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Ministry of Energy ENERGIA International Network on European Union Practical Action East Africa

Renewable Energy Department Gender & Sustainable Energy




23RD 27TH OCTOBER 2006
The Workshop is an initiative of the TIE-ENERGIA project with the support of the European Union under Grant
Agreement Number: EIE/04/198/SO7.39677

Supported by

The sole responsibility for the content of this report lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the
European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information
contained therein.


Standing from left:

Margaret Owino, Kamwati Wango, Nancy Nguru, Paul Mbuthi, Evelyne Avagala, Julius Kirima, Joyce Kabura,
Margaret Ndungu, Dennis Langat, Helen Owala, Samuel Ihure

Seated from left:

Monica Waweru, Faith Kathambi, George Gikonyo, Mary Kiema, Andrew Isoe, Faith Odongo, Calvince Mbeo,
Lydia Muchiri


We wish to acknowledge the invaluable support received from various organizations and individuals towards
the success of this workshop namely:
The Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, Centre for Clean Technology and
Environmental Policy at the University of Twente for their intensive input towards the development of the
Gender and Energy Training Package. The training would have been very difficult to conceive without the
The International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA), for their contribution towards the
commissioning of the training modules and trainers guides.
Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Commission, the Directorate General of
International Cooperation of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS) and the Swedish International
Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) for providing the funds to implement the programme Turning
Information into Empowerment: Strengthening Gender and Energy Networking in Africa (TIE-ENERGIA).
This workshop is a product of the TIE-ENERGIA programme.
The ETC Foundation for implementing the TIE-ENERGIA programme on behalf of a consortium of partners
namely ECO Limited UK, East Africa Energy Technology and Development Network (EATDN) as the Regional
Network Coordinator (RNC), Intermediate Technology Development Group for Eastern Africa hereafter
referred to as Practical Action East Africa and KuSiNi Centre for Knowledge and Sustainable Governance
and Natural resources Management.
Practical Action in collaboration with EAETDN and Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI)
for providing the foundation and imparting training skills through the Training of Trainers workshop held at
Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi from 21st to 26th November 2005.
Practical Action for the technical guidance and backstopping services offered during the planning and
implementation of the workshop. In particular we would like to thank Mr. Daniel Theuri and Ms. Lydia Muchiri
for their invaluable input.
The Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Energy, for finding this programme worthy of our participation
and implementation, and giving us all the necessary support and guidance.
All the resource people who contributed in one way or the other to the workshop programme. In particular
contributions by Mr. Nelson Manyeki Maina, Mr. James Muriithi and Ms. Lydia Muchiri in form of technical
papers and case studies are greatly appreciated. The contribution by Sustainable Community Development
Organisation (SCODE) through the tireless efforts of Ms. Monica Waweru in organizing the field visits was a
major one as it gave the participants practical experience of using the Gender Planning Framework as a
planning tool.
The participants of the workshop and the organizations they represent for their contributions and support.
Without them, there would have been no workshop.
The groups and homes that received the workshop participants for the field exercise. They made the work
very easy by their warm welcome and send off.
Mr. Kamwati Wango for compiling the report

Faith Odongo and Paul Mbuthi

Renewable Energy Department
Ministry of Energy
November 2006


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................................... iii

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................. vi
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.................................................................................................................. viii
1 PREPARATION FOR AND ORGANISATION OF THE WORKSHOP ............................................1
2 INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................3
3 BRIEF ON THE TIE ENERGIA PROGRAM ............................................................................5
4 OPENING SPEECH ................................................................................................................ 7
5 GENDER AND ENERGY IN KENYA, PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES ........................................9
6 GENDER AND GENDER ROLES ............................................................................................ 12
7 IMPORTANCE OF GENDER IN ENERGY PLANNING.............................................................. 14
8 BRIEFING ON ACTION PLANNING...................................................................................... 16
9 GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN ENERGY PLANNING ............................................................17
10 RELATING ENERGY TO GENDER GOALS.............................................................................. 18
11.1 THE KENYA WOMEN AND ENERGY PROJECT ..................................................................... 20
11.2 TUNGU KABIIRI COMMUNITY MICRO HYDRO PROJECT ...................................................... 21
11.3 THE KENYA TRADE AND POVERTY PROGRAM (KTPP) ......................................................... 21
11.4 SOLAR COOKERS ......................................................................................................... 22
11.5 SOLAR DRIERS ............................................................................................................ 24
12 GENDER ANALYTIC TOOLS................................................................................................. 25
13 IDENTIFYING STAKEHOLDERS........................................................................................... 26
14 PROBLEM ANALYSIS /PROJECT FORMULATION .................................................................28
15 IDENTIFYING ASSUMPTIONS AND SUMMING UP...............................................................29
17 PARTICIPATORY DATA GATHERING METHODS ..................................................................32
18 GENDER, ENERGY POLICY AND ADVOCACY ........................................................................ 33
19 SUMMARY OF FIELD WORK REPORTS ................................................................................ 34
19.1 GROUP 1: SOLAR DRYING TECHNOLOGY SOLAI AREA NAKURU .................................... 34
19.2 GROUP 2: SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC HOME SYSTEM............................................................. 34
19.3 GROUP 3 HOUSEHOLD BIOGAS DIGESTER.................................................................... 35
19.5 SUMMING UP PRESENTATION OF FIELD EXERCISE REPORTS.............................................. 35
20 SUMMARY OF ACTION PLANS ............................................................................................ 36
21 SUMMARY OF WORKSHOP EVALUATION ............................................................................38
21.1 TRAINING METHODOLOGY AND DELIVERY....................................................................... 39
21.2 RELEVANCE TO POLICY ISSUES ..................................................................................... 40
22 WORKSHOP CLOSING ........................................................................................................ 41
22.1 CLOSING SPEECH ........................................................................................................ 41
22.2 VOTE OF THANKS ........................................................................................................ 41
ANNEXES ......................................................................................................................................42

ANNEX 1: TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT REPORT ...................................................................... 42
ANNEX 2: WORKSHOP PROGRAMME ............................................................................................. 46
ANNEX 3: FIELD WORK GUIDELINES ............................................................................................ 48
ANNEX 4: ACTION PLANNING GUIDELINES .................................................................................. 49
ANNEX 5: CASE STUDIES NOT PRESENTED TO THE PLENARY........................................................51
5a. MARKETING OF HOUSEHOLD STOVES............................................................................. 51
5b. GENDER INTERESTS IN HORTICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION ............................................ 51
5c. GENDER AND TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION.............................................................. 52
5d. GENDER AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION ........................................................................... 52
5e. GENDER AND THE CHARCOAL TRADE ............................................................................. 54
5f. GENDER AND MODERN ENERGY SERVICES ...................................................................... 54
5g. GENDER IN RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROGRAMS ............................................................ 55
ANNEX 6: GROUP REPORTS ON THE FIELD EXERCISE ...................................................................57
6a GROUP 1: SOLAR DRYING TECHNOLOGY SOLAI AREA NAKURU ..................................... 57
6b GROUP 2: SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC HOME SYSTEM............................................................. 60
6c GROUP 3: HOUSEHOLD BIOGAS DIGESTER ..................................................................... 62
ANNEX 7: A COMPENDIUM OF ACTION PLANS .............................................................................. 69
7a. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION PROGRAM FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT......................................... 69
7b. ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ..................................................................... 71
7d. YADSTI TREE-PLANTING & ENERGY SAVING COOKSTOVES PROJECT................................... 75
7h. PROMOTION OF BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................... 81
7i. ENGENDERING THE TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION ..................................................... 83
BRANCH OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE.............................................................................. 84
7k. ENERGY POLICY AND ADVOCACY ................................................................................... 86
ANNEX 8: EVALUATION ACCORDING TO THE TOPICS PRESENTED ................................................91
ANNEX 9: SAMPLE EVALUATION FORMS ....................................................................................... 96
ANNEX 10: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS ............................................................................................ 103
ANNEX 11: TRAINERS DETAILS.................................................................................................. 105
ANNEX 12: WORKSHOP BUDGET ................................................................................................. 107


AIRC Agricultural Information and Resource Centre

ASK Agricultural Society of Kenya
CBOs Community Based Organizations
CD Compact Disc
CDF Constituency Development Fund
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CIGs Common Interest Groups
CO Carbon Monoxide
DGIS Directorate General of International Cooperation of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affair
DVD Digital Versatile Disc
EAETDN East African Energy Technology Development Network
EE Energy Efficiency
ESAMI Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute
FAULU-Kenya A Micro Finance Institution
GEF-KAM Global Environment Facility Kenya Association of Manufacturers
GOK Government of Kenya
GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit
IEC Information, Education and Communication
ITDG-EA Intermediate Technology Development Group Eastern Africa
JUA-KALI Informal enterprises
KCJ Kenya Ceramic Jiko
K-REP A Micro Finance Institution
KuSiNi Centre for Knowledge and Sustainable Governance and Natural Resources Management
KWFT Kenya Women Finance Trust
LCD Liquid Crystal Device
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MEKO Jiko A small gas cylinder (3 or 6 kg) with a burner and/or lamp
MOA Ministry of Agriculture
MOCD Ministry of Cooperative Development
MOE Ministry of Energy
MoLF Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries
MoTI Ministry of Trade and Industry
MT Metric Tonnes
NALEP National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Programme
NEMA National Environment management Authority
NGOs Non Governmental Organizations
PA Provincial Administration
PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal

