,4 cm; Spannweite: 25,0 cm.
38. S. oben ( A n m . 5). Daraus ergibt sich das Verhltnis von 0,41:1 von FuB zu Becken. Velia:
39. S. oben S. 84-85. Otto a.O. ( A n m . 2) 315f, Taf. 62: errechneter D : 16,2 cm.
40. Beide Werte liegen knapp ber 0,345 und wurden aufgerundet. 46. Z u den i n A n m . 44 genannten k o m m t auch M n c h e n 2590, s.
41. Seki, UVGM, lOOffi, bes. 130, Tabelle 3. V g l . auch ebd. 36f. oben ( A n m . 6). Das Fragment ARV , 24, 13 scheint ebenfalls zu einer
2

(PalmettenBildfriesschalen), 61 (groBe Bildfriesschalen). B e i den Schale v o m FuBtyp B zu gehren, doch sind keine MaBe errechnet.
Phintias in Malibu und Karlsruhe 93

d e u t l i c h auBerhalb dieses Wertes. Z u nennen wren Vergleiche lassen eher eine Tendenz z u den u m 510
P y t h o n , der offensichtlich e i n V e r h l t n i s v o n F u B z u datierten Vasen des P h i n t i a s erkennen. A n der F i g u r des
B e c k e n w i e 0,34 b z w . 0,35 : 1 v o r z o g , 4 2
oder Pamphaios, Leierspielers ( A b b . If) s i n d etwa der p l e k t r o n f h r e n d e
der, w i e S e k i feststellt, " k e i n e n besonderen Wert a u f die A r m m i t d e m des E u t h y m i d e s a u f der H y d r i a M n c h e n
strukturelle P r o p o r t i o n " legte. 43
A u c h Phintias selbst hat 2421, 52
das G e s i c h t s p r o f i l u n d die H i m a t i o n b o r t e mit
als Topfer Schalen anders p r o p o r t i o n i e r t , d o c h g e h r e n d e m J n g l i n g a u f der H y d r i a L o n d o n E 1 5 9 53
zu ver-
die erhaltenen s m t l i c h z u den " k l e i n e n " Schalen, die gleichen. D a s M o t i v der Frontalansicht des K e n t a u r e n
anderen Gesetzten f o l g e n . 44
Dasselbe g i l t fr die v o n ( A b b . l i ) findet seine n c h s t e Parallle i n d e m en face
P h i n t i a s als M a l e r signierten Schalen H e i d e l b e r g 70/13 gezeigten S i l e n der A m p h o r a T a r q u i n i a R C 6 8 4 3 . 5 4
Fr
u n d B a l t i m o r e B 4 ; w a h r s c h e i n l i c h auch fr das F r a g - den w e i t a u s h o l e n d e n Schritt v o n Satyr ( A b b . If) u n d
m e n t aus V e l i a . 4 5
D a die P r o p o r t i o n e n u n d P r o f d e der F r a u ( A b b . l g ) k a n n an die GorgosSchale erinnert
Schalen K a r l s r u h e 63/104 u n d M a l i b u 8 0 . A E . 3 1 w e d e r w e r d e n , die C . M . C a r d o n w o h l z u Recht als B i n d e g l i e d
m i t den Schalen des Topfers Phintias, n o c h m i t den an- zwischen Phintias u n d seinem Schler, dem Berliner
deren, v o n i h m gemalten S c h a l e n 46
Gemeinsamkeiten M a l e r , ansieht. 55
E i n weiteres Indiz fr die D a t i e r u n g
aufweisen, k n n t e m a n als Topfer z . B . P a m p h a i o s i n der K a r l s r u h e r Schale i n die reife P r i o d e des P h i n t i a s
Betracht z i e h e n . 47
P y t h o n , der sich a u f g r u n d hnlicher stellen die g e l n g t e n , l a n z e t t f r m i g e n M i t t e l b l t t e r der
P r o p o r t i o n i e r u n g anbieten w r d e , scheidet u.a. w e g e n P a l m e t t e n dar ( A b b . Ide). B i s z u B e k a n n t w e r d e n der
der unterschiedlichen P r o f i l f h r u n g seiner Schalen aus. 48
Schale in Malibu (Abb. 3ac) wurde eine solche
G e g e n K a c h r y l i o n , aus dessen W e r k ebenfalls Vergleiche B i l d u n g fr e i n U n i k u m i n n e r h a l b der P i o n i e r G r u p p e
herangezogen w u r d e n , spricht seine Vorliebe fur die n o r - gehalten. 56
M i t den langen r h o m b o i d e n M i t t e l b l t t e r n ,
male P r o p o r t i o n v o n F u B z u B e c k e n w i e 0,38 : l . 4 9
die w e i t b e r die R a n k e n der k l e i n e n Seitenpalmetten
D i e D a t i e r u n g der K a r l s r u h e r Schale w a r bis jetzt hinausragen, liegt n u n v o m selben M a l e r eine Parallle
meistens m i t d e m Jahrzehnt 520/510 angegeben w o r d e n . vor. E i n e solche B i l d u n g der M i t t e l b l t t e r ist nach J a -
V o n B . O t t o w u r d e K a r l s r u h e 63/104 allerdings b e i der cobsthal ab der reifarchaischen bzw. frhklassischen
c h r o n o l o g i s c h e n R e i h u n g i m W e r k des P h i n t i a s v o r die Zeit nachweisbar 57 u n d spricht fr die relativ spate E n t -
Schale M n c h e n 2590 gesetzt. 50
Dieser A n o r d n u n g w i d e r - stehungszeit der b e i d e n Schalen, d.h. gegen 510 v . C h r .
spricht nicht nur das a l t e r t m l i c h e r e P r o f i l (FuBtypus A Z ) (Karlsruhe) u n d u m 510 v . C h r . ( M a l i b u ) . D a s F e h l e n
v o n M n c h e n 2590, sondern auch der vergleichsweise der PalmettenBildfriesschalen i m letzten Jahrzehnt des
fortgeschrittene Malstil und die E i g e n a r t e n der P a l - 6. J a h r h u n d e r t s 58 gibt einen A n h a l t s p u n k t fr die untere
mettenkomposition der K a r l s r u h e r Schale. Auch die G r e n z e unserer D a t i e r u n g .
thematische V e r b u n d e n h e i t v o n I, A u n d B weist bereits O b g l e i c h sich die Z a h l der v o n P h i n t i a s gemalten
auf frhklassische Praktiken voraus und steht im Schalen i m V e r g l e i c h z u den anderen v o n i h m de-
Gegensatz z u der archaischen V o r l i e b e , eine Schale m i t k o r i e r t e n V a s e n f o r m e n i n der letzten Z e i t b e t r c h t l i c h
mehreren verschiedenen Bildthemen zu dekorieren. 51
e r h h t hat, w a r P h i n t i a s k e i n ausgesprochener S c h a l e n -

Abzuwarten bleibt die Publikation der neuen PhintiasSchale i n P r i - Add, 98. Z u r Malerfrage ausfhrlich: Cardon a.O. ( A n m . 2), 169f,
vatbesitz, W. Hornbostel, Aus der Glanzzeit Athens, Ausstellungskat . Taf. 22, 1; 23, 4. 5; 24, 8; 25, 12.
(Hamburg, 1986), 84ff., N r . 38 mit Abb. N u r i m Tondo dekorier t 56. Boardman, ARFV, 32: "Centre leaves do not overlap their ten-
(leierspielender J n g l i n g beim Symposion) und mit einem Becken D drils (Phintias does, once...)."
von 19, 6 cm gehrt sie zu den "kleinen" Schalen; vgl. oben A n m . 44. 57. P. Jacobsthal, Ornamente griechischer Vasen (1927), 177: "Lanzett-
47. B e i Pamphaios fmden w i r an der Schale L o n d o n E37 nicht nu r Bildung des schon frh hoch aufschieBenden und ber die
ein vergleichbares FuBprofil s. oben ( A n m . 5), sondern auch das Ver - umschreibende Ranke hinauswachsenden Mittelblatts ist hufig, auch
hltnis 0,35 :1 (D. FuB zu D. Becken). findet sich rhomboider Schnitt bei i h m bereits i m reifen Archaismus
48. Z u Python s. Bloesch, FAS, 96ff. und frhester K l a s s i k . . . " . U b e r die Ranke hinauswachsende M i t -
49. S. oben ( A n m . 5); Simon, Vasen , 97. Z u den Proportionen der
2
telbltter vereinzelt schon u m 510, vgl. W r z b u r g , L 472: ARV , 137 2

Kachrylion-Schalen s. Seki, UVGM, 62. Mitte: AktorioneMaler; E . Langlotz, Griechische Vasen in Wrzburg
50. Otto a.O. ( A n m . 2), 317. In der Literatur gilt M n c h e n 2590 (1932), 91f, N r . 472, Taf. 141 Athen, Nat. M u s . TE556: B . Philippaki
sonst b e r e i n s t i m m e n d als Frhwerk: vgl. ARV , 22. 24, 12: ver y
2
in: KEPNOX: Festschrift G. Bakalakis (1972), 197ff., Taf. 54, 55, 1:
early; Pfuhl, MuZ I, 441; Simon, Vasen , 97. 2
Douris (sign.), hufig dann ab dem 5. Jh., z . B . beim BrygosMaler:
51. Dazu E . Simon, i n : Greek Art Archaic into Classical: Symposium W r z b u r g , L479: ARV , 372, 32: Add, l l l f . ; Simon, Vasen , Taf.
2 2

Cincinnati 982, Hrsg. C . G. Boulter (1985), 68. 154-155. Paris, Louvre G152: ARV2, 369, 1; Add, 111; Boardman,
52. ARV , 23f., N r . 7; Add, 74; Simon, Vasen , Taf. 100.
2 2
ARFV, Abb. 245, 2.
53. ARV , 24, 9; 1620; CVA, Britisches Museum 5, III I c, Taf. 72, 1.
2
58. Seki, UVGM, 38.
54. ARV , 23, 2; Add, 74; P. E . Arias, B . B . Shefton, und M .
2

Hirmer, A History of Greek Vase Painting (1962), Taf 95.


55. Athen, Agora P 24113: ARV , 213f, N r . 242: Berliner Maler ,
2
94 WeiJ]

maler. 59
E s stellt sich deshalb die Frage, ob sich G e m e i n - Satyr cpo|Xvos e i n relativ seiten dargestelltes sexuelles
samkeiten, die die Schalen K a r l s r u h e u n d M a l i b u m i t M o t i v vorgegeben, unter d e m auch der J n g l i n g a u f der
d e m O e u v r e des Schalenspezialisten O l t o s v e r b i n d e n , PhintiasSchale i n M a l i b u ( A b b . 3b) i n E r s c h e i n u n g
als I n d i z einer gewissen B e e i n f l u s s u n g des Phintias tritt. D i e Bandhenkelamphora Louvre G 2 6 6
gibt e i n
d u r c h O l t o s gewertet w e r d e n k n n e n . 6 0
B e k a n n t l i c h hat B e i s p i e l fr die Wehrhaftigkeit einer M n a d e u n d ist i n
Oltos fr einige seiner Schalenfriese hnlich lang dieser H i n s i c h t m i t der Seite B der K a r l s r u h e r Schale
hingestreckte F i g u r e n verwendet, w i e P h i n t i a s a u f d e n (Abb. 1g) z u vergleichen. F r ihr T o n d o m o t i v , den K e n -
genannten Schalen ( A b b . If g, 3c). Parallelen z w i s c h e n tauren m i t frontal gezeigtem O b e r k r p e r ( A b b . l i ) , lBt
gelagerten F i g u r e n des O l t o s u n d des P h i n t i a s hat s c h o n sich s c h l i e B l i c h das schwarzfigurige M d a i l l o n einer b i -
A . B r u h n gezogen; J. B o a r d m a n weist dabei gezielt a u f l i n g u e n OltosSchale i m V a t i k a n h e r a n z i e h e n . 67
Die
die K a r l s r u h e r Schale h i n . 6 1
A u c h die Palmetten o r n a - A r t , w i e die ausgreifenden Pferdehufe den T o n d o fullen,
m e n t i k liefert B e r h r u n g s p u n k t e z w i s c h e n d e n b e i d e n begegnet i n sehr h n l i c h e r Weise a u f F r a g m e n t e n i n
K n s t l e r n w i e z . B . die spitz nach u n t e n ausgezogenen New York. 6 8
A u c h w e n n die Frage nach der relativen
H l l b l t t e r der L o t o s k n o s p e n , die ihre Stengelranke c h r o n o l o g i s c h e n S t e l l u n g der e i n z e l n e n Vergleiche hier
berschneiden, 6 2
oder die spitz zulaufenden P a l m e t t e n - nicht w e i t e r f h r t , erkennt m a n d o c h , w i e stark der H i n -
bltter. 63
E i n e R e i h e v o n A h n l i c h k e i t e n i n der A u s g e - t e r g r u n d g e p r g t war, v o r d e m P h i n t i a s die Schalen
staltung einzelner M o t i v e lBt sich diesen B e o b a c h - K a r l s r u h e u n d M a l i b u gemalt hatte. P h i n t i a s g i l t n i c h t
t u n g e n a n f g e n . So fmdet die D a r s t e l l u n g der nackten zu Unrecht als konservativer Maler der Pionier
F r a u m i t gepunkteter Haube und O h r r i n g (Abb. lg) Gruppe; 69
d e m W e r k seines alteren Z e i t g e n o s s e n O l t o s
unter d e n w e i b l i c h e n F i g u r e n des P h i n t i a s (vgl. z . B . stand er zweifellos nahe. B e i d e n V o r b i l d e r n fr das
A b b . 4) bis jetzt keine E n t s p r e c h u n g . O l t o s h i n g e g e n Typenrepertoire, aus dem er Anregungen erhielt,
hat h u f i g e r G e w n d e r oder H a u b e n m i t d i e s e m charak- spielen die v o n O l t o s gemalten Bandhenkelamphoren
teristischen M u s t e r versehen; b e i der s c h n e l l b e w e g - eine besondere R o l l e , da sie die T p f e r s i g n a t u r des P a m -
ten N r i d e oder M n a d e g e h r e n Punkthaube u n d O h r - phaios tragen. Sollte sich die bereits angedeutete
r i n g sogar z u r T y p o l o g i e des M o t i v s . U n t e r d e n Vasen, Mglichkeit einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem
deren F i g u r e n diese v o n O l t o s bevorzugte Art der M a l e r P h i n t i a s u n d d e m Tbpfer P a m p h a i o s b e i d e n
Stoffmusterung wiedergeben, 64 sind besonders die Schalen K a r l s r u h e u n d M a l i b u verifizieren lassen, so
B a n d h e n k e l a m p h o r e n m i t der T p f e r s i g n a t u r des P a m - k n n t e die Werkstatt des letzteren w o h l auch Sttte einer
phaios h e r v o r z u h e b e n (Paris, L o u v r e G 3 u n d Z u r i c h , gegenseitigen EinfluBnahme zwischen Phintias und
Universitt). A u f dem Zricher Exemplar 6 5 ist m i t d e m O l t o s gewesen sein.

Universitt W r z b u r g

59. Die Untersuchungen von Cardon a.O. (Anm. 2) 170ff. und P i n - Paris Louvre G3: ARV , 53, 1; Simon, Vasen , Taf. 91 rechts; H . P.
2 2

ney a.O. ( A n m . 22) 157 legen allerdings nahe, daB sich Phintias i n den Isler, MusHelv 38 (1981), 228, 239, Taf. 5, 3; 8, 4. 2. Schale, ex Castle
letzten Jahren seiner Karriere sowohl als Tbpfer wie auch als Maler Ashby 63 (54, CVA): ARV , 44, 77; 55, 18; Add, 80; CVA, Castle
2

vielleicht i n strkerem MaBe der Herstellung von Schalen gewidmet Ashby, Taf 321. 3. Fr. Oxford 1966, 443: ARV , 65, 118 bis; Sir John and
2

hatte ais frher. Lady Beazley Gifts 92-966 (1967), 53, 161, Taf. 18, 161. D i e allgemein
60. Z u r gegenseitigen Beeinflussung des Oltos und der Maler der verwendete Bezeichnung " N r i d e " fr die Frau mit den Delphinen
PionierGruppe s. u. a. B r u h n , Oltos 63, 105f. ; S. Drougou, Der attische ist meiner Ansicht nach nicht zwingend, da die A r t der K l e i d u n g und
Psykter (1975), 43 mit A n m . 73; Cohen, ABiV, 380f; L . Berge, Greek die Delphine auch bei M n a d e n erscheinen k n n e n : siehe dazu M . C .
Vase-Painting in Midwestern Collections , Hrsg. W. C . M o o n und
2
Villanueva-Puig, R A 1983, 245f. mit A n m . 95. Der Panther auf dem
L. Berge (1981), 135 zu N r . 76; 136f. zu N r . 77. Gewand der Figur auf N r . 2 sowie der dionysische Kontext auf N r . 1
61. B r u h n , Oltos 56, 58 zu N r . 54 (Berlin 4221); Boardman, ARVF, sprechen ebenfalls fir eine Mnade. Hetre mit Punkthaube: 4. Schale,
57. Vgl. dazu Madrid 11.267: ARV2 58, 53; Add 80; R. Olmos-Romera, M a d r i d 11.267, s. oben ( A n m . 61). 5. Schale, Leningrad, Universitt
Cermica Griega: Guias del Mus. Arqu. Nac. 1 (1973), 51, Abb. 20. O x - 5572: Cohen, ABiV, 341f, B 45, Taf. 72, 2. Gepunktete G e w n d e r : 6.
V. 516): ARV2, 63, 92; Add 81; CVA 1, III I, Taf. 5, 4; Seki, Zurich, Universitt (Leihgabe, Privatbesitz): Paralipomena, 140, B 3 ;
UVGM3 Nr. 62. Kopenhagen 2700: ARV2 63, 93; Add, 81; Bruhn, 327; 1 bis; Isler a.O. 228f, bes. 238, 239, Taf. 4, 1.
Oltos, 40, 28, Abb. 20-21. 65. S. oben ( A n m . 64); Isler a.O. 244, Taf. 4, 4. V g l . auch die Pelike
62. So z . B . bei den Schalen, L o n d o n E4v1: ARV , 58, 51; Add, 80; J .
2
London E382 (s. oben A n m . 34). Weitere Beispiele bei K . Schauen-
Neils, AJA 85 (1981), Taf. 40, 1; 41, 2; Seki, UVGM, 31, 56. Berlin burg, Aachener Kunstbltter 44 (1973), 29 mit A n m . 60; Dierichs a.O. s.
(Ost) F2264: ARV , 60, 64; Add, 81; B r u h n , Oltos, 73, 79, Abb. 5; Seki,
2
oben ( A n m . 3), 70f.
UVGM, 35, 95. Paris, Louvre G17: ARV , 62, 83; Add, 81; CVA, 10, III
2
66. ARV , 53, 2; Add, 79; B r u h n , Oltos, l l l f . Abb. 54; Isler a.O.
2

I b, Taf. 5; Seki, UVGM, 31, 59. 228, Taf. 6, 2.


63. Antikenmus. BS459: Paralipomena, 327, 50 bis; Add, 80; B o a r d - 67. Astarita, 492: s. oben ( A n m . 16).
man, ARFV, Abb. 63; CVA, Basel 2, Taf. 5 (V. Slehoferova, S. 20: 68. D. v. Bothmer, AJA 59 (1955), 157, I Taf. 47, 1.
"Einzigartig i m Werk des Oltos.") 69. D r o u g o u a.O. ( A n m . 60), 91f.
64. N r i d e oder M n a d e mit Punkthaube: 1. Bandhenkelamphora,
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter
Susan B. Matheson

In 1977 N i c h o l a s Koutoulakis donated a fine pan Pegasos as the device o n the s h i e l d c a r r i e d b y A t h e n a ,


athenaic a m p h o r a to the J. P a u l G e t t y M u s e u m i n m e m a well-known h a l l m a r k o f the Kleophrades Painter's
o r y o f M r . G e t t y (figs, lac). 1
A prize for the four-horse panathenaics. Other painters use this shield device,
c h a r i o t race, one o f the m o s t p r e s t i g i o u s contests i n the however, 4
so a d d i t i o n a l criteria m u s t clearly be satisfied
panathenaic games, the vase shows, o n its reverse, a q u a before the a t t r i b u t i o n can be accepted. I n e x a m i n i n g the
d r i g a d r i v e n b y a w h i t e - c h i t o n e d c h a r i o t e e r (fig. l b ) . 2
basis for the a t t r i b u t i o n , w e w i l l , at the same t i m e , be
The obverse s h o w s A t h e n a i n characteristic Promachos c o n s i d e r i n g t w o larger q u e s t i o n s p o s e d b y the s t u d y o f
stance b e t w e e e n t w o D o r i c c o l u m n s w i t h c o c k s o n t o p fifth-century panathenaics i n general. The first derives
(fig. l c ) . T h e standard i n s c r i p t i o n , [T0NA]OENE[OEN] from the c a n o n i c a l a n d r e p e t i t i o u s nature o f the p r i z e
A O V O N , appears a l o n g the left side o f the front p a n e l . vases, e s p e c i a l l y the obverse (Athena) side. H o w m u c h

Jifi Frel has a t t r i b u t e d the vase to the K l e o p h r a d e s and what kind o f v a r i a t i o n can one expect to find

Painter, further e x p a n d i n g one o f the largest g r o u p s o f among the representations o f the formulaic Athena

panathenaics a t t r i b u t e d to a m a j o r r e d - f i g u r e painter. 3
p a n e l b y different painters (variations that c o u l d , one

T h e m o s t o b v i o u s basis for this a t t r i b u t i o n is the use o f hopes, a i d i n the a t t r i b u t i o n o f the vases), and how

I am particularly grateful to M a r i o n True, Curator o f Antiquities at elements each on sides A and B ; tongue pattern below neck (21 on side
the J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , for the invitation to publish this vase and B, side A incomplete); figures i n panels w i t h lateral frames i n relief
for her generous assistance during the course o f my study. I would also line, base-line i n red; black rays o n a reserved ground above a black
like to thank the following individuals for information and/or for band; echinus foot w i t h incised line at j o i n to body. Accessory colors:
photographs o f the vases i n their care: F. L . Bastet, Elizabeth Gebhard, (1) red (applied over incision): ring at base o f neck; alternate tongues;
Catherine C . Hearst, D o n n a C . Kurtz, S. M . Margeson, Ricardo line around body below panels; side A : wattle and w i n g bars o f cocks,
Olmos, Isabelle Raubitschek, and Margot Schmidt. visor o f helmet and two lines along top o f helmet's cap, belt, border at
Abbreviations hem o f chiton, red circles o n r i m o f shield; side B : beard and
Beazley, Development: J. D . Beazley, The Development of Attic moustache o f charioteer, horizontal band on chariot between upper
Black-figure, rev. d., D . v o n Bothmer spokes o f wheel, tails o f all four horses, also their manes, o f which
and M . B . Moore, eds. (Berkeley and four top crests and two manes show, breast band o f one horse; (2)
Los Angeles, 1986). white: side A : Athena's flesh, row o f dots i n inner (narrow) band o f
Beazley, Kleophrades Painter: J. D . Beazley, The Kleophrades Painter helmet crest, two rows o f dots i n border o f aegis, Pegasos; side B :
(Mainz, 1974). chiton o f charioteer, fleur-de-lis border o f breast band, teeth o f front
Boardman, ABFV: J. Boardman, Athenian Black Figure horse. Relief line: dividing lines on tongue pattern; side A : outer edges
Vases: A Handbook ( N e w York, 1974). o f columns, spear; side B : reins and goad, chariot poles, both upper
Brandt, ArchPanath: J. R. Brandt, "Archeologia Panathen- and lower (applied over the black glaze o f horses' bodies, but under the
aica I: Panathenaic prize-vases from the red o f their tails), front vertical o f chariot. Provenance: Gift o f N .
sixth century B . c . , " Acta ad archae- Koutoulakis i n memory o f J. Paul Getty; possibly from Vulci (not, as
ologiam et artium historiam pertinentia. has been suggested, the vase i n ABV and Paralipomena as Swiss private
Institutum R o m a n u m Norvegiae, 8 collection; that vase is now i n the Antikenmuseum, Basel [see A p p e n
(1978), pp. 1-24. dix]). Exhibitions: J. Frel, Painting on Vases in Ancient Greece, A r t G a l
Wealth of the Ancient World: J. E Tompkins, ed., Wealth of the An lery, Loyola M a r y m o u n t University, 1979, no. 23. Publications:
cient World, K i m b e l l A r t M u s e u m , Fort J. Frel, GettyMusJ 4 (1977), pp. 70-74, figs. 16-19.
Worth, 1983. 2. Beazley, Development, pp. 8192, and J. Frel, Panathenaic Prize
1. M a l i b u , the J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 79.AE.9. H : 65.0 cm; diame Amphoras (Athens, 1973) remain excellent introductions to the study o f
ter o f mouth: 17.9 cm; w i d t h o f lip: 1.5 cm; diameter o f neck: 11.3 cm; these vases. T h e most thorough study o f the sixth-century prize vases
diameter o f body: 40.3 c m ; diameter o f foot: 13.0 c m ; diameter o f is Brandt, ArchPanath; virtually all o f the previous literature o n pan
resting surface: 12.7 cm; w i d t h o f resting surface: 1.3 cm. C o n d i t i o n : athenaics can be found i n Brandt's footnotes and w i l l therefore not be
recomposed from fragments w i t h some areas restored. Ancient repair repeated here.
reattaching one handle (left, A B ) . M u c h o f the mouth o n side A is 3. For panathenaics by the Kleophrades Painter, see ABV 404;
restored, but the profile o f the vase is complete from top to bottom. ARV 2
192; Paralipomena, pp. 175176; L . B u r n and R . G l y n n , Beazley
Some loss o f white, especially from the legs, tail, and nose o f Pegasos. Addenda (Oxford, 1982), p. 51. Beazley's list, w i t h additions and revi
Shape and ornament: echinus mouth, flat top reserved; neck glazed sions, is summarized i n the Appendix below.
inside to a depth o f 5 c m ; ring at junction o f neck and body; round 4. Sikelos uses it twice; see Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 8, nos. 75
handles, oval i n section; palmette-lotus chain o n neck, w i t h seven and 76.
96 Matheson

Figure la. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Painter. Side A . Malibu, The J. Paul Getty
Museum, 77.AE.9.
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 97

Figure lb. Side B , panel o f panathenaic amphora, figure l a .

Figure lc. Side A , panel o f panathenaic amphora, figure l a .


98 Matheson

m u c h v a r i a t i o n does one see a m o n g the panathenaics and h o w the costume that A t h e n a wears o n the G e t t y
attributed to a single painter? T h e second q u e s t i o n ap panathenaic compares to the series.
plies p a r t i c u l a r l y to panathenaics o f the last decade o f W h e n the c h i t o n first appears as Athena's " b i r t h d a y
the s i x t h a n d the w h o l e o f the fifth centuries. W h a t are suit" i n the early fifth-century panathenaics, it does not
the criteria for d a t i n g black-figure vases w i t h i n the c o m p l e t e l y displace the peplos, as it appears to d o i n the
oeuvre o f a painter w h o o t h e r w i s e painted largely or fourth-century p r i z e vases. E v e n w i t h i n the s u r v i v i n g
exclusively i n red-figure? vases b y the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter there are nearly as
T h e c a n o n i c a l nature o f panathenaics, w h i c h leads a m a n y examples w i t h the peplos as there are w i t h the
v i e w e r regarding a single isolated e x a m p l e o f a p r i z e c h i t o n . A s one w o u l d expect, the m a t e r i a l out o f w h i c h
vase to r e c o g n i z e it i m m e d i a t e l y (and p r o b a b l y to c o n the c h i t o n is m a d e varies f r o m that used for the peplos,
clude that it is just like all the others), is especially e v i w i t h the difference i n the fabric often representing the
dent o n the side s h o w i n g A t h e n a . Athena's s t r i d i n g , m a i n v i s u a l t o o l for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the garment. T h e
m i l i t a n t pose, her p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o c o l u m n s , peplos, o f heavy fabric, is s h o w n as a s o l i d skirt, often
and the i n s c r i p t i o n , parallel to the left frame o f the patterned (presumably indicating embroidery), while
panel, i n d i c a t i n g that the vase is a prize, are repeated, the c h i t o n is m a d e o f a l i g h t e r material, i n d i c a t e d by
once they are c a n o n i z e d a r o u n d 530 B . C . , o n p r i z e vases c r i n k l y folds that r u n v e r t i c a l l y for the l e n g t h o f the
for m o r e than 400 years. Yet w i t h i n this f o r m u l a there is skirt. T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n is w e l l k n o w n f r o m red-figure
a surprising amount o f v a r i a t i o n i n detail. Athena's vase-painting.
s h i e l d device varies, and, as n o t e d above, the device is T h e A t h e n a s o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's p a n a t h e n
often r e c o g n i z e d as i d e n t i f y i n g an i n d i v i d u a l h a n d or aics s h o w a considerable a m o u n t o f v a r i a t i o n i n c o s t u m e
w o r k s h o p i n the panathenaics o f the fifth c e n t u r y . 5
The f r o m one vase to the next, and i n d o i n g so they p r o v i d e
cocks that top the c o l u m n s o n s i x t h - and fifth-century parallels for m a n y o f the features o f the A t h e n a o n the
p r i z e vases are replaced i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y b y s m a l l G e t t y vase. T h e A t h e n a o n the G e t t y panathenaic, for
figures that often represent statues or statue groups. T h e example, resembles four Athenas b y the Kleophrades
direction i n w h i c h A t h e n a faces changes f r o m left, i n the Painter w h o wear a c h i t o n by i t s e l f (on the a d d i t i o n o f
9

earliest p r i z e vases i n the s i x t h c e n t u r y B . c . , to right, other garments, see b e l o w ) . T h e p r i z e vases i n the


b e t w e e n 359348 B . C . , s h o r t l y after the n a m e o f the Hearst c o l l e c t i o n , L e i d e n (fig. 2), the H u n t c o l l e c t i o n ,
a r c h o n is added to the i n s c r i p t i o n (probably early i n the and one o f the t w o i n the L o u v r e (F 277) j o i n the G e t t y
fourth century B . C . ) . 6
vase i n s h o w i n g a s i m p l e c h i t o n w i t h a red belt and a
Athena's costume varies as w e l l , changing, as has been b a n d o f added red at the l o w e r border. N o pattern ap
n o t e d elsewhere, 7
f r o m the t r a d i t i o n a l peplos usually pears o n the G e t t y c h i t o n , w h i l e the L e i d e n , Hearst,
w o r n by the Promachos to a c h i t o n o n some o f the p r i z e H u n t , and L o u v r e vases add an i n c i s e d b a n d ( b r o k e n by
vases f r o m a r o u n d 500 B . C . Later, i n the late fourth folds) at m i d - c a l f level a n d an overall pattern o f i n c i s e d
century, she is g i v e n an archaistic s w a l l o w - t a i l e d c h i t o n or painted crosses or dots.
that B e a z l e y l i k e n e d to the h o b b l e d s k i r t o f the early T h e G e t t y A t h e n a wears an aegis w i t h i n c i s e d scales
twentieth century. 8
T h e panathenaics b y the K l e o p h r a - and an i n c i s e d c h e v r o n border at the neck and a l o n g
des Painter c o m e right at the p o i n t i n the early fifth the outer edge. This form is characteristic of the
c e n t u r y w h e n the c h i t o n makes its first appearance, but K l e o p h r a d e s Painter, w h o occasionally adds raised dots
the painter does n o t f o l l o w the n e w fashion exclusively. to the i n c i s e d scales, as he does o n one o f the Yale vases
T h i s fact, plus the relatively large corpus o f panathenaics (1909.13, fig. 3). T h e scales m a y be either l o o s e l y j o i n e d ,
b y the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter, c o m b i n e to create a useful as i n M a l i b u , L e i d e n , and one o f the N e w Y o r k vases
exercise i n a t t r i b u t i o n , e n c o u r a g i n g us to e x a m i n e w h a t (07.286.79, figs. 4ab), or smaller and t i g h t l y interlaced
is d i s t i n c t i v e about Athena's dress i n the K l e o p h r a d e s (Yale 1909.13, fig. 3). T h e aegis n o r m a l l y has an i n c i s e d
Painter's vases, h o w m u c h it varies f r o m vase to vase, border pattern at the neck and the outer edge, u s i n g

5. A t least by the last decade o f the sixth century; see Brandt, N . Eschbach, Statuen auf Panathenischen Preisamphoren des 4. Jhs. v.
ArchPanath, p. 17. Boardman (ABFV, p. 168) suggests that the shield Chr. (Mainz, 1986).
device may have been dictated by the magistrate who ordered the vases 6. Beazley, Development, pp. 8990.
so that individual batches could be distinguished. Brandt, ArchPanath, 7. Beazley, Development, p. 86; Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 2.
p. 16, believes this explanation probable, based on the sixth-century 8. Beazley, Development, pp. 9091; see his " H o b b l e Group," from
material that forms his study. The effect w o u l d have been similar to 336/335 B . C . , ABV All.
the regularly changing figures o f statues, parallel to the changing 9. Some o f the fragments preserve only Athenas head, from which
archon names, on the columns o f fourth-century panathenaics; see we can tell nothing o f her dress.
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 99

Figure 2. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades


Painter. Side A , panel. Leiden, Rijksmuseum
van Oudheden, P C 6. Photo, courtesy Rijks
museum van Oudheden.

chevrons, spirals, o r a battlement pattern. Figure 3. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades


A s j e w e l r y , the goddess wears a necklace, bracelets, Painter. Side A . N e w Haven, Yale University
and earrings. A s o n the G e t t y vase, the K l e o p h r a d e s A r t Gallery, 1909.13. Photo, courtesy Yale
University A r t Gallery.
Painter uses an i n c i s e d l i n e for the necklace and four
black lines to indicate the w r a p a r o u n d bracelet. T h e ear
r i n g is n o r m a l l y an i n c i s e d circle w i t h a central black single spiral c u r l at the forehead.
dot, a l t h o u g h the black dot is not present o n the vase i n T h e G e t t y Athena's h e l m e t shows some variations
Malibu. f r o m the n o r m a l K l e o p h r a d e s Painter versions as w e l l .
Athena's coiffure is quite consistent i n the K l e o p h r a T h e red visor, the s m a l l lozenge-shaped cheek piece,
des Painter's panathenaics, w i t h one l o n g c u r l h a n g i n g and the long, banded nape guard o n the G e t t y vase are not
d o w n i n front o f her shoulder and the rest b e h i n d , and a present o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's other panathenaic
r o w o f r o u n d curls f r a m i n g the side o f her face that Athenas, 10
n o r is there a parallel for the red bands that
terminates i n a c a u l i f l o w e r - l i k e b u n c h at her forehead. o u t l i n e the c r o w n o f the h e l m e t b o t h i n front o f and
The Getty Athena diverges from the Kleophrades b e h i n d the crest support (but that have no apparent prac
Painter's c a n o n i n h a v i n g wave-shaped side curls and a tical purpose). T h e K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's A t h e n a s n o r -

10. The red visor does occur, however, on two vases ascribed to the cated on Athenas helmet on a red-figure stamnos fragment from the
workshop o f the Kleophrades Painter: 1) the prize vase i n the Toledo Akropolis, inv. no. 733; see A . H . Ashmead, "Fragments by the
M u s e u m o f Art, inv. no. 61.24, ARV 1632 and 1705, which, i n spite o f
2
Kleophrades Painter from the Athenian Agora," Hesperia 35 (1966),
the Pegasos shield device, is closer i n the proportions o f the figures, pp. 3536, pi. 12, as "probably by the Kleophrades Painter," although,
the shape o f the vase, and the ornament o f the B e r l i n Painter's pan as she notes, it is not cited i n ARV , and it does not subsequently ap
2

athenaics than to those o f the Kleophrades Painter, and 2) the u n i n - pear i n Paralipomena. A visor, called a "frontlet" by Beazley, occurs on
scribed amphora o f panathenaic shape formerly i n the Castle Ashby the Euphiletos Painter's panathenaic Athenas, as noted i n Beazley,
collection, CVA Castle Ashby, no. 12, pi. 16. A double visor is i n d i - Development, p. 84.
100 Matheson

m ally wear a red fillet over the helmet, w h i c h is not


present o n the G e t t y vase. T h e K l e o p h r a d e s Painter u s u
ally indicates the nape g u a r d p r i m a r i l y w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l
pair o f i n c i s e d lines across the hair, s o m e t i m e s solely b y
these lines (Yale 1909.12 [fig. 5], M u n i c h , M a d r i d , and
Basel) and o t h e r w i s e w i t h a discreet square p r o j e c t i o n
(in black glaze) e x t e n d i n g these lines b e y o n d the hair to
indicate the silhouette o f the nape guard's l o w e r edge
(Yale 1909.13 [fig. 3], N o r w i c h C a s t l e [fig. 6], N e w Y o r k
16.71, a n d N e w Y o r k 07.286.79 [figs. 4 a - b ] ) . O n the
other h a n d , a l l the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's helmets have
the characteristic A t t i c crest w i t h a b a n d o f i n c i s e d d e c o
r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the G e t t y helmet. T h e spirals i n the
G e t t y crest o c c u r i n the m a j o r i t y o f the vases (both N e w
Y o r k vases, Yale 1909.12, the Hearst and H u n t c o l l e c t i o n
vases, and the vases i n M u n i c h and M a d r i d ) . V a r i a t i o n s
here are a battlement pattern (Yale 1909.13 [fig. 3], N o r
w i c h C a s t l e [fig. 6]) a n d s i m p l e arcs (Basel).
In a d d i t i o n to the h e l m e t and aegis, Athena's other
a r m a m e n t s consist, o f course, o f her spear and s h i e l d .
T h e p o s i t i o n o f the spear i n r e l a t i o n to the head (passing
b e h i n d the head at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the level o f a l i n e
d r a w n f r o m the ear to the nose) is essentially consistent
i n a l l b u t one o f the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's panathenaics,
i n c l u d i n g the G e t t y vase, w i t h the o n l y significant v a r i a
t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the B a s e l a m p h o r a , w h e r e the spear
passes b e h i n d the top o f the head. T h e K l e o p h r a d e s
Painter, as n o t e d above, uses Pegasos as a shield device,
and the m a n n e r i n w h i c h the w i n g e d horse is repre
sented is quite consistent. W i t h one e x c e p t i o n (Hearst
collection), o n l y one o f the horse's w i n g s is s h o w n . 1 1

S o m e o f the horses have a scale pattern o n the upper part Figure 4a. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades
o f their w i n g s (e.g., M a d r i d , N e w York 16.71, and Painter. Side A . N e w York, The M e t r o
M u n i c h ) , w h i l e others (e.g., N e w Y o r k 07.286.79 [figs. politan M u s e u m o f A r t , 07.286.79, Rogers
4ab] and M a l i b u [fig. l c ] ) are p l a i n . T h e m o s t notable Fund, 1907. Photos, courtesy The M e t r o
politan M u s e u m o f Art.
e x c e p t i o n is the S-shaped w i n g o n one o f the L o u v r e
vases (F 279), an archaic f o r m . 1 2
Considerable variation
occurs, o n the other hand, i n the treatment o f the s h i e l d w i t h red circles ( N e w Y o r k 16.71). A s was the case w i t h
r i m . T h e use o f a s o l i d red b a n d (Yale 1909.12 [fig. 5], t he spear, the p o s i t i o n o f the s h i e l d i n r e l a t i o n to
M u n i c h , L o u v r e F 277, Hearst c o l l e c t i o n , M a d r i d , and A thena's head is consistent, w i t h o n l y the G e t t y and
p r o b a b l y A k r o p o l i s 969, a l t h o u g h the fragment is s m a l l N o r w i c h C a s t l e shields v a r y i n g f r o m the preferred p o s i
and the pattern c o u l d be s i m i l a r to that o f N e w Y o r k t i o n , nearly t o u c h i n g the face.
16.71, b e l o w ) is nearly equally balanced b y the use o f a In r e v i e w i n g the above descriptions, one notes a n u m
b a n d o f red dots ( N e w Y o r k 07.286.79 [figs. 4 a - b ] , b er o f divergences i n the G e t t y vase f r o m the n o r m a l
B a s e l , H u n t c o l l e c t i o n , Yale 1909.13 [fig. 3], N o r w i c h p atterns o f the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's panathenaics: T h e
C a s t l e [fig. 6], L o u v r e F 279), w i t h variations i n the t reatment o f the h e l m e t , i n c l u d i n g the visor, the cheek
f o r m o f red circles (as o p p o s e d to red dots) ( M a l i b u [fig. p iece, the nape guard, a n d the added red o n the c r o w n ;
l c ] , L e i d e n [fig. 2 ] ) , and a b r o k e n red b a n d alternating
13

t he treatment o f the h a i r f r a m i n g the face and at the

11. I w o u l d not agree w i t h Ashmead (above [note 10], p. 34 n. 75) 13. A l s o Agora P 4815, ABV 406,6, a fragment probably from a
that a second w i n g tip appears on N e w York 07.286.79. prize vase; see Ashmead (above [note 10], pp. 3435, pi. 8), citing as
12. Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 8 n. 6. other fragments w i t h this decoration i n note 77: AB V 406,7 and 406,8,
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 101

Figure 4b. Side A , panel o f panathenaic amphora, fig. 4a.

forehead; the lack o f a black dot i n the earring; and the i n g similarity between the G e t t y vase and the other pan
p o s i t i o n o f the s h i e l d i n r e l a t i o n to the face. In a d d i t i o n , athenaics attributed to the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter. The
the profile o f A t h e n a s face varies f r o m the K l e o p h r a d e s differences are, after a l l , n o greater than the S-shaped
Painter's characteristic A t h e n a , b o t h i n h a v i n g a m o r e Pegasos w i n g o n the L o u v r e vase or the n u m e r o u s o d
p o i n t e d c h i n and nose and i n b e i n g at m o r e o f an angle dities o n the N o r w i c h Castle vase, b o t h o f w h i c h were
to the vertical. T h e single i n c i s e d l i n e b e l o w the abacus g i v e n to the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter b y Beazley. In overall
o n the c o l u m n s is also a v a r i a t i o n f r o m the d o u b l e l i n e appearance, the G e t t y A t h e n a is as close to the rest as is
the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter usually e m p l o y s , a l t h o u g h the the N o r w i c h C a s t l e A t h e n a . E q u a l l y or perhaps m o r e
N o r w i c h Castle vase also shows a single line. i m p o r t a n t , w h i l e the A t h e n a panel shows considerable
Interestingly, a l l these variations o c c u r o n the A t h e n a v a r i a t i o n f r o m the other versions, the chariot scene o n
side o f the vase, and i n spite o f t h e m there is an u n d e r l y - the reverse is, b y contrast, fully consistent w i t h the

and possibly ABV404,10. The Agora fragment is called "very close to on which the incised star appears need not be a peplos, as Ashmead has
the painter" by Beazley i n ABV, and he states that it "may be by the suggested, since incised stars and rosettes also occur on the ependytes.
painter himself" i n Paralipomena, p. 176. The garment i n this fragment
102 Matheson

K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's other panathenaics, as w e shall


see below. M o r e o v e r , the G e t t y vase c o n f o r m s to the
K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's panathenaics i n o r n a m e n t and
shape, b o t h o f w h i c h v a r y i n the panathenaics described
by B e a z l e y as " K l e o p h r a d e a n . " 14
Finally, technical details
such as the application o f added red over i n c i s e d lines and
the use o f r e l i e f lines to emphasize the outer edges o f the
c o l u m n s , w h i c h b o t h appear o n the G e t t y vase, are, w h i l e
not peculiar to the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter, at least charac
teristic o f h i m and h a r d l y u n i v e r s a l a m o n g his c o n t e m
poraries. 15
T h e c o m b i n e d s i m i l a r i t i e s w o u l d seem to
o u t w e i g h the divergences i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the
a t t r i b u t i o n o f the G e t t y vase to the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter.
P u r s u i n g this q u e s t i o n i n greater detail, w e f i n d that
Figure 5. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades considerably m o r e v a r i a t i o n characterizes the p a n a t h e n
Painter. Side A , detail. N e w Haven, Yale aics that B e a z l e y calls ' ' K l e o p h r a d e a n " w h e n they are
University A r t Gallery, 1909.12. Photo, cour c o m p a r e d to the c a n o n defined here. T o take the prize
tesy Yale University A r t Gallery. vase i n T o l e d o 1 6
as an example, one notes the f o l l o w i n g
divergences f r o m the style o f the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter:
T h e proportions o f the figures, w h i c h are b o t h taller and
t h i n n e r than the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's figures; o n side
A : the red h e l m e t v i s o r (otherwise seen o n l y o n the
G e t t y vase); the red b a n d e d g i n g the b o t t o m o f the neck
guard; the sleeved c h i t o n , w h i c h the B e r l i n Painter uses
but the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter does not; the use o f added
red for some o f the o r n a m e n t o n the ependytes, as o p
posed to solely i n c i s i o n o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's
A m e n a s ; the folds o f the chiton's skirt (under the epen
dytes), w h i c h all flow backward to emphasize the
striding pose o f the figure, w h i l e the Kleophrades
Painter's hang straight d o w n or fan out; the kneecap o f
the f o r w a r d leg protrudes as a l u m p i n the vertical p r o
file o f the s k i r t (perhaps also suggested o n N e w Y o r k
07.286.79); the s h i e l d r i m is decorated w i t h a c o n s i d e r
ably larger n u m b e r o f smaller red dots than the K l e o
phrades Painter's n o r m w h e n he uses this motifhere,
as w i t h the sleeved c h i t o n , w e are closer to the B e r l i n
Painter's Athenas; the Pegasos shield device has a smaller
w i n g and the tail curls d o w n w a r d rather than s t r e a m i n g
out b e h i n d ; because the s h i e l d covers part o f the c o l u m n
capital, the i n s c r i p t i o n is compressed i n t o a smaller
space; the c o l u m n s are n o t bordered by r e l i e f lines, and

14. E.g., the prize vase i n Toledo, cited above (note 10).
15. A similar technical detailthe precise order i n w h i c h the
Kleophrades Painter consistently draws the six incised lines he uses for
the star rosettes on some o f his chitonsdoes not, unfortunately,
apply to the Getty vase, w h i c h has no rosettes.
16. See above (note 10).
17. O n loan to The Metropolitan M u s e u m , N e w York,
Figure 6. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades L.1982.102.3, ABV 408,1; "the earliest o f the B e r l i n Painter's pan
Painter. Side A . N o r w i c h , N o r w i c h Castle athenaics," Beazley, Development, p. 87.
Museum, 26.49. Photo, courtesy Norfolk 18. The ependytes that is open at the sides, w i t h straight line folds
Museums Service. that suggest a heavy fabric, is not normal i n the Kleophrades Painter's
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 103

the shape o f the capitals is different; o n side B : far fewer des Painter and those b y other r e c o g n i z e d hands.
lines are used to indicate drapery folds; significant v a r i a To return to the q u e s t i o n o f costume, w e have already
tions o c c u r i n the n u m b e r and p o s i t i o n o f lines used for n o t e d that the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter dresses his A t h e n a s
a n a t o m i c a l details; knees and e l b o w s are k n o b b y ; a i n b o t h the c h i t o n and the peplos. T h e peplos b y i t s e l f is
w r e a t h (rather than a fillet) is w o r n b y the trainer. F i the goddess' m o s t t r a d i t i o n a l garment, and the most
nally, the vase i t s e l f is w i d e r and has a h i g h e r center o f c o m m o n one o n earlier panathenaics, but o n l y a single
gravity and m o r e c u r v i n g profile than the r e m a r k a b l y example w i t h just the peplos by the Kleophrades
consistent shape o f the Kleophrades Painter's panathenaics. Painter, the vase i n B a s e l , has s u r v i v e d . In a d d i t i o n to
A s i m i l a r c o m p a r i s o n o f a p r i z e vase b y the B e r l i n s t a n d i n g alone i n the painter's oeuvre, this peplos is not
Painter (in this case the vase f o r m e r l y i n the C a s t l e even e n t i r e l y canonical, since, i f one accepts the c o n v e n
A s h b y c o l l e c t i o n , w h i c h B e a z l e y considered the p a i n t t i o n o f c r i n k l y lines as i n d i c a t i n g the folds o f a l i g h t
er's earliest p r i z e vase ) w i t h the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's
17
w e i g h t material, this peplos is made o f the l i g h t fabric
panathenaics yields m a n y o f the same divergences, a l usually reserved for chitons. T h e central vertical panel
t h o u g h the r e s u l t i n g assemblage o f details equals s o m e w i t h its battlement pattern and the l o w e r border o f the
t h i n g s t i l l different f r o m " K l e o p h r a d e a n " w o r k : O n c e h e m u n b r o k e n by folds override the question o f the fab
again, the shape o f the vase is not that o f the Kleophrades ric, however, c o n f i r m i n g the i d e n t i t y o f the garment,
Painter's p r i z e vases; Athena's shield device, a G o r g o n ' s and suggesting that the c r i n k l y lines are p r o b a b l y j u s t a
head, is o b v i o u s l y different; dozens o f s m a l l dots d e c o decorative m o t i f here.
rate the shield's r i m ; once again, the figures are taller, T h e peplos occurs o n other panathenaic Athenas by the
thinner, and higher-waisted than the Kleophrades Kleophrades Painter, but w i t h an important variation: the
Painter's figures; Athena's neck is longer; her h e l m e t has a d d i t i o n o f an ependytes, an overgarment o f a different
a red v i s o r ; here again, w e see the sleeved c h i t o n ; there fabric. W h e n w o r n over a peplos, the ependytes is m a d e
are straight rather than c r i n k l y lines for the folds o f the o f a l i g h t w e i g h t fabric w i t h c r i n k l y folds, generally u n -
c h i t o n s skirt; added red is applied before the i n c i s i o n , decorated except for a red border at its h e m , and r a n g i n g
w h i l e the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter applies it afterward; toes i n l e n g t h f r o m m i d - t h i g h ( N e w Y o r k 16.71) t h r o u g h
are incised, w h i c h the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter does n o t do; k n e e - l e n g t h (Yale 1909.12) to m i d - c a l f ( M a d r i d , L o u v r e F
the c o l u m n s are shorter and the cocks larger than the 279). A n u n u s u a l v a r i a t i o n appears o n the N o r w i c h C a s
K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's equivalents; and the c o l u m n s are tle vase, w h e r e the ependytes, decorated w i t h red and
not bordered b y r e l i e f lines; the i n s c r i p t i o n is farther incised crosses, is o p e n at the s i d e s . 18
When shown with
away f r o m the c o l u m n , and its letters are smaller and an ependytes, the peplos is a flat surface, r i c h l y decorated
m o r e delicate; the runners o n side B s h o w a n a t o m i c a l w i t h an i n c i s e d checkerboard pattern o f stars, squares,
details characteristic o f the B e r l i n Painter, w h i c h differ circles, rosettes, and s i m i l a r m o t i f s i n v a r y i n g c o m b i n a
f r o m those o f the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter i n ways t o o w e l l tions. N o t w o , i n fact, are alike. T h e central panel that
k n o w n f r o m Beazley's w o r k to bear repeating here. appears o n the B a s e l peplos and is n o r m a l l y characteristic
M o r e such details c o u l d be cited, but o n l y at the risk o f this garment does n o t o t h e r w i s e o c c u r w h e n the
o f t e r m i n a l b o r e d o m for the reader. C o m p a r i s o n s o f peplos is c o m b i n e d w i t h the ependytes.
prize vases by other painters w i t h those o f the K l e o p h r a T h e K l e o p h r a d e s Painter also c o m b i n e s the ependytes
des Painter y i e l d a similar picture to that d r a w n here: the with the chiton (Yale 1909.13 [fig. 3], New York
differences a m o n g the panathenaics attributed to the 07.286.79 [figs. 4 a - b ] , M u n i c h ) . 1 9
These chitons, like the
K l e o p h r a d e s Painter, i n c l u d i n g the G e t t y vase, are far ones w o r n alone, have a red-bordered h e m and c r i n k l y
fewer and far less significant i n terms o f a t t r i b u t i o n than foldlines to indicate a l i g h t w e i g h t b u t a m p l e garment.
are the differences b e t w e e n p r i z e vases b y the K l e o p h r a - S o m e are decorated w i t h a few l i g h t l y i n c i s e d crosses.

work; this form recalls the later use o f a peplos, open at the sides, as an A s a religious garment, the ependytes occurs i n association with the
overgarment over a chiton by: (1) Athena i n scenes o f the Gigan Eleusinian mysteries, where we k n o w from later fifth- and fourth-
tomachy (e.g., a calyx-krater by the N i o b i d Painter, see N . Alfieri, P. century vases that it was w o r n by the hierophant, or his mythical
E. Arias, and M . Hirmer, Spina [Munich, 1958], pi. 35), and (2) a bride ancestor Eumolpos, and sometimes by the dadouchoi. It was also
(e.g., the name vase o f the Peleus Painter, see Alfieri, Arias, and worn by the image o f Dionysos i n some representations o f the Lenaia.
Hirmer, Spina, pi. 91; see also E . Simon, "Satyr-plays on Vases See E . Simon, Festivals of Attica (Madison, 1983), pp. 27-32 and 100,
i n the time o f Aeschylus," i n D. Kurtz and B . Sparkes, eds., The and H . Thiersch, Ependytes und Ephod (Stuttgart, 1936).
Eye of Greece: Studies in the Art of Athens [Cambridge, 1982], p. 133 19. The Kleophrades Painter does not use the sleeved chiton favored
n. 77, for this as a bride's costume). For the ependytes as used by by the Berlin Painter and the Eucharides Painter; see Beazley, Develop
the Berlin Painter, see D. C . Kurtz, The Berlin Painter (Oxford, 1983), ment, p. 87. Yet another variant, a beltless chiton, occurs on a Leagros
p. 56 n. 234. Group panathenaic i n N e w York (07.286.80).
104 Matheson

O n these vases, the ependytes is s h o w n as a flat surface,


suggesting a garment p u l l e d t i g h t l y over the folds o f the
chiton underneath and constraining them. A l t h o u g h it is
unclear w h e t h e r the fabric o f the ependytes is l i g h t or
heavy, it is c e r t a i n l y decorated, and once (Yale 1909.13
[fig. 3]) it c o m b i n e s a fringe w i t h a checkerboard pattern
like that used for the ependytes-covered peplos. T h e v i s
ual effect o f a p l a i n ependytes c o v e r i n g a r i c h l y d e c o
rated peplos is thus reversed. C l e a r l y these variations
were a pleasant r e l i e f f r o m the repetitious nature o f the
panathenaic A t h e n a panels, b o t h for the vase-painter i n
a n t i q u i t y a n d for the v i e w e r now.
B y the v e r y nature o f panathenaics, the reverse o f
these vases shows m o r e variety than the A t h e n a side.
A m o n g the s u r v i v i n g panathenaics b y the K l e o p h r a d e s
Painter, s i x different contests are represented o n side B :
chariot race, foot race (sprint), foot race ( l o n g distance),
wrestling (pankration), j a v e l i n and j u m p i n g w e i g h t s
(pentathlon), and p y r r h i c . O f these, eight represent
chariot races, more than any other contest, m a k i n g these
i l l u s t r a t i o n s the m o s t fertile g r o u n d , after the A t h e n a
figures, for the study o f variations w i t h i n a g i v e n frame
w o r k . T h r e e basic variations occur. T h e first type, r e p
resented b y the p r i z e vases i n B a s e l (fig. 7) and M a d r i d
(figs. 8ab), 20
shows the charioteer s t a n d i n g relatively
straight, his hands h e l d c l o s e l y together, his beard short
and squared off. H e is a tall figure, taller, i n fact, than
the horses. T h e r e is n o real sense o f m o v e m e n t or speed
here. Small details are also distinctive. T w o o f the
horses' tails are red and t w o are black. O f the eight front
hooves, the back four are separate f r o m and h i g h e r than Figure 7. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades
the other four. T h e r e is a space b e t w e e n the rear hooves Painter. Side B . Basel, Antikenmuseum
Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, B S 494.
and the w h e e l o f the chariot. T h e chariot pole u n i t is
Photo, courtesy Antikenmuseum Basel und
carefully separated f r o m the reins and the goad. T h e Sammlung Ludwig.
chariot car is relatively s m a l l i n p r o p o r t i o n to b o t h the
charioteer a n d the w h e e l .
In the second type, w h i c h includes the G e t t y vase hooves, f a n n i n g u p w a r d w i t h the last t w o t o u c h i n g th e
(fig. l b ) , the one i n N e w Y o r k (07.286.79, fig. 9), and edge o f the panel. W i t h i n this group, the G e t t y vase is a
the t w o at Yale (fig. 10), the charioteer is the same close parallel to Yale 1909.13 (fig. 10), w h i l e the othe r
height o r s l i g h t l y smaller than the horses. H e leans for Yale chariot is v e r y l i k e the one i n N e w Y o r k . Since th e
w a r d m o r e and his arms are separated, w i t h one h e l d Yale vases were acquired together and thus p r o b a b l y
back a bit, b u t he is s t i l l d r i v i n g carefully and w i t h some f o u n d together, this suggests that these four vases, at
restraint. H i s beard is l o n g e r than i n the first type, and least, s h o u l d be contemporary.
p o i n t e d . T h e chariot car is larger and m o r e substantial. T h e t h i r d type, o f w h i c h the H e a r s t vase is the u n i q u e
T h e reins are c o n t i n u o u s . A l l four o f the horses' tails are e x a m p l e (fig. 11), is an e x t e n s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f
red, a n d their breast bands have w h i t e tripartite pendant the second, and it shows, at last, the real speed an d
ornaments. T h e i r back feet t o u c h the w h e e l o f the intensity o f a chariot race. T h e charioteer's arms are n o
chariot, a n d their front feet f o r m a s o l i d g r o u p o f eight l o n g e r bent, his b o d y leans forward, and his neck

20. Possibly also Louvre F 279, but the charioteer is restored i n Beazley, Development, pi. 92.
published photographs and I have not seen the vase since its cleaning . 22. The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t 56.171.4, attributed by
21. Museo Archeologico Etrusco, no inv. number, ABV 110,33; Dietrich von Bothmer, ABV 291, bottom; Paralipomena, p. 127, no. 1;
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 105

Figure 8a. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Figure 8b. Side B , detail o f panathenaic amphora, fig. 8a.
Painter. Side B . Madrid, Museo A r
queolgico Nacional, 10.900. Photos, cour
tesy Museo Arqueolgico Nacional.

stretches out. T h e a r m h o l e s o f his c h i t o n are stretched (especially Basel) are close to those o f a p r i z e vase b y
back i n the w i n d , and his h a i r is b l o w n back f r o m his Lydos i n Florence. 21
A charioteer w h o is taller than his
forehead. T h e horses are l i k e those o f the second type, horses occurs o n a p r i z e vase i n N e w Y o r k b y the
w i t h red tails and the same arrangement o f front and Painter o f the W a r s a w Panathenaic; B e a z l e y c o m p a r e d
back hooves, but they seem large and p o w e r f u l next to the A t h e n a o n this vase to the w o r k o f the Painter o f
their s m a l l but eager driver. H i s hair is t i e d back i n a B o u l o g n e 441 (circa 530 B . C . ) . 2 2
A n o t h e r w h o is about
p i g t a i l , u n p a r a l l e l e d i n the other chariot scenes, and the the same height and drives w i t h his arms bent and
crossed bands a r o u n d his upper b o d y replace the belt hands h e l d close together appears o n a p r i z e vase i n the
w o r n b y the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's other charioteers. L o u v r e that has been called " A n t i m e n e a n " (circa 530
It is t e m p t i n g to suggest that these three types repre 500 B . C . ) , 2 3
and, s i m i l a r l y , o n a p r i z e vase o f a r o u n d
sent a c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e charioteer's pose 530 B . C . i n the G r o u p o f C o p e n h a g e n 99, i n N e w
and the p o s i t i o n o f the horses' hooves i n the first type York. 2 4
O n the other hand, the s t r e a m l i n e d speed and

CVA N e w York 3, pp. 32-33, pi. 40. pi. 38; Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 5, cat. no. 30, gives it to the Mastos
23. Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 9, pi. 5, cat. no. 81. Painter.
24. The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t 56.171.5, CVA N e w York 3,
106 Matheson

Figure 9. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Painter. Side B , panel. N e w York, The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t ,
07.286.79, Rogers Fund, 1907. Photo, courtesy The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art.

i n t e n s i t y o f the t h i r d type (the H e a r s t charioteer) shares however, the evident n a t u r a l i s m and e m o t i o n o f the
the spirit o f the charioteer and horse and rider groups o f H e a r s t charioteer s h o u l d , b y themselves, qualify this
the L e a g r o s G r o u p ' s panathenaics, n o t a b l y the horse vase as the latest (and u n d o u b t e d l y the best) o f the
race o n the p r i z e vase i n N e w Y o r k 2 5
and the w h e e l i n g chariot scenes.
chariot o n the p r i z e vase i n Taranto (circa 520500 T h e question o f the chronological p o s i t i o n o f the pan
B.C.). 2 6
In a d d i t i o n , a p r i z e vase w i t h a four-horse athenaics w i t h i n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's oeuvre can
chariot recently o n the L o n d o n m a r k e t , 27
w h i c h has best be approached b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e m w i t h the
been attributed, I believe rightly, to the B e r l i n Painter, painter's red-figure w o r k , especially his vases s h o w i n g
also shows a m o d e r a t e l y u p r i g h t charioteer close to the athletes, and with the panathenaics by the Berlin
second type described here. I f w e accept, as w e have n o Painter, w h i c h Beazley, as j u s t noted, v i e w e d as succeed
reason n o t to, Beazley's b e l i e f that the B e r l i n Painter's i n g those by the Kleophrades Painter. 29
T h e Kleophrades
panathenaics succeeded those of the Kleophrades Painter's non-chariot panathenaics are of two basic
Painter, 28
w e are left w i t h o u t a c o n v i n c i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l types: (1) the foot race, i n c l u d i n g the sprint ( L o u v r e F
d e v e l o p m e n t o n this basis. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s aside, 277) and the l o n g - d i s t a n c e race (the dolichodromos), rep-

25. T h e Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t 07.286.80, ABV 369,114; 28. Beazley, Development, p. 87.


Beazley, Development, pi. 95.34. 29. Beazley, Development, p. 87.
26. The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t 9887, ABV 369,113; Brandt, 30. B . Graef and E . Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu
ArchPanath, p. 8, pi. 9, cat. no. 73. Athen, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1925-1933), pi. 62, nos. 1048 and 1049-1050;
27. London, Sotheby's, sale (July 13-14, 1987), no. 408 ("heavily ABV 404,14 and 13, respectively. Beazley states that these fragments
restored"). are "possibly from prize amphoras" (ABV404), w i t h appropriate res-
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 107

Figure 10. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Figure 11. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades
Painter. Side B , detail. N e w Haven, Yale Painter. Side B , detail. Los Angeles,
University A r t Gallery, 1909.13. Photo, Catherine C . Hearst collection. Photo,
courtesy Yale University A r t Gallery. courtesy Isabelle Raubitschek.

resented o n the vase i n N o r w i c h C a s t l e and o n t w o M u n i c h , are s t o c k y and quite hefty figures, it seems that
fragmentary panathenaics f r o m the A k r o p o l i s ; 3 0
and (2) a case c o u l d be m a d e for a t t r i b u t i n g their physique to
three-figure groups o f t w o athletes and a trainer, i n the demands o f their sport rather than to the date o f
c l u d i n g w r e s t l i n g ( N e w Y o r k 16.71 [fig. 12], L e i d e n ) , their execution. C o m p a r i s o n s w i t h other wrestlers s h o w
p y r r h i c ( H u n t c o l l e c t i o n ) , j u m p i n g and j a v e l i n t h r o w i n g that they have s i m i l a r l y hefty b o d i e s . 34
T h e distinction
( M u n i c h , fig. 13). b e t w e e n the youthfulness o f the T a r q u i n i a athletes and
T h e K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's figures are often described the m a t u r i t y o f the contestants o n the panathenaics
as s t o c k y and p o w e r f u l . 31
B e a z l e y saw parallels i n this c o u l d further e x p l a i n the heavier b u i l d o f the latter.
v e i n b e t w e e n the athletes o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's T h u s , i n spite o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s to the T a r q u i n i a krater,
panathenaic i n M u n i c h and those o n such red-figure the b u l k o f these figures should not be used as an indica
vases as the painter's c a l y x - k r a t e r i n T a r q u i n i a , 32
which t i o n o f their date.
he described elsewhere as e a r l y . 33
W h i l e one can scarcely B e a z l e y w e n t o n to note that, i n c o m p a r i s o n to the
dispute that the wrestlers o n the p r i z e vases i n L e i d e n T a r q u i n i a athletes, the " a n a t o m y o f the m i d d l e o f the
and N e w Y o r k , as w e l l as the j u m p e r o n the a m p h o r a i n body [ o f the M u n i c h athletes] is n o w fully carried

ervation given the fact that no part o f side A o f the vases, which would Die Griechischen Meisterschalen (Stuttgart, 1893), p. 404.
preserve the prize inscription, survives. The Akropolis provenance o f 32. Museo C i v i c o R C 4196; Beazley, Development, p. 87.
these fragments seems to me, however, to make their identification as 33. Beazley, Kleophrades Painter, p. 16, no. 31.
prize vases sufficiently likely for them to be considered as such here. 34. Compare, for example, the fat wrestlers on the panathenaic by
31. E.g., Beazley, "powerfully built athletes," Development, p. 87; Exekias i n Karlsruhe, Badisches Landesmuseum, 65.45, Paralipomena,
Boardman, "heavy w i t h power," ABFV, p. 91; P. H a r t w i g , uj^yeGos, p. 61, no. 8 bis; Boardman, ABFV, fig. 106.
108 Matheson

Figure 12. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Painter. Side B, panel. N e w York, The
Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t , 16.71, Rogers Fund, 1916. Photo, courtesy The
Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art.