PV Photovoltaic
RNC Regional Network Coordinator
RPM Respirable Particulate Matter
RRA Rapid Rural Appraisal
SCI Solar Cookers International
SCODE Sustainable Community Development
SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
SME Small and Medium Scale Enterprises
TB Tuberculosis
TIE-ENERGIA Turning Information into Empowerment: Strengthening Gender and Networking in Africa
TOT Training of Trainers
UGALI A common meal in Kenya made from maize flour
UK United Kingdom
URTI Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
WHO World Health Organisation
YADSTI Youth Agency for Development of Science & Technology Innovations

This report presents a record of the proceedings of the National Training Workshop on Gender and Energy for
energy planners and managers in Kenya, held at Water Buck Hotel, Nakuru, between 23rd and 27th October
2006. The training workshop is a continuation of a series of training conducted by the International Network
on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA) with the aim of mainstreaming gender considerations in
energy planning and service delivery.
The workshop follows from the Africa Training of Trainers workshop held at Lenana Mount Hotel, Nairobi,
from 21st to 26th November 2005, where trainers from various African countries acquired training skills that
would enable them conduct training on gender and energy issues, specifically introducing gender as a
concept, relating it to energy services and use of various gender analytic and planning tools in energy
Participants for the workshop were drawn from various sectors, including government ministries, civil
society, government bodies and the academia. The objectives of the workshop were to introduce planners to
gender as a concept, highlight the relationship between gender and energy and equip them with the skills
and tools necessary to undertake engendered energy planning and service delivery.
The workshop began with critical rethink of what participants perceived to be gender. It was interesting to
note that while most participants had previous acquaintance with gender as a concept, few had an in depth
understanding of how gender manifests itself in the lives of men and women, particularly as to how the
social gender contract determines who performs what roles in society and what privileges, rights and duties
are accorded to each gender. In reviewing the manifestations of gender, participants were able to appreciate
gender as an integral part of the acculturation process. From the very onset, children are taught what the
appropriate behaviours and traits for boys and girls should be. The process of acculturation also has subtle
but powerful influences on what paths girls and boys take in life, particularly in modern society, as relates to
careers. In this respect, it was noted that the traditional masculine attributes of boldness and ability to deal
with tough situations is reflected in the encouragement for boys to take up technical careers, while girls are
nudged towards careers that have a link with their traditional roles as mothers and caregivers.
However, in analysing cross cultural differences in gender roles, participants were able to appreciate that
manifest gender roles have very limited ties with biologically defined characteristics of men and women i.e.
sex. Participants were also able to appreciate the inherent variability of gender roles, and more importantly,
how gender roles create different energy needs for men and women. It was noted while women are
responsible for collection and use of biomass fuels, the countrys most predominant energy source, they have
been accorded little opportunity to participate in the planning and delivery of biomass energy systems. Part
of this exclusion is traceable to the fact that in Kenya, women control or own very little of the land from
which biomass fuels are obtained. Nevertheless, women bear the ever increasing burden of collecting
biomass fuels, and the negative health and welfare impacts associated with the use of biomass fuels. It was
also noted that with increasing scarcity of high quality biomass fuels, these impacts are becoming more and
more acute.
Participants were also guided through a rigorous session on the identification and differences between
various gender needs, which derive from the gender roles in society. From this session, participants were
able to gain a better understanding of the capacity of energy services to ease current gender roles, as well
as to challenge existing gender relations. Participants were also briefed on the various approaches in the
evolution of gender approaches in development. By sequencing the various approaches, from gender blind,
women only, to gender biased approaches and their deficiencies, participants were able to identify with the
case for gender mainstreaming, especially as it relates to the delivery of gender goals i.e. welfare,
productivity, efficiency, and empowerment.
Coverage of this topic was particularly pertinent given the limited understanding in most circles of energy
services, and almost equal measure of scepticism over the relevance of gender in development in some
circles. By proffering these goals as veritable proof of the relevance of gender in development, it was noted
that gender activists and planners in various sectors can present a more robust case for gender
The workshop also included a primer session on advocacy for gender in energy. This was in response to the
training needs assessment that had indicated strong demand for the training in this respect. Participants had
an opportunity to acquaint themselves on the various strategies and processes that can be used in advocacy.

Participants were also able to derive how the different roles of men and women require different forms of
energy. In this respect, it was noted that energy planners have been culpable in limiting gender
transformations by planning with the inherent assumption that womens energy needs are limited to cooking
fuels. To demonstrate the link between energy and gender, the workshop heard and critiqued case studies
presented by participants on how gender roles have influenced the performance of the programs they have
been involved in. In totality, it was observed that projects that did not recognise the import of gender in
planning and implementation ultimately had less impact. For instance, it was observed that the rural
electrification program, possibly Kenyas longest running and most expensive energy program for long
operated as a grid extension program, without reference to the energy needs of men and women within the
communities. In so doing, the program failed to appreciate the need for providing energy services to meet
the different gender goals such as welfare, productivity, efficiency, and empowerment. Partly as a
consequence of this, the program has until very recently incurred great expense with a disproportionately
small number of connections.
To equip participants with the skills to undertake gender mainstreamed planning, participants spent about
half of the workshop time covering gender analytic tools and their application to the various stages of the
project cycle. In this respect, it was emphasised that gender in energy planning requires a different/refined
set of tools from those offered by conventional gender frameworks. Further, the specific tools applied in
energy projects differ depending on whether the project is energy only or integrated. Participants then
considered different tools including components of rapid rural appraisal (RRA) and participatory rural
appraisal (PRA) approaches such as village maps, transect walks, daily calendars etc. The participants were
taken through the steps of the Gender Planning Framework with particular emphasis on the questions that
need to be responded to, where and how to obtain the information, and how to analyse it to come up with
appropriate recommendations. Module 2 of the training package was particularly useful.
Participants undertook a field exercise that gave them a brief practical experience of utilising the Gender
Planning Framework in various energy contexts. The exercise was done in four groups. Energy interest sites
visited included households with energy technology interventions (Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Biogas), a
group engaged in energy enabled enterprises (Solar drying of vegetables and fruits), as well as one which
had not received any energy intervention from existing institutions.
Field reports from these exercises were presented to the workshop plenary. From the presentations, it was
clear that the workshop had been successful in imparting an appreciation of gender, as well as the skills
needed to mainstream it in energy. However, it was also noted there was a latency to focus on specific
energy technologies and neglect of some of the wider livelihood needs of households and communities.
The last phase of the workshop was the preparation of action plans by the participants. Participants prepared
action plans indicating what they would do on returning to their places of work using the knowledge and
skills acquired during the training. It was made clear that the action plans were to be implemented within the
resources available to the participants from their employers. It was important for the action plans to reflect
how the gender component would be addressed. Participants were urged to prepare good plans such that, if
any funds became available in the course of time they would be considered for funding.
In totality, it can be said the workshop succeeded in its objective of creating gender awareness amongst
planners. This is reflected in the evaluation report, group reports and action plans presented on what the
participants would do in their respective organisations. There however remains a need to provide technical
backstopping support to participants to be able to implement their action plans, and to increase their
knowledge on gender, energy policy and advocacy.


Conception of the workshop

The workshop was conceived during the Training of Trainers workshop on gender and Energy held at Lenana
Mount Hotel, Nairobi, from 21st to 26th November 2005. During this workshop, participants prepared country
action plans and the implementation of this workshop was a component of the action plan. The plan and
budget was forwarded to Practical Action to enable them source the necessary funding from ETC foundation.
Details of the workshop budget are found in Annex 12.

Selection of the Participants

Selection of participants was based on the following criteria:
1. Three years of professional experience as practitioners in the field of energy/development/gender
planning, project implementation and management and policy development
2. Familiar with the countrys energy or gender and development issues and needs
3. Strategically placed to pass on and use knowledge acquired preferably from government, NGOs
and Academia
4. Have professional education (minimum of a bachelors degree or equivalent qualifications).
5. Training must be relevant to current duties
6. Availability to implement the action plans prepared during the workshop
The complete list of participants is attached as Annex 10.

Training Needs Assessment

A training needs assessment was done for the applicants who met the above criteria. This assessment
targeted high level officers at policy and planning level from the Ministries of Energy, Agriculture, Education,
the private sector, academia and Non-governmental organizations.
The assessment covered the following areas:
employment and education details
experience in policy development/review
knowledge in gender and energy planning,
Knowledge of the countrys gender, energy and development issues and needs
training needs and desired skills
relationship of the training to current duties.
The information acquired from the expression of interest to participate in the workshop helped the trainers to
prepare for the training. The training needs expressed by the participants spread across all the five major
themes addressed by the Sub-Regional Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops namely: Gender and Energy
Policy; Gender and Advocacy in the Energy Sector; Gender and Energy Project Proposal Development and
Acquisition; Gender and Energy Concepts; Gender and Energy Project Planning. The preparation of the
workshop materials however focused on the training package intended for Kenya, i.e. Module 1: Concepts in
Gender and Energy and Module 2: Gender Tools for Energy Projects. Provisions were made to address other
areas that are not covered by this package albeit to shallow extent. The training materials included:
1. Module 1: Concepts in Gender and Energy (Is a prerequisite as an introduction to understanding
the rationale of other training packages It was adapted to the Kenyan situation by including
case studies from Kenya). The adapted module is provided as a separate attachment to the

2. Module 2: Gender Tools for Energy Projects was used as it is.

Gender analytic tools
Identifying stakeholders
Problem analysis/project formulation
Identifying Assumptions
Summing up

Participatory data gathering methods

3. A short session on Gender Energy Policy and Advocacy was slotted in the time table with the
assurance of comprehensively covering the topics at a later date. Since Module 3 and 4 that
cover this topic were available at the time of the Kenya training the participants were given soft
copies to take back home.