Figure 13. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades Painter. Side B , panel. M u n i c h ,


Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek M n c h e n , 1456 (J 656). Photo,
courtesy Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek M n c h e n .
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 109

out." 35
T o this development, w h i c h i n i t s e l f suggests a
later date for the panathenaics than for the T a r q u i n i a
krater, can be added other characteristics suggesting the
artist's mature style: the t w i s t i n g figures o f the wrestlers
i n N e w Y o r k and the akontist i n M u n i c h ; the use o f a
b e n d i n g figure i n the N e w Y o r k p a n k r a t i o n and the
H u n t c o l l e c t i o n p y r r h i c to break up the s y m m e t r y t y p i -
cal o f an early w o r k l i k e the a m p h o r a w i t h boxers i n
Munich; 3 6
and the o v e r l a p p i n g o f the figures o n the
M u n i c h vase, even w h e n the contest does not require it.
Further, the w a v y lines and b r o k e n z i g z a g folds o f the
trainer's h i m a t i o n o n the N e w Y o r k vase f i n d their c l o s -
est parallel i n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's red-figure w o r k
o n the a m p h o r a i n W r z b u r g , w h i c h B e a z l e y placed i n
the painter's later p e r i o d , d a t i n g it to about 480 B . C . 3 7

Finally, the panathenaic athletes, a l t h o u g h sturdy and


p o w e r f u l , are taller (especially l o n g e r legged) than their
early red-figure counterparts.
Taller and s o m e w h a t t h i n n e r p r o p o r t i o n s are even
m o r e evident o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's panathenaics
s h o w i n g runners, especially the fragmentary p r i z e vases
w i t h long-distance runners f r o m the A k r o p o l i s . This
change i n p r o p o r t i o n characterizes some o f the K l e o -
phrades Painter's later red-figure w o r k , for e x a m p l e the
amphorae i n N e w Y o r k and H a r r o w . 3 8
It is a f o r w a r d -
l o o k i n g feature i n panathenaics, a n t i c i p a t i n g the B e r l i n
Painter's elegant l o n g - l e g g e d runners o n , for example,
the p r i z e vase f o r m e r l y i n the C a s t l e A s h b y c o l l e c t i o n , 39

and the Athenas o n b o t h the Castle A s h b y vase and o n his


Figure 14. Panathenaic amphora by the Kleophrades
prize vase w i t h a chariot recently o n the L o n d o n m a r k e t . 40

Painter. Side B . N o r w i c h , N o r w i c h Castle


To r e t u r n to the q u e s t i o n o f c o m p o s i t i o n and v a r i a - Museum, 26.49. Photo, courtesy Norfolk
t i o n , n o w w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n o f c h r o n o l o g y , the l o n g - Museums Service.
distance r u n provides interesting material. O f the three
representations o f this race, one ( N o r w i c h Castle, fig. 14) the figures is different i n a l l o f these vases, with
shows three figures, r e l a t i n g it to the favored three- Akropolis 10491050 being particularly unusual in
figure c o m p o s i t i o n s o n the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's other s h o w i n g three runners as m u c h shorter than their c o m -
panathenaics. 41
O n e o f the fragmentary A k r o p o l i s vases panions. 42
A s w i t h the chariot race scenes discussed ear-
shows at least five figures ( A k r o p o l i s 10491050), and lier, the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter has o b v i o u s l y taken plea-
the spacing o f the figures o n the s u r v i v i n g fragments o f sure i n e x p l o r i n g these variations.
the other A k r o p o l i s panathenaic ( A k r o p o l i s 1048) makes W i t h i n this g r o u p o f three vases, the N o r w i c h C a s t l e
it likely that it showed four runners. T h e arrangement o f vase stands apart, not o n l y for its use o f three figures,

35. Beazley, Development, p. 87. 41. That the Kleophrades Painter favors three-figure compositions,
36. Beazley, Kleophrades Painter, p. 4 and pi. 7. even for races, is noted by Dietrich von Bothmer, i n Wealth of the
37. Beazley, Kleophrades Painter, pp. 67. Ancient World, p. 67. O n the function o f the basket on the N o r w i c h
38. Beazley, Kleophrades Painter, p. 14, pi. 29.1 and 2; N e w York, The Castle vase, see O. Broneer, "Excavations at Isthmia," Hesperia 27
Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t , 13.233, ARV 183, no. 13; H a r r o w
2
(1958), p. 31 n. 33. The Kleophradean panathenaic from Isthmia dis-
School M u s e u m 55, ARV 183, no. 11.
2
cussed by Broneer is given to the Kleophrades Painter by Brandt,
39. See above (note 17). Variations i n the proportions o f the Athena following Bothmer, ArchPanath, p. 8 n. 1, but see below, Appendix.
figures, which do exist, are directly tied to the varying height o f the For another example w i t h a basket, see Brandt, ArchPanath, pi. 8.
panel (tallere.g., Leiden, N e w York 16.71; shorterNew York 42. See S. Karouzou, "Texvo\o7iKOs KaOopuru-cs TOV C K TOV
07.286.79, H u n t collection) and do not correspond to the variations i n o\vp,meov T r a v a 0 T i v a K o t > a|X(j)op)s," Ephemeris arkhaiologike (1948/
proportion on side B . 1949), pp. 2425, pi. 4 for a drawing o f the fragments joined.
40. See above (note 27).
110 Matheson

but also for its even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m across the scenes, i n c l u d i n g the Getty amphora, and the pen
figure panel, their u n i f o r m i t y o f size and pose, and their tathlon, p a n k r a t i o n , and p y r r h i c vases s h o u l d then be
r o u n d , inflated chests. T h e other t w o , and the p r i z e vase contemporary w i t h the fragmentary Akropolis vases
w i t h a sprint i n the L o u v r e (F 277), are more progressive and the sprint i n the L o u v r e . F r o m the parallels to the
i n their separation o f one figure f r o m the others, the K l e o p h r a d e s Painter's red-figure w o r k cited above, this
varied heights o f the runners' heads, and, i n the sprint, would place the second (and larger) group in the
the b a c k w a r d glance o f the lead r u n n e r at his pursuers. painter's later p e r i o d , circa 485480 B . C . 4 5

T h e s e three l o o k t o w a r d their successors by the B e r l i n L i t t l e or n o c o n f i r m a t i o n o f this suggested d i v i s i o n


Painter 43
and the A c h i l l e s Painter. If any o f the four foot i n t o t w o groups is g i v e n b y the A t h e n a panels. A l
race vases can be said to be earlier, or f r o m a different t h o u g h the three here called earlier a l l wear the peplos,
c o m m i s s i o n year, than the others, it is the N o r w i c h C a s three others that b e l o n g to the later g r o u p d o so as w e l l .
tle vase, a n d it is interesting to note that the c o s t u m e H o w e v e r , n o A t h e n a s i n the earlier g r o u p wear the
w o r n b y the A t h e n a o n this vase is noticeably different c h i t o n . T h e shield bands, the other o b v i o u s variable i n
f r o m a l l the r e s t . 44
the A t h e n a panels, also p r o v i d e n o r e i n f o r c e m e n t . 46
One
A s s u m i n g the N o r w i c h C a s t l e a m p h o r a to be part o f can o n l y c o n c l u d e that the i n n a t e l y conservative and
an earlier g r o u p , w i t h it s h o u l d go the t w o chariot even a r c h a i z i n g nature o f the A t h e n a panels o n the p r i z e
scenes i n M a d r i d and B a s e l . T h e stiffness, the relative vases neither gave the vase-painter the scope for personal
p r o p o r t i o n o f the charioteer to the horses, and even the expression, n o r the present-day v i e w e r the o p p o r t u n i t y
arrangement o f the horses' front feet, as described for o b s e r v a t i o n o f it, that was p r o v i d e d b y the contest
above, are a l l conservative features parallel to those i n scenes o n the reverse.
the N o r w i c h C a s t l e a m p h o r a . T h e r e m a i n i n g chariot
Yale U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y
N e w Haven, Connecticut

APPENDIX N e w York, The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t , 07.286.79,


AB 1/404,6.
Beazley's list o f panathenaics attributed to the Kleophrades
Painter (ABV 404, w i t h the addition on ARV 192) is sum 2
Paris, Muse d u Louvre, F 279, ABV 404,2; Paralipomena,
marized here, with additions and revisions, for reference. As in p. 175.
Beazley, the list groups the vases according to the contests
Pentathlon (akontist, jumper):
shown on side B .
M u n i c h , Antikensammlung, 1456 (J 656), ABV404,7.
Chariot Races:
Pankration (wrestlers):
Basel, Antikenmuseum, B S 494, ARV , 2
192; Paralipomena,
Leiden, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, P C 6, ABV404,9.
p. 176 (as Swiss private collection).
N e w York, The Metropolitan Museum o f Art, 16.71, ABV
Los Angeles, Catherine C . Hearst collection, AB V 404,3 (as
404,8.
San Simeon, Hearst); Paralipomena, p. 175 (as Hillsborough,
Hearst). Foot Race (long-distance):
Madrid, Museo Arqueolgico Nacional, 10.900 (L70), ABV N o r w i c h Castle 26.49, AB V 404,16.
404,1.
Athens, Akropolis (in the National Archaeological M u
Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 77.AE.9, for references, seum), 1049-1050, fragments, AB V 404,13, "possibly from [a]
see above (note 1). prize amphora," but see above (note 25).
N e w Haven, Yale University A r t Gallery, 1909.12, ABV Athens, Akropolis (in the National Archaeological M u
404,4. seum), 1048, fragment, ABV 404,14, "possibly from [a] prize
N e w Haven, Yale University A r t Gallery, 1909.13, ABV amphora," but see above (note 30).
404,5.

43. A s noted by Karouzou, above (note 42). other scholars, see: Boardman, ABFV, p. 168, after 500 B . c . (general
44. Beazley, Development, p. 87, suggests a progression o f pan date for panathenaics by the Kleophrades Painter); D . von Bothmer, i n
athenaics by the B e r l i n Painter lasting from after 480 B . c . to the time Wealth of the Ancient World, p. 66, circa 500-490 B.C. (Hunt collection);
o f the Achilles Painter, obviously incorporating numerous commis D. von Bothmer, CVA N e w York 3, p. 34, late sixth century B.C.
sions for festivals over a span o f years. (New York 16.71) and p. 35, circa 500 B.C. ( N e w York 07.286.79);
45. For dates for the Kleophrades Painter's panathenaics given by Brandt, ArchPanath, p. 2, early fifth century B.C. (general date for
Panathenaic Amphorae by the Kleophrades Painter 111

Foot Race (sprint): sanctuary o f Demeter and Persephone at Cyrene (as cited
Paris, Muse d u Louvre, F 277, ABV404,15. above, pp. 4 and 1617, cat. no. 71). O n l y the lower right leg
and foot o f two closely overlapping runners are preserved;
Pyrrhic: Moore identifies the runners as sprinters. She cites Louvre F
Fort Worth, Nelson Bunker Hunt collection, D. von B o t h 277 by the Kleophrades Painter and the Isthmia vase just dis
mer, i n Wealth of the Ancient World, pp. 6667 (attribution: cussed as the closest parallels for the Cyrene fragment, which
Sotheby's). introduces a problem in the identification o f the race, since the
Three additional fragments, which Beazley says are "possi Louvre vase is indeed a sprint, but the Isthmia vase is a long
bly from prize amphoras," preserve part o f the Athena panel distance run. Based on the Louvre and Isthmia vases, the
only: sprint does seem the right choice, given the closely overlap
Corinth, Museum, ABV404,10 (Pegasos). ping pair o f sprinters on the Louvre vase and the more evenly
spaced long-distance runners on the Isthmia vase. However,
Athens, Akropolis (in the National Archaeological M u
there are also closely overlapping long-distance runners on the
seum), 969, ABV404,11.
Akropolis fragments 1048 and 1049-1050, although their feet
Athens, Akropolis (in the National Archaeological M u are not preserved, so I think it is hard to be certain which race
seum), ABV 404,12. the Cyrene fragment represents. Moore is right, I believe, i n
The prize vase i n Toledo, Ohio, inv. 1961.24, said to be " i n linking the Cyrene fragment stylistically to the Isthmia vase.
[the Kleophrades Painter's] manner, i f not by his hand" (ARV 2
Her attribution o f the Cyrene fragment to the Kleophrades
1632 and 1705), is confirmed as " i n his manner" or "near h i m " Painter necessitates the acceptance o f Bothmer's attribution o f
in Paralipomena, p. 176. See above, p. 102. the Isthmia vase to the Kleophrades Painter, and given my
A panathenaic in the Isthmia Museum with a foot race (Cor reservations about that attribution I would have to agree with
inth I P 1172) is attributed to the Kleophrades Painter by Moore that the Cyrene fragment's attribution to the painter
Dietrich von Bothmer (the attribution is cited by Brandt, must remain tentative.
ArchPanath, p. 8, n. 1, without acknowledgment; that it is
Bothmer's attribution is recorded by M . B. Moore, i n After this article went to press, five additional panathenaics
D. White, ed., The Extramural Sanctuary of Demeter and Per attributed to the Kleophrades Painter or his workshop came to
sephone at Cyrene, Libya. Final Reports, vol. 3, part 2: Attic Black my attention. Since all are excavated examples, they are es
Figure and Black Glazed Pottery [Philadelphia, 1987], p. 17, cat. pecially important.
no. 71). Oscar Broneer attributed the vase to the Leagros The first was found w i t h an Achaemenid glass bowl in a
Group i n the original publication o f it ("Excavations at Isth tomb i n Cyrenaica i n 1969 and attributed to the Kleophrades
mia," Hesperia 27 [1958], pp. 3031, w i t h the best published Painter by Michael Vickers. Side B shows a youthful dis-
illustrations). The vase is burned and fragmentary, but it kobolos with his trainer and a flautist. ( M . Vickers and A .
shows four runners i n the long-distance foot race, w i t h a bas Bazama, " A Fifth Century B . c . Tomb in Cyrenaica," Libya
ket similar to the one included on the N o r w i c h Castle vase. Antiqua 8 [1971], pp. 6984; M . Vickers, Jo urnal of Glass Studies
Athena's shield device is Pegasos, which supports Bothmer's 14 [1972], pp. 15-16. I am grateful to M r . Vickers for sharing
attribution, but there are numerous details that argue against his photographs of this vase and an offprint of this 1971 article;
it: O n side A , the drawing o f the scales on the aegis; the the complete volumes of Libya Antiqua 8 were lost i n a flood).
presence o f snakes on the side o f the aegis closest to the viewer A group o f four panathenaics were found together in a Tar
(i.e., Athena's back); the snakes covering the belt; the arch o f entine tomb in 1959. One shows a four-horse chariot, the sec
the forward foot, which is also thinner than the Kleophrades ond shows boxers, the third a diskobolos and a jumper from
Painter's norm; the way the hand grips the spear; the lack o f a the pentathlon; only part o f side A o f the fourth is preserved.
bracelet; the vertical chiton folds and the lack o f a fold that O f these, the pentathlon and the fragments o f the fourth have
frames the buttocks; and, on side B, the drawing o f the legs o f been attributed by F. G. L o Porto to the Kleophrades Painter,
the runners. A l l these features differ from the patterns fol the other two to his workshop, although to different hands a
lowed by the Kleophrades Painter, and they suggest that the decade apart. (Taranto, Museo Civico, 115472115475. F. G. L o
vase is Kleophradean rather than by the painter himself. Porto, "Tombe di Atleti Tarentini," Atti e Memorie dlia Societ
M a r y Moore has tentatively attributed a fragment o f a prize Magna Grecia n.s., vol. 8 [1967], pp. 69-84 [Tomb C ] . I thank
vase w i t h runners to the Kleophrades Painter i n her recent M . Vickers for bringing this article to my attention; it is cited
publication o f the black-figure pottery from the extramural in his discussion o f the Libyan vase.)

panathenaics by the Kleophrades Painter); D. Buitrn, Attic Vase Paint period, after 480 B . C . ; Beazley, Development, p. 87.
ing in New England Collections, Fogg A r t M u s e u m , Cambridge, Mass., 46. The suggestion that shield bands might be a chronological i n
1972, p. 60, circa 500-475 B.C. (Yale 1909.12); Frel (above [note 2]), dication was made by Dietrich von Bothmer, i n Wealth of the Ancient
p. 15, circa 500 B.C. (New York 07.286.79); I. Raubitschek, The Hearst World, p. 67.
Hillsborough Vases (Mainz, 1969), p. 50, circa 490 B.C. (Hearst collec
tion). Beazley dates the B e r l i n Painter's panathenaics to his latest
112 Matheson

None o f these vases is mentioned by Beazley. I have not seen greatest departure from the painter's norm.
them, but I have some reservations about the attributions, al If all five o f these vases were by the Kleophrades Painter,
though I recognize the limitations o f working only from pho what would they tell us? The number o f contests shown by
tographs. The Libyan vase is very different i n shape from the this painter would be increased by the addition o f the boxers
Kleophrades Painter's remarkably consistent panathenaics, and the diskoboloi. The boxer scene has six figures, the pen
being much wider i n the shoulder with a higher center o f tathlon four, arguing (as do the Akropolis fragments) against
gravity. The proportions o f the figures tend toward the taller, Bothmer's suggestion that the Kleophrades Painter preferred
thinner ones o f the Berlin Painter (i.e., later than the three-figure compositions. If the boxers are his, they are later
Kleophrades Painter's), also seen i n the workshop vase i n than any o f his other athletes, possibly extending the painter's
Toledo; details o f costume and drapery handling point in the range o f Panathenaic commissions to three. The same could be
same direction. said for the Libyan vase, but not for both at once.
The Tarentine vases are acceptable in terms o f shape and i n The archaeological contexts o f these five vases do not con
the basic proportions o f the figures. Inconsistent with the tribute much to the discussion o f the vases' internal chronol
Kleophrades Painter's canon as defined above, however, are ogy; the Libyan vase was found with a pelike by the Painter o f
such details as the lack o f an earring, three lines for the brace M u n i c h 2335, and the Tarentine vases are themselves the
let, no border for the aegis on one example, straight lines for means by which their owner's tomb is dated. The Libyan vase
chiton folds, no added red for athletes' beards or hair, different does seem to suggest a second-hand market for these prizes;
patterns o f incision for the hair, a lower starting point for the the Tarentine vases suggest this to me as well, given the vari
inscription, and others. Closest to the painter are the chariot ety o f competitions represented, but L o Porto prefers to view
vase, the Athena on the boxer vase, and the fragments. The the tomb as one o f an aristocrat (sponsor i n the chariot race)
chariot scene relates well to the earliest o f my three chariot who was a pentathlon winner i n his youth and a boxing
types; the charioteer lacks a belt, but the area looks restored. champion closer to his death around age thirty-five.
The boxers and the Athena on the pentathlon vase show the
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi
D. C. Kurtz

Two l e k y t h o i (figs, lae, 7) are i m p o r t a n t additions T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f A t t i c clay is h i g h i n ferrous o x i d e .


to the Getty Museum's collection o f white-ground T h i s i m p u r i t y p r o d u c e s a w a r m red c o l o r that was e x
vases, 1
w h i c h already i n c l u d e s s o m e fine and unusual p l o i t e d to p e r f e c t i o n b y A t h e n i a n potters a n d painters.
examples o f the technique. P u b l i c a t i o n o f a n e w w h i t e White-ground, o n the o t h e r h a n d requires a primary
l e k y t h o s u s u a l l y concentrates o n i c o n o g r a p h y a n d style clay free f r o m these i m p u r i t i e s .
o f p a i n t i n g . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n takes a different course D u r i n g the first h a l f o f the fifth c e n t u r y a v a r i e t y o f
because the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the l e k y t h o i is n o t funerary A t h e n i a n vase shapes was s l i p p e d w h i t e , b u t i n the sec
a n d t h e i r a t t r i b u t i o n is either n o t o p e n to q u e s t i o n or, i n o n d h a l f o f the c e n t u r y the use o f the w h i t e slip became
itself, n o t especially i m p o r t a n t . l a r g e l y restricted to l e k y t h o i , w h o s e i c o n o g r a p h y , at the
T h e l e k y t h o s was a clay c o n t a i n e r for o i l . D u r i n g the same t i m e , became funerary. It c o u l d be that many
fifth c e n t u r y its b o d y was n e a r l y c y l i n d r i c a l a n d its d e c w h i t e l e k y t h o i w e r e meant to be seen rather t h a n used,
o r a t i o n was b l a c k - f i g u r e o n r e d - o r w h i t e - g r o u n d , r e d - a n d that t h e i r i m a g e s w e r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t to c o n
figure on black-ground, or outline o n white-ground. t e m p o r a r y funerary p r a c t i c e s . T h e surface o f the c y l i n
2

T h e c y l i n d r i c a l l e k y t h o s is the o n l y type o f vase to drical lekythos, the p r i n c i p a l clay shape for funerary
w h i c h A t h e n i a n s are k n o w n to have a p p l i e d w h i t e slip i c o n o g r a p h y , is, however, flat i n one plane, a n d therefore
r e g u l a r l y over a considerable p e r i o d o f t i m e , w h e n the somewhat more l i k e a panel or picture than most other
b u l k o f t h e i r decorated p o t t e r y was b l a c k - o r red-figure. clay vases, w h o s e c u r v a t u r e is m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . This

M a r i o n True invited me to publish the lekythoi. She, M a r i t Jentoft- 80.AE.143. White lekythos (Class D L , side-palmette lekythos) w i t h
Nilsen, and A r t h u r H o u g h t o n extended every kindness during the outlined figure and linked black lotus buds on reserved shoulder. F i g
period o f my guest lectureship at the Getty M u s e u m (April 1985). T h e ure (female?) i n chitoniskos (patterned and fringed) w i t h chest on her
article was submitted for publication i n the summer o f 1985. head and fruit i n her hand.
Abbreviations 86.AE.253. White lekythos w i t h outlined figures, black and red pal-
AWG: J. R. Mertens, Attic White-Ground (New York, mettes and lotus blossoms on the shoulder. Youth tying fillet around a
1977). shaft tombstone on a mound; girl w i t h alabastron. Painter o f Athens
AWK: I. Wehgartner, Attisch Weissgrundige Keramik 1826 (ARV 746, no. 5 bis and p. 1668, fig. 8).
2

(Mainz, 1983). 82. AE.23. C u p w i t h white interior and figures i n outline and black-
BAdd: L. B u r n and R . G l y n n , comps., Beazley Ad figure. Dionysos and a satyr. Onesimos (Dyfri Williams, M a r t i n
denda (Oxford, 1982). Robertson) (Greek Vases, Molly and Walter Bareiss Collection, M a l i b u ,
Beazley, AWL: J. D . Beazley, Attic White Lekythoi (London, The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 1983 [catalogue by J. Frel and M . True],
1938). p. 50, no. 35).
Buitrn, " D o u r i s " : D. Buitrn, " D o u r i s" (Ph.D. diss., N e w York
83. AE.31. White lekythos (Class P L ) . Outlined figure and five black
University, Institute o f Fine Arts, 1976).
palmettes on reserved shoulder. Woman running to right looking back
Caskey and Beazley: L. Caskey and J. D . Beazley, Attic Vase Paint
and holding a thyrsos.
ings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, vol. 3
(Oxford, 1963). 83. AE.41. White lekythos (Class A T L ) . Outlined figure and black bars
Kurtz, AWL: D. C . Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi (Oxford, on reserved shoulder. Youth i n chlamys and petasos w i t h drawn
1975). sword. Inscription: Euaion kalos Aischylo (GettyMus] 12 [1984],
1. Attic white-ground vases i n the Getty M u s e u m (spring 1985): p. 243, no. 62).

73. AE.41. White lekythos w i t h outlined figures, black and outlined 83. AE.42. White lekythos (near Class A T L ) . Outlined figure and black
palmettes, and lotus blossoms on the shoulder. M a n w i t h short mantle bars on reserved shoulder. Woman i n chiton and black himation
over his arm and staff i n his hand; shaft tombstone bound w i t h fillets holding a fillet and standing between mound topped by a plemochoe
and base supporting offerings o f vases; woman w i t h fillet. Sabouroff and decked w i t h fillets, branches, and spears, and a loutrophoros
Painter (J. R. Mertens, GettyMusf 2 [1975], pp. 30-31, figs. 1-5). also decked w i t h fillets and branches (Getty MusJ 12 [1984],
p. 244, no. 63).
77. A E . 6 0 A and B . Two white chalices.
84. AE.745. White lekythos (figs. 5a-d).
77.AE.102 and 78.AE.5. White kyathos w i t h black-figure man (Ana-
84.AE.770. White lekythos (figs. l a - e ) .
kreontic), eyes, and cocks at the handle. M o l d e d female head attached
to the handle. Near Psiax (D. C . Kurtz and J. Boardman, "Booners," 2. D . C . Kurtz and J. Boardman, Greek Burial Customs (London,
Greek Vases in the f. Paul Getty Museum 3 [1986], pp. 3570). 1971), pp. 102-105.
114 Kurtz

Figure a. White lekythos attributed to Douris. Left side. Malibu, The


J. Paul Getty Museum, 84.AE.770.
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 115

Figure ib. Front o f lekythos, figure la.


116 Kurtz

Figure lc. Right side of lekythos, figure la.


Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 117

Figure Id. Back o f lekythos, figure l a .


118 Kurtz

Figure le. Shoulder o f lekythos, figure la.

m a y help to e x p l a i n w h y the techniques o f l e k y t h o i dec DOURIS' L E K Y T H O S


o r a t i o n can s o m e t i m e s appear to approach free-painting. D e s c r i p t i o n (see figs, lae)Height: 33.4 c m ; m o u t h ,
B o t h o f the l e k y t h o i described b e l o n g to the first h a l f handle (outer surface), l o w e r body, and h o r i z o n t a l sur
o f the fifth century, before the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the w h i t e face o f foot black; neck, handle (inner surface), and v e r
l e k y t h o s became funerary and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes tical surface o f foot reserved. M o l d i n g s at j o i n o f neck to
i n G r e e k w a l l - p a i n t i n g , associated w i t h P o l y g n o t o s o f shoulder (decorated w i t h a t o n g u e p a t t e r n 4
w i t h a red
T h a s o s , were felt i n the A t h e n i a n potters' quarter. E a c h
3
l i n e above) a n d b o d y to foot (defined b y t h i n reserved
vase is about one foot h i g h ; one dates a r o u n d 500 B . C . lines). O n the shoulder (fig. le) t w o palmettes (leaves
and is decorated w h o l l y i n o u t l i n e ; the other dates alternately o u t l i n e d and filled i n w i t h d i l u t e w a s h , and
a r o u n d 460 and introduces w h i t e for female flesh and o u t l i n e d and p a r t l y filled i n w i t h black paint), four lotus
some added colors for drapery and accessories. blossoms (two o u t l i n e d , one black, and one w i t h a c e n -

3. C . M . Robertson, Greek Painting (Geneva, 1959), pp. 1314, black-bodied lekythos on the market i n Basel ( M n z e n und
94_97, 103-109, 111-114, 123-135, 137-156. Idem, A History of Greek Medaillen, sale 51 [1975], pi. 41, no. 157). This vase is the same size as
Art (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 259-265, 324-327, 421-425. Douris' white lekythoi, the neck is reserved, and there is a tongue
4. D o u r i s ' white-ground and red-figure lekythoi have a tongue pattern at the j o i n o f neck to shoulder. Earlier (Kurtz, AWL, pp.
pattern i n this position. O n a late red-figure lekythos i n Boston 122127) I had noted similarities between some o f D o u r i s ' lekythoi
(13.194, ARV 2
447, no. 273; Caskey and Beazley, pi. 84.135), which and black-bodied lekythoi from the A t h e n a / B o w d o i n workshop. The
Beazley called a "school-piece," the tongues are reduced to bars decoration o f this lekythos suggests that the workshop i n which
(Kurtz, AWL, p. 23) and dots are introduced i n the intervals. See Douris was active had its o w n line i n black-bodied lekythoi, compar
below (notes 5 and 38). able to the lekythoi from the Group o f the Floral Nolans (ARV 2

5. Compare the red-figure palmettes and lotus buds on the shoul 218-219, no. 1636; Paralipomena, p. 346; Kurtz, AWL p. 125) from the
der o f the aryballos i n Athens (T.E. 556, ARV 447, no. 273 bis;
2
workshop i n which the B e r l i n Painter was active. A black-bodied
Paralipomena, p. 376; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 9.3) and the black florals on the lekythos similar i n some respects to D o u r i s ' has been assigned to the
psykter i n L o n d o n (E 768, ARV 446, no. 262; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 9.4).
2
Pan Painter (Adolphseck, Landgraf Philipp o f Hesse, inv. 51. ARV 2

Compare also the red-figure lotus blossoms on the shoulder o f a 557, no. 119; CVA Schloss Fasanerie 1, pl. 38).
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 119

tral black bud), l i n k e d b y s p i r a l i n g t e n d r i l s , 5


frame a D o u r i s k n e w the black-figure technique and m a y have
l i g h t - h a i r e d m a e n a d m o v i n g r i g h t and l o o k i n g left. She practiced i t , 1 1
but by 500, w h e n his career began, r e d -
wears an a n i m a l s k i n over a c h i t o n and h o l d s a t o r c h figure was w e l l established, painters h a d mastered the
(black w i t h d i l u t e w a s h for flames) i n one h a n d and a s t r o n g black relief-line and seized o n the p o t e n t i a l o f
thyrsos ( o u t l i n e d w i t h black leaves) i n the other. dilute paint for fine lines o f i n n e r detail and for b r o a d
F o u r figures o n the body, framed by black net patterns golden washes to suggest textures, even shading. A p p l y
above and below, and o u t l i n e d i n black. B l a c k delineates i n g these skills to another m e d i u m , it was technically
p r i n c i p a l features o f a n a t o m y and drapery and a selec possible to o u t l i n e figures o n w h i t e - g r o u n d vases b y the
t i o n o f details, dilute b r o w n (in fine lines or washes) first decade o f the fifth century. E a r l i e r w h i t e - g r o u n d
subsidiary details. vases have decoration i n black-figure or " s e m i - o u t l i n e . "
T h e r e is a t h i n l i n e o f red paint a l o n g the i n n e r edge S o m e o f D o u r i s ' l e k y t h o i , w h i t e - g r o u n d and red-figure,
o f the b r o a d stripe o u t l i n i n g the crest o f the h e l m e t (fig. display features c o m m o n to black-figure w o r k s h o p s ,
l c ) and a red fillet a r o u n d each o f the males' heads. 6
w h i c h were s t i l l the p r i n c i p a l producers o f the shape. 12

T h e l e k y t h o s is not signed b y D o u r i s , but there can


7
T h e reservation o f the neck o f the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s be
be n o d o u b t that he painted it. L a r g e w h i t e c y l i n d r i c a l trays black-figure influence, but the reservation o f the
l e k y t h o i w i t h o u t l i n e d r a w i n g are rare d u r i n g the first neck and vertical surface o f the foot reflects the g o l d e n
decades o f the fifth century; t h r e e have been assigned
8
tones o f the figure-decoration and is a deliberate c o n
to D o u r i s o n e was excavated at Selinus i n the 1920s, trast o f tones. T e c h n i c a l l y the vase is a tour-de-force o f
assigned to D o u r i s by E t t o r e G a b r i c i , and is n o w i n the potter and p a i n t e r . 13
It is s t r o n g l y fashioned and care
M u s e o N a z i o n a l e , P a l e r m o ; another was purchased o n fully t o o l e d at the shoulder and foot and a l o n g the edges
the E u r o p e a n m a r k e t b y the C l e v e l a n d M u s e u m o f A r t o f the handle (fig. Id). T h e shape is very similar, but not
and assigned to D o u r i s by S i r J o h n B e a z l e y ; the t h i r d identical, to that o f a l e k y t h o s i n C l e v e l a n d . A l t h o u g h a
(figs, lae) was assigned to D o u r i s b y G e o r g e O r t i z and l e k y t h o s i n P a l e r m o is fragmentary, the contours o f its
J e a n - L o u i s Z i m m e r m a n n , w h o p u b l i s h e d it i n 1975. b o d y and the similar system o f decoration suggest that it
D o u r i s ' signature as painter or m a k e r is k n o w n f r o m m a y have been made b y the potter w h o p r o b a b l y also
about forty vases, and a total o f nearly three h u n d r e d made the s l i g h t l y larger red-figure l e k y t h o s , n o w i n
have been attributed to h i m u s i n g the M o r e l l i a n m e t h o d Cleveland (figs. 2ab). 14
T h i s one has an unusual system
o f stylistic analysis. T h i s is a v e r y large n u m b e r for an
9
of decoration, similar to that o f the three white
A t h e n i a n vase-painter, m a n y o f w h o m are represented l e k y t h o i , a r i l l e d handle, l i k e the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s , and a
by fewer than ten vases. T h e great m a j o r i t y o f D o u r i s ' t o o l e d foot, l i k e the w h i t e l e k y t h o s i n C l e v e l a n d .
k n o w n vases are cups, and he is best k n o w n as a Late O n the b o d y o f the red-figure l e k y t h o s i n C l e v e l a n d ,
A r c h a i c cup painter. H e was a regular collaborator w i t h A t h e n a overcomes a giant, and o n the shoulder a three-
the potter P y t h o n , and a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f the potter figure group (satyr b e t w e e n maenads) is framed by
B r y g o s and the painter M a k r o n . H i s vases o f other florals. The shoulders o f cylindrical red-figure and
shapes are few, but i m p o r t a n t , and at least t w o a k a n w h i t e - g r o u n d l e k y t h o i r e g u l a r l y have florals (usually
tharos o f T y p e C i n Brussels and a flat-bottomed round palmettes) arranged i n a relatively s m a l l n u m b e r o f sys
aryballos i n A t h e n s b e a r his signature as " m a k e r . " 10
It tems characteristic o f particular artists or w o r k s h o p s . 15

is, therefore, probable that he also made other vases that Shoulder-figures 16
are never c o m m o n o n fifth-century
he painted. l e k y t h o i . T h e o n l y red-figure w o r k s h o p k n o w n to have

6. See below (note 36). 11. Paris, Louvre, M N B 2042, ABV 400 (quasi-black-figure);
7. ARV 2
425-428, nos. 1652-1654, 1701, 1706; Paralipomena, pp. Buitrn, " D o u r i s ," pp. 215216.
374_376, 521. BAdd, pp. 116-118; Buitrn, " D o u r i s" and forthcoming. 12. Kurtz, AWL, p. 25 (Athena/Bowdoin painters). See below (note
8. Palermo, Museo Nazionale, N . I . 1886 (from Selinus), ARV 2
19, Edinburgh Painter).
446, no. 266; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 10.1. Cleveland M u s e u m o f A r t 66.114, 13. The white slip was probably normally applied by the potter, not
ARV 446, no. 266 bis; Paralipomena, p. 376; Kurtz, AWL, pis. 10.2, 11.
2
the painter.
M a l i b u , The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , 84.AE.770, J. Drig, ed., Art 14. Cleveland 78.59, J. H . Wade Fund purchase, W. G. M o o n and L .
Antique: Collections Prives de Suisse Romande, Geneva, 1975, no. 205 Berge, eds., Greek Vase-Painting in Midwestern Collections (Chicago,
(George Ortiz). 1979), p. 187 (A. Kozloff).
9. Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 2 (1985), pp. 237-250 (D. 15. Kurtz, AWL, pp. 33-76.
C . Kurtz). 16. Ibid., pp. 3, 16, 43, 49, 124, 126, 127. Fancy examples i n red-
10. Brussels, Muses Royaux, A 718, ARV 445, no. 256;
2
CVA figure contemporary with D o u r i s ' are "compromise shape": Kurtz,
Muse s Royaux 1, pis. 56. Athens, National M u s e u m , 15375, ARV 2
AWL, pp. 123-124 and pi. 65.1.
447, no. 274; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 9.2.
120 Kurtz

Figure 2a. Red-figure lekythos attributed to Douris. Figure 2b. Right side o f lekythos, figure 2a.
Front. The Cleveland M u s e u m o f A r t , Pur
chase from the J. H . Wade Fund, 78.59.
Photos, courtesy The Cleveland M u
seum o f A r t .

made much o f them is that o f the Berlin Painter. 17


m i t t e d s h o u l d e r - f i g u r e s . D o u r i s is the o n l y artist k n o w n
W h i t e - g r o u n d s h o u l d e r - f i g u r e s are rare a n d date s h o r t l y to have p a i n t e d t h e m i n r e d - f i g u r e and i n outline o n
after 500. L i k e the e x a m p l e s f r o m the B e r l i n Painters w h i t e - g r o u n d . T h e c h o i c e o f maenads o n the C l e v e l a n d
w o r k s h o p , they w e r e p r o b a b l y p r o d u c e d u n d e r the i n a n d M a l i b u l e k y t h o i m u s t be p e r s o n a l preference (there
fluence o f black-figure, w h i c h had not infrequently ad- is n o i c o n o g r a p h i c a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n s h o u l d e r and

17. ARV 2
196-214, nos. 1633-1635, 1700-1701; Paralipomena, pp. 19. The encircling frieze has a long, but irregular, tradition i n
341-345; BAdd, pp. 95-98; D . C . Kurtz, The Berlin Painter (Oxford, black-figure; the Amasis Painter's two lekythoi i n N e w York are early
1982), p. 108, no. 70, pis. 30 and 59d. T h e only white-ground vase fine examples: 31.11.10, ABV \54, 57, S. Karouzou, The Amasis Painter
firmly assigned to the Berlin Painter is a fragmentary plate found on (Oxford, 1956), pis. 43, 44.1; 56.11.1, Paralipomena, p. 66, AntK 3 (1960),
the Akropolis (Athens, Akropolis, 427, ARV 214, no. 244; E . L a n
2
pi. 7. Contemporary w i t h the Edinburgh Painter's lekythoi are some
glotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, v o l . 2 [Berlin, w i t h encircling friezes from the A t h e n a / B o w d o i n painter's workshop
1933], pi. 32. See Kurtz [this note], p. 110, no. 78) w i t h an encircling (Kurtz, AWL, pi. 13).
"tongue" pattern (see above [note 4], and below [note 43]) like that o f Some early red-figure lekythoi perpetuate the black-figure system,
earlier black-figure plates. for example: Painter o f Oxford 1949, Oxford 1949.751, ARV 9, no. 1, 2

The lion m o t i f o f the B e r l i n Painter's lekythos is used by Douris Kurtz, AWL, pi. 5.1; Roundabout Painter, Athens, Agora, P 24061,
on Bologna, Museo C i v i c o Archeologico, P U 321 (ARV 446, 2
ARV 131, Kurtz, AWL, pi. 5.2; Terpaulos Painter, Agrigento, Museo
2

no. 267; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 8.2). Douris also adopted the black shoulder Civico, 23, ARV 308, no. 5. Kurtz, AWL, pi. 6.
2

("Nolan style") o f the Berlin Painter on lekythoi i n Vienna (Univer 20. ABL, pp. 86-89, 215-221; AB V 476478, 670, 671, 700; Para
sity 526a, ARV 447, no. 272; CVA Vienna 1, pi. 13.2-3) and Boston
2
lipomena, pp. 217-219; BAdd, p. 58.
(Museum o f Fine Arts 13.194, ARV 447, no. 273; Caskey and Beazley,
2
21. The pattern is also popular w i t h the Athena and B o w d o i n
pi. 84, no. 135). painters. Compare Kurtz, AWL, pis. 1213.
18. B e r l i n (East) 2252, ARV 263, no. 54; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 8.1 and
2
22. ABL, pp. 94-130, 225-241, 368-369; ABV 507511, 702-703,
pp. 127-128. 716; Paralipomena, pp. 246-250; BAdd, pp. 60-61.
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 121

b o d y scenes o n either vase), p o s s i b l y encouraged b y the b l a z o n e d w i t h a w h e e l m o t i f , and a spear. H e r l o n g hair


frequent r e p e t i t i o n o f satyrs, maenads, and florals o n the is h e l d i n a k o r y b o l o s b y a b r o a d d i a d e m l i k e headband.
exteriors o f his n u m e r o u s cups. O n the shoulder o f a She watches one o f the youths put o n his greaves. H e 2 5

white lekythos o f unusual and unparalleled shape, (fig. la) wears a short c h i t o n (through w h i c h the c o n
roughly contemporary w i t h D o u r i s ' , and assigned to the tours o f his chest, a b d o m e n , flank, buttocks, and t h i g h
Syriskos P a i n t e r , 18
E r o s flies a m i d florals i n a design are visible) and a red fillet a r o u n d his short, curly, black
r e m i n i s c e n t o f D o u r i s ' . T h e technique is s o m e w h a t dif hair. S t y l i z e d a n a t o m i c a l details are p i c k e d out i n dilute
ferent: A l t h o u g h figures are o u t l i n e d i n black paint, paint o n the surface o f the greave attached to his r i g h t
washes o f dilute are not e x p l o i t e d ; instead some b r o a d leg. There is a black pad w i t h a finely detailed upper edge
areas are painted i n matt color. T h e r e is also a greater around his left ankle. B e t w e e n the t w o figures there is a
p r e d o m i n a n c e o f black. l o w base o n w h i c h a kalos inscription was written.
Another unusual decorative feature, common to T h e second y o u t h faces a y o u n g n u d e b o y 2 6
(fig. Id)
D o u r i s ' three w h i t e l e k y t h o i , is an e n c i r c l i n g figure o n the back o f the vase. A folding stool, w i t h pins re
frieze o n the body. T h e shape o f a c y l i n d r i c a l l e k y t h o s is served o n the w h i t e slip, and p o s i t i o n e d beneath the j o i n
not suited to friezes; the canonical scheme for the classic o f the handle o f the vase to the body, supports a c u s h i o n
l e k y t h o s , red-figure and w h i t e - g r o u n d , is one or t w o and folded c l o t h . T h e n u d e b o y has l o n g straight black
figures b r o u g h t to the front, as o n D o u r i s ' red-figure hair, h e l d i n place by a red fillet. H e holds a spear (shaft
example i n C l e v e l a n d (figs. 2ab). T h e b o d y f r i e z e 19
is black and tip outlined) and a sheathed s w o r d (black and
another element b o r r o w e d f r o m black-figure, i n w h i c h outlined). T h e armed y o u t h 2 7
(fig. l c ) wears a short
it enjoyed some popularity, especially a r o u n d 500, i n the c h i t o n but the contours o f his b o d y are not revealed
w o r k s h o p o f the E d i n b u r g h P a i n t e r , 20
w h i c h was the beneath it. H i s l o n g fair hair is r o l l e d up b e h i n d and
p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c e r o f c y l i n d r i c a l l e k y t h o i at this t i m e . flows l u x u r i a n t l y over the sides o f his cheeks and fore
T h e shapes o f some o f his l e k y t h o i are very like D o u r i s ' , head. H i s greaves have s t y l i z e d anatomical details i n
and the net pattern at the j o i n o f s h o u l d e r to b o d y o n dilute paint. H e wears a r o u n d s h i e l d and carries a
the M a l i b u vase is one o f his favorite patterns i n this C o r i n t h i a n h e l m e t b y its nosepiece. T h e napepiece was
position. 21
T h e shapes a n d patterns o f some o f his vases, p r o b a b l y o u t l i n e d . T h e cap is black. T h e hairs o f the
n o t a b l y l e k y t h o i and s m a l l neck-amphorae, can be re crest are d r a w n i n fine b r o w n lines and there was p r o b a
lated to those f r o m the black-figure w o r k s h o p o f the b l y hair i n the place o f a v i s o r (cf. fig. 4).
Sappho and D i s o p h o s p a i n t e r s 22
( w h o were a m o n g the T h e four figures are evenly disposed a r o u n d the c i r
first to e x p e r i m e n t w i t h black and o u t l i n e figures o n cumference o f the vase, e x t e n d i n g their l i m b s and h o l d
white-ground), and f r o m the red-figure w o r k s h o p o f i n g accoutrements i n such a w a y as to fill the space
the B e r l i n P a i n t e r . 23
O n the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s young effectively. T h i s type o f design was also employed at this
A t h e n i a n aristocrats a r m themselves i n the presence o f a time by the B e r l i n Painter. 28
There is no overlapping and
b o y and a w o m a n . T h e w o m a n 2 4
(fig. l b ) is the focal n o real action; the atmosphere is c a l m , quiet, even
p o i n t o f the c o m p o s i t i o n , also, regrettably, the least w e l l sombre. In the field, the letters o f the kalos i n s c r i p
preserved o f the four figures. She wears a h i m a t i o n w i t h tions 29
are neatly a l i g n e d beside the figures; the names
decorated border over a c h i t o n and carries a s h i e l d , e m - o f N i k o d r o m o s (otherwise u n k n o w n from Athenian

23. Kurtz, AWL, pp. 13-17, 120-121, 123. 27. Compare the armed youth on the exterior o f Vienna 3694 on
24. Compare the woman w i t h shield (in profile) and scabbard on which there is also a black-capped helmet. O n Vienna, Kunst
the exterior o f Vienna 3694 (see below [note 32]). historisches M u s e u m , 3695 (tondo [fig. 4] and side B ; see below
25. Compare the youth greaving on the exterior o f Vienna, [note 32]) there are helmets w i t h hair i n place o f visors.
Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m , 3694. The M a l i b u youth's transparent 28. J. D. Beazley, The Berlin Painter (Melbourne, 1964), p. 3.
chiton may be compared w i t h those on a cup i n the British M u s e u m 29. H . R. Immerwahr, " A t t i c Script: A Survey" (forthcoming).
(E 48, ARV 2
431, no. 47; J. Boardman, Athenian Red Figure Vases Kalos inscriptions occur early on white-ground. A l t h o u g h they do
[London, 1975], fig. 287). not appear on Psiax's white lekythos (see below [note 40]), they do
26. Compare the pose and some anatomical details o f the nude occur on his white alabastra i n Leningrad (1429, ABV 293,12;
youth i n the tondo o f a cup i n Boston (00.338, ARV 427, no. 4; 2
K . Gorbunova Chernofigurnye atticheskie vazy v Ermitazhe, Katalog
Caskey and Beazley, pp. 1718); and o f a jumper on a lekythos also i n [Leningrad, 1983], pp. 80-81, no. 55) and L o n d o n (1900.6-11.1, ABV
Boston (95.41, ARV 447, no. 270; Caskey and Beazley, pi. 84,
2
294,25; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 1.3) and on some early white alabastra w i t h
no. 134); and o f the satyrs on the psykter i n the British M u s e u m (E outlined figures comprising the Group o f the Paidikos Alabastra
768, ARV 446, no. 262; Boardman [note 25], fig. 299). Contrast his
2
(ARV 98-101; Paralipomena, pp. 330-331; BAdd, p. 85).
2

long, straight, black hair w i t h the long, curly, black hair o f the erotes The Syriskos Painter's white lekythos (see above [note 18]) also has
on the white lekythos i n Cleveland. a kalos inscription.
For the rendering o f the cushion and cloth on the folding stool,
compare that on a cup i n the Louvre (G 118, ARV 430, no. 35). 2
122 Kurtz

Figure 3a. Red-figure cup by Douris. Side A . Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, 3694. Photos, courtesy Kunsthistorisches
Museum.

Figure 3b. Side B o f cup, figure 3a.


Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 123

figure-decorated vases) and Panaitios are preserved i n


the field, and o n the shoulder ho pais. T h i s is one o f the
earliest w h i t e l e k y t h o i w i t h a kalos i n s c r i p t i o n but, l i k e
some c o n t e m p o r a r y w h i t e - g r o u n d black-figure l e k y t h o i
o f secondary shape, it praises m o r e than one y o u t h ; o n
C l a s s i c a l w h i t e l e k y t h o i n o r m a l l y o n l y one is n a m e d .
E a c h o f D o u r i s ' w h i t e l e k y t h o i has i n s c r i p t i o n s i n the
field. T h e names o f Iphigeneia and Teukros are pre
served almost c o m p l e t e l y o n the P a l e r m o v a s e , 30
those
o f Atalante and E r o s (repeated) o n the l e k y t h o s i n
C l e v e l a n d . T h e C l e v e l a n d c o m p o s i t i o n is fluid; A t a l a n t e
and the erotes are i n full m o t i o n . She holds her skirt as
she runs and o n l y one foot touches the g r o u n d . The
erotes are airborne w i t h sprays o f florals and a w h i p . T h e
Palermo c o m p o s i t i o n is solemnly processional, but
T e u k r o s ' pose (head i n three-quarter view, torso frontal,
left leg rotated) conveys urgency, j u s t as Iphigeneia's
l o w e r e d head i m p l i e s resignation. T h e d r a w n s w o r d ,
e m p t y altar, and p a l m tree tell us that the m o m e n t o f
sacrifice is i m m i n e n t . In contrast, the c o m p o s i t i o n o f
the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s is s t i l l . E v e n t h o u g h one y o u t h Figure 4. Red-figure cup by Douris. Tondo. Vienna,
bends forward to put o n his greave and the other appears Kunsthistorisches Museum, 3695. Photo,
to t u r n t o w a r d the w o m a n , the poses are frozen i n t o courtesy Kunsthistorisches Museum.
profile and near frontal v i e w s . T h e s i m p l e r c o m p o s i t i o n
and p a t t e r n - w o r k o n the b o d y c o u l d indicate that this
l e k y t h o s was painted before the other t w o . n o w u n o b t r u s i v e and busy. Possibly the best k n o w n e x
Stylistically the three b e l o n g to D o u r i s ' earlier (but ample o f D o u r i s ' early p e r i o d is the somewhat later cup
not "earliest") and most creative phase when his in Vienna 3 3
(fig. 4) w i t h an epic a r m i n g scene i n the
draughtsmanship can be v e r y d e t a i l e d . 31
The build o f tondo (Odysseus and N e o p t o l e m o s ) and the struggle
the frontal y o u t h o n the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s is s t o c k y and and vote for the a r m o r o f A c h i l l e s o n the exterior. P r o
his p r o p o r t i o n s recall those o f D o u r i s ' "earliest" figures. portions, r e n d e r i n g o f drapery and anatomy, and facial
T h e basic figure-type is reproduced several times o n the types are similar. T h e white l e k y t h o i probably date from
v e r y early a r m i n g cup i n V i e n n a (fig. 3 ) , 3 2
where the the b e g i n n i n g o f D o u r i s ' " e a r l y " phase. A l t h o u g h he
d i s p o s i t i o n o f the figures is s i m i l a r but there is c o n s i d e r c o n t i n u e d to decorate l e k y t h o i t h r o u g h his career, they
able overlapping. A l t h o u g h the draughtsmanship o f the were apparently r e d - f i g u r e . 34
Perhaps he was n o l o n g e r
M a l i b u l e k y t h o s is fine, that o f the cup is m o r e detailed; affiliated w i t h a w o r k s h o p that used the w h i t e slip, or
compare, for example, the system o f folds i n the skirts perhaps n o n e o f his later w h i t e - g r o u n d vases has yet
o f the w a r r i o r s ' chitons, m a d e f r o m an opaque material, been discovered; i n v i e w o f the large n u m b e r o f vases
not transparent as o n the l e k y t h o s . T h e heads o f the n o w k n o w n by h i m , the former seems m o r e probable.
figures are smaller i n p r o p o r t i o n to their bodies and the In a d d i t i o n to the three w h i t e l e k y t h o i at least one
expressive, but gawky, hands o f the earliest figures are white-ground cup 3 5
w i t h o u t l i n e figures has been as-

30. The first two letters o f a third inscription are preserved above 34. ARV 446-447.
2

the altarARpresumably A R T E M I S (Monumenti antichi della Reale Ac- 35. London, British M u s e u m , D 1, frr. ARV 429, no. 20; AWK, p.
2

cademia dei Lincei 32 [1927], p. 331). 56, no. 21 and pi. 16. The principal folds and patterns i n Europa's
31. ARV 425; Caskey and Beazley, pp. 17-18. B u i t r n ("Douris,"
2
chiton are black; the secondary fold lines are brown. The same brown
pp. 40, 5052) places the lekythoi i n a "transitional" period before paint delineates the principal superficial muscle o f her neck (Ster
"early middle." nocleidomastoid), the folds o f skin on the bull's shoulder, and the
32. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m , 3694, ARV 427, 2
muscles o f his forequarter. O n the exterior o f the cup there must have
no. 3; CVA Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m 1, pis. 910; Boardman been a great richness o f fine brown lines, judging from the details o f
(note 25), fig. 281. anatomy and drapery that have been preserved. Herakles' anatomy, for
33. Vienna, Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m , 3695, ARV 429, no. 26; 2
example, is rendered i n considerable detail, and the light brown lines
CVA Kunsthistorisches M u s e u m 1, pis. 1112; Boardman (note 25), on his body (whose principal features and outline are black) are bal
fig. 285. anced by a large number o f fine brown lines i n the pelt o f the lionskin.
124 Kurtz

Figure 5a. White lekythos attributed to the Timokrates/ Figure 5b. Left side of lekythos, figure 5a.
Vouni painters. Detail o f front. Malibu, The
J. Paul Getty Museum, 84.AE.745.

signed to D o u r i s . E x c e p t i o n a l l y , its t o n d o a n d exterior almost a l l w h i t e - g r o u n d vases k n o w n f r o m the years


are w h i t e - g r o u n d ; also exceptionally, t w o techniques around 500 38
are black-figure, o u t l i n e d w i t h areas o f
seem to have beena employed for the figure-decoration s o l i d black or dilute b r o w n , or a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the t w o
o u t l i n e , w i t h d i l u t e d glaze for i n n e r details and for p r i n c i p a l t e c h n i q u e s " s e m i - o u t l i n e . " A d d e d color, es
washes o n the exterior (as o n the l e k y t h o i ) , a n d o u t l i n e pecially red, can be p r o m i n e n t o n s e m i - o u t l i n e vases, 39

w i t h matt paint i n the tondo. M a t t paint was applied to and the c o m p o n e n t s o f the f o u r - c o l o r s c h e m e b l a c k ,
40

E u r o p a s h i m a t i o n , w h i c h is black w i t h added p u r p l i s h - w h i t e , red, and y e l l o w w e r e k n o w n to black-figure


red a n d w h i t e fold lines and patterns. G i v e n the frag painters. T h e application o f these colors to A t t i c w h i t e -
m e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n o f the cup, w e cannot exclude the g r o u n d vases seems not to have been c o m m o n before
p o s s i b i l i t y o f some matt paint o n the exterior. T h e a d d i the second quarter o f the fifth c e n t u r y 41
w h e n the w o r k
t i o n o f matt paint has been seen as an early feature, 36
and shop i n w h i c h the Pistoxenos P a i n t e r 42
was active, and
the c u p has been t h o u g h t to antedate the l e k y t h o i . Yet, 3 7
with w h i c h the aging Euphronios collaborated, ex-

White-ground cups: Beazley, AWL, pp. 4 - 5 ; MM A] 9 (1974), pp. (ARV^ 295, no. 1; AWK, p. 57, no. 25, pp. 81-82, and pi. 19.1-5),
91-108 (J. R. Mertens); AWG, pp. 155-194; AWK, pp. 49-97; RA, which has purple-red paint for headbands, like the Getty lekythos.
1972, pp. 233-242 (A. Waiblinger). 37. AWK, pp. 21 and 186 n. 10; Buitrn, "Douris," pp. 47 and 54. H .
Paris, Louvre, G 276 (ARV 428, no. 11; AWG, p. 164, no. 26) has a
2
Bloesch (Formen Attischer Schalen [Berne, 1940], pp. 137138) asso
white zone around a red-figure tondo. ciated the potterwork with that o f the white-ground cups from Eleusis
Mertens (MMAJ 9 [1974], p. 101) assigns another white-ground cup (ARV 314, no. 3 and 315, no. 4; AWK, p. 55, nos. 17-18; H . P h i l i p -
2

to Douris (Athens, Agora, P 43, ARV 1518; MMAJ 9 [1974], p. 102,


2
part, Les Coupes Attiques Fond Blanc [Brussels, 1936], pi. 13) whose
fig. 23) w h i c h Wehgartner (AWK, pp. 5354, no. 10) does not accept. figure-decoration is outlined i n glaze w i t h washes o f dilute paint.
B u i t r n ("Douris," pp. 216220) sees similarities to Douris, but leaves 38. Pioneer white-ground: MMAJ 9 (1974), pp. 96-97; JBerlMus 24
the cup unassigned. (1982), p. 33 (D. Williams).
36. A s Paris, Cabinet des Mdailles , 603, i n the manner o f Douris 39. ABL, pp. 111-112; Kurtz, AWL, pp. 105-107.
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 125

Figure 5c. Right side of lekythos, figure 5a. Figure 5d. Shoulder o f lekythos, figure 5a.

p l o r e d the p o t e n t i a l o f c o l o r o n w h i t e - g r o u n d , most black and matt red) and t w o lotus blossoms (base o u t
spectacularly i n the t o n d i o f cups. D o u r i s seems to have l i n e d , lateral buds black, m e d i a l ones red) l i n k e d b y s p i -
played no part i n these developments, w h i c h are i m p o r r a l i n g tendrils. T w o figures o n the b o d y (fig. 5a) framed
tant to o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f classical free-painting. by a r u n n i n g b r o k e n meander above and a stopped b r o
k e n meander alternating w i t h saltire squares below. T h e
TIMOKRATES A N D V O U N I PAINTERS L E K Y T H O S patterns are painted i n black. T h e m a n is o u t l i n e d i n
D e s c r i p t i o n (see figs. 5ad)Height: 35.6 c m ; m o u t h , black; details o f anatomy, drapery, and hair are black. H i s
handle, neck, l o w e r body, and h o r i z o n t a l surface o f foot headband, drapery folds, staff, and "fruit" are red. T h e
(rilled above) black. M o l d i n g s at the j o i n o f neck to o u t l i n e o f the fruit is b r o w n . T h i s b r o w n paint is used
shoulder decorated by an egg pattern 43
outlined i n black, for the o u t l i n e o f the w o m a n , and for details o f a n a t o m y
and b o d y to foot defined b y t h i n reserved lines. O n the and drapery o n the s e c o n d - w h i t e . 44
She wears a w h i t e
shoulder (fig. 5d) three palmettes (leaves alternately sakkos f r o m w h i c h l o n g strands o f l i g h t b r o w n hair

40. AWK, p. 17. (Kurtz, AWL, pi. 24), as did the Timokrates Painter and the Painter o f
41. Wehgartner's earliest white-ground cup with matt colors is Athens 1826 (ibid., pi. 25). The latter, and the Vouni Painter, are
Athens, Akropolis, 433 (Langlotz [note 17], pi. 34; AWK, p. 52, no. 5 among the first to use it on white-ground (ibid., pi. 26).
and p. 16). 44. AWK, p. 27 (glaze and matt paint). "Second-white": ABL,
42. ARV 2
859-863, nos. 1672-1673, 1703; Paralipomena, pp. 8891; Beazley; AWL, pp. 12, 14. B r o w n paint is also used on
p. 425; BAdd, p. 146; MMAJ 9 (1974), pp. 105-108 (Mertens); AWK, the white heron (fig. 5a). This means o f picking out details on white
pp. 87-92. was used throughout the fifth century; compare the rendering o f
43. The tongue pattern is replaced by the egg pattern. See Caskey Talos' body on the Talos Painter's name vase i n Ruvo, Museo Jatta 150,
and Beazley, p. 27 and above (note 4). ARV 2
1338, no. 1; E . Simon and M . Hirmer, Die griechischen Vasen
The Cleveland white lekythos has an egg-and-dart pattern. The (Munich, 1976), pis. 230-232.
Brygos and Pan painters used the pattern on their white lekythoi
126 Kurtz

emerge over the forehead and sides o f the cheeks. T h e but rarely w i t h m u c h o r i g i n a l i t y . 51
T h e s e scenes are
fold lines i n her w h i t e c h i t o n are also l i g h t b r o w n . She m o s t n u m e r o u s and m o s t stereotyped o n his early w h i t e
holds a black basket, its w i c k e r w o r k detailed i n w h i t e l e k y t h o i , w h i c h often bear kalos i n s c r i p t i o n s and r e g
and red paint. T h e r e are t w o w h i t e a r y b a l l o i i n the bas u l a r l y feature s e c o n d - w h i t e for the e x p o s e d flesh of
ket (details i n b r o w n ) and t w o black wreaths. R e d and w o m e n and for a selection o f details.
w h i t e fillets hang over the side o f the basket. Beneath it a T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a s e c o n d - w h i t e , w h i t e r than that o f
w h i t e heron (details i n brown) struts toward his mistress. the g r o u n d color, has been t h o u g h t to reflect b l a c k -
Added c o l o r is the most notable feature o f this figure p r a c t i c e . 52
T h e A c h i l l e s Painter decorated pan
l e k y t h o s , w h o s e a t t r i b u t i o n is less certain. I f the T i m o - athenaic p r i z e amphorae i n the o l d b l a c k - f i g u r e tech
krates 45
and V o u n i 4 6
painters are not one artist, their nique 53
and so w o u l d have been familiar with the
techniques a n d styles o f p a i n t i n g are v e r y s i m i l a r and c o n v e n t i o n o f a d d i n g w h i t e to the e x p o s e d female flesh.
related i n s o m e respects to those o f the Pistoxenos A n d d u r i n g part o f his career b l a c k - f i g u r e w o r k s h o p s
Painter. 47
B e a z l e y assigned n i n e vases to the T i m o k r a t e s were s t i l l actively p r o d u c i n g r e d - g r o u n d l e k y t h o i w i t h
Painter a n d three to the V o u n i Painter. A l l are w h i t e w h i t e female flesh. 54
If, however, the i n s p i r a t i o n for
l e k y t h o i . H e assigned n o w h i t e l e k y t h o i to the P i s t o s e c o n d - w h i t e came f r o m black-figure, it is hard to u n
xenos Painter, but placed some red-figure i n his m a n derstand w h y early w h i t e - g r o u n d vases w i t h black f i g
ner; 48
they are standard cylinders w i t h domestic scenes o f ures tend to leave e x p o s e d female flesh b l a c k . 55
It is also
w o m e n w i t h attendants or c h i l d r e n . O n e bears a kalos hard to understand w h y babies, regardless o f sex, can
i n s c r i p t i o n i n praise o f G l a u k o n . 4 9
have w h i t e flesh o n m i d - c e n t u r y w h i t e l e k y t h o i , 5 6
why
D u r i n g the s e c o n d quarter o f the fifth c e n t u r y there is nude women i n C l a s s i c a l red-figure can be white-
a significant n u m b e r o f large standard c y l i n d e r l e k y t h o i skinned, 57
w h y the H u g e L e k y t h o i 5 8
o f the very late fifth
w i t h scenes o f w o m e n and often kalos i n s c r i p t i o n s . c e n t u r y (whose technique o f p a i n t i n g seems nearest to
S o m e o f t h e m are red-figure. In the w o r k o f the A c h i l l e s that o f lost w a l l - p a i n t i n g ) can retain the w h i t e - s k i n c o n
Painter, for example, this type o f c o m p o s i t i o n seems to v e n t i o n , and w h y modest m i d - c e n t u r y w h i t e l e k y t h o i
emerge as his career develops but is c o n s p i c u o u s l y ab o f secondary shape, p r o b a b l y f r o m w o r k s h o p s also p r o
sent f r o m his earliest red-figure l e k y t h o i , w h i c h betray d u c i n g black-figure, abandon i t . 5 9
T h e answer to these
the influence o f the B e r l i n P a i n t e r . 50
The overwhelming questions m a y be that s e c o n d - w h i t e was n o t p r o m p t e d
m a j o r i t y o f these l e k y t h o i are, however, w h i t e ; the type b y black-figure conventions but b y those o f c o n t e m p o
becomes c l o s e l y associated w i t h the A c h i l l e s Painter rary p a i n t i n g o n panels and plaques. T h i s c o u l d e x p l a i n
w h o renders mistress and m a i d often w i t h great finesse its p e r p e t u a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the fifth c e n t u r y (and i n t o

45. ARV 743-744; Paralipomena, p. 521; BAdd, p. 139.


2
no. 118; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 35.1) assigned to the Achilles Painter.
46. ARV 744-745; Paralipomena, p. 413; BAdd, p. 139.
2
57. Compare, for example, the woman on a red-figure lekythos i n
47. ARV^ 578. Malibu (86.AE.250, Basel, M n z e n und Medaillen, Sale 34 [1967]), no.
48. ARV 864, nos. 13-14.
2
170. The exposed flesh o f scantily clothed female figures is also occa
49. Oxford, Ashmolean M u s e u m , 320, ARV 864, no. 13; CVA
2
sionally rendered i n white: Compare the girls dancing a pyrrhic on
Ashmolean M u s e u m 1, pi. 38.10. Cape Town 18 (ARV 677, no. 11; J. Boardman and M . Pope, Greek
2

50. ARV 993. 2


Vases in Cape Town [Cape Town, 1961], pi. 14) and on Naples Stg. 281
51. ARV 995-1001, no. 1677; Beazley, AWL, pp. 13-16; Kurtz,
2
(ARV 1045,
2
no. 9, Lycaon Painter).
AWL, pp. 41-47. 58. ARV 1390; Kurtz, AWL, pp. 72-73; A . Fairbanks, Athenian
2

52. Robertson, History (note 3), pp. 262-263. JbBerlMus 24 (1982), White Lekythoi, vol. 2 (New York, 1914), pp. 204-213.
pp. 3640 (Dyfri Williams sees the Brygos Painter as an innovator i n 59. The numerous lekythoi from the Tymbos workshop (ARV 2

the use o f second-white). 753-758, nos. 1668-1669, 1702; Paralipomena, p. 414; BAdd, p. 140) may
53. ABV 409, 696; Paralipomena, p. 377; AJA 47 (1943), serve as examples.
pp. 448-449 (Beazley). 60. AWK, pp. 33, 37-43.
54. ABL, pp. 69-191; Beazley, AWL, pp. 13-17. Beazley (ibid., 61. Beazley, AWL, p. 14.
p. 14): " . . . it is a little hard to understand the vogue o f this 'second 62. Agrigento, Museo Civico, no inv. no., ARV 1017, no. 53; 2

white': it nearly always looks like an accretion, so that the technique is AWK, p. 35, no. 5 and pi. 9.12. Vatican, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco,
never 'pure' as long as it is there. The fact is that it was probably 16586, ARV 1017, no. 54; AWK p. 36, no. 9, and pi. 5.
2

borrowed from free painting on panel or wall, where the white o f the 63. White female flesh: Athens, National M u s e u m , Akropolis
female flesh did not stand out unaccompanied, but was answered by Collection, 2584, 2585, 2587. ABV, 399, nos. 1, 1, 2. B . Graef, Die
the red-brown o f the male." antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1925), pi. 109.
55. Compare, for example, Nikosthenes' white oinochoai i n Paris Red male flesh: Athens, National M u s e u m , Akropolis Collection,
(Louvre F 117 and 116, ABV 230,1-2; AWK, pl. 1) and Psiax's white 1037, ARV 1598; Langlotz (note 17), pi. 80; B . C o h e n , Attic Bilingual
2

lekythos (Jameson collection, ABV293,11; AWG, pi. 3.1). Vases (New York, 1978), pp. 226-227.
56. Compare a lekythos i n Athens (National M u s e u m 12771, ARV 2
White women and dark men appear on a plaque i n Oxford at
742, no. 1; C l ^ 4 National M u s e u m , pi. 3.3 and 5) assigned to the tributed to Paseas (1984.1312, A . Greifenhagen, i n L . Bonfante and
Timokrates Painter and another, i n West B e r l i n (2443, ARV 995, 2
H . von Heintze, eds., In Memoriam Otto Brendel [1976], pp. 4348),
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 127

the fourth) and its a p p l i c a t i o n to a m b i t i o u s pieces, such those w i t h figures i n glaze o u t l i n e tend to have florals
as large l e k y t h o i a n d c a l y x - k r a t e r s . 60
It t o o k m u c h m o r e o u t l i n e d i n glaze paint, and those w i t h matt painted
t i m e and trouble to fill i n the o u t l i n e d female figure florals tend to have figures o u t l i n e d i n matt p a i n t . 64
Cyl-
w i t h w h i t e , and greater s k i l l is c o m p a t i b l e w i t h larger i n d r i c a l w h i t e l e k y t h o i o f standard shape usually have
vases. T h e p o o r r e p u t a t i o n o f s e c o n d - w h i t e lies h e a v i l y black necks and w h i t e shoulders; those o f secondary
w i t h the A c h i l l e s Painter w h o , early o n , was s i m p l y not shape usually have reserved necks and shoulders. S t a n -
v e r y g o o d at i t ; 61
his p u p i l , the P h i a l e Painter, d e m o n - dard c y l i n d e r s f r o m the second quarter o f the fifth c e n -
strated its p o t e n t i a l o n his c a l y x - k r a t e r s . 62
t u r y usually have three palmettes, l i n k e d b y tendrils;
P a i n t e d clay p l a q u e s 63
f r o m the years a r o u n d 500 es- those o f secondary shape have five (in the b l a c k - f i g u r e
tablish that women's exposed flesh c o u l d be painted manner) or three palmettes, or l i n k e d pendent lotus buds.
w h i t e , j u s t as that o f m e n c o u l d be painted r e d d i s h - Before these c o n v e n t i o n s were established, the s h o u l -
b r o w n . T h i s follows a l o n g and w i d e s p r e a d c o n v e n t i o n ders o f w h i t e l e k y t h o i o f standard shape displayed c o n -
i n the p a i n t i n g o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d o f d i s - siderable variety. D o u r i s ' and the Syriskos Painter's are
t i n g u i s h i n g the flesh tones o f the sexes. T h e d i s t i n c t i o n early and u n u s u a l l y elaborate examples. M a n y painters
m a y not have been v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h A t t i c painters o f preferred the black palmettes o f the black-figure t r a d i -
white vases because it took more time and trouble, but it tion, 6 5
but some adopted the design used for red-figure
is also l i k e l y that the red-figure c o n v e n t i o n , i n w h i c h l e k y t h o i : three l i n k e d palmettes w i t h lotus blossoms. A
the flesh tones o f the sexes are not d i s t i n g u i s h e d , i n f l u - few painters attempted to convert the red-figure design
enced t h e m greatly. T h e strength o f that c o n v e n t i o n to w h i t e - g r o u n d , p i c k i n g out alternate leaves o f the p a l -
c o u l d also e x p l a i n the absence o f s e c o n d - w h i t e f r o m the mettes and parts o f the b l o s s o m s w i t h red p a i n t . 66
Our
w h i t e t o n d i o f cups. second lekythos belongs to this distinctive group, whose
O n e o f the distinctive features o f the second G e t t y m e m b e r s e m p l o y s e c o n d - w h i t e for exposed female flesh
l e k y t h o s (fig. 5d) is the technique and style o f the s h o u l - and for a selection o f details. T h e s e w h i t e l e k y t h o i , and
der decoration. T w o o f D o u r i s ' w h i t e l e k y t h o i have e x - those w i t h red-figure s h o u l d e r s 67
(see fig. 8), are the
c e p t i o n a l l y elaborate floral designs executed i n the same m o s t c o l o r f u l d u r i n g the second quarter o f the fifth c e n -
black and dilute b r o w n paint as the figures o n the b o d y ; t u r y Figures and florals are usually o u t l i n e d i n black,
the t h i r d (fig. l e ) , adds figures to the floral design o n the not dilute b r o w n , and this makes them stand out p r o m i -
shoulder. G e n e r a l l y one technique is used for the d e c o - nently. These vases were painted i n the years around 460
r a t i o n o f b o t h shoulder and b o d y : b l a c k - f i g u r e w h i t e b y a few m e n w h o p r o b a b l y s o m e t i m e s sat i n the same
l e k y t h o i tend to have black florals ( w i t h o u t i n c i s i o n ) , workshopthe Painter o f A t h e n s 1826, 68
the Timo-

whose technique approximates red-figure. Colored couples appear on column with white architectural detail, and a black fillet with red and
another erotic plaque, w i t h light ground, i n Athens (National M u - white pattern-work hangs in the field. Stylistically the vase belongs
seum, Akropolis Collection, 1040, Langlotz [note 17], pi. 81). The rare near those by the Timokrates/Vouni painters.
occurrence o f pink female flesh is also known; compare a lekythos i n 68. ARV 745-747, no. 1668; Paralipomena, p. 413; BAdd, p. 139. A d d
2