4. It was very difficult to slot in a session on Project Proposal Development and therefore the
participants were given the soft copy of Module 5 to acquaint themselves with the subject.

Although 24 respondents were assessed only 18 turned up for the workshop. Details of the Training Needs
assessment report are attached as Annex 1.

Preparation of training materials

The training package comprising Module 1 and Module 2, provided during the Lenana Mount workshop was
adapted to the local requirements for training by incorporating case studies from Kenya. The power point
presentations and overhead slides were modified to suit the resource persons delivery. Participants and
resource people were asked to prepare case studies for presentation to the workshop. The case studies
presented by the resource persons and the participants during the plenary are contained in Chapter 11 of
this report. Those that were prepared but not presented to the plenary are found in Annex 5. Action planning
and field work guidelines were prepared and used by the participants for the respective exercises. The field
work and action planning guidelines are attached as annexes 3 and 4 respectively. CDs containing Modules 3,
4 and 5 were prepared for issuance to the participants at the time of departure. It was not possible for the
participants to leave with the soft copies of the presentations made but arrangements will be made to avail

Teaching aids
The following teaching aids were used:
Computer and LCD projector for power point presentations, Flip Charts, Marker pens and Flash cards.

Training methods used

In order to set the climate and ensure all participants had sufficient knowledge to participate effectively in
subsequent discussions on the relation between gender and energy and the wider development agenda, the
training programme incorporated two background papers presented by two resource persons.
The resource people used a variety of teaching methods to accomplish their objectives. The main mode of
teaching was through power point presentations, discussions with the participants and group work. The
power point presentations were interactive and involved questions to participants the responses of which
were recorded on flip charts. They also allowed plenty of discussion using the discussion points and exercises
provided in the training manuals. Flash cards were used occasionally to seek participants views on issues.
The use of case studies proved very useful and helped the participants to grasp the content of the workshop
without much difficulty. Group work was also used to get the participants understand certain issues.
Presentation of the group work helped the trainers to assess the level of comprehension of the issues
covered. Preparation of action plans helped the participants to understand how they can link their daily
duties and activities with gender and energy. A summary of the group presentations on field work is
contained in Chapter 19. The details of group reports are attached as Annex 6. Details of the action plans
prepared by the participants are contained in Annex 7.

Evaluation of the workshop

The assessment of the workshop by the participants was done at the end of each day and each topic was
evaluated separately according to the content, methods of delivery and relevance to the work situation. The
participants were requested to say whether their expectations were met or not. Samples of the evaluation
forms used are attached as Annex 9. Coupled with this, each new day started with a recapitulation of what
transpired the previous day and this helped the participants to refresh their memories and link up
discussions for continuity. Certificates of participation were issued to the participants while the trainers
received certificates of facilitation. A summary of the evaluation is found in Chapter 21 of this report.
Evaluation according to the topics presented is found in Annex 8.

The workshop began with a round of introductions, after which Faith Odongo took participants through the
workshop introduction and objectives. It was noted that energy is a basic need and a component of all
productive processes and its availability can improve levels of welfare, increase standards of living, and
liberate people from darkness and isolation. Billions of people in developing countries have no access to
modern forms of energy and depend on traditional biomass fuels for heat and light, and on metabolic energy
for mechanical tasks. There have been many attempts to change this situation in form of programmes and
projects, including introduction of renewable energy technologies, energy conservation technologies,
programmes to increase biomass supplies etc. It was noted that while some of these programmes and
projects have been successful others have not. One of the contributing reasons is that they have mostly
been planned with scant regard for gender aspects of the energy problem.
It was noted that the continuing dependency of women on biomass fuels especially in rural areas has
veritable, negative impacts on the welfare and development prospects for women. Since energy services cut
across thematic areas, addressing energy needs vis--vis gender requires a cross sector approach that
involves stakeholders in identifying, analyzing and providing energy services that respond to the needs of
men and women in different sectors.
To facilitate this process, the Programme Turning information into Empowerment: Strengthening Gender
and Energy Networking in Africa (TIE-ENERGIA) initiated a series of workshops to sensitise and build the
capacity of stakeholders to address gender needs in energy. The training workshops are centred on training
manuals developed by ENERGIA and its partners. The training and capacity building is tiered, it began with
the training of trainers for African countries in a workshop conducted in Nairobi, in November 2005. Trainers
from this workshop are spearheading the training process in their countries i.e. Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya,
Ghana and Nigeria.
The participants were informed that this workshop is one of a series of workshops organised under the TIE-
ENERGIA Programme and that implementation of the programme in Kenya is through Practical Action-East
Africa. This training was organised by Practical Action-East Africa in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy
and is targeted at development planners and project implementers and managers that contribute to
development in the energy sector. It was intended to build the capacity of participants to engender their
work processes, especially as they relate to energy, and also to train others in their places of work to adopt
this approach. The overall objectives of the workshop were to:

create and increase awareness among energy policy planners and implementers to understand the
importance of making gender, energy and poverty a priority.
strengthen the knowledge and skills of a selected group of development practitioners including
planners, policy makers, project implementers to integrate gender and energy concerns into
sustainable development and poverty reduction programmes
equip the participants with skills for planning and implementing activities that relate to energy policy
strategies, plans and actions in the energy sector
facilitate advocacy and advice to policy makers and planners on mainstreaming gender & energy in
sustainable development policies and programs

It was noted that the latter objective on advocacy would not be comprehensively covered in the training as it
was not in the work package for Kenya. However, the trainers appreciated the need for training in advocacy,
especially as this had come out strongly in the training needs assessment, and therefore included one
session in the workshop programme. The participants were informed that comprehensive coverage of
Gender, Energy Policy and Advocacy required more time than was available during this workshop and that
appropriate training sessions would be conducted in due course.
Climate setting for the workshop involved asking the participants to indicate what their expectations of the
workshop were, setting norms, appointing a time keeper and session chairs to guide discussions. A synthesis
of the expectations follows below:
Getting to know what TIE-ENERGIA is, what are its objectives and how working with it can
help deliver participants deliver their job functions.
Understanding the difference between gender and sex, and how these differences are of
importance to energy planning.
Understanding the gender needs of men.
Understanding how to incorporate the gender in planning processes.

Understanding different approaches to gender and energy planning, and how these have
been used before and how they have performed.
To gain skills for gender and energy advocacy.
To understand the various tools that can be applied in gender and energy planning.
To develop skills in using gender concepts and tools in project design and implementation.
To acquire training skills for training others to adopt gender approaches to planning.
Develop a better understanding of the different energy needs of men and how these relate
to energy demand and the performance of energy service planning.
To gain wider understanding of various modern energy technologies that can be used to
meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
To learn strategies for incorporating gender into project planning processes.
To gain skills in promoting engendered approaches to project planning

Lydia Muchiri- Practical Action in Eastern Africa
To better acquaint participants with the institutions behind the initiative on Gender and Energy, and to set
the context of the training, Lydia Muchiri of Practical action took participants through a brief background of
how the idea of the workshop was conceived.
In this respect, the workshop was informed that the programme Turning Information into Empowerment :
Strengthening Gender and Networking in Africa (TIE-ENERGIA) is an initiative of the International Network
on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA), founded in 1995 with the main goal of contributing to
empowerment of rural and urban women through a specific focus on energy issues. The launch of ENERGIA
was tied to the Beijing platform of action based on the premise that sustainable development for women is
inextricable from energy issues. The program is implemented by ETC Foundation in the Netherlands through
regional focal points in Asia and Africa, the Caribbean and Oceania. The ENERGIA network presently has a
presence in 13 African countries in addition to presence in Asian, Oceanic, Pacific and North American
countries. Funding for the program is provided by the European Union, SIDA and the Dutch Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and in collaboration with country and regional partners under Grant Agreement Number:
EIE/04/198/SO7.39677. The core funding is provided by the European Union under the Intelligent Energy
Europe Program.
The sub-regional focal point for Eastern Africa is Practical Action in Eastern Africa, formerly known as the
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG). In additional to country and sub-regional focal points,
the TIE-ENERGIA program is also implemented in collaboration with other partners including ECO limited of
the Netherlands which holds the responsibility of designing, producing and disseminating publicity and
information material based on the outcomes of various project processes.
Overall, the TIE-ENERGIA program is intended to facilitate sustainable development through appropriate,
accessible and sustainable energy services based on the premise that sustainable development cannot be
achieved without facilitating energy services. Further to this, the program acknowledges that these energy
services are needed in a variety of thematic areas, planning and implementing their provision calls for
collaboration with a range of partners, including government, pseudo government, civil society and private
sector actors. In addition, the program is well aware of the facilitative role of energy in the first seven
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), emphasizing the need to urgently develop mechanisms for rolling
out modern energy services for the poor.