Athens (1968, ARV 749, no. 9; A . Fairbanks, Athenian White Lekythoi,


2
the following white lekythoi:
vol. 1 [ N e w York, 1907], pp. 121-122). 1. Kurashiki, Ninagawa M u s e u m , 38.
64. Kurtz, AWL, pp. 33-74. E . Simon, The Kurashiki Ninagawa Museum (Mainz, 1982),
65. Ibid., pp. 13-17. p. 90, no. 18.
66. Ibid., pp. 26-29. White-ground shoulder. A woman holds a fillet and a man,
67. A s N e w York, Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t , 06.1021 (ARV 2
wearing a mantle and Corinthian helmet, holds a staff. C o m -
626, no. 2; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 27.4) and Brussels, Muses Royaux, A 1019 pare the drawing o f the woman w i t h the fillet with that o f
(ARV 652, no. 3; CI^4 Muses Royaux 1, pl. 2.5). The best k n o w n
2
another lekythos (with red-figure shoulder) once i n the Hirsch
examples are the Brygos Painter's i n Gela (Museo Civico, no inv. no., collection (ARV 746, no. 21).
2

ARV 2
385, no. 223; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 24.1) and the Pan Painter's i n 2. Zurich, Hirschmann collection, 40.
Leningrad (Museum o f the Hermitage H.670, ARV 557, no. 121; 2
H . Bloesch, Greek Vases from the Hirschmann Collection (Zurich,
Kurtz, AWL, pi. 24.2), Syracuse (Museo Nazionale 19900, ARV 557, 2
1982), pp. 82-83.
no. 122; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 24.3), and N e w York (Norbert Schimmel Black palmettes on reserved shoulder. Woman seated before a
collection 62). kalathos, holding a chest and a wreath. Compare the figure,
A n exceptionally large and unusually colorful white lekythos i n style o f drawing, and shoulder palmettes w i t h that o f another
London (British M u s e u m D 47, Kurtz, AWL, 27.3) reproduces the lekythos i n L o n d o n (British M u s e u m D 26, ARV 746, no. 3).
2

red-figure scheme i n outline on white-ground, with added red paint. O n 3. Palermo, M o r m i n o collection, 310.
the body there is an even sharper contrast between the white and black CVA M o r m i n o 1, pi. 6.13 (attribution: Genire).
than on the Getty lekythos. The better preserved o f the two women White-ground shoulder. Hermes leads a woman; a small
on L o n d o n D 47 wears a black himation w i t h red fold lines over a black psyche flies w i t h a fillet.
white chiton w i t h brown fold lines. She holds an oinochoe, reserved 4. Basel market ( M n z e n und Medaillen).
against the black o f her himation w i t h details added i n red, and a black AntK 16 (1973), pp. 146-147 and pi. 33.3-4 (attribution: H . A .
phiale with white and red decoration. She stands i n front o f a black Cahn).
128 Kurtz

Figure 6a. White lekythos attributed to the Vouni Figure 6b. Right side of lekythos, figure 6a.
Painter. Left side. N e w York, The M e t r o
politan M u s e u m o f A r t , 35.11.5, Alexander
M . B i n g Gift Fund, 1935. Photos, courtesy
The Metropolitan M u s e u m o f Art.

krates P a i n t e r , 69
and the V o u n i P a i n t e r . 70
T h e first t w o N o n e o f the l e k y t h o i assigned to the Timokrates
seem to have preferred red-figure shoulders, although Painter has overtly funerary iconography, yet the w o m e n
the Painter o f A t h e n s 1826 tried several designs on filling baskets or h o l d i n g sashes and w r e a t h s 72
may well
w h i t e - g r o u n d . H e also seems not to have been i n t e r be p r e p a r i n g to visit the grave, l i k e the w o m a n and b o y
ested i n kalos i n s c r i p t i o n s . T o m b s t o n e s are added to o n one o f the V o u n i Painter's l e k y t h o i i n N e w Y o r k
some scenes and objects k n o w n to have been used i n (figs. 6ab) 73
w h o stand beside a large m o u n d (tymbos)
funerary rites to others. L i k e their contemporary, the and t w o slender tombstones (stelai) h e a v i l y festooned
y o u n g A c h i l l e s Painter, they r e p r o d u c e d some scenes w i t h sashes and wreaths. T h e technique and style o f
w h o s e i c o n o g r a p h y is n o l o n g e r clear to us: T h e " a m p a i n t i n g are l i k e those o f the M a l i b u l e k y t h o s , as are
b i g u o u s " i c o n o g r a p h y o f the C l a s s i c a l w h i t e l e k y t h o s shape and p a t t e r n - w o r k . T h e d e c o r a t i o n o f b o t h vases
begins h e r e . 71
b o l d l y juxtaposes c o n t r a s t i n g colors; this is a feature

White-ground shoulder. Standing woman and seated woman 7. Whereabouts u n k n o w n to me; photographs i n the Beazley
w i t h a scroll. Writing-case suspended above. Black bird. Archive.
5. Beverly Hills, California, market (Summa Galleries) 2031. White-ground shoulder. Woman seated holding a chest and
White-ground shoulder. Woman w i t h fillet and man w i t h standing woman.
staff and fruit; between them a small black bird. 8. Whereabouts u n k n o w n to me; photograph i n the Beazley
6. Aachen, L u d w i g collection, 61. Archive.
E . Berger and R. Lullies, Antike Kunstwerke aus der Sammlung White-ground shoulder. M a n leaning on staff and woman
Ludwig, vol. 1 (Basel, 1979), p. 164 (attribution: E . Simon). w i t h fillet; lyre suspended i n the field.
White-ground shoulder. Woman w i t h phiale and j u g and N O T the Painter o f Athens 1826:
woman w i t h fillet. Once Northampton, Castle Ashby, 75, CVA Castle Ashby, pi.
Two Athenian White-ground Lekythoi 129

Figure 7. White lekythos attributed to the Painter o f Figure 8. White lekythos attributed to the Timokrates
Athens 1826. Front. Malibu, The J. Paul Painter. Front. Brussels, Muse s Royaux
Getty Museum, 86.AE.253. d'Art et d'Histoire, A 1020. Photo, A C L ,
Brussels.

c o m m o n to the T i m o k r a t e s and V o u n i painters. The spirit and style, represents the finer draughtsmanship,
Painter o f A t h e n s 1826, o n the other hand, makes less the M a l i b u (figs. 5ad) and N e w Y o r k (figs. 6ab)
use o f contrasting colors. T h i s is w e l l illustrated b y a n l e k y t h o i the less developed, m o r e A r c h a i c . T h e M a l i b u
other w h i t e l e k y t h o s i n M a l i b u (fig. 7 ) . 7 4
H e r e the dif w o m a n is not as fine as her sisters i n Brussels, but there
ference i n the p r o p o r t i o n s o f the figures is also revealed; can be little d o u b t that she is related to t h e m ; her pose,
those by the Painter o f A t h e n s 1826 l o o k c h i l d l i k e and features, hairstyle, and drapery are v e r y s i m i l a r . T h e
insubstantial, whereas those b y the Timokrates and basket that she holds is s i m i l a r to those h e l d b y w o m e n
V o u n i painters are tall and, at their best, statuesque, on two o f the Timokrates Painter's more modest
already " C l a s s i c a l , " l i k e those by the Pistoxenos Painter. l e k y t h o i at H a r v a r d and i n A t h e n s . 7 6
A n aryballos l i k e
T h e T i m o k r a t e s Painter's exquisite l e k y t h o s i n Brussels those i n her basket is suspended f r o m the t o m b o n the
(fig. 8 ) , 7 5
w h i c h comes close to the Pistoxenos Painter i n V o u n i Painter's l e k y t h o s i n N e w Y o r k , and the h e r o n

52.13 and p. 31. The ungainly style is similar but not identical to AWL, pi. 26.2.
that o f an unattributed white lekythos in London (D 21). 74. 86. AE.253 = ARV 746, no. 5 bis; Paralipomena, p. 1668.
2

69. ARV 743-744; Paralipomena, p. 413; BAdd, p. 139. Probably by


2
75. Muse s Royaux A 1020, ARV 743, no. 2; CVA M u s e Royaux,
2

the Timokrates Painter: Madison, Wisconsin, Elvehjem M u s e u m , pl. 2.4. The quality o f this lekythos may be compared w i t h that o f
E A C 70.2, Kurtz, AWL, pi. 25.3. Red-figure shoulder. Two women another, unpublished example i n a Cypriote private collec
w i t h baskets o f lekythoi and fillets. tion. M a r t i n Robertson and Jody M a x m i n brought this vase to my
70. ARV 744-745; Paralipomena, p. 413; BAdd, p. 139.
2
attention.
71. Beazley, AWL, pp. 7-26; Kurtz, AWL, pp. 197-226. 76. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University, Fogg A r t M u
72. See below (note 76). seum, 60.335, ARV 2
743, no. 4; CVA Robinson 1, pi. 39. Athens,
73. Metropolitan M u s e u m o f A r t 35.11.5, ARV 744, no. 1; Kurtz,
2
National M u s e u m , 1929, ARV 743, no. 5; Kurtz, AWL, pi. 26.2.
2
130 Kurtz

that stands b e t w e e n her and the y o u t h m a y be c o m p a r e d described as "near the T i m o k r a t e s Painter, s h o u l d e r -


w i t h the goose o n the t w o other l e k y t h o i . 7 7
The Malibu patterns like the V o u n i Painter's," 78
brings these t w o ar
y o u t h is less easily c o m p a r e d because there are few m e n tistic personalities closer together and raises the question
o n these l e k y t h o i . O f those preserved, he is m o s t l i k e o f their identity. S t y l i s t i c a l l y they stand s o m e w h a t apart
the N e w Y o r k y o u t h (fig. 6b): l o n g face, w i d e - o p e n eye, f r o m the Painter o f A t h e n s 1826, w h o s e d r a u g h t s m a n
h i g h and deep chest, flat back, large hands and feet. T h e ship is weaker but w h o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the A c h i l l e s
folds i n his black m a n t l e (fig. 5a) were p i c k e d out i n red, Painter seems stronger. T h e c h i e f i m p o r t a n c e o f these
and are n o w barely visible, but the s y s t e m o f renderings m i n o r painters is their r e l a t i o n to the f u l l y developed
is comparable to the N e w Y o r k youth's. C l a s s i c a l w h i t e l e k y t h o s o f w h i c h the A c h i l l e s Painter
The Malibu lekythos, like another that Beazley was the master.

Beazley Archive
Oxford

77. Meggen, Kppeli, ARV 744, no. 3; Kunstwerke der Antike ( L u


2
Griechisches Leben im Spiegel der Kunst (Mainz, 1959), pi. 35.1.
cerne, 1963), D 15. M i n z , ARV 745; R. Hampe and E . Simon,
2
78. Basel market ( M n z e n und Medaillen), ARV 744. 2
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual
Herbert Hoffmann

T h i s w r i t e r once m a d e the following overly dogmatic the possible f u n c t i o n and significance o f the artifacts
statement c o n c e r n i n g the m e a n i n g o f G r e e k r h y t a : "The I had assembled should have been singled out for
a n i m a l heads seem to have been selected for t h e i r s c u l p - special a p p r o v a l b y no less an authority than Gisela
tural and decorative qualities, rather than for any specific M . A . Richter. 2

cult associations." 1
Reflecting on the same artifacts m o r e t h a n t w o de-
My verdict of "no significance" reflected the neo- cades later, I n o w t h i n k that this verdict was premature
p o s i t i v i s t s t a n d p o i n t t h e n c u r r e n t i n B r i t i s h and Ameri- and, furthermore, that a p o s i t i o n that denies the pos-
can archaeology, and it was s y m p t o m a t i c o f the conserva- s i b i l i t y o f m e a n i n g to such a radical extent cannot p o s s i -
tive spirit t h e n p r e v a i l i n g i n the a c a d e m i c e s t a b l i s h m e n t b l y be m a i n t a i n e d . H a v i n g d o n e so m u c h basic research
that my refusal to venture a hypothesis concerning on this vase-shape i n the past, I should like to see

This article owes its inception to Franois Lissarrague, at whose Hoffmann 1966: H . Hoffmann, Tarentine Rhyta (Mainz am
insistence I reopened a file closed twenty years ago. I am indebted to Rhein, 1962).
Walter Burkert, Eva Keuls, Dieter Metzler, M a r i o n True, and Michael Hoffman 1977: H . Hoffmann, Sexual and Asexual Pursuit: A
Vickers for reading and criticizing an earlier draft o f the manuscript. I Structuralist Approach to Greek Vases. Occa-
should also like to thank Peter Herrmann for his epigraphic expertise sional Papers o f the Anthropological Institute
and Robert Koehl for sharing some o f his knowledge o f M i n o a n rhyta o f Great Britain and Ireland, no. 34 (1977).
w i t h me. M o s t o f the works referred to i n this article are illustrated i n Hoffmann 1980: H . Hoffmann, "Knotenpunkte: Z u r B e -
Hoffman, ARR, thus making their reproduction here superfluous. I deutungsstruktur griechischer Vasenbilder,"
w o u l d ask the reader kindly to have a copy o f that book at his elbow. Hephaistosl (1980), pp. 127ff, pis. 1-7.
Abbreviations Hoffmann 1983: H . Hoffmann, " H y b r i n Orthian Knodalon,"
Burkert 1977: W. Burkert, Griechische Religion der archaischen in D. Metzler, B . Otto, and C . Mueller-
und klassischen Epoche (Stuttgart, 1977). W i r t h , eds., Antidoron: Festschrift fr J.
Colloq. Lausanne: C. Brard, C . B r o n , and A . Pomari, eds., Thimme (Karlsruhe, 1983), pp. 61ff, 6.1-15.
Images et socit en Grce ancienne: L'ico- Kl. Pauly: K . Ziegler and W. Sontheimer, Der kleine
nographie comme mthode d'analyse, Colloque Pauly: Lexikon der Antike auf der Grundlage
Lausanne, 811 fvrier, 1984 (Lausanne, von Pauly's Realencyclopaedie der classischen Al-
1987). tertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1964).
Dodds 1951: E . R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational K r o n 1976: U . K r o n , Die zehn attischen Phylenheroen:
(Berkeley, 1951). Geschichte, Mythos, Kult und Darstellungen.
D r r i e 1972: H . Drrie, " D i e Wertung der Barbaren i m AM, 5. Beiheft(1976).
U r t e i l der Griechen: Knechtsnaturen? Oder Nilsson: M . P. Nilsson, Geschichte der griechischen Re-
Bewahrer und Knder heilbringender ligion. Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft,
Weisheit?", i n Antike und Universalgeschichte: vol. 5, no. 2. (Munich, 1941).
Festschrift fur H. E. Stier (Munster, 1972), pp. N o c k 1944: A . D. N o c k , " T h e C u l t o f Heroes," HThR
146ff. 37 (1944), pp. 142ff.
Fehr 1971: B. Fehr, Orientalische und griechische Gelage Rohde, Psyche: E . Rohde, Psyche: Seelencult und Unsterblich-
(Bonn, 1971). keitsglaube der Griechen (1894; Tubingen, 1974).
Gatz 1967: B. Gatz, "Weltalter, goldenes Zeitalter und Stengl 1895: P. Stengl, "Chthonischer und Totenkult," i n
sinnverwandte Vorstellungen," Spudasmata 16 Festschrift fr L. Friedldnder (Leipzig, 1895),
(1967), pp. 114ff pp. 414ff.
Gladigow 1974: B. Gladigow, "Jenseitsvorstellungen und Vickers-Impey-Allan: M . Vickers, O. Impey, and J. A l l a n , From
Kulturkritik," Zeitschrift fur Religion und Silver to Ceramic: The Potter's Debt to Metal-
Geistesgeschichte 26 (1974), pp. 289ff. work in the Graeco-Roman, Oriental and Islamic
Harrison, Proleg: J. Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Worlds {Oxford, 1986).
Religion (1903; N e w York, 1980). 1. Hoffman, ARR, p. 4.
Harrison, Themis: J. Harrison, Themis: A Study of the Social 2. Acadmie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Paris, Comptes
Origins of Greek Religion (1911; N e w York, Rendus (1963), p. 515 ("It is a relief to be told [p. 4] that . . . there
1963). probably was no special 'significance,' and that there is no convincing
Hoffmann, ARR: H . Hoffmann, Attic Red-figured Rhyta (Mainz evidence that the rhyta had 'any special ritual or apotropaic func-
am Rhein, 1962). tion.' "). Cf. also K . Schefold i n Erasmus 17 (1965), pp. 46f: "Gewiss
Hoffmann 1961: H . Hoffmann, " T h e Persian O r i g i n o f Attic hatten die Tierkpfe keine 'spezielle rituelle . . . Function,' wie auch
Rhyta," AntKA (1961), pp. 21ff, pis. 8-12. Richter befriedigt feststellt."
132 Hoffmann

Figure ta. Ram's-head rhyton w i t h inscription. Right Figure lb. Back view o f rhyton, figure l a .
side. Antikenmuseum Berlin, Staatliche
Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, F 4046.
Photos, Walter Steinkopf.

whether the m a t e r i a l evidence I collected can n o w be this object, w h i c h I d i d not discuss i n m y o r i g i n a l p u b


used as an i n f o r m a t i o n base f r o m w h i c h to examine l i c a t i o n , first made it clear to m e that m y earlier stand
some larger issues c o n c e r n i n g the semantic f u n c t i o n o f p o i n t h a d to be revised.
G r e e k vases. 3
T h e r h y t o n was found toward the end o f the last cen
T h e g o a l o f this i n q u i r y is therefore p r i m a r i l y m e t h tury i n a t o m b near Athens. T h e neat stoichedon graffito
o d o l o g i c a l : to explore h o w the shapes and i m a g e r y o f r u n n i n g i n t w o lines a r o u n d the base o f the vessel's
G r e e k vases m i g h t b y e m p l o y e d as a p r i m a r y source for b o w l reads as f o l l o w s : V E 0 A N T I A O * IMI HIEPO* ( E l e
the study o f G r e e k r e l i g i o n , and i n particular for the phantidos e i m i hieros). T h e spreading k a n t h a r o i d b o w l ,
r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ancient r i t u a l . 4
the ample r i b b o n handle, and the flaring kantharos foot
o f this r h y t o n are m a t c h e d by the c o r r e s p o n d i n g parts
THE INSCRIPTION O N T H E SABOUROFF R H Y T O N o f the head-vases b e l o n g i n g to Beazley's C l a s s G . It is 6

IN BERLIN fairly certain that the graffito was i n c i s e d s h o r t l y after


I shall b e g i n this essay by c o n s i d e r i n g the S a b o u r o f f the r h y t o n was made, s o m e t i m e d u r i n g the first h a l f o f
r h y t o n i n B e r l i n (figs, lab), since the i n s c r i p t i o n o n
5
the fifth c e n t u r y B . C . 7

3. See esp. Hoffmann 1980. scheint. So heben sich altere und j n g e r e Z g e gegenseitig etwas auf.
4. For a useful definition o f ritual, see J. H . M . Beattie, " O n Die 80er und 70er Jahre scheinen m i r am wahrscheinlichsten."
Understanding Ritual," i n B . R. Wilson, ed., Rationality (Evanston, 8. A . Kirchoff, CIA, suppl. vol. 1, p. 119 n. 492 .b

1970), pp. 240ff. 9. P. Kretschmer, Die griechischen Vaseninschriften ihrer Sprache


5. Hoffman, ARR, no. 1. nach untersucht (Hildesheim, 1894), p. 4 n. 5.
6. ARV , 1533ff.
2
10. I owe the reading to Walter Burkert, who takes Wpos to be i n
7. Peter Herrmann kindly communicates the following informa reference to the ritual function o f the rhyton ("Die Weihfunktion ist
tion: " N a c h meinem Eindruck drfte die Schrift des Rhyton ziemlich ausdriiklich angesprochen.") Peter Herrmann writes, "Dass leps auf
sicher i m ersten Drittel des 5. Jhdts. unterzubringen sein. Etwas alter- Kpis geht, w r d e ich auch annehmen." Eva Keuls, w h o m I also con
tmlicher w i r k t das A mit dem schrg angesetzten Strich und w o h l sulted, would see Kpis as referring to the male writer o f the graffito.
auch das dreistrichige Sigma, w  h r e n d das N eher etwas jiinger wirkt, It would then mean "follower" or "sacred attendant."
da es nicht mehr die altere Schrgstellung der rechten Haste zu haben 11. AJA 2 (1898), pp. 228f.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 133

A s for the m e a n i n g o f the i n s c r i p t i o n , K i r c h o f f and telesterion, or m y s t e r y h a l l D e m e t e r was "revealed."


K r e t s c h m e r were b o t h certain that the female genitive Although Richardson's "Elephantis-Demeter" was
form Elephantidos referred to a dead w o m a n : "Puto adopted by F u r t w n g l e r i n his catalogue o f the S a b o u -
t a m e n v a s c u l u m significare m u l i e r i defunctae, cui E l e - r o f f c o l l e c t i o n , she has not w i t h s t o o d the test o f t i m e .
12

p h a n t i d i n o m e n erat. D o n o d a t a m et sepulcro eius i l l a - O n e finds n o m e n t i o n o f her i n the m o d e r n scholarly


t u m esse" ( K i r c h o f f ) . 8
literature o n D e m e t e r and her E l e u s i n i a n c u l t . 13
The
K r e t s c h m e r ' s verdict, " E l e p h a n t i s ist s c h w e r l i c h der graffito i n s c r i p t i o n o n the r h y t o n can, I t h i n k , best be
N a m e e i n r G t t i n , v i e l m e h r einer V e r s t o r b e n e n , " 9
al- translated as " I b e l o n g to (in the sense o f " I a m the
l o w s one to infer that he h a d first consideredbut then sacred p r o p e r t y o f " ) E l e p h a n t i s , " the name E l e p h a n t i s
rejectedthe p o s s i b i l i t y o f 'EXecJxxvTioos referring to b e i n g w e l l attested for m o r t a l w o m e n . 1 4
T h e masculine
the n a m e o f a goddess i n the m a n n e r o f an epithet, n o m i n a t i v e f o r m l e p s m u s t refer to the ritual f u n c t i o n
perhaps o n account o f the a c c o m p a n y i n g lepos (sacred). o f the KpLs, or r a m , i.e., to the r h y t o n i t s e l f o n w h i c h
O n e wonders w h y neither scholar considered the pos- the i n s c r i p t i o n o c c u r s . 15

sibility o f reading Elephantidos as a reference to a heroine. T h e picture that n o w emerges is that E l e p h a n t i s was
C a n nineteenth-century prejudice concerning heroization an o r d i n a r y t h o u g h p r o b a b l y u n u s u a l w o m a n who
o f w o m e n have m a d e the o b v i o u s seem the m o s t u n - d i e d i n or near A t h e n s i n the first h a l f o f the fifth c e n -
l i k e l y ? Faced by the choice between an i m p r o b a b l e g o d - t u r y B . c . and was accorded heroic h o n o r s by her f a m i l y
dess and a distasteful heroine, K i r c h o f f and K r e t s c h m e r or c o m m u n i t y . 1 6

seem to have opted for an u n p r o b l e m a t i c " d e a d w o m a n " In the f o l l o w i n g I shall refer to the r h y t o n o f E l e -
and altogether to have s k i r t e d the issue o f hieroswhich phantis not as the cornerstone o f a "case" or theory but
w o u l d seem to m e a n "sacred p r o p e r t y . " 10
as the p o i n t o f departure for a h i s t o r i c a l l y oriented i n -
Kirchoff's and Kretschmer's reluctance to i n v o l v e vestigation i n t o the possible connotations, or levels o f
themselves i n u n s e e m l y controversy left the semantic m e a n i n g , attached to the r h y t o n shape. I f i n the e n d m y
p r o b l e m posed by the S a b o u r o f f r h y t o n s graffito u n r e - m o r e general i n q u i r y w i l l also p e r m i t this v e r y interest-
solved, and i n 1894the year i n w h i c h E r w i n R o h d e i n g d o c u m e n t to be considered i n a n e w light, m y p u r -
p u b l i s h e d his e p o c h - m a k i n g w o r k o n the G r e e k hero pose w i l l have been served.
cult, Psyche: Seelencult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der
Griechenan A m e r i c a n epigrapher and classicist, R . B . THEOPHRASTOS A N D JANE HARRISON
R i c h a r d s o n , p u b l i s h e d a learned but farfetched paper i n O N RHYTA
w h i c h he rejected the G e r m a n scholars' translations I have suggested that the existence o f a factual (i.e.,
p r i m a r i l y o n account o f the obstinate hierosand of- n o n m y t h o l o g i c a l ) A t h e n i a n " h e r o i n e " at the b e g i n n i n g
fered a s o l u t i o n o f his o w n . 1 1
R i c h a r d s o n translated the o f the C l a s s i c a l p e r i o d o f G r e e k h i s t o r y m a y have been
female genitive Elephantidos as referring to a "goddess o f anathema to V i c t o r i a n classicists. T h e r e is n o place for
E l e p h a n t i s , " m e a n i n g the i s l a n d b e l o w the first N i l e cat- E l e p h a n t i s i n E r w i n Rohde's Psyche. 11
L e t us, therefore,
aract, and then proceeded to equate this p r e s u m e d g o d - re-examine the r h y t o n as a vehicle o f m e a n i n g , p a y i n g
dess w i t h the E l e u s i n i a n D e m e t e r v i a an ingenious particular attention to the possible connotations o f the
exercise i n art-historical sleight o f hand. Richardson shape as a dead person's "sacred property." T h i s b r i n g s
l i n k e d the r a m g o d K h n u m , the tutelary d i v i n i t y o f to m i n d t w o references to rhyta i n A t h e n a e u s ' Deip-
E g y p t i a n E l e p h a n t i s , w i t h the ram's-head shape o f the nosophistae, 9.461a, 497e, and the extensive d i s c u s s i o n o f
rhyton, and t h r o u g h a further leap o f a s s o c i a t i o n 461a by Jane H a r r i s o n i n her Prolegomena to the Study of
n a m e l y to the marble r a m p r o t o m e s o f the E l e u s i n i a n Greek Religion, and again i n Themis. 18
T h e banqueters are

12. A . Furtwngler, Sammlung Sabouroff (Berlin, 18831887), text 15. The evidence for rhyta having been called by the names o f the
to pi. 70; idem, Beschreibung der Vasensammlung (Berlin, 1885), p. 1027, animals they represent is given i n Hoffmann 1961, n. 46.
no. 4046. 16. It is remarkable that the cults o f heroines are largely ignored
13. See now D. Lauenstein, Die Mysterien von Eleusis (Stuttgart, in the vast scholarly literature on Greek hero cult. The locus classicus
1987). for heroines is still Harrison, Proleg., pp. 322ff. Cf. ibid., pp. 106f. (on
14. F. Bechtel, Die historischen Personennamen des Griechischen ( G t - Charila) and M . R. Lefkowitz, Heroines and Hysterics (1981), ch. 1. For
tingen, 1917), p. 581; idem, Namensstudien (Gttingen, 1917), p. 21. some inscriptional instances see LSJ, s. v. 'fipooLvn and TJpws II. Walter
Peter Herrmann calls my attention to the inscription EXec^avTLOos Burkert calls my attention to the heroization o f Kyniska, an O l y m p i c
\xi on a ring from Ialysos: CIRh 3, p. 60, fig. 51. Cf. also below (notes victor, at the end o f the fifth century B.C.: Paus. 111.15,1.
214, 216), and M . J. M i l n e i n Hoffman 1961, n. 7. Examples o f Ele- 17. This standard work on the Greek hero cult contains no refer-
phantis as a nominative proper name are being computerized on a ence to female heroization.
regional basis by P. M . Fraser o f A l l Souls College, Oxford. 18. Harrison, Proleg., p. 447; Harrison, Themis, pp. 310ff and 311 n. 2.
134 Hoffmann

d i s c u s s i n g G r e e k versus barbarian d r i n k i n g customs, hero cult w i t h the w o r s h i p o f D i o n y s o s as g o d o f the


and i n particular, w i n e cups. O n e o f t h e m points out dead, a v i e w that has attracted increasing support i n
that the Greeks, b e i n g moderate i n a l l things, d r i n k recent y e a r s . 24

w i n e m i x e d w i t h water f r o m s m a l l cups, whereas the A s to w h y E l e p h a n t i s s h o u l d have been b u r i e d w i t h a


barbarians, w h o " r u s h eagerly to excess i n w i n e , " d r i n k s y m p o t i c utensil designated by i n s c r i p t i o n as her sacred
u n d i l u t e d w i n e f r o m large-size vessels. property: it is apparent f r o m the p r e c e d i n g that no o r d i
Athenaeus cites Chamaeleon's Trepl |x6T]s, th e lost nary d r i n k i n g vessel, or reference to an o r d i n a r y s y m
Treatise on Drunkenness, i n support o f this v i e w : " I n the posium, can have been intended. As symbol, or
various parts o f Greece n o w h e r e shall w e find, either i n attribute, b o t h o f heroes and o f D i o n y s o s , the r h y t o n
p a i n t i n g s or i n h i s t o r i c a l records, any large-sized cup p r o c l a i m e d the fusion o f m o r t a l and d i v i n i t y . It was E l e
except those used i n hero ceremonies. F o r example, they phantis' Seelengerat, 25
or pledge o f i m m o r t a l i t y .
use the cup called r h y t o n o n l y w i t h reference to he
roes." 19
In the e n s u i n g passage he says that the cups o f R H Y T A A N D K A N T H A R O I AS S Y M B O L S
heroes are large l i k e those o f barbarians because heroes OF H E R O I C STATUS
are " o f difficult temper and dangerous habits." 20
At I have stressed the k a n t h a r o i d aspect o f the S a b o u r o f f
497e, Theophrastos, w h o was a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f C h a - r h y t o n : spreading b o w l , r i b b o n handle, flaring foot. T h e
m a e l e o n and seems also to have w r i t t e n a b o o k o n close m o r p h o l o g i c a l affinity between r h y t a and k a n -
drunkenness, 21
is quoted as saying m u c h the same t h i n g . 22
tharoi was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d by Beazley, w h o referred to
A t h e n a e u s ' reference to rhyta was o f p a r a m o u n t i m certain A t t i c rhyta as " o n e - h a n d l e d k a n t h a r o i . " 26

portance to M i s s H a r r i s o n i n a s m u c h as it seemed to An example o f a r h y t o n and a kantharos actually


support her thesis that t o w a r d the e n d o f the A r c h a i c being fused i n a single vessel is the curious black-figured
p e r i o d local hero cults fused w i t h the cult o f T h r a c i a n donkey's-head vase in the British Museum (figs.
Dionysos. In a chapter entitled " T h e M a k i n g of a 2ab), 27
w h i c h m a y be the earliest A t t i c vase that can be
God" 2 3
she points out that b o t h dead persons ("heroes") termed a r h y t o n . Several early fifth-century r h y t a have
and D i o n y s o s are represented h o l d i n g rhyta o n v o t i v e the t w i n handles o f a kantharos but dispense w i t h the
and funerary reliefs. T h e reason she gives is that d r i n k kantharos foot and stem and thus m o r e closely a p p r o x i
i n g f r o m rhyta was considered to be a characteristic o f mate rhyta o f standard shape. T h e s e are the h o u n d ' s
n o r t h e r n barbarians. T h e r h y t o n shape therefore sig heads decorated b y the B r y g o s Painter, w h i c h exist i n
naled Dionysos' T h r a c i a n a n d thereby barbarian several examples (fig. 3 ) , 2 8
and about w h i c h m o r e w i l l
aspect w h i l e at the same t i m e p r o c l a i m i n g the d a i m o n i c be said later o n , and a ram's head i n H a m b u r g m a d e by
aspect o f the hero (dead person) as a banqueter. Miss the potter Sotades and decorated by the Sotades Painter
Harrison furthermore linked the Classical Greek (fig. 4). 2 9
B o t h s t e m m e d and u n s t e m m e d examples,

19. Cf. C . B . Gulick, Athenaeus'' "Deipnosophistae," vol. 5 (1933), when he writes, " T h e rhyton often contained fruits w h i c h were ap
pp. 9ff. The last sentence has been translated by Gulick: "For they propriate offerings to heroes. For the gods on other cups, especially
assigned the cup called rhyton only to the heroes." The passage makes the phiale, were used." I note that E . Buschor i n his " K r o k o d i l
better sense i f we translate the verb aiToo8)|jioa not as "to render" but de Sotades," Mnchener Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 11 (1919), p. 29,
as "to use w i t h reference to." The hitherto vague and seemingly point must likewise have misread this passage, leading h i m to condemn it
less declaration becomes meaningful as a concrete reference to the use a "unglaublich."
o f rhyta i n heroic banquets. 23. Harrison, Proleg., pp. 322ff.
20. Cf. Gulick (note 19), p. 11. This passage is o f particular interest 24. Cf. for example F. K o l b , Agora und Theater, Volks- und Festver-
for the problem o f the so-called Herakliot cups, which it explains. sammlung, Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Archologische For-
Athenaeus refers to Herakliot cups at XI.782b (a skyphos Herakleotikos, schungen, vol. 9 (Athens, 1981), pp. 58, 70ff.
by M y s ) and XI.500a (some skyphoi called Herakliotikoiexplained i n 25. See E . F. Bruck, Totenteil und Seelgert im griechischen Recht
Gulick's footnote: " F o r the adjective 'Heracleotic' apparently used o f (Munich, 1926)
anything very large, cf. Athen. 153c paraskeue Herakliotike'). This, I 26. E.g., ARV 1551, no. 21.
2

think, probably accounts for such monumental Attic drinking cups as 27. J. Boardman, Athenian Black Figure Vases (London, 1974), fig.
the Penthesilea Painter's Theseus kylix, w h i c h are improbable for ac 321. N o w to be published i n detail for the first time i n M . True, Pre-
tual wine consumption, and also for the outsize bucchero kantharoi Sotadean Red-Figure Statuette Vases and Related Vases with Relief Decora
and kyathoi c o m m o n i n fifth-century Etruscan burials. O n the prob tion (forthcoming).
lem o f the outsize phiale decorated by Douris, recently acquired by the 28. Hoffman, ARR, nos. 8-9, pl. 2.3-4; M . True, " N e w Vases by
J. Paul Getty M u s e u m , see M . Robertson (forthcoming). the Brygos Painter and H i s Circle i n M a l i b u . " Greek Vases in the J. Paul
21. Kl. Pauly, s. v. Chamaeleon, Theophrastos. Getty Museum 1. Occasional Papers on Antiquities, vol. 1 (Malibu,
22. Theophrastos d'en toi peri Methes to rhyton phesin onomazomenon 1983), pp. 73ff, figs. 9-14.
poterion tois herosi monois apodidosthai. Gulick (note 19), p. 220, i n his 29. W. Hornbostel, Jahrbuch der Hamburger Museen 23 (1978),
critical commentary on the passage seems to follow Harrison, Proleg., pp. 210ff, 3 figs.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 135

Figure 2a. Donkey's-head kantharos-rhyton. Front. Figure 2b. Back o f kantharos-rhyton, figure 2a.
London, British Museum, B 378. Photos,
courtesy Trustees o f the British Museum.

Figure 3. Hound's-head rhyton by the Brygos Painter. Figure 4. Rams-head kantharos-rhyton by the potter So-
Left side. Rome, Museo di V i l l a Giulia, 687. tades. Front. Hamburg, Museum fir Kunst und
Photo, author. Gewerbe, 1977.220. Photo, D. Widmer, Basel.
136 Hoffmann

Figure 5a. Bull's-head kantharos-rhyton from Apulia. Figure 5b. Back o f kantharos-rhyton, figure 5a.
Front. Swiss private collection. Photos, D.
Widmer, Basel.

Figure 6. Late Helladic hound's-head rhyton. Right side. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum,
AE.298. Photo, courtesy Ashmolean Museum.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 137

with single a n d d o u b l e handles, exist i n considerable the ancestors, a n d the l i v i n g g e n e r a t i o n . 34


Throughout
n u m b e r s t h r o u g h o u t the fifth century, a n d the t y p e c o n a n t i q u i t y the dead w e r e t h o u g h t o f as d i n i n g w i t h the
tinues i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y i n S o u t h Italy (figs. 5ab). 30
gods a n d heroes, a n d w h e n the s y m p o s i u m o f the l i v i n g
T h e symbiosis o f rhyta and kantharoi illustrated by h a d , i n the fifth century, b e c o m e essentially a d i n n e r
examples s u c h as these suggests that the two shapes party, the s y m p o s i u m o f the dead, o r perideipnon 35
pre
must have a c o m m o n o r i g i n i n ritual tradition, as can, i n served the o r i g i n a l m e d i a t i n g f u n c t i o n o f the banquet as
fact, be s h o w n to have been the case. G r e e k r h y t a have u n i t i n g the l i v i n g w i t h the gods, the heroes, a n d the
prototypes i n precious metal, stone, and clay d a t i n g dead. R h y t a a n d k a n t h a r o i thus came to s y m b o l i z e the
b a c k m o r e t h a n a t h o u s a n d years, n a m e l y the a n i m a l - c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t w o worlds.
head r h y t a f r o m K n o s s o s , T i r y n s , E n k o m i , and other
M i n o a n and E a r l y H e l l a d i c sites (fig. 6 ) . 3 1
T h e origins o f R H Y T A A N D PERSIANS
G r e e k kantharoi can l i k e w i s e be traced to M i n o a n Crete, One p r o b l e m remains to be c o n s i d e r e d . In 1961 I
E a r l y H e l l a d i c Mycenae, and T r o y . 3 2
T h e c o m m o n de p o i n t e d to the n u m e r o u s f o r m a l a n d s t y l i s t i c c o r r e s p o n
n o m i n a t o r o f m e a n i n g b e t w e e n r h y t a a n d k a n t h a r o i , as dences b e t w e e n G r e e k a n d Persian r h y t a a n d i n t e r p r e t e d
w e l l as the reason for the conservative l o n g e v i t y o f b o t h the s u d d e n appearance o f A t h e n i a n r h y t a at the e n d o f
shapes, resides i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n . B o t h shapes the A r c h a i c p e r i o d as another m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f " P e r s i a n -
are c o m m u n a l b a n q u e t i n g utensils that w e r e e m p l o y e d ism," the a d o p t i o n o f Persian ways such as fashions o f
i n the b a n q u e t i n g a n d l i b a t i o n a l rites o f the M i n o a n s dress, artistic c o n v e n t i o n s , and s y m p o t i c c u s t o m s , i n
and Mycenaeans. 33
In h i s t o r i c t i m e s b o t h shapes e v o k e d cluding d r i n k i n g paraphernalia. 36
T h e p r o b l e m , then, is
the t r i b a l aspect o f f o r m e r table f e l l o w s h i p , w h i c h was w h e t h e r m y earlier t h e o r y o f " P e r s i a n i n s p i r a t i o n " can
the o r i g i n a l and f u n d a m e n t a l sacrificial rite, w h o s e pri be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h the theory o f "Early Helladic re
m a r y p u r p o s e was to establish l i n k s b e t w e e n the gods, v i v a l " as set f o r t h i n the present paper? T h e answer is

30. Swiss private collection. I am beholden to Herbert A . Cahn for a great number o f eating and drinking vessels, and the way they were
photographs. Cf. also Hoffmann 1966, no. 42, pi. 8 and no. 517, pi. 59; stored, can only be explained i f the building i n which they were found
J. R. Green and B . Rawson, Antiquities: A Description of the Classics was used for cultic celebrations such as banqueting. G . Cadogan, f i
Department Museum in the Australian National University, Canberra (Can nally, emphasized that we are i n danger o f projecting our secular point
berra, 1981), p. 61, no. 65.33 (bull's-head kantharos-rhyton, part o f the of view back onto ancient society. Note i n this connection that Linear
tomb group discussed on pp. 49ff). T h e equivalency o f meaning be A tablets found i n the M i n o a n archive at Hagia Triada specify the
tween rhyta and kantharoi i n fourth-century Tarentum is illustrated by quantity o f obligatory libations to be poured from animal-head rhyta,
the scene on the bowl o f Hoffmann 1966, no. 309, pi. 35.34, the which seem to have guaranteed the surivival o f the dead i n a magical
boar's-head rhyton i n Oxford. See also the discussion o f this vase manner, recalling similar ritual practices i n ancient Egypt: E . G r u -
given i n R. Hurschmann, Symposienszenen auf unteritalischen Vasen mach, "Tierkopfrhyta i n den Tontfelchen von Hagia Triada," i n C .
(Hamburg, 1985), pp. 118f, pi. 17.1. Doumas, d., Festschrift A. K. Orlandos (Athens, 1966), pp. 388ff. C f .
31. J. D e M o t , RA, 1904, pp. 201ff.; G . Karo, Jdl 26 (1911), pp. also Doumas (note 31).
249ff, pis. 79; C . Doumas, " A Mycenaean Rhyton from Naxos," 34. O n the sacral aspect o f banqueting, see now D. Metzler, " S y m
A A, 1968, pp. 374ff, figs. 1-19, with bibliography on the Late Helladic posium," i n K . Sthler, ed., Griechische Vasen aus westfdlischen Samm-
dog's-head rhyton illustrated here i n figure 6. I w i s h to thank A n n lungen (Munster, 1984), pp. lOOff, w i t h recent literature on
B r o w n and Helen Kempshall for the photograph. See also below p. 102. The idea I am stressing owes ultimately to Fustel de Coulanges,
(notes 34, 181). La Cit antique (Paris, 1864): " C o m m u n i t y was a religion; the meal
32. Kantharoi have a long history i n the early Aegean, and gold consumed together was its symbolic expression" (author's transi.). C f .
and silver as well as pottery examples exist from second-millennium also I. Scheibler's relevant remarks on the kantharos shape i n
sites. See L . Asche-Frey, " D e r Kantharos. Studien zur F o r m und B e - Griechische Tpferkunst (Munich, 1983), p. 38, as well as John Board-
deutung v o n den Anfngen bis z um Ende der Geometrischen Z e i t " man's discussion o f the karchesion o f Herakles: " T h e Karchesion o f
(Ph.D. diss., University o f M a i n z , 1956). C f . also O. W. Muscarella, Herakles," JHS 99 (1979), pp. 149-151. Cf. also T. Carpenter, Dionysian
Ancient Art: The Norbert Schimmel Collection (New York, 1974), no. 2 Imagery in Archaic Greek Art (Oxford, 1986), p. 126.
(with references to related finds i n the bibliography) and the following 35. The perideipnon, or meal at the tomb, took place immediately
unpublished examples on exhibition at the Metropolitan M u s e u m i n after the funeral, as was common i n many parts o f Europe until recent
N e w York: 1907.07.286.126 (miniature gold kantharos, "said to be from times. In addition, commemorative meals for the deceased were given
Thebes") and 1907.07.286.128a-b ("Greek," circa 1500-1400 B.C.). on the third and ninth day after the burial and, i n Athens, again on the
33. A n international symposium on Bronze A g e sanctuaries and thirtieth. The fullest discussion is given by R. N . Thnges-Stringaris,
cults, held at the Swedish Institute i n Athens i n 1980, brought to light "Das griechische Totenmahl," AM 80 (1965), pp. 64ff, and nr. 92ff.
disagreement on the question o f how archaeological finds (in this case Cf. also Burkert 1977, p. 297; K . M e u l i , Gesammelte Schriften, vol. 2
rhyta) are to be interpreted. The minutes o f this debate are o n record (Basel, 1975), pp. 922ff; Nilsson, pp. 165ff. A diverging view o f the
on pp. 187ff. o f R. B . K o e h l , " T h e Function o f Aegean Bronze A g e perideipnon is given i n D . C . Kurtz and J. Boardman, Greek Burial
Rhyta," i n R. H gg and N . Marinatos, eds., Sanctuaries and Cults in the Customs (London, 1971), p. 146.
Aegean Bronze Age (Lund, 1981), pp. 179ff, figs. 1-7. Whereas K o e h l 36. Hoffmann 1961; see D. B . Thompson, " T h e Persian Spoils i n
argued for the practical use o f rhyta, such as using them to fill large Athens," i n S. Weinberg, ed., The Aegean and the Near East: Festschrift
vessels, N . Platon stressed the exclusively cultic purpose o f many exca Hetty Goldman (1956), pp. 281ff.
vated examples. G . Sflund pointed out that at Akrotiri the presence o f
138 Hoffmann

that it can, readily, p r o v i d e d w e are w i l l i n g to revise o u r 479, this eastern i m a g e h a d c o m e to express the general,
prejudicial v i e w o f the G r a e c o - P e r s i a n encounter. middle-class conception o f apotheosis. T h e heroic ances-
H e r e again M i s s H a r r i s o n s u n c o n v e n t i o n a l and l u c i d torsand indeed the dead i n generalwere envisaged as
t h i n k i n g points the d i r e c t i o n . It was she w h o first d i s - p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a Persian-style "eternal s y m p o s i u m . " 4 1

cerned that the G r e e k s regarded their Persian e n e m y not T h i s aspiration to " M e d i a n l u x u r y " i n the b e y o n d is, as
s i m p l y as despised and effeminate barbariansa view m i g h t be expected, reflected i n the i c o n o g r a p h y o f A t t i c
s t i l l h e l d by m a n y scholars todaybut realistically (and vase-painting. H e r a k l e s i n particular, that m o s t barbar-
paradoxically) as the e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y supe- ian o f G r e e k heroes, w h o , l i k e the Persians, transgressed
r i o r p o w e r the M e d i a n E m p i r e i n fact was; this unbiased all l i m i t s and c o m m i t t e d those boundless and h u b r i s t i c
perspective o f Persia can be f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t her p u b - acts that for the Greeks were a b o m i n a b l e except w h e n
lished w r i t i n g s . B y the fifth century B . c . , m a n y A t h e - perpetrated b y gods or heroes, p r o v i d e d the p a r a d i g m .
nians, particularly those o f the aristocracy, viewed T h e iconographie scheme for representing his apotheosis
Persia as the v e r y apex o f l u x u r y and superior c i v i l i z a - the hero r e c l i n i n g o n a b a n q u e t i n g c o u c h set u n d e r a
t i o n . In fact at the same t i m e that A t h e n i a n assemblies grape bowerreproduces the well-known Iranian
were o s t r a c i z i n g citizens for " M e d i z i n g , " the Delian scheme for d e p i c t i n g the Great K i n g as a " r o y a l d r u n k -
League was c o n s c i o u s l y and deliberately c o p y i n g the a r d " at his G a r d e n Feast. 42
T h e same ancient Iranian
Perisan E m p i r e . 3 7
b a n q u e t i n g i c o n o g r a p h y is used for D i o n y s o s and other
T h e p r e v a i l i n g G r e e k attitude t o w a r d the Persian e n - heroes and d i v i n i t i e s , as w e l l as for the (heroized) m o r -
43

emy, then, can be fairly characterized as ambivalent: hat- tal departed, w h o are s i m i l a r l y characterized as "eternal
i n g and d e s p i s i n g o n the one hand, awestruck and banqueters" and thereby placed o n the same ideational
v e n e r a t i n g o n the o t h e r . 38
T h e Great K i n g , i n particular, plane as the heroes and the gods. T h e r h y t a these figures
i m m e n s e , fierce, and remote, was envisaged as a super- often h o l d are frequently o f d i s t i n c t l y Persian or per-
natural b e i n g "capable o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g . " 39
sianizing types. 44

From this perspective it n o w becomes clear why To return, thus, to the q u e s t i o n posed at the outset:
G r e e k eschatologythe c u l t u r a l l y shared fantasy o f the w e can c o n c l u d e that w h e n r h y t a were deposited i n
Hereaftershould have been so exotic and orientalin a fifth-century A t h e n i a n burials to signal "hero," their
w o r d , so Persian. A s p o i n t e d out by A l f l d i and de- i c o n o l o g y t h e associative and semantic f r a m e w o r k that
veloped by Fehr, 40
the G a r d e n Feast o f the Great K i n g gave rise to their c r e a t i o n d r e w b o t h o n the distant
the ancient A c h a e m e n i a n s y m b o l for u n i v e r s a l p o w e r past and o n the c o n t e m p o r a r y present.
and w o r l d d o m i n i o n h a d come to be adopted by Greek Against this background the significance o f ban-
( i n i t i a l l y Ionian) aristocrats as p r o v i d i n g the perfect e x - q u e t i n g Persian and T h r a c i a n barbarians i n A t t i c r e d -
pression for their ideal o f a l u x u r i o u s life-style, and at figured vase-paintings, 45
as w e l l as o f the ubiquitous o r i -
the latest by the t i m e o f the Persian defeat at Plataea i n ental archers 46
that a c c o m p a n y G r e e k heroes o n A t t i c

37. See D. Metzler, "Parthenon und Persepolis" (forthcoming). Jenseits sich ausdrcken i m B i l d der Teilhabe des Toten am Gelage der
38. The same X e n o p h o n who describes Persian atrocities w i t - Gtter. Oder die Anwesenheit von Satyrn entrckt den menschlichen
nessed at Kunaxa paints an enthusiastic and idealizing picture o f Per- Symposiasten i n dionysische Gefilde."
sian paideia (education) at the court o f the Great K i n g . The historical O n Persianism, and i n particular the Persian banquet, as an expres-
background o f this paradox is analyzed i n D r r i e 1972, pp. 146ff. sion o f the aristocratic ideal, see esp. J . - M . Dentzer, Le motif du ban-
39. See E . D. Francis, "Greeks and Persians: The A r t o f Hazard quet couch dans le Proche-Orient et le monde grec du VII au IV sicle avant
e e

and Triumph," i n D. Schmandt-Besserat, ed., Ancient Persia: The Art of J.-C. (Rome, 1982). Cf. also J. R. Brandt, " A Persian Patriot among the
an Empire (Austin, 1980), pp. 53ff Brygos Painter's Patrons," i n Proceedings of the XII. International Con-
40. A . Alfldi, in La nouvelle Klio, vols. 1-2 (1949-1950), esp. gress of Classical Archaeology, Athens (Athens, 1983).
pp. 552f, cited i n Fehr 1971, pp. 70f. ("Alfldi k o m m t zu den Schluss, 42. See above (note 41).
dass beim Gartenfest des Assurbanipal und beim Heraklesge- 43. Fehr 1971, pp. 62ff; Dentzer (note 41). Cf. esp. H . Metzger,
lage . . . als entscheidende Gemeinsamkeit ein iranisches Lebensideal Les Reprsentations dans la cramique attique der IVe sicle (Paris, 1951),
vorliege: der schwelgende, glckselige Herrscher, der 'knigliche pl. 16.3.
Trunkenbold.' ") Cf. also D. Metzler, "Anikonische Darstellungen," 44. The extant representations o f Persian-style bent and fluted
Visible Religion 4 (1986), p. 102. rhyta terminating i n animal heads or protomes are o f late fifth- and
41. Metzler (note 34) is worth quoting i n this context: " G l e i c h - fourth-century date. See below (note 173). Since the majority o f the
zeitig lehrt aber die Bilderwelt der Vasenmalerei, dass Symposien Persian rhyta published i n recent years as ancient, especially those o f
mehrere Funktionen haben k n n e n , nicht nur den O r t demonstrativer precious metal, are i n fact modern forgeries, the student seeking c o m -
Geselligkeit abzugeben, denn bemerkenswerterweise werden auch parative Persian material is referred to O. W. Muscarella, "Excavated
Gtter, Heroen und der Schwarm des Dionysos als Teilnehmer beim and Unexcavated Achaemenian A r t , " i n Schmandt-Besserat (note 39),
Symposion dargestellt, und zwar nicht nur jeweils unter sich, sondern pp. 23ff, esp. pp. 30ff.
gelegentlich auch, die nur scheinbar abgegrenzten Sphren berschrei- 45. E.g., Beazley, ARV 829, no. 39.
2

tend, zusammen mit Sterblichen. So kann die Hoffnung auf ein seliges 46. M . F. Vos, Scythian Archers in Archaic Attic Vase-painting
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 139

vases, black as w e l l as red, also begins to m a k e better D o n k e y 's-head rhyta are Greek, not Persian; there is n o
sense. T h e y are n o t s i m p l y the A t h e n i a n s ' eastern allies, k n o w n Persian example, and it is d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r one
or the oriental auxiliaries o f the Trojans, or the A t h e - ever existed. W h y , then, a d o n k e y ? T h e clue to this
nians' S c y t h i a n police, as has often been p r o p o s e d 47
(al- apparent p u z z l e is the p h e n o m e n o n aptly t e r m e d " v e r -
t h o u g h they m i g h t also have been any or all o f these to kehrte W e l t " by Hedwig Kenner. 5 2
This "reversed
m a n y A t h e n i a n s ) ; rather, l i k e the heroes themselves, w o r l d " s y n d r o m e , w h i c h is, i n fact, the v e r y quintes-
they are first and foremost inhabitants o f that m y t h i c a l sence o f D u r k h e i m i a n and M a r x i s t s o c i o l o g y o f re-
" O t h e r " t i m e and space that signified the abode o f the ligion, 5 3
can be reduced to the a x i o m a t i c s o m e m i g h t
gods, the heroes, and the departed. T h e y are there to say i n s p i r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t that the sacred is per definitio
establish the setting, so to speak. L i k e b a n q u e t i n g C e n - the opposite o f the profane, and that, accordingly, sacred
taurs 48
and s a t y r s , 49
b a n q u e t i n g barbarians b e l o n g to the phenomena m u s t always be s y m b o l i c reversals o f the
topsy-turvy and uniquely Greek world o f phantas- real and the ordinary. A classic, t h o u g h n o n - G r e e k , e x -
m a g o r i c irreality created by the j u n c t i o n o f b a c k w a r d - ample: the v i r g i n birth o f a g o d w h o is both his o w n son
extended time (Golden Age) w i t h outward-extended and father. 54
S u c h non-sense, or m y t h o l o g i c a l state-
space (Hyperborea). T h i s m y t h o p o e t i c never-never l a n d ments can and do, o f course, m a k e sense w h e n "the
corresponded to the v e r y opposite o f the present H e r e same c o n v e n t i o n a l ideas about the attributes o f m e t a -
and N o w , and to the Greeks, as to m o s t others before physical t i m e and space, and o f metaphysical objects," 55

and since t h e m , it defined the " O t h e r " w o r l d . are shared by the society i n w h i c h they are p r o d u c e d .
T w o cup fragments decorated by the Stieglitz Painter A p p l i e d to the context o f the present discussion, D u r k -
(figs. 7ab), 50
presented to the A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m by h e i m and M a r x help us solve the r i d d l e o f the Persian
Sir J o h n Beazley, shall be appended to this d i s c u s s i o n , h o l d i n g the Greek donkey's-head rhyton. T h e donkey as
for l i k e n o other A t t i c vase-paintings, the picture o f a Greek rhyton a n i m a l was charged w i t h symbolic
w h i c h they were a part helps clarify the i d e o l o g i c a l sit- m e a n i n g o f a v e r y particular k i n d . A s I have set forth
u a t i o n o u t l i n e d above. In a frieze a r o u n d the (missing) elsewhere, 56
it alludes to the m y t h o l o g i c a l , or " O t h e r " -
tondo, t w o orientals ("doubtless Persians" i n Beazley's w o r l d sacrifice o f the H y p e r b o r e a n s , those denizens o f
words), are shown, one h o l d i n g a donkey's-head rhyton, the n o r t h e r n m o s t G r e e k "paradise" w h o regularly d i n e d
the other a phiale. T h e scene was a s y m p o s i u m o f P e r - w i t h gods and heroes and were e x e m p t e d f r o m o l d age
sians, as o n another cup by the same painter ( w h i c h and death. C h a r g e d w i t h ambivalent sexual c o n n o t a -
B e a z l e y compares) (figs. 8ab). 51
tions, the same a n i m a l became the delight o f the gods at
T h e use o f rhyta i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p h i a l a i was o r d i - the h i g h e r level o f r e l i g i o u s s u b l i m a t i o n . 57
T h e "reverse
nary Persian practice, but there are t w o v e r y o d d details: w o r l d " phenomenon here involves p r o j e c t i o n 58
and is
the facts that the r h y t o n has a f o o t w h i c h Persian basically o f the same order as that w h i c h characterizes
rhyta never d o a n d that it represents a donkey's head. G r e e k attitudes t o w a r d Persians and other barbarians.

(Leiden, 1963). Most recently: F. Lissarrague, Archers, peltastes, cavaliers: act o f reversal."); K . M a r x , The German Ideology (Berlin, 1926). For a
Sur l'iconographie du guerrier (forthcoming). See Fehr 1971, p. 30. study o f religious projection viewed i n an anthropological perspective,
47. E.g., E . Rohde, " D r e i Sianaschale der Berliner A n t i k e n - see F. Sierksma, De religieuze projectie (Leiden, 1957), cited by
sammlung," i n A . Cambitoglou, ed., Festschrift A. D. Trendall (Sydney, Gladigow 1974, p. 289 n. 1. Cf. also the set o f oppositions given for
1979), pp. 135ff, pis. 36.2-3, 37.5; G. F. Pinney, "Achilles Lord o f religious attitudes by E . Leach i n Culture and Communication ( C a m -
Scythia," i n W. G M o o n , ed., Ancient Greek Art and Iconography bridge, 1976), p. 40, as well as the sections on logic and mythologie
(Madison, 1983), pp. 127ff, fig. 9.1-12. (pp. 69f.) and basic cosmology (pp. 71ff). " B u t i f T am to survive
48. Fehr 1971, p. 96 and n. 585; E . von M e r c k l i n , AA, 1937, pp. after death as some sort o f 'other being,' then this 'other being' must
64f. be located in some 'other world' in some 'other time.' The most fun-
49. See K . Schauenburg, "Silene beim Symposion," Jdl 88 (1973), damental characteristic o f such 'otherness' is that it is the reverse o f
pp. Iff, figs. 1-29; Hoffmann 1977, pp. 4f, pi. 8.4-5. ordinary experience. Concepts o f deity derive from a similar reversal"
50. ARV 829, no. 38; Hoffmann 1961, pi. 10.3-4; BCH 87 (1963),
2
(p. 71).
p. 585, fig. 8; Sir John and Lady Beazley's Gifts to the Ashmolean Museum 54. Leach (note 53).
(Oxford, 1967), p. 71, pi. 35, no. 239. 55. Ibid.
.51. ARV 829, no. 39. CVA B r y n M a w r College, pi. 25.1-4. I am
2
56. Hoffmann 1983.
beholden to Brunilde S. Ridgway for the photograph. For the Persian 57. Succinctly expressed by Metzler i n D. Metzler, B . Otto, and
phialai, cf. now M . A b k a i , "Achamendische Metallschalen" (Ph.D. C . Mueller-Wirth, eds., Antidoron: Festschrift fr J. Thimme (Karlsruhe,
diss., University o f M u n i c h , 1984). 1983), n. 67, as "Verbot auf Erden, Gebot i m Paradis!" This phe-
52. H . Kenner, Das Phanomen der verkehrten Welt (Klagenfurt, nomenon is what Philip E . Slater i n The Glory of Hera (Boston, 1968),
1970). O n "reverse-world," see now the bibliography given i n p. 307, calls the " A p o l l i n e sham" and diagnoses, somewhat sternly, as
Hoffmann 1980, n. 22. the Greek "cultural sickness."
53. E . D u r k h e i m , The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life (1915; 58. I use the term i n the psychological sense, as the act o f exter-
Chicago, 1971), pp. 299ff. ("Sacred things often become sacred by an nalizing or objectifying what is primarily subjective.
140 Hoffmann

Figure la. Fragment o f a cup by the Stieglitz Painter. Figure lb. Fragments of cup by the Stieglitz Painter,
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, 1966.688. figure 7a.
Photos, courtesy Ashmolean Museum.

Figure 8a. Handle o f a cup by the Stieglitz Painter. Figure 8b. Fragment of cup by the Stieglitz Painter,
B r y n M a w r College, Ella Riegel Memorial figure 8a.
Museum, P 932. Photos, courtesy B r y n
M a w r College.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 141

It s h o u l d n o w be clear w h y G r e e k heroes tend to late ( m y Persian and v o n M e r c k l i n classes). T h e early


behave l i k e barbarians and vice versa, and w h y the Per group accounts for one fifth o f a l l examples e x a m i n e d ,
sian holds a G r e e k r h y t o n , w h i c h , as C h a m a e l e o n and the middle group comprises s o m e w h a t over half, and the
Theophrastos i n f o r m us, " i s assigned to heroes o n l y " late group includes the r e m a i n i n g quarter. In v i e w o f the
T h a t the Persians r h y t o n s h o u l d depict a donkey, rather w i d e diversity o f their provenances, the concentration o f
than a m o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l G r e e k (or Persian) r a m , is a rhyta i n the m i d d l e o f the fifth century is remarkable
true c o n u n d r u m : a double-reversal, or dash o f A t t i c salt. and seems to correspond to a notable increase i n produc
t i o n d u r i n g those years. T h e r e is also, as w e shall see, an
S Y N C H R O N I C DISTRIBUTION OF ATTIC A N D abrupt change i n the sculpted i m a g e r y o f A t t i c rhyta at
S O U T H ITALIAN RHYTA mid-century. Passing winea sacred beverage 60

(Bestiary) through an animal head before proceeding to consume it


Attic South Italian or to p o u r it i n a sacrificial l i b a t i o n is clearly an expres
(total o f 136) (total o f 458) sive a c t i o n . 61
It is for their status i n the s y m b o l i c o r g a n i
z a t i o n o f society, rather than for any "decorative or
ram 50 30
sculptural q u a l i t i e s " they m i g h t have been considered as
donkey 30 0
possessing, that certain a n i m a l species were selected for
deer 11 60
the r h y t a shapes.
hound 10 45
S o m e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h basic sacrificial theory is essen-
boar 7 50
bull 6 22
lion 5 9 DIACHRONIC DISTRIBUTION OF ATTIC R H Y T A

cow 3 60 Early 5th C . B.C. Mid-Sxh C. B . C . Late 5th C . B . C .


vulture 3 0 (total o f z11) (total o f 77) (total o f 32)
goat 2 12
ram 8 35 7
griffin 2 45
donkey 11 18 1
sheep 2 50
deer 0 3 8
l i o n cub 2 5
hound 4 4 2
panther 1 0
boar 0 6 1
Pig 1 0
bull 0 0 6
horse 1 31
lion 2 2 1
mule 0 6
cow 0 2 1
antelope 0 3
vulture 2 1 0
sea d r a g o n 0 5
goat 0 0 2
M a l t e s e Spitz 0 25
griffin 0 1 1
Table 1 sheep 0 2 0
l i o n cub 0 0 2
T H E PLASTIC I M A G E R Y (BESTIARY) 59
panther 0 1 0
I have d i v i d e d the 136 k n o w n A t t i c r h y t a i n t o three pig 0 1 0
groups to facilitate the study o f their s y n c h r o n i c and horse 0 1 0
d i a c h r o n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n (tables 1, 2): early (the D o u r i a n s ,
Table 2
B r y g a n s , etc.), middle (Sotadeans, Penthesileans), and

59. To make this general shift i n the imagery and i n its conceptual rite the wine is mixed w i t h water (as i n Biblical times) before con
framework clearer I have made a compilation o f the animals repre secration, and warm water (the "warmth") is added afterwards. When
sented i n Attic rhyta during the course o f the fifth century (tables the bread (the "Lamb") is broken, it is either placed i n the chalice for
12). I have considered only the specimens assembled i n Hoffmann, the priest or administered to the communicants on a spoon dipped
ARR and Addenda; recent newcomers do not change the picture, into the wine. The symbolism o f the flesh and the blood is thus more
however. I should emphasize that this index offers only a very general vividly represented than i n western practice. I am indebted to A n d r e w
overview, and that closer analysis is needed. Sheratt o f the Ashmolean M u s e u m for this information, given as a
60. The association o f red wine with sacrificial blood and, by ex label i n the museum's recent exhibition Cheers! Alcohol in European
tension, with divinity, probably goes back to the Bronze Age, as sug Culture (1986).
gested by animal protome libation vessels. This association was still 61. The concept, which one frequently encounters i n the an
general i n Roman times, as indicated by Christ's words, " D r i n k ye all thropological literature on ritual, is, I think, originally Talcott Par
o f it, for this is my b l o o d " (Matt. 26.27-28). In the Greek Orthodox sons', who, however, acknowledges his debt to M a x Weber. In The
142 Hoffmann

tial i f w e w i s h to c o m p r e h e n d the s y m b o l i s m o f r h y t o n nifies the patriarchal hero w h o m u s t die, i.e., h i m s e l f be


a n i m a l s i n the s y m p o t i c as w e l l as the funerary context, sacrificed. I illustrated an amphora in Basel, on
and I shall therefore say a few w o r d s o n the subject w h i c h A c h i l l e s and A j a x battle over the dead b o d y o f
before p r o c e e d i n g to the bestiary. A s I have set forth i n Patroklos, w h i c h is depicted as a sacrificed r a m (labeled
H o f f m a n n 1977 and e l s e w h e r e , 62
sacrifice is a m a g i c act I1ATPOKA02).
enabling the sacrificer to enter into a reciprocal exchange D o n k e y s (see figs. 19ab) are c o m m o n i n the first
r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a source o f p o w e r b e it a deity or a half o f the fifth century, symbolically l i n k e d w i t h h u m a n
hero-ancestorwith the t h i n g sacrificed, whether an an- sexuality and therefore sacrificed o n the mythopoetic
i m a l or s o m e t h i n g else, b e i n g a m t o n y m i e s y m b o l o f plane (donkey-sacrifice o f the H y p e r b o r e a n s ) . 66
B y an
" S e l f . " T h e eschatological p a r a d i g m o f sacrifice, be it an act o f reversal and transformation analogous to that o f
a n i m a l or a v i c a r i o u s substitute such as w i n e , is that the sacrificial p a r a d i g m i t s e l f ("reversed world" phe-
death " p u r i f i e s , " or separates the pure (spiritual) f r o m n o m e n o n ) the flesh o f d o n k e y s t o o t o u g h (potent, ta-
the i m p u r e (material), thus m a k i n g possible the passage booized) for o r d i n a r y h u m a n consumptionbecomes
between w o r l d s . T h i s "rite o f passage" p a r a d i g m is the f o o d o f gods and hero-ancestors i n the p e r m i s s i v e
c o m m o n b o t h to the sacrificial and to the funerary r i t - " O t h e r " w o r l d o f p o s t m o r t e m existence. I have i n t e r -
ual. A s E d m u n d L e a c h has put it, "Just as the dead pass preted the so-called split, or double-faced rhyta, c o u p -
f r o m ' t h i s ' w o r l d to the l i m i n a l i t y o f the ' O t h e r W o r l d ' l i n g the head o f a r a m w i t h that o f a d o n k e y i n a single
(where their metaphysical essence is separated f r o m their vessel (figs. 9ac), 67
as m e d i a t i n g the s y m b o l i c o p p o s i -
material frame) and thence, by a further transformation, t i o n b e t w e e n the w o r l d o f m o r t a l m e n a n d the " O t h e r "
become I m m o r t a l A n c e s t o r s , so the sacrificial act o f w o r l d o f gods and heroes by the creation o f an i n t e r s t i -
' k i l l i n g ' ensures that the offering w i l l travel a l o n g the tial category ( r a m / d o n k e y ) . 68

same p a t h . " 63
T h e "sacrificial l o g i c " by w h i c h s y m b o l s T h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the r e m a i n i n g a n i -
(images) can take the place o f realia operates wherever m a l species p e r m i t s o f t w o general assumptions:
objectsin this case r h y t a a r e " s a c r i f i c e d " (i.e., de-
64

1. that d u r i n g the first h a l f o f the fifth c e n t u r y the


posited) as part o f a funeral c o m p l e x . animals represented pertain largely to the i n s t i t u t i o n o f
As for the symbolism (implicit meaning) of the b l o o d y sacrifice; they are the " s o u l - f o o d " for the dead,
various a n i m a l species represented i n the Athenian so to speak;
rhyta, the theme o f sacrifice is salient and pervasive. 2. that f r o m the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y o n w a r d sacrifi-
R a m s and sheep 65
(see figs. 16, 17, 20), b e i n g the sacrifi- cial animals c o m e to be replaced by animals associated
cial a n i m a l s par excellence, r e m a i n d o m i n a n t through- w i t h the " D i o n y s i a c c o m p l e x " l i o n cubs, goats, baby
6 9

out, a c c o u n t i n g for nearly h a l f the entire p r o d u c t i o n . In bullsthese, i n t u r n , suggest surrogate omophagia, the
Hoffman 1983 I p o i n t e d out that the r a m , b e i n g the tearing apart and eating r a w o f l i v e v i c t i m s . I shall elab-
sacrificial v i c t i m favored b y heroes and ancestors, sig- orate o n this later o n .