To achieve this, the objectives of the TIE-ENERGIA program are to:

Mainstream gender into energy policy, planning, programmes and projects by strengthening the human
and institutional capacity;
Increase awareness, knowledge and skills of development practitioners to integrate gender and energy
concerns into sustainable development and poverty reduction programmes;
Identify gender gaps in energy-poverty policies and make gender & energy issues visible to a wide
audience, thereby supporting national & international networking & advocacy initiatives to influence
energy policies & programmes.

The strategies used to address the above objectives include:

Building capabilities of network members, focal points, policy makers and project implementers to
integrate gender and energy concerns into sustainable development;
Strengthening institutional capacity of organizations and individuals concerned with gender and energy in
sustainable development to operate as a strong network;
Undertaking advocacy and advice to policy makers and planners on mainstreaming gender and energy in
sustainable development policies and programs;
Deepening understanding of energy, gender and sustainable development through analysis of existing
literature, case study research and use of the findings to improve project, program and policy design.

The implementation of the programme is structured and tiered through a series of workshops, beginning with
the Africa Training of Trainers workshop held in Nairobi in December 2005, in which 10 trainers were trained
from five countries namely, Kenya, Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. Each country was represented by
2 trainers who were trained on gender and energy issues. These trainers spearheaded training at national
level through workshops such as the present one, with the aim of creating a critical mass of gender
conscious energy planners and policy makers with the ultimate objective of de-homogenizing energy
planning and policy making especially as they relate to gender needs.
Participants were informed that after the training, they would be expected to not only implement the skills
gained in their places of work, but also to share these skills with their colleagues and to incorporate them in
their planning and implementation schedules.
The workshop was informed that in addition to training on gender and energy, the TIE-ENERGIA program
includes other components, notably gender analysis of the Energy and other pertinent policies. In this
respect the workshop was informed that a gender audit of the Kenyan Energy Policy was already underway.
The workshop was also informed the current work programme was scheduled to run until June 2007, by
which it was expected the project would have achieved the following objectives in the Africa region:
Developed gender and energy training packages for Francophone and Anglophone countries
Trained 24 African trainers with capacity to develop and deliver training on energy, poverty and gender
issues ( completed);
Trained 180 development practitioners capable of integrating gender into energy issues ( in progress);
Produced reports on gender audits in three African countries, covering the gender gaps in existing energy
policies of governments & the recommendations for engendering policy and practice (underway);
Compiled information on project activities and findings for dissemination and advocacy purposes

Opening remarks
Mr Oreta Senior Deputy Secretary Administration, Ministry of Energy
In his opening comments, Mr Oreta (presiding on behalf of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Energy),
noted his appreciation for the turnout of the participants, and more importantly the relevance of the
deliberations that were scheduled throughout the workshop. He noted that the government had taken
progressively more steps to mainstream gender in policy and implementation of its programmes, the latest
initiative being the requirement that 30 percent of all staff recruited into the civil service be women.
However, even with gender conscious policies, the government and other actors face the challenge of going
beyond policy and into implementation. Citing gender quotas in public service hiring, he observed that in
some cases it would be difficult or even impossible to meet this quota due to a lack of sufficient numbers of
qualified women to fill the allotted slots. At the same time, past imbalances in hiring would also mean that
even as more women were hired into the service, it would take a considerable amount of time to achieve
equitable gender representation at higher levels, because the progression up the ladder via the scheme of
service takes time. The challenge then, is to find ways of fast tracking gender mainstreaming, either through
the provisions of current policy frameworks, or by revising existing policy to allow for faster gender
Mr Oreta expressed his hope that participants would take the lessons from the workshop back to their
stations of work, and begin implementing gender mainstreamed work processes, and also become
ambassadors for the gender mainstreaming cause.
After conveying the apologies of the Permanent Secretary, in the Ministry of Energy who was scheduled to
deliver the opening speech, Mr Oreta delivered the following speech on his behalf:

(All protocols observed)
It gives me great pleasure to preside over the opening ceremony for this workshop. Energy is a major driver
for all sectors of the economy. The level and intensity of commercial energy use in a country is a key
indicator of economic growth and development. At the national level, wood fuel and other biomass account
for about 68% of the total primary energy consumption, followed by petroleum at 22%, electricity at 9% and
others at about less than 1%. These percentages indicate that biomass fuels are the most important source
of primary energy in Kenya.
In the traditional society, production and use of biomass fuels is the responsibility of women and children.
Men only get involved when these activities get commercialized. Due to diminishing biomass energy supplies,
women and children in some parts of the country are spending increasing amounts of time fetching firewood
and other biomass fuels leaving little time for other productive activities for women; and limited study-time
particularly for the girl child. The prevailing social structures including the land tenure system in some
situations also inhibit access to biomass fuels by women. In addition, the use of low quality energy supplies
and inefficient conversion devices poses health risks to women due to indoor air pollution.
In the absence of tangible guidelines on gender, various institutions inherit the gender biases of the wide
society in which they operate. Many institutions that wish to mainstream gender in their operations face a
number of challenges, including the lack of appropriate gender disaggregated data, weak institutional
capacity with respect to gender, weak policy guidelines and challenges in resource mobilization for gender
targeted actions, and the Ministry of Energy is not an exception. The challenges persist over 30 years after
gender was first identified as a core concern for development. Yet at this time, in other countries and
sectors, considerable progress has been made from which we can learn.
Overall, energy planning has for along time assumed that energy service consumers are a homogenous
entity. Even as energy planners begin to mainstream gender in their planning they must counter planning
and organizational challenges such as those mentioned above, as well as the persistence of gender biases in
society at large. However, the environment for gender conscious energy planning in Kenya is better now
than ever. The National Gender Commission and the Ministry of Gender provide a conducive environment,
while more and more decision makers are aware of the need for mainstreaming. It is my hope that through
the trickle down effects of this workshop it will become clearer to the decision makers in the organizations
you represent, the contributions that understanding the gender concept can make to sustainable energy

Achieving gender mainstreaming in different sectors also requires networking across sectors, and integration
of planning processes across sectors and scale from the micro to the macro, to develop an integrated
framework for gender and energy in the country. Our collaboration with line Ministries such as Ministry of
Agriculture and Environment and Natural resources dates as far back as the early eighties when memoranda
of understanding were entered into to implement energy projects. The collaboration has proved useful and
this workshop is just one way of strengthening it. Indeed our Ministry is ready to collaborate with
Government, Non-Governmental organizations, Private sector, Academia and community based organizations
that support the development of energy in the country. I am happy to learn that participation in this
workshop is drawn from a wide range of organizations that will serve to strengthen our networks. We have
also had fruitful collaboration with Practical Action in the dissemination of energy technologies and I am
confident that this initiative will meet with similar success, given the enthusiasm and support of the
participating institutions.
Through the performance contracts, strategic planning and annual work plans and budgets implemented by
the institutions represented, it will be possible to mainstream gender and energy issues. The realization of
the intended goals will remain but a dream unless the action plans are featured in budgets. It is therefore
important that as you prepare your action plans you will incorporate them into your annual budgets
I am happy that TIE-ENERGIA, on behalf of consortium partners through the ETC Foundation, has found it
necessary to facilitate the implementation of the program for Strengthening Gender and Energy Networking
in Africa. The initiative taken by TIE-ENERGIA to advance the cause of mainstreaming gender into energy
programs is commendable. The knowledge and experience gained will lead to the realization of the
objectives, if this workshop is followed up by implementation of gender sensitive energy projects that can be
quoted far and wide, and that can be replicated in other places locally and internationally. Such projects are
yet to be documented here in Kenya.
In conclusion I wish to note that gender mainstreaming is a task that can no longer be postponed. However,
teams involved in gender mainstreaming should be aware that there are unforeseen pitfalls in the way. For
instance mainstreaming creates additional tasks, for which capacity must be created. Mainstreaming can also
have unintended negative impacts; new energy services may create additional unremunerated workload for
women. The challenge I leave you with is to identify a gender sensitive energy technology initiative that you
wish to implement in your organization. I wish you fruitful discussions and look forward to hearing success
stories of gender sensitive energy projects.
I therefore wish to declare this workshop officially open.

Patrick Nyoike
Permanent Secretary

Presentation by Nelson M. Maina Assistant Director of Renewable Energy, Ministry of Energy
To set the tempo for subsequent discussions on the relation between gender and energy and the wider
development agenda, Mr.Maina took participants through a review of some of the recognized relationships
between the three thematic areas. The gist of the presentation was as follows:
The ultimate objective of human development can be perceived as being to expand the range of choices
available to individuals and communities. In this process, energy services play a central role by providing
people with the opportunity to break free of the drudgery of repetitive manual work, the health risks and
odious workloads associated with traditional (biomass) fuels and opening up opportunities for new types of
productive work. Energy services can also open up freedom for disadvantaged sections of communities,
including gender categories by enabling new ways of performing productive and reproductive work that
change power relations within communities.
While the transforming effects of modern energy services are available to ever increasing numbers of people,
even greater numbers, especially in developing countries remain without access to these services, locking
them out of a wide range development prospects. Even within developing countries themselves, there are
sharp differences in the types of energy services that people are able to access. Overall, 2 billion people
about a third of the world population remain without access to modern energy. In Kenya, only 15% of the
population has access to electricity, arguably the most modern and enabling energy service. In rural areas,
access to electric power is at a dismal 4% of the population. Lack of access to energy services therefore
constitutes a serious impediment to development in the country, more so when one considers that the
available modern energy services are more accessible to men, further disadvantaging women who have to
contend with additional disadvantages in society. It is therefore imperative that the provision of energy
services be hastened, but also be engendered to address imbalances in gender outcomes of development.
The relationship between gender, energy and development stems from the gender roles undertaken by men,
women, girls and boys in their respective communities, these roles are in turn defined by culture, which
defines what opportunities are available to gender categories through culturally defined gender rights,
division of labor, responsibilities and privileges. Therefore gender being a far reaching cultural construct has
a strong influence in determining how people live and what their prospects are. However, being a cultural
construct is amenable to change even though the process of coloration imparts such strong messages that
people tend to see gender roles cast in stone.
At the same time, in terms of development planning, gender presents itself as both an analytical and
relational variable. As an analytical variable, gender relates to gender roles and responsibilities, power status
of women and men, access and control over resources and benefits and the gender needs of women and
Gender roles are the culturally and politically defined roles and responsibilities to which men and women are
socialized to conform, these are categorized into;
Reproductive roles that fall under the care and maintenance economy
Productive roles that are mostly associated with earning cash incomes
Community management roles that are largely an extension to the reproductive roles, performed at the
community level. They include rites of passage, community leadership and management, religious rites
and offices etc.
Overall, gender roles define the differential access between men and women to various resources, including
property, education, opportunities for advancement, prestige, power, income etc. This differential is referred
to as the gender gap. A societys definition of gender also determines the tasks that men and women
perform as a consequence of their socialization patterns, a process that determines the gender division of
labor. Owing to the different roles and opportunities afforded to men and women based on their societys
definition of gender, men and women have different needs, which can be classified into either practical,
productive or strategic needs.
Practical needs relate to the facilities men and women need to complete their daily reproductive duties such
as providing food, water and shelter. These needs have to be satisfied routinely and are therefore easily
identifiable by the relevant gender category. Practical gender needs while easily solvable, only serve to
improve the living conditions of men and women, and do not alter the roles or relations between men and
women. Relating as they do to specific gender categories, processes aimed at meeting practical gender
needs can be implemented with the participation of only the affected gender category.

Productive needs on the other hand relate to the facilities men and women need to earn incomes, primarily
(in modern society) in cash form. To a larger extent, most societies define mens work as being productive
work, with women largely confined to reproductive roles. As such, processes to address productive gender
needs have a certain degree of impact not only on improving living conditions (as defined by more choices
enabled with an increased resource base) but also on the relations between men and women. However,
addressing productive gender needs is aimed primarily at improving incomes.
Strategic gender needs relate to the power relations between genders, primarily as defined by the ability to
make independent decisions and ascend to positions of power and prestige in society. At the same time,
gender categories, especially the disadvantaged ones (usually women) do not immediately see their position
as disadvantaged but are more adept at identifying the results of their disadvantage. As such addressing
strategic gender needs requires the active participation of both genders in identifying the causes of these
inequalities and finding agreeable solutions. However, realigning gender power positions often invokes
resistance from the dominant gender category and therefore processes to this end need to infuse a degree of
Addressing strategic gender needs opens up a range of opportunities to men and women, it allows the
development of norms and cultural constructs that enhances the opportunities available to men and women,
thereby infusing better utilization of human capital, increasing societys cohesiveness and ability for collective
action (social capital) and raising the self-worth of formerly disadvantaged groups. Overall, strategic gender
needs can facilitate the achievement of practical and reproductive needs of men and women in the society.
Changing strategic gender relations can be largely achieved through holistic education, political mobilization,
consciousness raising and active participation in the development process.
In energy planning, gender concerns are mainly motivated by the need to ensure sustainable development.
This cannot be achieved as approximately half the population is excluded from the process of development
by lack of access and control over the resources needed to bring about development. As such, equity and
equality are central tenets of the wider development agenda to which energy contributes.
Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men in the distribution of resources and benefits,
while equality is a transformational development goal that seeks to ensure that women and men enjoy the
same status on political, social, economic and cultural arenas.
Achieving gender equity and equality requires a range of actions and processes that reduce and eliminate
differential access of men and women to the various benefits of development. Such an integrated process
may be referred to as gender mainstreaming, a set of processes that seek to ensure that the concerns and
needs of both women and men are considered in all planning and policy-making and that all policy makers
are aware of the needs of men and women and their roles and responsibilities.
Mainstreaming in relation to energy policy making and service provision requires the participation of gender
categories and the recognition and response to the different energy needs of men and women. This requires
among other multi-disciplinary actions that planning and provision of data be disaggregated by gender to
highlight differences in demand and usage and therefore enable targeted responses.
As mainstreaming is a multi disciplinary process, it requires several frameworks to implement. These include
but are not limited to:
Participatory framework
Methodological framework generate and analyze data
Legal framework
Political framework
Institutional framework
Financial framework
Overall gender mainstreaming in energy projects requires planners and implementers to look beyond
technologies to the wider matrix in which demand for energy services is defined, and the constraints within
this matrix that determines what energy services men and women can access.


The presentation elicited the following reaction from the participants:
Participants sought to know why the energy bill is being pushed through parliament despite there having
been limited opportunity for input on gender issues.

In response it was noted that the bill mainly deals with commercial energy issues especially at the
production and distribution levels. The bill will therefore promote various energy options, leaving the
onus for mainstreaming the actual provision of services to the line ministries that need to deal with
energy needs in their sectors. It was further noted that the sensitisation on gender and energy came
when the drafting of the bill was at a very advanced stage and therefore it was not possible to feature
gender concerns accordingly. However, since policy making and the drafting of regulations is a dynamic
exercise appropriate changes will be made as and when found necessary.

Participants noted that discussions on gender actually focus on womens needs raising the risk that over
time men will become marginalized.

The participants were informed that the workshop was meant to correct the misconception that gender
mainstreaming means a focus on women. On the contrary it tries to balance out the needs of women and
men so that they are addressed at the same level and with equal emphasis.

It was also noted that gender imbalances in energy services also result to a considerable extent from
systematic weaknesses in gender representation in the sector. There are very few women in energy
related professions, partly as result of what professions girls are acculturated to see as appropriate. In
this respect it was noted that women, in their roles as mothers and other female relatives have a great
role in discouraging girls to venture into technical fields such as energy engineering. It was further
noted that womens acculturation into what are considered traditionally female professions weakens the
impact of affirmative action as there arent sufficiently qualified women in some fields and at some
levels to take up positions provided through affirmative action. As such, there is a strong case to begin
re-aligning gender perceptions right from early childhood education and sustain this through out all
levels of educational and professional development. Role models were cited as one way of encouraging
girls to venture into technical subjects.

Gender perceptions, especially in terms of productive uses have been significant cause for imbalance in
the impacts of energy service provision. A case point is the rural electrification program which was
supposed to benefit informal sector enterprises. The program failed to factor in the energy needs of
women whose enterprises were largely seen not to be energy intensive. In so doing, the program failed
to open up new areas of enterprise for women through new energy services. The programme targeted
the Jua-Kali enterprises which are commonly seen as a male dominated field and yet women could also
benefit. Another case point was the Kenya Wood Fuel Development program which floundered because
men, who own most resources associated with woodfuel production (land and trees) were not sufficiently
sensitised on the burden that woodfuel collection imposes on women and therefore did not perceive the
need to support the women in tree planting.

It was also noted that within the household, the distribution of benefits of new energy services is heavily
influenced by gender. For instance a household may be perceived to enjoy electric power from solar PV
system but the women in the household may enjoy little if any benefit if the lighting and power points
are located in areas that they do not habitually use e.g. the living room. Similarly, the distribution of
incomes from enterprises enabled by the provision of modern energy may be so skewed to the benefit of
men such that women see little benefit in participating, or if they do, all it amounts to is additional
unremunerated work.

Further to this, the structure of ownership of assets within the community may mean that the benefits
from these assets accrue to men, in spite of work done by women in transforming them into a usable
form. A case point of the Tiomin Titanium mining project at the Coast was cited. The compensation being
given to households is based on the value of the land, including trees and other vegetation, a large
percentage of which were planted by women who will now have to depend on the good will of their men
folk to allocate them some of the compensation.
In concluding the session, it was noted that various ancillary considerations determine the final outcome of
providing energy services and these need to be dealt with as a core part of energy planning. This therefore
calls for inter disciplinary input into energy planning; the process of which it was hoped would be further
elaborated during the workshop.