Social System (Glencoe, III, 1951), pp. 49, 100, and 384f, Parsons Kephalon Krion Krane (Athens, 1970); Hoffmann 1983, pp. 64f.
distinguishes between expressive action-orientation and expressive 66. In Hoffmann 1983 I suggested, w i t h reference to Pind., Pyth.
symbolism as together constituting the belief system. In the religious X.30ff. (the Hyperborean digression), that the placing o f donkey's-
context, expressive actions purport to alter the state o f the world by head rhyta i n tombs may have evoked this Hyperborean feast. Cf.
metaphysical means (Leach [note 53], p. 9). also J. Wiesner, " D e r Gott auf dem Esel," AA, 1968, pp. 167ff, 531ff,
62. Hoffmann 1980, pp. 132f (in German). O n sacrifice i n the cult and, more generally, M . Vogel, Onos Lyras: Der Esel mit der Leier
o f heroes and i n the cult o f the dead generally, see P. Stengl, Die (Dusseldorf, 1983). O n donkey sacrifice i n the cult o f the dead, see
griechischen Kultusalterturner: Die Heroen- und Totenopfer, Handbuch Stengl 1895, pp. 422ff O n a parallel phenomenon i n the Sicilian plastic
der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 5, pt. 3 (Munich, 1920), vases destined for the tomb, see B . Heldring, "Der dionysische Aspekt
pp. 138ff. O n the theory o f sacrifice, see the bibliography given by der sizilischen Tiergefsse," i n T h . Lorenz, ed., Festschrift W. Frommel
J. Svensbro, i n M . D t i e n n e and J.-P. Vernant, La cuisine du sacrifice (1978), pp. 38ff. ARV 29, no. 2 (True [note 27], figs. 8a-c, can be
2

en pays grec (Paris, 1979), pp. 311ff viewed i n this context).


63. See above (note 53). The analogy w i t h Abraham and Isaac 67. J. Paul Getty M u s e u m 86.AK.699. M . True, GettyMusJ 15
seems almost too obvious to mention. (1987), p. 166, no. 25 (there mistakenly identified as modern). Satyr-
64. In the case o f the rhyta, the animal head or protome can be maenad pursuit. Penthesilean Class. The hasty drawing may be from
considered a m t o n y m i e sign for the whole animal on the principle o f the Penthesilean workshop.
pars pro toto, as on Greek coins, where the "decapitated" animal head is 68. M a n y classical archaeologists tend to view the dimidiating
to be understood as an abbreviation for the entire animal (I owe this rhyta as a "potter's caprice," "devoid o f deeper meaning." The concept
reference to Herbert A . Cahn). o f symbolic mediation w i t h reference to split representations has been
65. O n ram symbolism as signifying sacrifice and passage i n explored by C . Lvi-Strauss i n Anthropologie structurale (Paris, 1968),
another context (Pelias), see D. J. R. Williams, " C l o s e Shaves," i n ch. 13 and, more recently, i n Le vois des Masques (Geneva, 1975). I
H . Brijder, ed., Proceedings of the International Vase Symposium, Amster- am grateful to Claude Lvi-Strauss for discussing the dimidiating
dam (Amsterdam, 1984), p. 280, fig. 6. See also G . S. Korres, Ta Meta rhyta w i t h me and giving me the benefit o f his insight and encourage-
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 143

Figure 9a. Dimidiating ram/donkey rhyton. Right Figure 9b. Front o f dimidiating rhyton, figure 9a.
side. M a l i b u , The J. Paul Getty M u s e u m ,
85.AE.699.

The symbolism of the Dourian lion-head (figs.


10ab) 70
seems fairly evident, for the association o f lions
w i t h G r e e k heroes is p r o v e r b i a l . 71
L i k e rams and heroes,
l i o n s and heroes are s y n o n y m o u s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y speak
i n g : the hero lives and dies a l i o n ; 7 2
the l i o n is his em
b l e m and his tombstone. The lion is also one of the

ment. Note that the phenomenon is carried over into South Italian
ware: Hoffmann 1966, pis. 32 and 33.3. Cf. W. Binsfeld, Grylloi ( C o
logne, 1956).
69. See H . Metzger, Recherches sur l'imagerie athnienne (Paris,
1965).
70. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 18-21, pl. 4.
71. Greek heroes are lions, rams, and boars. See E . Vermeule's apt
remarks i n Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry (Berkeley,
1979), pp. 85ff.
72. Cf. Herod. VII.225, the epitaph, attributed to Simonides,
carved on the lion tomb-monument o f Lenidas. The funerary i n
scription from a Hellenistic lion monument quoted by Antipater o f
Sidon is even more explicit: H . Beckby, ed., Anthologia Graeca, vol. 7
(Munich, 19571958), no. 344. The most famous classical survival o f
this sentiment is the inscription on Bertel Thorvaldsen's lion m o n u
ment i n Lucerne: " H e died a lion" (referring, as Klaus Sommer i n
forms me, to a Swiss killed i n 1792 i n the attack on the Tuileries).
O n Greek lion symbolism i n general, see E . Eliez, Le lion et l'homme
(Paris, 1967); H . Gabelmann, Studien zum frhgriechischen Lowenbild
(Berlin, 1965). O n Greek animal allegory generally: Hoffmann 1977,
n. 16.
Figure 9c. Left side o f dimidiating rhyton, figure 9a.
144 Hoffmann

Figure 10a. Lions-head rhyton by Douris. Right side. Figure 10b. Front o f lion's-head rhyton, figure 10a.
Paris, Mus e du Louvre, M N B 1294.
Photos, Chuzeville.

Figure a-c. D i m i d i a t i n g ram/boar rhyton by the potter Sotades (lost). Right side, front, left side (from W. Tischbein,
Collection of Engravings from Ancient Vases Now in the Possession of Sir Wm. Hamilton, vol. 2 [Naples,
1791-1795], pi. y).
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 145

three a n i m a l manifestations o f D i o n y s o s . G r e e k l i o n i m - ritual prescribed for c h t h o n i c d i v i n i t i e s . 79


In v i e w o f
agery, moreover, is paired w i t h the i m a g e o f the b o a r . 73
the dead ancestors' well-attested interest i n c a n i n e s , 80

T h e e q u a t i o n boar = hero i n Greece is a v e r y ancient the allusion o f the inverted hound's head may be to chthonic
one, g o i n g back to the boar-tusk helmets o f M y c e n a e a n dog-sacrifice. H e k a t e 81
comes to m i n d , and K e r b e r o s
w a r r i o r s , and essentially the same use o f the boar s y m - (Hes. 311.7), but also the c o m m o n reference i n Greek fune-
b o l figures large i n the i m a g e r y o f the ancient Iranian rary art to the v i r t u e o f the dead i n terms o f his q u a l i t y
w a r r i o r fraternities. 74
In A t t i c r h y t a the truncated boar's as a Kwcryos, or h o u n d - l e a d e r (i.e., h u n t s m a n ) . 82

head as a d r i n k i n g cup represents a t r o p h y o f the m y t h - Only a single A t t i c horse-head r h y t o n exists: the


ological initiatory hunt (Meleager) 75
and t h e r e b y l i k e m a v e r i c k p r o t o m e - r h y t o n i n the Petit P a l a i s i n c o n -
83

the donkey's headsalludes to m y t h o p o e t i c sacrifice. trast to the m a n y horse-head r h y t a i n f o u r t h - c e n t u r y


H e n c e the p a i r i n g o f a halved boar's head w i t h a halved A p u l i a . T h e i n c o n g r u i t y is explained by r i t u a l practice:
ram's head i n a d i m i d i a t i n g r h y t o n by the potter Sotades T h e Messapian god Menzanas ( = " L o r d o f Horses")
(fig. 11ac) 76
appears to be c o m p a r i n g the real sacrifice r e g u l a r l y received horse sacrifices, 84
and such sacrifice
o f rams to hero-ancestors w i t h the m y t h o l o g i c a l sacri- seems to be reflected b y Tarentine horse-head rhyta.
fice o f boars b y the hero-ancestors themselves. A s stated earlier, D i o n y s i a c animals appear i n A t t i c
P r o c e e d i n g to some rarities: the D o u r i a n v u l t u r e 77
r h y t a about the m i d d l e o f the fifth century and s o o n
w i t h b l o o d - s m e a r e d beak, rather than representing the replace the animals o f heroic imagery (the ramas sacri-
deities' or hero's favorite meal, w o u l d seem to symbolize ficial a n i m a l par excellenceexcepted). 85
T h e aristocra-
the act o f sacrifice itself, the m a g i c a l o p e r a t i o n b y w h i c h tic and e m b l e m a t i c l i o n - t y p e o f the first h a l f o f the
m o r t a l flesh is transformed i n t o incarnate spirit. century ( D o u r i s ) , a s u r v i v a l o f the A r c h a i c t r a d i t i o n o f
T h e i m p l i c i t m e a n i n g s o f the B r y g a n hound's-heads l i o n - i m a g e r y , continues (fig. 1 2 ) , 86
now imbued with
(see fig. 3 ) , 7 8
r e m a i n a puzzle. W h e n these r h y t a are h e l d D i o n y s i a c m e a n i n g . In a d d i t i o n l i o n cubs and panthers,
right-side up (as they w o u l d be w h e n i n use) the hound's- the animals o f the D i o n y s i a c sparmagos, j o i n the reper-
head appears upside d o w n , recalling the inverse slaughter tory. Stags appear, as d o rapacious g r i f f i n s , 87
their t r a d i -

73. O n the equation o f boar and heroes, see above (note 17). O n Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 89, pl. 2.34. They are studied together i n
the sacrifice o f boar i n the cult o f the dead see Stengl 1895, p. 424. True (note 28), pp. 73ff, figs. 9-14.
74. Dieter Metzler informs me that the Iranian word varaz 79. Stengl 1895, p. 424; M . Lurker, " D e r H u n d ais Symboltier fr
( = boar) is frequently contained i n ancient Iranian personal names. den b e r g a n g v o m Diesseits i n Jenseits," Zeitschrift fr Religion und
F. Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch (Marburg, 1895), pp. 348ff, s.v. varaza. Geistesgeschichte 35 (1983), p. 143. A t Gela the pottery vessels used i n a
The boar is also the sacred animal o f Werethraghna, the Iranian proto- chthonic burial ritual were found in situ deliberately arranged i n the
Dionysos. See H . Hoffmann and D. Metzler, i n Visible Religion, vol. 5 tomb i n an upside-down position. According to the excavators, they
(Leiden, 1987). were thereby meant to face the chthonic divinities existing below:
75. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 4650, pl. 10.1 and 34; see the remarks P. Orlandini, Kokalos 12 (1966), pp. 8ff, pis. 13-18, cited by C . H .
there on p. 23 and i n n. 53. The imagery o f the truncated boar's head Greenewaldt, Jr., Ritual Dinners in Early Historic Sardis (Cambridge,
may be Iranian: Dieter Metzler draws m y attention to the boar's-head Mass., 1978). To Greenewaldt's bibliography on the dog i n Greek and
trophies represented on a Sassanian silk weaving: R. Girschman, Par- Roman culture and religion given on p. 41 n. 4, add now the important
ttes et Sasanides (Paris, 1962), p. 230, fig. 281. A good discussion o f the material from various cultures collected by Lurker, pp. 132ff. (I owe
boar's-head trophy as an index o f valor is given by N . F. Rubin and this reference to Dieter Metzler).
W. M . Sale in "Meleager and Odysseus: The Greek Hunting and Matura- 80. See above (note 79).
tion M y t h , " Arethusa 16 (1983), pp. 145ff. 81. T. Kraus, Hekate: Studien zum Wesen und Bild der Gttin in
76. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 38. Discussed more fully i n m y forth- Kleinasien und Griechenland (Heidelberg, 1960).
coming book on Sotades. 82. The deceased is commonly represented as a hunter w i t h his
77. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 2223, pl. 5.12 (there called eagle's hound, on gravestones as well as on the white-ground lekythoi. For a
heads). I now agree w i t h Denise Feytmans that thegryps fulvus is most recent discussion o f the hound i n the semantic domain o f the hunt, as
probably represented: D. Feytmans, Les Vases grecs de la Bibliothque an icon o f his master, the hunter, see Rubin and Sale (note 75), p. 148.
Royale de Belgique (Brussels, 1948), pp. 43ff. The Greeks were surely Cf. also Anth. Pal, vol. 7, p. 304, where a hound is associated w i t h a
familiar w i t h the great religious significance attached to vultures i n warrior fallen i n combat.
ancient Egypt, and the fact that the Zoroastrian Persianslike their 83. CVA Paris, Petit Palais, pi. 30.7-8.
Parsi descendents d o w n to the present dayallowed vultures to dis- 84. D. Metzler, " Z u r Geschichte Apuliens i m Altertum," i n
pose o f their dead is commented on by Herodotos (1.140). Hence it K . Sthler, ed., Apulien: Kulturberhrungen in griechischer Zeit ( M u n -
does not seem farfetched to presume eschatological sense i n a ster, 1985), p. 20.
vulture's-head rhyton, particularly i n view o f the fact that i n the Poly- 85. The ram w o u l d have been invested w i t h new meaning i n the
gnotan N e k y i a the death-demon Eurynomos throned on the feather- context o f Dionysiac ritual. O n ram sacrifice to Dionysos, see E .
skin o f a vulture: see M . Robertson, LIMC, vol. 4.1 (forthcoming), Simon, Opfernde Gotter (Berlin, 1953), p. 17.
s.v. Eurynomos. O n vulture symbolism i n ancient Near Eastern art, 86. Ruvo, Museo Jatta, 1576. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 117.
see R. D. Barnett, i n Festschrift K. Bittel (Mainz am Rhein, 1983), 87. Panther: Hoffmann, ARR, no. 55, pi. 11.3. Stag: Hoffmann,
pp. 59f, pis. 13-20. ARR, nos. 106-109, pis. 20.3-4, 21.3-4. Deer, and particularly fawns,
78. Several more Brygan hound's heads have come to light since are the Dionysiac victims par excellence. They are torn apart and
146 Hoffmann

tional assailants. These animals are associated with


v i o l e n t death b y b e i n g t o r n apart alive, a n o t - s o - v e i l e d
reference to the maenadic rite o f dismemberment. 88

L i k e w i s e , as recently s h o w n by V i l l a n u e v a - P u i g , 8 9
the
boar is part o f the D i o n y s i a c bestiary a n d is a sacrificial
v i c t i m i n this god's ecstatic cult. B u l l heads also appear
i n the r h y t o n repertory about the m i d d l e o f the fifth
century, l o n g after the sacrifice o f b u l l s b y w e a l t h y aris
tocrats i n private r i t u a l h a d ceased. 90
In the case o f
a r h y t o n i n the f o r m o f a b u l l - c a l f p r o t o m e , i n the
K u r a s h i k i N i n a g a w a M u s e u m , T o k y o (fig. 1 3 ) , 91
the
p o s i t i o n o f the animal's t h r o w n - b a c k neck suggests a
r i t u a l b u l l sacrifice. 92
T h e reference m a y be to D i o n y s o s
as tauromorphosthe g o d w h o is slaughtered as a b u l l 9 3

as w e l l as to a n e w k i n d o f hero w h o is r i t u a l l y " s l a u g h
tered," but w h o s e death is m e r e l y s y m b o l i c a l : the mystes,
or initiate i n t o the m y s t e r y o f death a n d resurrection
n o w b e i n g celebrated at E l e u s i s and elsewhere u n d e r the
auspices o f the h e r o - g o d . 94
In terms o f the s o c i a l h i s t o r y
o f r e l i g i o n , it w o u l d appear that the s o t e r i o l o g i c a l , ec
static, and v i s i o n a r y i m a g e r y o f the D i o n y s i a c i n i t i a t i o n
rite has replaced the imagery o f the aristocratic hero arete
that characterized earlier r h y t o n p r o d u c t i o n .
Figure 12. Lion's-head rhyton. Left side. Ruvo, Museo
Jatta, 1576. Photo, courtesy D A I , Rome. A sleek L a c o n i a n h o u n d is c o n t r i b u t e d b y the potter
Sotades (figs. 14ac, 15ab), 95
and, i n a d d i t i o n to the
aforementioned m a l e animals o f clearly D i o n y s i a c c o n
n o t a t i o n , t w o female sacrificial animals less specifically
D i o n y s i a c j o i n the repertory at the m i d d l e o f the c e n
t u r y : sheep (fig. 16) a n d c o w s . 9 6

T h e r e is an interesting a n d significant statistic that I


failed to record i n H o f f m a n n 1966: Deer, goats, griffins,
and especially cows a n d sheepprecisely those parts o f
the bestiary that enter the A t h e n i a n r e p e r t o r y at the
m i d d l e and e n d o f the fifth centuryare the v e r y ones
that proliferate most w i d e l y i n fourth-century South Italy.

devoured raw by the maenads clad i n fawnskins (Eur., Bacch.), and on


a red-figured pelike i n the British Museum Dionysos himself is shown
holding the bleeding parts o f a fawn i n each hand. See the fine discus
sion by E . Simon i n Antike und Abendland 13 (1967), pp. 105f. Mature
stags were more commonly sacrificed to Artemis and Nemesis, and it
may be that the rhyta I classified as stags i n Hoffmann, ARR on the
basis o f their antlers i n fact represent the females o f the species.
Griffin: Hoffmann, ARR, no. 54, p. 11.2, no. 118, pi. 22.3.
88. O n sparmagos and omophagia, see H . Jeanmaire, Dionysos: His
toire du culte de Bacchus (Paris, 1951), pp. 82ff, 254ff; M . D t i e n n e ,
Dionysos mis mort (Paris, 1977); Dodds 1951, pp. 270ff; Burkert 1977,
pp. 251ff.
89. M . C Villanueva-Puig, " A propos d'une mnad e aux sangliers
sur une oinochoe  figures noires du British M u s e u m , " RA, 1983,
pp. 229ff. and esp. p. 257.
Figure 3. Bull-calf protome rhyton. Left side. Tokyo, 90. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 111-113, pis. 19.1-2, 22.1. See also note
Kurashiki Ninagawa Museum, Akigawa C o l 91. The bull's-head rhyton illustrated i n this paper, figs. 18ac, can be
lection, no inv. number. Photo, D. Widmer, assigned to Class W. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 68, pi. 12.1 is noteworthy:
Basel. The head o f a ram was changed by the potter into that o f a bull. For
the former sacrifice o f black bulls i n the cult o f heroes as well as the
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 147

Figure 14a. Hound's-head rhyton by the potter Sota- Figure 14b. Front o f rhyton, figure 14a.
des. Right side. Ancona, Museo Nazionale,
1082. Photos, courtesy Sopreintendenza
Archeologica delle Marche, Ancona.

To c o n c l u d e this s e c t i o n w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g o d d i t y :
the A t t i c pig's-head rhyton in Beirut, 9 7
found at Al
M i n a i n A c h a e m e n i a n S y r i a , was made w i t h a boar's-
head m o l d f r o m w h i c h the tusks and crest h a d been
deliberately obliterated, c o n v e r t i n g the m o l d i n t o that
for a pig's head, p r e s u m a b l y to meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f
a l o c a l p i g - s a c r i f i c i n g c h t h o n i c cult.

THE PAINTED REPRESENTATIONS


One w o u l d expect the plastic b e s t i a r y o f A t t i c r h y t a
to correlate i n m e a n i n g w i t h the p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n o f
the r h y t o n b o w l s . In fact this is b o u n d to be the case.
S e e i n g the deeper c o n n e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , requires a c o n - Figure 14c. Left side o f rhyton, figure 14a.
t e x t u a l m o d e o f analysis or a q u a n t u m leap f r o m i c o n o -
g r a p h y to i c o n o l o g y . 9 8

dead, see Stengl 1895, p. 424; O. Keller, Antike Tierwelt (Hildesheim, "heroic hunter." Compare this concept w i t h that o f the Maltese Spitz,
1909-1913), p. 357. a household pet "offering comfort and consolation," figured on
91. E . Simon, The Kurashiki Ninagawa Museum: Greek, Etruscan fourth-century Athenian tombstones as well as i n Tarentine rhyta
and Roman Antiquities (Mainz am Rhein, 1982), no. 39. According to (Hoffmann 1966, pis. 26-27).
Simon, the animal is a moschos, or bull-calf. Note that this species, 96. Sheep: Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 41, 67, 72, pl. 13.3; no. 73 (here
while still quite rare i n Attic art, becomes common i n fourth-century fig. 16). The preceding were classified as the heads o f young rams i n
South Italian arta development shared by other rhyton animals o f Hoffmann, ARR on the basis o f their budding horns. I w o u l d today
the Dionysiac bestiary (see here, table 2, and Hoffmann 1966). consider them to represent females. C o w s : Hoffmann, ARR, nos.
92. O n sacrifice, see most recently: J.-L. Durand, Sacrifice et labour 74-75, pl. 13.1-2 and 4; no. 96, pi. 17.3-4. O n the double sacrifice o f
en Grce ancienne: Essai d'anthropologie religieuse (Paris, 1986); idem, " L e sheep and cowsthe inverse o f rams and bullsgenerally to female
boeuf la ficelle," i n Colloq. Lausanne, pp. 227ff. divinities, see the important discussion i n K r o n 1976, p. 36. Note that
93. SeeJ.-P. Gupin, The Tragic Paradox (Amsterdam, 1968), pp. these two species are favored for mass-production i n fourth-century
16ff; H . Jeanmaire, Dionysos (Paris, 1978), index, s.v. toreau, w i t h South Italy.
bibliography on Dionysos tauromorphos on p. 494; Burkert 1977, p. U3f. 97. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 69, pi. 12.3. Cf. also no. 70. The only
94. Burkert 1977, pp. 259f, 432ff. O n the mystic character o f the other pig's-head rhyton k n o w n to me is a modern forgery: V. C i a n -
religion o f Dionysos and the relation to Eleusis, see Nilsson, pp. 565ff. farani, " R h y t o n della Collezione Gorga," Boll. d'Arte, 1957, pp. 104ff,
95. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 52 (called "greyhound" by Beazley, figs. 1-3.
who perhaps did not realize that ARV 737, no. 127 and 764, no. 12 are
2
98. See E . Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts (New York, 1955);
from the same mold). The Sotadean hound may well be a faster edi- S. C . Humphreys, Anthropology and the Greeks (London, 1978), pp. 86,
tion o f his Brygan ancestor; at any rate, he remains first and foremost a 109ff, esp. p. 120f ; H . Hoffmann, Hephaistos 1 (1979), pp. 61ff.
148 Hoffmann

Figure 5a. Hound's-head rhyton by the potter Sota- Figure 15b. Left side o f hound's-head rhyton, figure
des. Front. Paris, Petit Palais, 354. Photos, 15a.
courtesy Ville de Paris, Muse du Petit
Palais, Paris.

T h e a n i m a l heads o f early-group r h y t a were s h o w n i n


the preceding section to reflect aristocratic concerns, i n
particular b a n q u e t i n g and sacrifice as ideal occupations.
T h e s e themes are o m n i p r e s e n t also i n the painted i m a g
ery o f the majority of early-group examples. O f these the
m o s t remarkable is the V i r g i n i a M u s e u m ' s ram's head
bearing the name o f C h a r i n o s (figs. 17ab) o n w h i c h the
eponymous heroes are s h o w n d i n i n g together. They
h o l d k a n t h a r o i , w h i c h , as R o b e r t G u y has p o i n t e d out,
refer to their special heroic s t a t u s . " A donkey's head i n
N a p l e s, f r o m the same w o r k s h o p as the p r e c e d i n g t w o ,
features paiderastia and pious offerings as exemplary aris
tocratic activities. A boy is s h o w n sacrificing o n one side
o f the rhyton's b o w l , w h i l e o n the other side E r o s is seen
b r i n g i n g a hare as a " l o v e gift" to the t o m b . Whereas
two palaestra scenes on early-group rhyta 1 0 0
can be
t h o u g h t o f as b e l o n g i n g to the m a i n s t r e a m o f r h y t o n
i m a g e r y t y p i c a l for the first h a l f o f the fifth century,
three satyr-maenad e n c o u n t e r s , 101
a pursuit o f a m o r t a l

99. R. Guy, " A Ram's Head R h y t o n Signed by Charinos," Arts


Figure 6. Sheep's-head rhyton. Left side. Athens, in Virginia 21 (Winter 1981), pp. 2ff, figs. 1-13; D. Metzler (note 34),
National Museum, 15880. Photo, courtesy pp. lOlf.
D A I , Athens, E . M . Czako. 100. True (note 28), figs. 12-14; Hoffmann, ARR, no. 24 may be
another example.
101. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 5, pi. 2.1; no. 10, pi. 3.1.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 149

Figure il a. Footed ram's-head rhyton inscribed Charinos epoiesen. Left side. Richmond, Virginia Museum o f Fine Arts,
79.100, The Williams Fund. Photos, courtesy Virginia M u s e u m o f Fine Arts.

Figure lib. R i m decoration o f rhyton, figure 17a.


150 Hoffmann

Figure 8a. Bull's-head rhyton. Right side. Formerly Figure 18b. Left side o f rhyton, figure 18a.
Palladion Ancient A r t Gallery, Basel,
Switzerland. Photos, D. Widmer, Basel.

by a d i v i n i t y , 1 0 2
and a g e r a n o m a c h y 103
("reverse w o r l d "
p a r o d y o f aristocratic warfare and o f the heroic hunt?)
seem to reflect a n e w and different ideology, thereby
anticipating the m i d - c e n t u r y development. Surprisingly,
there are n o scenes o f h u n t i n g o n any extant early-
group rhyta.
F r o m about the m i d d l e o f the c e n t u r y o n w a r d a shift
o f interest can be detected i n the i m a g e r y o f A t t i c rhyta,
w h i c h , as developed i n the preceding section, is reflected
also b y the species o f the a n i m a l heads selected for rep
resentation. B a n q u e t i n g scenes a l l but disappear f r o m
the numerically greatly increased middle group. T h e y n o w
account for o n l y t w o 1 0 4
o f a total o f twenty-six examples
and do not appear again o n r h y t a for the rest o f the
century. Scenes o f aristocratic v i r t u e have l i k e w i s e all
but v a n i s h e d . 105
Scenes o f s u b l i m a t e d erotic interest, o n
the other hand, are o n the increase (six e x a m p l e s ) . 106

Figure 18c. Front o f rhyton, figure 18a. T h e topos " p u r s u i t o f a m o r t a l b y a d i v i n i t y , " w h i c h


Sophia K a e m p f - D i m i t r i a d o u 1 0 7
has s h o w n to reflect a
trend away f r o m c o m m u n a l and social concerns and t o
w a r d i n d i v i d u a l i s m and eschatological o r i e n t a t i o n , b e -

102. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 18, pi. 4.1-2. Chr. AntK, Beiheft 11 (1979). C f . also the review by the writer i n
103. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 9, pi. 2.4. Gnomon 52 (1980), pp. 744ff.
104. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 83, 121, pl. 23.1-2. 108. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 33, pi. 6.4; nos. 41, 52, 75, pl. 13.4; no.
105. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 69, pi. 12.3; no. 72, pi. 13.3; no. 99 bis. 86, pl. 15.12 (excerpt o f a pursuit or, rather, a glyph for such); no. 116.
A similar conclusion is reached i n H . - G . H o l l e i n , " B r g e r b i l d und N o . 120, pi. 23.34 ("satyr pursuing maenad"), n o w discussed as
Bildwelt der attischen Demokratie auf den rotfigurigen Vasen des V I "Zeus i n satyr disguise pursuing Antiope (?)" i n E . Keuls, The Reign of
bis I V Jhs. v. C h r . " (Ph.D. diss., University o f Hamburg, 1985). the Phallos: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens ( N e w York, 1985), pp.
106. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 34, 77, pl. 14.4; nos. 79 (?), 81, pl. 14.2; 341ff, fig. 289, an interpretation which seems to me probable and
no. 87, pl. 15.3-4; nos. 88, 94, pl. 16.3-4; no. 116. preferable to my own.
107. Die Liebe der Gtter in der attischen Kunst des 5. Jahrhunderts v. 109. Formerly Palladion Ancient A r t Gallery, Basel.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 151

Figure 19a. Footed donkey's-head rhyton. Front. Paris, Figure 19b. Left side o f rhyton, figure 19a.
Muse du Louvre, H 71. Photos,
Chuzeville.

c o m e p o p u l a r n o w : six out o f twenty-six examples


feature m y t h o l o g i c a l pursuits, generally o f a f e m a l e . 108

T h e m o s t significant i n n o v a t i o n i n this p e r i o d is the


incursion o f D i o n y s i a c imagery, w h i c h amounts to
n o t h i n g short o f an " i c o n o g r a p h i e e x p l o s i o n . " T w e n t y -
five (a third) o f all extant m i d - f i f t h - c e n t u r y A t t i c rhyta
feature scenes r e l a t i n g to D i o n y s o s and his entourage.
Satyrs and w o m e n i n r a p i d pursuit and flight are the
m o s t c o m m o n topic (see figs. 18ac). 109
A t times the
satyrs and w o m e n r u n together, and the i n t e r a c t i o n b e
t w e e n t h e m resembles a j o y o u s carnival m o r e than an
antagonistic c l a s h ; 110
at other times the atmosphere is
solemn, and there are hints o f maenadic initiation
rites. 111
W h e r e D i o n y s o s h i m s e l f is r e p r e s e n t e d , 112
a dis
tinct change i n m o o d can be discerned v i s  vis earlier