Paul Mbuthi-Research Officer, Ministry of Energy
Mr.Mbuthi took participants through the session on gender and gender roles as a background to enabling
better understanding of the relationship between gender and energy. The session was guided by Module 1
unit 1 of the TIE-ENERGIA training package. The learning objectives of the session were to enable
define the difference between gender and sex;
recognise gender differences in his/her own society;
debate with others the nature and origin of gender differences;
classify tasks of men and women according to whether they are reproductive, productive, or
community tasks.
identify which factors might influence gender roles and contracts.
The gist of the discussions on the session was as follows;
Gender and sex are related but distinct concepts, while sex is determined by biology, defined by the
anatomical characteristics that differentiate men and women. Gender refers to the social contracts which
define the roles, responsibilities, rights and privileges accorded to men and women. The differentiation
between men and women is about the only connection between gender and sex i.e. these rights, privileges
differ between the sexes. The allocation of these rights has very little to do with physiological differences, as
evidenced by the spectacular cross cultural differences in gender. For instance, in some communities living in
hot dry areas (e.g. Samburu), dressing norms allow women to walk bare chest, while in other communities
living in comparable climates, women have to cover virtually all their bodies (e.g. Arabia).
In examining some typical perceptions on the capabilities and characteristics of men and women,
participants were able to identify that gender roles in communities have limited interface with biologically
defined characteristics of men and women. For instance, while men are on average physically stronger than
women, in most communities it is the women who perform the most physically tasking and repetitive tasks
e.g. tilling the land, fetching water etc. Participants were also able to identify latent untruths in the
characterisation of men and women, characterisation that reinforces the power relations in communities. For
instance men are typically characterised as more rational and decisive, a portrayal that adds credence to
their claim of better leadership abilities.
From this discussion, participants were able to appreciate that gender is strictly a social contract, albeit a
latent one that despite appearances of inflexibility is renegotiable and changeable over time. However in
traditional communities, gender does not seem to have been a priority for public discourse and gender roles
remained unchanged for long. This is further evidenced by the complete lack of a word or concept akin to
gender in most African languages. At the same time, it was noted that in the absence of lively interactions
with other communities and changes in livelihood systems as was characteristic of traditional communities,
there is generally limited pressure for a realignment of gender roles. As such, inequitable gender relations
can persist in communities.
Modernisation and attendant changes such as education and multicultural exposure are among the
progenitors of pressure, for the renegotiation of gender can be brought to bear the gender contract in
society. Even when such pressures are brought to bear, gender relations in society tend to have a
momentum of their own and resist change. At the same time, it is essential to recognise that changing
gender roles have as much capacity to yield negative impacts as they do have to yield positive outcomes. As
such, efforts to change gender roles should endeavour to ensure the new roles fit into the social context of
the community.
In discussing the analysis of gender roles, the workshop noted that while both men and women play various
gender roles i.e. productive, reproductive and community management, the perceptions of each genders
contribution varies widely. For instance it was noted that even where women play a large part in a productive
role, they may not necessarily control the proceeds of that activity. Further, the workshop noted the triple
gender roles are not always clearly distinguished and overlap to some extent.
Further, the performance of triple roles varies even within the same society, especially across various social
economic classes. It was noted that more formally educated couples tend to be more willing to challenge
traditional gender roles. Gender roles also vary in a very spectacular manner across different societies.
Indeed, bearing and breastfeeding children are about the only (reproductive) gender roles that have been
cross-culturally observed to be an exclusively female undertaking.

The differences in gender roles are the spring point for different energy needs across the genders.
Addressing energy needs using a given energy intervention ultimately affects the distribution of the benefits
of that intervention. As such energy projects bear the potential to address strategic gender needs by offering
new ways of performing work that open up new opportunities for men and women. Mainstreaming gender in
energy therefore contributes to the wider mainstreaming of gender in development by making it easier for
men and women to perform their gender roles better, as well as opening up opportunities for a realignment
of gender roles.
The workshop noted that specific gender issues vary by various social economic categories as defined by
education level, wealth, age etc. Gender mainstreaming therefore needs to take cognisance of the fact that
womens or mens needs cannot be lumped together without due analysis of what differences may exist
across social economic clusters.
The workshop delved into possible causes for the lacklustre performance of efforts to address gender
concerns in development 30 years after they were first raised. In this respect, it was noted that past failures
highlight the need to rethink the strategies applied. This requires fusing older approaches such as education
of people on their rights with newer strategies such as economic empowerment. Success in gender
mainstreaming will also heavily depend on its integration in education, both formal and informal, and the
deliberate planning measures to address the different needs and roles men and women play. There is also
strong evidence of the need to highlight the fact that the benefits of gender roles realignment will benefit
men as well as women. This will help reduce resistance to bringing around these changes.

Faith Odongo- Senior Renewable Energy Officer, Ministry of Energy
Propelling communities up the energy ladder is a key concern in energy planning. At the same time it so
happens that women tend to occupy the lower rungs of the ladder. Lower energy forms such as biomass and
metabolic are not only indicators of low economic development but also its progenitors through such effects
as health consequences of indoor pollution and environmental degradation. It is a proven fact that women
tend to occupy the lower rungs of the energy ladder, a situation that helps solidify their disadvantaged social
and economic status.
Further, lower energy forms are largely un-captured in energy planning data, meaning the contribution and
implications for the continued use of these fuels is largely obscured to energy planers. It must also be
appreciated that measuring energy forms such as metabolic energy is technically challenging and this
contributes to the paucity of planning data relating to these forms. At the same time, the neglect of these
energy forms may have something to do with the fact they are primarily used by women, who being typically
engaged in reproductive tasks do not register as a priority for energy planners who tend to concentrate on
energy for productive applications.
While energy planning is largely concerned with improving energy efficiency, introducing new energy
technologies and widening access to proven energy technologies, energy planning as relates to gender
includes additional considerations that derive from gender goals i.e. increasing peoples welfare, improving
efficiency of energy and non energy projects, raising productivity and engendering equity, equality and
empowerment through energy services.
Engendering energy service planning has a lot in common with the energy services approach to energy
planning and provision. The latter focuses on identifying peoples needs and providing energy services that
respond to these needs. However, the energy services approach, which has been the mainstay of the energy
planners, has been bedevilled by failures and sub-optimal outcomes. This is because the derivation of energy
services needs has failed to take cognisance of important gender differences that have a bearing on the
energy services required, which ones are affordable to whom etc. By homogenising the derivation of energy
services, energy planners have progressively failed to consider important differences. In addition, energy
planning has been hampered by other problems including inappropriate donor driven agenda, policy
frameworks, lack of appropriate standards etc.
However, the relevance of gender in energy planning is gaining ever increasing recognition, based on several
advantages offered by this inclusion. Appreciating gender in energy planning widens participation in energy
planning, resulting in more clearly defined and disaggregated energy needs and a better appreciation of the
differentiated impacts of energy services on men and women. Overall, these considerations increase the
efficacy and efficiency of energy planning and provision undertakings.
The workshop also considered the various structural causes for the neglect of gender in energy planning. In
this respect it was noted that most energy projects targeted at women have only focused on cooking energy,
yet women have other energy needs. This, it was noted is a reflection of the persistence of stereotypes on
gender roles. Energy planners have been culpable in perpetuating the perception that the womans place is in
the kitchen, failing the opportunity to open up new theatres for womens work and participation. This may
also have to do with the fact most energy professionals are men, a situation that again reflects biases in the
careers that are considered appropriate for men and women.
The session closed with a brainstorming exercise on exercise 1.2.1 in Module 1 of the training package
(Cotton stalk carbonisation and briquetting in Sudan). In considering the exercise, the workshop noted the
following points;
The establishment of the briquetting plant imposed un-remunerated work on women i.e.
transporting the cotton stalks to the plant.
The project failed to examine ownership of the cotton stalks from which the briquettes are made, it
also erred in failing to explore if the technology used at the plant was of a nature which would enable
womens participation in the employment opportunities created.
The project failed to consider the soil fertility losses associated with the removal of the stalks, where
they were previously used as compost manure. In this respect, it was noted women were likely to be
adversely affected as they are responsible for most of the cultivation work.
The sale of briquettes would adversely affect women by commercializing energy that was previously
available cost free. However the use of the briquettes would reduce the indoor pollution suffered by

In closing the session, it was noted that in providing energy services, planners must also consider the wider
impacts of the availability of these services. It was noted in some instances that providing energy services
for productive work has resulted in more unremunerated work for women if no measures are effected to
ensure equitable distribution of the income from enterprises enabled by new energy services.

Lydia Muchiri
To enable participants to prepare action plans on how to implement the lessons from the workshop in their
places of work, Lydia took them through the procedure for preparing an action plan. In this respect, it was
emphasized to participants that their action plans would have to be implemented within the constraints and
opportunities available at their places of work and should not include expectations of external funding, at
least in the immediate future. The plans could also include short, long term and strategic objectives.
Participants were informed that while no funding to implement the action plans is available from TIE-
ENERGIA in the immediate future, ENERGIA was looking for donor opportunities to fund the implementation
of action plans and would give priority on project funding to projects based on action plans developed by
participants should fundraising be successful.
Emphasis was placed on the following points in developing action plans:
Linking the action plans with organizational objectives, budgets and performance measurement criteria
Ensuring continuity with areas of work being currently being undertaken.
Identifying stakeholders whose input would be needed to implement the plans
Including robust monitoring and evaluation frameworks, including procedures for documentation and
influencing others.

Paul Mbuthi
The presentation took participants through the basis for gender mainstreaming in energy planning and
service provision. The specific learning objectives of the session were to:
enable the participants to classify projects as gender blind, neutral, gender biased or gender aware
explain the difference between mainstreamed and women only projects
argue the advantages and disadvantages of mainstreaming and women only approaches
The different gender needs (i.e. practical, productive and strategic) define what should be the focus of
gender mainstreaming effort and hence the approach that should be adopted. Energy planning approaches
on the other hand, can be defined as being either gender aware, biased, blind or mainstreamed. These
definitions are analytical guidelines and a project approach can therefore fall within either category without
necessarily being conscious of this classification i.e. the approach may be defined by other project objectives
rather than gender issues. The differences in these approaches can be summarised as follows:
Gender aware projects understand implications for both men and women and plan according to needs of
Gender blind projects do not appreciate the differences between men and women but usually address
the household as if this were the basic unit in society
Gender biased projects are designed to bring benefits specifically to women, or specifically to men
Women-only projects are gender biased projects targeted to and implemented by women
Gender mainstreaming means bringing awareness of gender differences into every project and dealing
with these differences in a sensitive way
These approaches have different benefit and negative implications. These classifications can also be applied
to non-energy and integrated projects. In this respect, the workshop was informed of a market access
project implemented by GTZ in Turkana District for Aloe vera. The project targeted womens incomes by
supporting cultivation of the plant, and linking them to markets. The outcome has been an increase in
womens incomes (productive needs). It is also anticipated that the project will have a strategic impact by
raising the profile of women in the community.
The different approaches vis--vis gender, represent an evolution of development thinking. Women only
projects had their heyday in the 1970s and 80s based on the premise that women were the most
appropriate agents for improving their standing, men were perceived to have no or just ancillary roles in the
process. In adopting this stance, these approaches effectively deprived themselves of the contribution of
men in development. Nevertheless, these approaches had some successes.
The mainstreaming approach can be traced back to the Beijing platform of action which called for the joint
contribution of men and women in the establishment of more equitable gender relations. The mainstreaming
approach stems from the premise that mens and womens needs cannot be addressed in isolation.
To explore this point the workshop considered Case 1.1.3 in Module 1 of the training package (Forest
management and reclamation in India The Joint Forest management project). In discussing the case, the
workshop noted that external efforts to place women in leadership committees in the forest committees
ultimately failed because the project failed to consider cultural influences on the participation of women in
public fora.
Mainstreaming requires that all influences on the participation of men and women be considered in project
design and implementation. To highlight this fact, the workshop considered case 1.3.3 (Nepals Rural Energy
Development Programme) which sought the participation of women in forest resource management which
took cognisance of cultural barriers to the participation of women and men in the same forum and made
appropriate provisions for women and men to meet separately and present their issues in plenary.
However, mainstreaming is not without its shortcomings. In mainstreamed projects the voices of women
may be drowned especially if men are more assertive, but this also tends to encourage women to come out
strongly with their point of view.

Faith Odongo
Having examined gender concepts, and approaches to development vis--vis gender, the workshop then
considered the relationship between gender goals and energy.
In this respect the workshop emphasised that gender sensitive energy planning must always be guided by
aligning all approaches to the beneficiarys needs, and taking special care to accurately identify the needs of
various beneficiary categories. Failure to do this will mean unenthusiastic participation by the community and
ultimately low impact from the intervention. To evade this pitfall, the project and gender goals should be
clearly stated and accurately derived. Further, project planners should take cognisance of the fact that the
different gender goals are not discrete variables, rather they are a continuum. Clarity in the definition of a
projects gender goals ensures sustainability and guides in the development of strategies for implementation.
If the defined goals are realistic in relation to resources, opportunities and constraints, then there is a much
greater probability of achieving them. Gender goals should also be verifiable via objective indicators that are
agreeable to all stakeholders, who must be subsequently involved in all aspects of the monitoring and
evaluation framework.
It was noted that different stakeholders have different gender goals and that in gender sensitive energy
planning planners need to be sure of what they wish to help the community achieve and whether it is really
their desire to achieve the identified goal. In energy planning as in any other project, different stakeholders
have different motivations for their involvement. Such motivation must be clearly understood by all the
stakeholders to ensure that gender goals are formulated explicitly to ensure success and not failure.
Overall, gender goals in energy projects may seek to achieve any combination of the following:
Improving womens welfare
Increasing womens productivity
Promoting womens equity, equality and empowerment
Improving the likelihood of success and efficiency in energy projects
In selecting the gender goals of an intervention, it is critical to realise that while it is easier for communities
to identify with welfare and productivity goals, strategic goals are usually generally the concern of the
organisations and their donor priorities.
In relating gender goals to gender needs and issues it was explained that gender goals formulated to meet
practical needs make life easier and more pleasant and do not challenge accustomed tasks or upset gender
relation. Participants were asked to identify energy services that could lead to this and they were able to
name the provision of water for household needs, provision of electricity for lighting and the provision of
fuelwood for cooking within the proximity of the homestead.
With regard to productive needs it was explained that gender goals that address productive needs allow
women to produce better and more products, and reduce drudgery. The participants were able to identify the
provision of electricity as an energy service that could lead to productive needs being addressed.
With regard to strategic interests it was explained that gender goals that meet strategic interests help
women change their position in society and gain more equality with men. Participants were able to identify
energy services that lead to meeting of strategic needs as; provision of electricity to run chaff cutters would
free up time for women to attend meetings and even hold positions in the committees for those meetings. It
was noted that there are no clear cut boundaries between the goals that address the three types of needs
and that meeting one goal could address one or a combination of needs. However, the following situations
are characteristic:
Welfare goals strongly relate with practical needs of women
Productivity goals strongly relate with productive needs
Empowerment goals strongly relate with strategic interests
There is need to promote equity, equality and empowerment when designing projects. It was however noted
that on many occasions the decision on these three issues is made by the more powerful individuals in the
society. Using discussion point 1.4.4 in Module 1 the participants were able to explain that deciding on fair
distribution in a case where one gender is more disadvantaged while undertaking the same tasks would
require that means of compensating for the disadvantaged gender be found. This meant that if women could
be freed of the tasks that prevented them from producing as many stoves as the men they could be able to
match each other in production and therefore earn the same income.

It was noted that while it is important to match the goals with the needs and issues identified, sometimes
goals may be inconsistent; for example, goals that are purported to be empowerment may aim at welfare or
productivity. Inconsistencies between goals of planners and goals of the target group can lead to project
failure, while inconsistencies between goals and the actual interventions planned can lead to the same result.
It may be useful to relate gender and energy goals to broader frameworks, such as the Millennium
Development Goals.
To explore the selection of gender goals for projects, participants considered case 1.4.3 (Solar drier
technology in Uganda). From discussing the case, participants were able to see how a single project can
address two gender goals i.e. Welfare (food security) and productivity (cash incomes from dried fruit sales).
The discussions also highlighted the need to be cautious while defining the equity position that is pursued by
a project. Often, the people already enjoying an equitable status quo have the greater say and if care is not
taken, they can succeed in protecting their own privileged positions. For instance, women are often excluded
from decision making by the lack of time imposed by their heavy workload. Women may also be
disadvantaged if income generation projects they are involved in do not provide for the equitable distribution
of income. This translates into additional un-remunerated income. Empowerment entails addressing equity
not only in participation, but also in the appropriation of benefits be they social or financial.

The workshop also heard several presentations of the experiences of participants in gender in energy
projects. These presentations were included to demonstrate how past projects have handled gender concerns
and provided participants with the opportunity to explore how gender concerns might have been handled


Eng. James M. Muriithi, Mechanical Engineer, Ministry of Energy
The Women and Energy project was initiated in January 1983 as part of Special Energy Program under
auspices of Ministry of Energy and Maendeleo ya Wanawake (MYWO) as the implementing agency. The
overall project goal was to improve living and working conditions of the rural population, in particular rural
women by reducing fuel wood requirements through introduction of energy saving cookstoves and improving
fuelwood availability through systematic firewood production by the women. The project objective was to
develop and support an improved infrastructure for sustainable fuelwood stove dissemination in the rural
The project was implemented in several phases, the substantive ones being as follows;
1983-86: Research phase.
1987-88: Testing of dissemination strategies and stove production modalities. MYWO volunteers method
lacked sustainability.
End of 1998: Other agencies that were critical in ensuring sustainability were enjoined.
1989-92: Full scale training of stove producers and disseminators.
1993-94: Consolidation phase-infrastructure development for production centers, quality control training,
awareness creation, marketing promotion and monitoring
While the projects primary beneficiaries were to be women, the initial project design was gender blind.
However, the project was well aware that while women played the main role in obtaining household energy,
they had limited participation in the selection of the energy technologies. Not withstanding this, the project
initially made little effort to integrate women in energy planning and supply. However, the evolution of the
project design made several important efforts to integrate women in planning and implementation. For
example, the project defined different roles for men and women based on what were perceived to be their
competencies, men were involved in clay testing, while women molded the ceramic stove liners, dried and
fired them.
The project incorporated the ministry of home affairs in the dissemination of the stove liners. This allowed a
more robust outreach program to be implemented by full time staff from the ministry. The ministry had the
added advantage of having more gender aware staffers.
To enhance the dissemination of stoves, the project supported several prominent potters with firing kilns.
However, the majority of these were men, and in some instances it was observed to cause tensions within
the household as the women in those households felt that their input was not sufficiently rewarded.
Another dissemination strategy was tried in Western Kenya where women were provided with a firing kiln
through a self help group, the women then produced the stoves independently and contributed proportionally
to the running costs for the kiln.
The project faced some challenges, primary among them the proliferation of poor quality, unfired stove
liners. It was realized at a later stage that owing to the popularity of the ceramic lined stoves, unscrupulous
business men were marketing unfired liners coated with red oxide to give the impression of having been
fired. Ultimately this damaged the market for the honest producers as they could not compete with the
cheaper poor quality liners. This and other management factors have since put the larger percentage of
production centers out of business.
In discussing the gender issues in the project, participants noted the following:
The project could have had a greater gender impact had it allowed women greater participation in
the production of the liners especially in areas that may be considered technically novel for women
e.g. clay testing.
The neglect of measures to ensure equitable distribution of incomes at the household level ultimately
undermined the performance of the technical and marketing aspects of the project. This highlights
the need to broaden gender considerations in projects to take cognizance of broader gender
interactions in the community.