110. Cf., for example, Hoffmann, ARR, no. 96, pi. 17.3-4.
111. E.g., Hoffmann, ARR, no. 51, pi. 12.1; no. 92, pi. 22.2; no.
93, pi. 16.12. A l s o perhaps no. 31, pi. 6.12. For related imagery, cf.
now C . Brard and C . B r o n , "Bacchos au Coeur de la Cit: Le Thiase
dionysiaque dans l'espace politique," i n LAssociation dionysiaque dans Figure 20. Detail o f ram's-head rhyton by the potter
les socits anciennes. Collection de l'Ecole Franaise de Rome 89 (1986),
Sotades. Boston, M u s e u m o f Fine Arts,
pp. 13ff., figs. 112; C . B r o n , "Porteurs de thyrse ou bacchants," i n
95.38. Photo, courtesy M u s e u m o f Fine
Colloq. Lausanne, pp. 145ff, figs. 114.
112. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 28, pl. 11.2; no. 63, pl. 12.4; nos. 90, 93 (?),
Arts.
pl. 16.1-2; no. 101, pl. 18.2-3; no. 116, 19.1-2.
152 Hoffmann

representations. Whereas formerly (on other vase- rhyton in Naples, 1 2 1


which finds direct parallels in
shapes) the g o d was generally s h o w n r e m o t e and a l o o f c o n t e m p o r a r y funerary sculpture.
f r o m his c o m p a n y o f satyrs and maenadsthese usually T h e t h i r t y - t w o A t t i c rhyta preserved f r o m this p e r i o d
undifferentiated, d a n c i n g , sometimes standinga b o n d represent the final flowering o f the shape i n A t t i c ce
o f i n t i m a c y n o w l i n k s the d i v i n i t y w i t h his retinue. O n ramics. T h e decoration o f the m a j o r i t y o f these is t i n g e d
a fragmentary Penthesilean r h y t o n i n A d r i a , 1 1 3
Dionysos w i t h the perfumed eastern e x o t i c i s m o f D i o n y s i a c m y s
seizes the fleeing A r i a d n e by the a r m i n a v a r i a t i o n o n tery r e l i g i o n c o m m o n i n A t h e n i a n v a s e - p a i n t i n g o f the
the " p u r s u i t o f a m o r t a l by a d i v i n i t y " theme, and o n a late fifth c e n t u r y . 122
O n a s t e m m e d G r o u p W ram's head
stemmed d o n k e y s-head r h y t o n i n the L o u v r e (figs. in Salerno, 123
the Persian k i n g o r is he Sabazios i n the
19ab) 114
a novice, or maenad-to-be, w r a p p e d i n her guise o f an oriental monarch?appears. H e is attended
m a n t l e a n d w i t h covered h a n d s , 115
sits s p e l l b o u n d i n the by N i k e , w h o hands h i m a d r i n k i n g h o r n , a n d by a
presence o f the g o d h i m s e l f or his m o r t a l minister, w h o Persian y o u t h h o l d i n g a flabellum o f the type used for
hands her a thyrsos as the pledge o f her initiation. Initia f a n n i n g pontiffs t h r o u g h o u t the ages. T h e g r y p o m a c h y
t i o n is also the subject o f the Sotadean ram's head i n o n the b o w l o f the w h i t e g r i f f i n head i n N a p l e s 1 2 4
also
B o s t o n (fig. 2 0 ) , 1 1 6
there perhaps as a funerary para belongs i n this exotic D i o n y s i a c context; so, too, the
digm. The scene, depicting a seated y o u t h tightly oriental f e n d i n g o f f the attack o f a g r i f f i n that has leapt
w r a p p e d i n his mantle facing a bareheaded goddess onto the back o f his rearing horse o n a r h y t o n i n
h o l d i n g shield and spear, seems to me to refer to a rite o f Leningrad. 1 2 5
T h e s e latter images are m y s t i c a l l y e n
passage: f r o m the u n i n i t i a t e d b o y to the adult w a r r i o r c o d e d allusions to sparmagds, the tearing o f l i v e v i c t i m s
a n d hence f r o m l i v i n g c i t i z e n to dead hero, the passage- i n the D i o n y s i a c sacrificial rite, w h i c h i n the p r e c e d i n g
i m a g e r y i m p l i c i t i n the ram's-head shape is thus re section was said to be suggested also b y the selection o f
flected also i n the p a i n t e d decoration. certain a n i m a l s g r i f f i n s , panthers, l i o n cubs, b u l l s f o r
T h e i m p l i c i t meanings o f three geranomachies, one the plastic part o f these vessels. T h u s the p a i n t e d g r y
b y the Sotades Painter and t w o i n his m a n n e r , 117
as w e l l p o m a c h y o n the N a p l e s r h y t o n can be t h o u g h t o f as
as o f three " k i n g s " (two o f t h e m r u n n i n g ) , 1 1 8
w i l l be "corresponding" to the plastic configuration o f the same
discussed i n m y f o r t h c o m i n g m o n o g r a p h o n Sotades. vessel, a g r i f f i n head. T h e s e are A t t i c predecessors o f a
T h e conceptual f r a m e w o r k o f the scenes delineated type o f i m a g e r y that w o u l d s o o n b e c o m e extremely
above can be described as m y s t i c and eschatological. c o m m o n i n O r p h i c South Italy. 126
O n other rhyta o f this
P o p u l a r interest has shifted away f r o m the c o n c e r n w i t h group, the r e c l i n i n g deity presides while a maenad
c i v i c arete to m o r e i n d i v i d u a l preoccupations, i n p a r t i c u dances i n his presence or hands h i m his d r i n k i n g
lar the quest for personal (transcendental) f u l f i l l m e n t i n horn. 1 2 7
In addition there are an Eros pursuing a
D i o n y s i a c enthousiasmos, the d i v i n e frenzy i n d u c e d by woman, 1 2 8
t w o dwarfs w i t h a h o u n d o n a lead (a " r e
certain k i n d s o f m u s i c , w i n e , and the use o f d r u g s . 119
verse w o r l d " h u n t ? ) , 129
and some single-figure scenes
T h e c r y p t i c a l l y v e i l e d m y s t i c affirmations discernible that can be t h o u g h t o f as variants, abbreviations, or e x
i n the painted decoration o f some m i d - c e n t u r y A t h e cerpts o f scenes that w e have p r e v i o u s l y considered:
n i a n r h y t a b e c o m e m o r e e x p l i c i t as the c e n t u r y pro Nike (thrice), 130
E o s ("pursuit o f a m o r t a l by a d i
gresses; i n d e e d one has the i m p r e s s i o n that the delicate vinity"), 1 3 1
and a v e r y fragmentary oriental y o u t h . O n a
mysticism o f a Sotades P a i n t e r 120
gives w a y i n the fine G r o u p W stag's head i n Basel (figs. 21ab), 132
a lone
late group to r o u t i n e d e v o t i o n a l i m a g e r y i n the service woman standing p e n s i v e l y between floral scrolls is
o f established cult. T y p i c a l for the p e r i o d after 430 B . C . characterized by these as a dead p e r s o n or an inhabitant
are scenes o f an o b v i o u s l y eschatological nature, such o f paradise. 133
T h e three r e m a i n i n g rhyta o f G r o u p W
as the mistress a n d m a i d o n a G r o u p W bull's-head feature a further r e d u c t i o n o f s y m b o l s : the w o m a n is

113. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 90. " A Series o f Pursuits: Images and Meanings," JHS 108 (1987); idem,
114. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 93, pi. 16.1-2. N o w C . B r o n , Colloq. "Menace and Pursuit: Differentiation and the Creation o f Meaning,"
Lausanne, 146 and fig. 4 ("homme barbu et couronn , ressemblant  i n Colloq. Lausanne, pp. 41ff., figs. 17.
Dionysos"). 119. See Burkert 1977, pp. 251ff., 432ff; Dodds 1951, pp. 270ff.
115. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 27, pl. 6.3. 120. S e e H . Hoffmann, Sotades (forthcoming).
116. O n Athena M-TJTnp i n the ephebic initiation rite, see K . K e r - 121. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 114, pi. 19.3-4.
nyi, " D i e Jungfra u und Mutter der griechischen Religion: Eine Stu- 122. See Metzger (note 69).
die ber Pallas Athena," Albae Vigiliae 12 (1952), pp. 45, 51 and index. 123. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 104, pi. 20.12. The reference may be to
117. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 38, 46, 49, pl. 10.1. an investment ritual: see H . Hoffmann and D. Metzler, Visible Religion,
118. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 33, pi. 6.4; no. 43, pi. 10.2; no. 52. O n vol. 5 (forthcoming).
this and related iconography, see most recently L>.  o u r v m o u - i n w o o a , 124. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 118, pi. 17.1-2. Alfldi (note 40) was the
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 153

Figure 2ia. Stag's-head rhyton. Right side. Basel, Figure 2ib. Front o f rhyton, figure 21a.
Antikenmuseum und Sammlung Ludwig,
1906.277. Photos, courtesy Antiken
museum.

replaced by a single palmette a n t h e m i o n i n the center o f w h i c h are based directly o n A t t i c models, the r h y t o n ,
the r h y t o n b o w l . O n l y the a k r o t e r i o n - l i k e o r n a m e n t for example, and the kantharos is never a regular shape
oriental plant o f paradise and sema (tomb marker) i n i n A t t i c pottery, so p r o b a b l y w h e n an A t t i c potter
oneremains. 134
w a n t e d or was asked to p r o d u c e one, he l o o k e d to m e t a l
models." 135
T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n m a d e i n the context o f a
P O T T E R Y R H Y T A AS SURROGATES FOR reply to M i c h a e l V i c k e r s ' recently p u b l i s h e d thesis ac
P R E C I O U S - M E T A L ORIGINALS? c o r d i n g to w h i c h A t t i c ceramic wares represent " d o w n
M a r t i n R o b e r t s o n , at a s y m p o s i u m o n G r e e k vases m a r k e t " copies o f m o r e prestigious objects i n precious
h e l d o n the recent occasion o f the centenary o f S i r J o h n m e t a l a n d the fact that the shapes and decorations o f
Beazley's b i r t h , m a d e a statement o f some consequence the former depend absolutely o n designs p r o d u c e d for
for the study o f G r e e k ceramics: " T h e r e are A t t i c shapes the latter 136
bear directly o n the final t w o questions to be

first to recognize the Dionysiac aspect o f such representations. For a 131. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 103.
differing interpretation, cf. K . D e Vries, " A t t i c Pottery i n the 132. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 109, pi. 20.3-4. N o w Basel, A n t i
Achaemenid Empire," AJA 82 (1977), p. 546. kenmuseum, 1906.277. Thanks to Margot Schmidt for photographs.
125. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 98, pi. 17.1-2. 133. O n the floral scrolls as "Seligkeitszeichen," see J. T h i m m e ,
126. O f interest i n this context: " D i o n y s i a c " animals are hunted " V o m Sinn der Bilder und Ornamente auf griechischen Vasen," An-
by Persians on the Xenophantes Painter's squat relief-lekythos i n taios 11 (1970), pp. 489ff, esp. p. 505.
Leningrad, ARV 1407, no. 1.
2
134. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 107, pi. 21.3-4; nos. 108, 110.
127. Hoffmann, ARR, no. I l l , pi. 19.1-2; no. 117. 135. D. Kurtz, ed., Beazley and Oxford: Lectures Delivered in Wolfson
128. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 116. College, Oxford, 28June 1985 (Oxford, 1985), p. 23.
129. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 97. 136. M . Vickers, " A r t f u l Crafts: The Influence o f Metalwork on
130. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 102, 106, pl. 21.1-2; no. 116 bis. Athenian Painted Pottery," J H S 105 (1985), pp. 108ff, pis. 4 - 5 ; idem,
154 Hoffmann

Figure 22a. Achaemenid bronze bull-protome rhyton. Figure 22b. Detail o f right side o f rhyton, figure 22a.
Left side. Antikenmuseum Berlin,
Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kultur-
besitz, 31158. Photos, U t e j u n g .

dealt w i t h i n the present study: C a n A t t i c p o t t e r y r h y t a T h e a s s u m p t i o n that G r e e k p o t t e r y r h y t a are i n some


be considered surrogates for p r e c i o u s - m e t a l originals? I f way related to r h y t a made o f b r o n z e or precious m e t a l
they can, h o w can w e define the relation o f the surrogate has been v o i c e d f r o m t i m e to t i m e i n the past b y various
to the o r i g i n a l ? W i t h o u t g o i n g here i n t o the merits o f authorities w r i t i n g o n the s h a p e , 137
and this s u p p o s i t i o n
V i c k e r s ' case for all G r e e k vases c o p y i n g precious metal, was, i n fact, considered to be so self-evident as to m a k e
or o f Robertson's p o s i t i o n that s o m e d o (rhyta and k a n any further d i s c u s s i o n unnecessary. T h e formulations
tharoi) but m o s t d o not, I s h o u l d l i k e to see what e m p l o y e d to characterize the nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p
a closer l o o k at the r h y t a f r o m the perspective pro b e t w e e n the p o t t e r y r h y t a and their p u r p o r t e d metal
posed here can contribute to o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the m o d e l s have generally been o p e n and unspecific, " i n f l u
r h y t a themselves. enced by," "related to," " d e r i v e d f r o m , " and "based o n "

"Imaginary Etruscans: Changing Perceptions o f Etruria Since the Fif triale e la tradizione storiografica su Agatocle," Historia 26 (1977), pp.
teenth Century," Hephaistos 7-8 (1985-1986), pp. 153ff, figs. 1-9. 33ff. (I owe this reference to Dieter Metzler); S. Holo, "Unpublished
137. Buschor (note 22), pp. 30f; G. Lippold, " D e r Plaste Sotades," Apulian Rhyta," GettyMusJ 1 (1974), pp. 85ff, figs. 1-23.
Mnchener Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst, 1952, pp. 90ff; J. Boardman, 140. O n the concept o f "generations," see Hoffmann, ARR, p. 12
" T h e Athenian Pottery Trade," Expedition 21 (Summer 1979), p. 35 and n. 20.
(rhyta "probably ape finer works i n metal"). 141. IG i (1981), p. 362, line 15 (brought to m y attention by
3

138. Vickers (note 136). Michael Vickers).


139. See the discussion o f technique given i n Hoffmann, ARR, pp. 142. Cast-metal votive rhyta might also have served as models.
3f. Late fifth-century Attic rhyta o f Class W (the Persian Class) are The small East Greek bronze rhyton dedicated to Hera by Diagoras
shown i n Hoffmann, ARR to have been made by taking molds from found i n 1965 i n the Heraion on Samos (G. Kopcke, AM 83 [1968],
rhyta made i n the Sotadean workshop a half century earlier. A l s o p. 290; Greek Art of the Aegean Islands, N e w York, The Metropolitan
relevant to this discussion: M . A . Cavallaro, " U n 'tendency' indus- M u s e u m o f Art, 1980, no. 140; Muscarella [note 44], p. 193, where the
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 155

(as R o b e r t s o n , above) b e i n g the terms m o s t frequently T h e t w o earliest types are the straight rhyta and the bent
used. Vickers h i m s e l f 1 3 8
uses " e v o k e d , " " c l o s e l y re rhyta on stands, or stemmed rhyta, and these m a y be c o n
lated," " i n f l u e n c e d by," " i n s p i r e d by," " i m i t a t i n g , " and sidered as t w o parallel series t h r o u g h o u t the d e v e l o p
" d e p e n d e d o n " w h e n speaking o f A t h e n i a n painted p o t ment. T h e t h i r d type, bent rhyta without stands, comes i n
tery i n relation to m e t a l l i c forms generally. T h e w o r d at the m i d d l e o f the century, remains rare u n t i l the c e n
" c o p y " occurs i n his text o n l y once i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h tury's end, and then becomes the d o m i n a n t type i n
his a r g u m e n t that A t h e n i a n vase-painters " c o p i e d " the fourth-century South Italy. A fourth type, the horn rhyta,
colors o f metal and i v o r y vases, n o t i n reference to shape. w i l l be discussed briefly at the v e r y end, since it is pe
W i t h rhyta the case is e n t i r e l y different. Pottery rhyta ripheral to this i n q u i r y .
are quite literally and o b v i o u s l y " m e c h a n i c a l c o p i e s " o f T h e earliest A t t i c pottery r h y t a are o f the first t w o
" o r i g i n a l s " i n a s m u c h as they were series-produced w i t h types, g o o d examples b e i n g the B r y g a n s and the D o u -
a m o l d f r o m a positive m o d e l w h e t h e r a solid-core rians (figs. 3, 1 0 ) . 143
T h e i r m e t a l prototypes w o u l d have
terracotta p a t r i x or a h a m m e r e d sheet-metal r h y t o n , or been w e l l adapted for d r i n k i n g , especially w h e n provided
perhaps b o t h , remains to be c o n s i d e r e d . 139
w i t h a liner, for these r h y t a are, i n effect, tankards. In
In fact it has been s h o w n that A t h e n i a n p o t t e r y rhyta H o f f m a n 1961 I described the s t e m m e d rhyta as an u n
were frequently c o p i e d m e c h a n i c a l l y f r o m f i n i s h e d p o t easy c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n a Persian r h y t o n and an A t t i c
tery rhyta s t i l l o n the potter's shelf. T h e existence o f d r i n k i n g vessel. T h e (standless) Persian rhyta that these
replica " g e n e r a t i o n s " 140
o f r h y t a makes it evident that A t h e n i a n creations a w k w a r d l y i m i t a t e were o f metal
the reproductive technique o f t a k i n g casts o f finished (figs. 22ab). 144
When Greek silversmiths equipped
products was c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d b y K e r a m e i k o s p o t t h e m w i t h a stand (i.e., assimilated the m o d e l to a Greek
ters t h r o u g h o u t the fifth century B . C . F r o m there the kantharos), they o b v i o u s l y d i d so to adapt the m o d e l to
step to u s i n g p r e c i o u s - m e t a l r h y t a as p r o d u c t i o n m o d e l s a different use. M o r e w i l l be said about this i n the f o l
was not a great one. T h e g o l d e n r h y t a m e n t i o n e d i n the l o w i n g section, w h e r e the t h i r d and f o u r t h types w i l l
Parthenon inventory o f 434/433 141
whether o f Greek also be discussed.
or Persian makeare ample p r o o f that such m o d e l s e x B r y g a n donkey's and the hound's head (fig. 3) give
isted and were a v a i l a b l e . 142
every i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g m o d e l e d sculptures rather
T h e q u e s t i o n posed b y V i c k e r s for G r e e k vases gener than derivations f r o m a hammered-metal original. In the
allyare they originals or copies?could therefore, hound's heads i n particular m u c h o f the lifelike effect o f
w h e n applied to rhyta, be paraphrased to read: Was the these sculptures derives f r o m the free-hand m o d e l i n g , or
c o p y i n g o f p r e c i o u s - m e t a l rhyta i n p o t t e r y a common reshaping, o f the c y l i n d r i c a l b o w l to indicate the a n i
practice? A n d further: A r e the majority o f s u r v i v i n g A t t i c mal's anatomy. T h e r e is n o t h i n g i n any o f these rhyta
rhyta m e c h a n i c a l l y derived f r o m m e t a l prototypes, or that can be said to betray the t y p i c a l h a l l m a r k s o f re
are they m o r e generally speaking " i n f l u e n c e d b y " or p o u s s m e t a l p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h one w o u l d expect to
"based o n " such? A careful stylistic analysisthe c o m f i n d transmitted i f these w o r k s were m a d e w i t h casts
p a r i s o n , w i t h an eye to fine details, o f the p o t t e r y rhyta taken f r o m p r e c i o u s - m e t a l o r i g i n a l s . 145
W i t h the D o u -
w i t h such m e t a l examples o f the shape as existcan, I r i a n l i o n s (figs. 10ab) and w i t h the vultures the case is
t h i n k , help us answer these focal questions. somewhat different. T h e lions-head rhyta feature a small
Before u n d e r t a k i n g such an analysis, it w i l l be neces a n i m a l head quite i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the earlier b l a c k -
sary to d i s t i n g u i s h clearly b e t w e e n three p r i n c i p a l types figured one-handled k a n t h a r o i , 146
for w h i c h a metal p r o
o f A t t i c rhyta, for each has its o w n m o r p h o l o g y , and totype can almost certainly be assumed. It is framed by a
w h a t applies to one type need not apply to the other. molded ruff on which flamelocks are depicted w i t h

object is said to be Persian, "maybe Achaemenian or slightly earlier") reproduction i n South Italy o f Athenian rhyta that are older by more
goes typologically w i t h the terracotta rhyta. Like these, it is purely than a century.
votive and symbolic. The calf's-head rhyton o f cast bronze i n Berlin, 143. Hoffmann, ARR, pp. lOff, 13ff, pis. 2-5.1-2.
Hoffmann 1966, pp. 123f, pl. 1, is, I now believe, a model for the 144. Cf. the list given by Muscarella (note 44), p. 193.
repouss production o f rhyta i n precious metal. The object, w h i c h 145. In all the Brygansrams, donkeys, and hounds alikethe
lacks a handle and never had one, is rough on the inside. It has a round ears are artfully hand-modeled, no pair being quite like the other, and
hole i n the muzzle, where the spout goes. The fact that the object is a they are attached so as to merge organically w i t h the mold-made part.
model helps explain the negative kymation at the r i m i n w h i c h Robert 146. M o s t recently, D. C . Kurtz, i n H . Brijder, ed., Proceedings of
Z a h n saw "an ornament misunderstood by the artist." Votive rhyta o f the Second International Vase Symposium Amsterdam, 1984 (Amsterdam,
precious metal may have had the status o f sacra in the funerary cult and 1985), p. 371.
have been treated w i t h the reverence accorded to sacred relics. This
w o u l d better than "stylistic conservativism" explain the mechanical
156 Hoffmann

Figure 23. Gilt-silver deer's-head rhyton from Tarentum. Left side. Trieste, Museo Civico, no inv. number (from Antike und
Abendland 13 [1967], plate opposite p. 101).

Figure 24. Deer's-head rhyton. Right side. Paris, Bibliothque Nationale, 872. Photo, P h o t o t q u e des
Muses de la Ville de Paris.
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 157

short glazelines i n a m a n n e r i m i t a t i n g e n g r a v i n g o n perhaps c o p y i n g a h a m m e r e d - m e t a l r h y t o n , seems to


g o l d or silver, and i n a d d i t i o n it is d o u b l e - w a l l e d at the r e m a i n the exception.
head end, a reflection o f the i n n e r l i n e r o f the m e t a l T h e general inference that can be d r a w n f r o m the pre-
o r i g i n a l that is quite unnecessary i n c l a y 1 4 7
c e d i n g analysis is that the q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r or not
T h e D o u r i a n vulture's head w i t h its b r o a d and scant- A t t i c p o t t e r y rhyta c o p y m e t a l w o r k cannot be answered
i l y articulated contours l i k e w i s e gives the i m p r e s s i o n o f w i t h a s i m p l e yes or no. S o m e w o u l d seem to, others
c o p y i n g precious metal. H e r e again, the painted surface do not. I leave it for others to decide w h e t h e r some
details i m p l y a metal m o d e l w i t h i n c i s e d linear details: o f w h a t has been said above m i g h t apply also to the
T h e feathers are a m e t i c u l o u s pattern o f r i b b e d scales kantharos, the phiale, the k y l i x , the amphora, the sit-
suggestive o f chased g o l d and silver p l a t e , 148
and the ula, the stamnos, the psykter, the h y d r i a , and even the
teardrop-shaped depression f r a m i n g the bird's eyes s u g - various shapes o f k r a t e r a l l o f w h i c h also exist i n
gests an inlay i n a contrasting material. metal versions. 154

In H o f f m a n 1966 I compared the numerous bent rhyta


o f C l a s s W w i t h s u r v i v i n g examples o f g o l d and silver "TRUE" RHYTA
r h y t a f o u n d i n Thrace, S o u t h Russia, and T a r e n t u m , A N D T H E DIONYSIAC SYMPOSIUM
some o f w h i c h are c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h the latest A t t i c Having reached these preliminary conclusions, I
p o t t e r y rhyta. I c o n c l u d e d that the p o t t e r y examples are w o u l d l i k e to shift the level o f this i n q u i r y f r o m the
for the large part not replicas o f m e t a l originals. A p o i n t question of "original" versus " c o p y " to another
made i n support o f this c o n c l u s i o n is w o r t h repeating: possibly more rewardingplane o f investigation. It
The goldsmith's repouss technique is better adapted for seems to m e that the f u n c t i o n o f G r e e k painted p o t t e r y
the rendering o f ornament than anatomy, the contours i n general, and o f the r h y t a and k a n t h a r o i i n particular,
of animal heads i n gold and silver tend to be broad and has n o t been sufficiently explored. F o r the r h y t a the
faceted, rather than subtly structured. . . . The shiny q u e s t i o n as to w h y i n the first place some s h o u l d have
surface o f gold and silver, moreover, tends to obscure been made o f clay and others o f g o l d and silver has not
the finer details o f modeling; for this reason details such yet really been asked, let alone answered. Is it s i m p l y
as fleece, whorls o f fur, eyebrows, etc., i n a hammered that the former are the " d o w n m a r k e t " o r " p o o r man's"
rhyton are invariably indicated with the chasing or en-
v e r s i o n o f the latter, or is there another, m o r e f u n d a -
graving t o o l . 149

mental distinction?
A c o m p a r i s o n o f the stag's and deer's heads o f C l a s s R e c o n s i d e r i n g the first t w o types o f rhyta as w e have
W (see figs. 21ab, 2 4 ) 150
w i t h the ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o n - j u s t described t h e m , it begins to d a w n o n one that
temporary) silver deer's-head r h y t o n f o u n d at T a r e n t u m whereas b o t h are d r i n k i n g vessels w i t h heroic c o n n o t a -
(fig. 2 3 ) 151
or the (later) g o l d e n stag's-head r h y t o n f r o m tions, metal o r i g i n a l s o f the t h i r d type, the bent, or
Panagurishte 152
s t i l l bears out m y c o n t e n t i o n o f 1966 " t r u e " rhyta, cannot be d r i n k i n g vessels at a l l . T h e y are
that C l a s s W p o t t e r y rhyta are m o d e l e d sculptures. o p e n at b o t h ends, that is to say pierced or spouted for
O n l y the head o f a f a w n w i t h b u d d i n g horns, i n the the flow o f l i q u i d , thus c o r r e s p o n d i n g quite literally to
B i b l i o t h q u e N a t i o n a l e (fig. 2 4 ) , 153
can be t h o u g h t o f as the e t y m o l o g y o f the ancient name for this shape: ruton
possibly reflecting h a m m e r e d metal. or rutos, f r o m rusis, meaning " f l o w i n g " (Athen. 11.497e).
A s further evidence for m o d e l e d over h a m m e r e d , the T h e y are, i n other w o r d s , t h e r i o m o r p h i c funnels. A l l
various a n i m a l heads o f C l a s s W rhytarams, stags, m e t a l bent r h y t a that have s u r v i v e d b o t h G r e e k and
deers, and bullshave sufficient idiosyncrasies o f style A c h a e m e n i a n h a v e this f u n c t i o n , w h i l e w i t h few e x -
i n c o m m o n to permit their attribution to a single potter- ceptions, 155
a l l G r e e k p o t t e r y examples d o not, since
coroplast, quite p r o b a b l y yet another specialist i n plastic they are closed at the l o w e r end. H e n c e w h e n Athenaeus
vases. T h i s alone w o u l d seem to rule out the p o s s i b i l i t y at 11.497e quotes D o r o t h e o s o f S i d o n as saying that
o f these objects b e i n g m e c h a n i c a l l y d e r i v e d f r o m m e t a l - r h y t a have a hole i n t h e m f r o m w h i c h l i q u i d spurts, it is
ware. T h e Paris f a w n , w h i c h can be t h o u g h t o f as clear that m e t a l r h y t a are meant.

147. Cf. True (note 27), p. 93. 152. N o w Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria, British M u s e u m ,
148. Cf. for example Vickers-Impey-Allan, pi. 7, bottom. London, 1976, nos. 353-359, 544, 547 (catalogue by I. Venedikov).
149. Hoffmann 1966, p. 107. 153. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 106, pi. 21.1-2.
150. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 106-109, pl. 20.4; pl. 21. 154. See Vickers (note 136) and Vickers-Impey-Allan, pis. 18.
151. G o o d illustrations i n E . Simon, "Boreas und Oreithyia auf 155. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 69, pi. 12.3 (from Achaemenid Syria),
dem silbernen R h y t o n i n Trieste," Antike und Abendland 13 (1967), no. 96, pi. 17.3-4.
colorplate and figs. 15.
158 Hoffmann

Figure 25. Gilt-silver deer's-head rhyton from Figure 26. G o l d and silver rhyton o f the fifth century
Rosovec. Front. Sofia, National Museum, B . C . from Russia. Left side (from Leskov,
B 49 (from Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria, CoKpoBma KqpraHOB A^biren , pi. 13).
no. 314).

L e t us, then, l o o k again at the second type, the bent B o t h the straight and the s t e m m e d r h y t a appear i n
rhyta on stands, such as the S a b o u r o f f r h y t o n i n B e r l i n A t h e n i a n ceramics at precisely the t i m e w h e n the cults
(figs, lab) w i t h w h i c h w e began o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Is it o f the m y t h o l o g i c a l heroes are b e i n g r e v i v e d and h e r o -
s i m p l y that the G r e e k potter " m a d e the Persian r h y t o n banquets reinstituted w i t h a conscious p o l i t i c a l i n t e n -
fit his n o t i o n o f w h a t a d r i n k i n g vessel o u g h t to b e , " 156
t i o n . B y firing the p a t r i o t i s m (read c h a u v i n i s m 157
) o f the
o r is there p o s s i b l y m o r e to it than that? In order to A t h e n i a n s i n the w a k e o f their great v i c t o r y over the
answer this question, the h i s t o r i c and c u l t u r a l context Persians, the successors o f K l e i s t h e n e s h o p e d to break
needs to be considered. the p o w e r o f the o l d noble families and to fuse the

156. Hoffmann 1961, p. 22. ing rooms (with space for seven klinai each), dating from the middle
157. F r o m Nicolas Chauvin o f Rochefort, a soldier o f the First o f the fifth century, recently excavated i n the Athenian South Stoa,
Republic and Empire, whose demonstrative patriotism and attachment was unfortunately not available to me at the time o f writing.
to Napoleon came to be ridiculed by his comrades (Webster's Collegiate 162. Gatzl967, p. 11.
Dictionary). 163. K r o n 1976, pp. 35, 242ff. Cf. also Burkert 1977, pp. 312ff. and
158. See K r o n 1976. O n the reform o f Kleisthenes, see C . Meier, the important discussion by M . Andronikos i n "Totenkult," Ar-
Die Entstehung des politischen Denkens bei den Griechen (Hamburg, cheologica Homrica, vol. 3 (Gttingen, 1968), pp. 126ff.
1980), pp. 91f, and the bibliography given i n n. 2; R Levque and 164. Hoffmann 1961, p. 25. For a different view, cf. M . Vickers,
R Vidal-Naquet, Clisthne l'Athnien (Paris, 1964). " A t t i c Symposia after the Persian Wars," i n O. Murray, ed., Sympotica
159. Ibid. (Oxford, 1985).
160. Burkert 1977, pp. 316f. and n. 39. 165. For the idealization o f the "good old times," see also D r r i e
161. Burkert 1977, p. 315; N o c k 1944. C . Brker, Festbankett und 1972; Gladigow 1974.
griechische Architektur (Berlin, 1983), dealing w i t h the fifteen banquet- 166. Hoffmann, ARR, no. 51, pi. 12.2; G . M . Gabrini, Numana:
Rhyta and Kantharoi in Greek Ritual 159

various m u t u a l l y exclusive k i n s h i p groups o f A t h e n s nalia, m a y at this m o m e n t o u s t i m e i n A t h e n i a n h i s t o r y


i n t o a cohesive social a n d p o l i t i c a l unity, the d e m o c r a t i c have served to r e m i n d the A t h e n i a n s o f their own
city-state. T h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A t t i c a i n t o ten phylai, " g o l d e n , " or heroic, p a s t . 165

each w i t h its o w n e p o n y m o u s hero, was the single m o s t T h e final step i n the history o f A t t i c rhyta w i l l n o w be
i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l act associated w i t h this undertak considered, n a m e l y the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the stemless bent
ing. 1 5 8
C o n c u r r e n t l y , the ancient cults attached to these rhyta, w h i c h m a k e their appearance i n A t t i c ceramics at
heroes were reinstated or, w h e r e they never existed, the m i d d l e o f the fifth century, c o i n c i d e n t a l w i t h a g e n
newly instituted. 159
In 475 B . C . f o l l o w e d the e x h u m a t i o n eral e x p l o s i o n o f D i o n y s i a c i m a g e r y (in the plastic b e s t i
and reinterment o f T h e s e u s ' b o n e s . 160
It is i n this b r o a d ary and i n painted decoration). T h e hound's head b y
context that w e m u s t also see the great importance the potter Sotades, a specialist i n plastic vases (figs.
n o w attached to p u b l i c banquets celebrating the B r o n z e 14ab), 166
seems to be the earliest extant example o f this
Age heroes 161
and, l i n k e d w i t h these, the importance n e w type. It dates f r o m about 450 B . C . F r o m this t i m e
o f the rhyta. o n w a r d the shape, a l t h o u g h r e m a i n i n g relatively r a r e , 167

W h a t B r o n z e A g e heroes have i n c o m m o n is their coexists w i t h the m o r e c o m m o n s t e m m e d v a r i e t y . 168

great a n t i q u i t y 162
and the fact that i n Classical times they Surprisingly, among fourth-century South Italian
were most c o m m o n l y v i s u a l i z e d as banqueters at an rhyta the ratio o f s t e m m e d to stemless is reversed: the
"eternal s y m p o s i u m . " W h a t rhyta and k a n t h a r o i have i n latter are the rule; those w i t h stems are r a r i t i e s . 169
The
c o m m o n is that they b e l o n g to the earliest and m o s t m e a n i n g b e h i n d this p u z z l i n g statistic w i l l , I think,
venerable o f A e g e a n vase-shapes and that b y the fifth s h o r t l y become clear.
century, at the latest, they were associated w i t h heroes. W h e n p o t t e r y bent r h y t a d o away w i t h stands, this
A s more becomes k n o w n about the u n b r o k e n continuity can o n l y m e a n that their m e t a l prototypes have done so
o f B r o n z e A g e cult practices i n t o h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s , 1 6 3
also and have been p r o v i d e d w i t h spouts to flow again.
does it not seem conceivable and even l i k e l y that d r i n k ( A fair n u m b e r o f the latter, d a t i n g f r o m the late fifth
ing f r o m p r e c i o u s - m e t a l r h y t a and k a n t h a r o i i n c o n and early fourth centuries B . C . , have i n fact survived, the
scious a l l u s i o n to the d r i n k i n g vessels used b y the b e s t - k n o w n examples b e i n g the g i l t - s i l v e r deer's heads
heroes themselves s h o u l d have constituted a major fea f r o m T a r e n t u m and Rosovec, i n the m u s e u m s o f Trieste
ture o f the ritual banquets i n s t i t u t e d at this t i m e to and Sofia respectively) (figs. 23, 2 5 ) . 1 7 0
I interpret this to
commemorate heroes o f the past, and that A t h e n i a n mean that whereas the rhyta used i n the manner o f tank
banqueters o n such occasions w o u l d have offered toasts ards (i.e., d r u n k f r o m over the r i m ) at the hero-banquets
to their heroes out o f the heroes' o w n " s p e c i a l " d r i n k o f " A t h e n s ' golden age" were straight rhyta and stemmed
i n g vessels? rhyta (i.e., types 1 and 2, fig. 2 6 ) 171
, a t h i r d type, the
Seen i n h i s t o r i c a l context, then, the appearance o f stemless bent rhyta, or " t r u e " rhyta, was n o w p r o b a b l y
pottery rhyta i n A t h e n s at the e n d o f the A r c h a i c p e r i o d b e i n g used i n the m a n n e r o r i g i n a l l y connected w i t h this
is surely significant, and o f greater p o t e n t i a l h i s t o r i c i n shape. Specifically, w h a t I a m suggesting is that these
terest than the "instance o f P e r s i a n i s m " o n w h i c h I h a d " t r u e " rhyta, m a d e o f m e t a l and pierced for the flow o f
p r e v i o u s l y c o n c l u d e d . W i t h o u t w i s h i n g to deny the i m l i q u i d , were e m p l o y e d i n a m o d i f i e d b a n q u e t i n g rite
portance o f Persian models, and p o s s i b l y o f the spoils o f centering o n the passing o f w i n e t h r o u g h an a n i m a l
Plataea, 164
for the i n i t i a l toreutic p r o d u c t i o n , I a m today head or p r o t o m e p r i o r to its l i b a t i o n a l use and eventual
i n c l i n e d to believe that the ideal o f the Persian banquet, c o n s u m p t i o n , v e r y p r o b a b l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the P e r
not s i m p l y the influence o f foreign banqueting parapher sian and T h r a c i a n use o f the s h a p e . 172

Vasi Attici da Collezioni (Rome, 1984), no. 37, pis. 23, 24a. 172. See below (note 195). See also E . Simon, AntK 3 (1960),
167. Cf. Hoffmann, ARR, nos. 112, 113, 124. The Brygan hounds pp. 3ff, esp. p. 7. While I do not concur w i t h Simon's monosemantic
and donkeys (Hoffmann, ARR, pis. 2.34; 3) are not bent, or "true," interpretations o f the individual rhyta, her discussion o f the function
rhyta typologically speaking since their curvaturereverse to that o f of these vessels as a group in some ways anticipates the conclusions I
the latteris not functionally motivated to promote the flow o f liquid h