The success of the individual production model in Western Kenya with a group sharing firing kilns
highlights possibilities offered by the project.


Lydia Muchiri, Project Officer, Practical Action in Eastern Africa
The Tungu Kabiiri Community Micro Hydro Project was implemented by Practical Action in Eastern Africa in
Chuka area of Nithi District. The original donor objective in funding the project was to demonstrate the
viability of Micro Hydro generation as a technical option for energising rural communities. The implementing
agencies goal on the other hand was to demonstrate community managed micro hydro projects can work
and use this to influence a policy decision to allow generation and distribution of electricity through micro
hydro power to households. There were no specifically defined gender goals at the projects onset.
The project had to grapple with several legal and policy barriers, chief among them the monopoly accorded
to the national grid for the distribution of electricity. This meant that any electricity produced would have to
be used on site. However, through partnership with the Ministry of Energy, a special licence to transmit
power to a community centre was eventually granted.
This is the point at which the project had to deal with the emerging gender issues. With the electric power
available at the centre, the community was asked to propose applications for it. While the project committee
had equal gender representation, matters came to head when the applications were to be selected. Men
wanted to install battery charging facilities and entertainment centre (Television) and other income
generation activities. Women on the other hand wanted a salon, and other business they could run, but this
was strongly opposed by the men who contended this would introduce immorality into the community.
Women also wanted to use shaft power for pumping water closer to their homes.
The project had to rethink its approach, and by using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, the project
was able to work with men and women to define their energy needs. From this analysis, it emerged that the
only opportunity available within the technical limitations of available power was the provision of water.
Without this, women would perceive the project to be insensitive to their needs. Men on the other hand were
more interested in income generation opportunities as well as an entertainment centre. These needs were
subsequently provided for in the project re-design to incorporate a comprehensive water component, though
the provision of water pumping services remains unimplemented owing to funding constraints.
In discussing the gender issues in the project, participants highlighted the following points:
The project design erred by not establishing community energy needs and pushing on with a donor
driven/ technology driven agenda. The design was also weakened by the treatment of the community as
a homogeneous entity.
Community consolations on the application of energy services availed by the technology could have been
further enhanced by establishing wider priorities, not only those considered proximal to the available
energy services.
The technology driven agenda implemented initially is becoming less common as donors are now
beginning to demand evidence of prior consultation with communities and the input of this consultation
into the project design.
Not withstanding this, donors and agencies retain some agendas that may not be directly compatible
with community needs, and project planners are obliged to find a bridging solution that delivers the
expectations of donors, the agency and the men and women in the communities.


Julius K.Kirima- Chief Industrial Development Officer, Ministry of Trade and Industry
The project is implemented by the Ministry of Trade and Industry with support from GTZ with the aim of
championing trade as a tool for development and fighting poverty. The objectives of the program are defined
as being to:
enable GOK to formulate, negotiate and implement pro-poor trade policy and strategies;
enable key stakeholders (private sector, civil society and the poor) in national policy making to analyze
linkages between trade, poverty and environmental sustainability;
enable a wider range of stakeholders including the poor, to influence trade policies;
enable pro-poor trade to be better integrated into national planning framework for poverty reduction,
especially ERS.
contribute to the desired outputs of coherent and synergistic development

build capacity of key Kenyan institutions to formulate negotiate and implement inclusive pro-poor trade
reform policies and strategies which create opportunities for the poor to participate in opportunities
arising from globalization.
improve coordination and consultation among the various stakeholders in the Trade/Investment industry
by harmonizing and harnessing synergies of the programs and activities in the Ministry
Pursuant to the above objectives, a field survey was undertaken by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in
Turkana and Gucha regions of the country to identify the resources that can be harnessed to generate
income for the women in those regions. Among the resources being targeted are Aloe vera and Gum arabica,
which are industrial raw materials in the manufacture of cosmetics and processing of beverages respectively.
The program and Oxfam have agreed to work together to help the women groups in those areas get linked
to the industry which would process the raw materials for productive purposes, thus generating some income
for the women. Already the women have organized themselves into groups with which to work.
This is one of the program activities geared towards reaching out to the poor, in helping them identify with
the resources around them for income generation. It is envisaged that by financially empowering the women
in those nomadic communities, it will be possible to uplift the standards of living for the families. Currently
the women have no other source of income and do not own any other form of property.
The following gender issues relating to the project were identified by participants:
The project appears to be gender biased in favor of women. In response it was noted that is has been
deemed appropriate to focus on women as the men already have income generation options in livestock
keeping and would also have no time to engage in the production of these alternate dry land products.
The workshop noted that the project should take cognizance of security risks that women may face in
collecting Gum Arabica.
It was further noted that the project should carefully study the possible implications of eliminating middle
men as they play a critical role in the market chain. In response, it was noted that the project is not
seeking to eliminate them but rather empower communities to bargain for their produce, and also to
engender competition among various middlemen to create a more vibrant market.


Margaret Owino, Regional Director, Solar Cookers International
The workshop also heard a case study from Solar Cookers International (SCI). The SCI program to
disseminate solar cookers to rural areas was originally rolled out in Northern Kenya in the Kakuma Refugee
camp when relief agencies realized the influx of a huge number of refugees in a dry land environment was
devastating the environment through tree cutting for fuel wood and construction. The project was intended
to reduce fuelwood demand by providing and alternative fuel source.
The initial demonstration of the technology was done in a food kiosk within the Kakuma camp, where it
emerged that potential users were skeptical over the slow cooking speeds. Eventually, with pressure for
reduced fuelwood rations, and the need to walk further and further from the camp the technology gained
wide acceptance within the camp.
The next phase was to pilot the technology in a stable rural community. A community within Nyakach in
Western Kenya was identified with the aim of freeing womens time used in fuel gathering for other
productive activities. The second phase had additional welfare goals in reducing exposure to indoor pollution
and reducing drudgery. Within this community, the technology was piloted among women after a baseline
survey indicated that women were the main fuel wood users.
The solar cook kits are distributed at a cost to community based promoters, who generate a small profit from
sales made. The manufacture of the kits has also been localized eliminating the need to import the kits. The
response to the technology has been impressive; men appreciate it as it reduces expenditure on fuel while
women are enjoying the welfare benefits. A verification study has confirmed the sentiments above.
As a result of the success of the technology, SCI has been responding to requests by other agencies to
disseminate the technology within other communities facing cooking energy shortages. Education on the
technology is carried out by women from Nyakach, who are paid a substantial training fee by the agency on
whose behest the training is being conducted.
The participants were treated to a DVD documentary of the project activities and a demonstration of how the
solar cook kit can be used to cook ugali or boil eggs (see plate 1 and 2 below).

Plate 1: Participants of the workshop sample Ugali made using a Solar Cook Kit

In commenting on the case study, the workshop made the following observations:
Participants sought to know how much a solar cook kit costs and how long it can last. In response, it was
noted the kit costs 500 Kenya shillings and with proper handling can last over 1 year. The cost of the kit is
much less than the savings made in cooking energy purchases. Further, with the kits being locally produced
and final assembly being conducted by the women the cost of the kit is unlikely to rise, and might even
Participants also sought to know what plans there are to disseminate the technology further afield. In
response it was noted that plans are underway to establish a resource centre in Kisumu from where a wider
dissemination program can be launched.
Participants also sought to know how SCI has handled gender issues. In response, it was noted that gender
was originally not a concern in the program, which by default design was gender biased. However, SCI noted
that from the workshop, they had gained an appreciation of the need to integrate gender issues in planning
and implementation.

Plate 2: Margaret Owino (Standing) explains to Nancy Nguru how the Solar cook kit works

Monica Waweru, Marketing Officer, SCODE
The workshop also heard a presentation from Sustainable Community Development (SCODE) on a solar
vegetable drying project implemented in Nakuru town and its environs.
The project was implemented to enable beneficiaries add value to fruit and vegetable produce by increasing
their shelf life, hence enabling producers to store some surplus from the growing season when glut reduces
market prices and sell in the dry season when prices are at their best. The project was based on a study
which indicated that small scale farmers lost a lot of their produce to spoilage. However, the principal driver
for the project was a donor agenda to empower women using energy services.
Subsequently, SCODE trained selected men and women on the operation of the solar drier, including
construction of the drier, preparation of fruits and vegetable for drying and packaging. However gender
issues began to emerge when the project launch meeting had an attendance comprising 90% men. It also
emerged that most households could not afford the construction of the drier.
While initially the project intended to simply disseminate the technology and provide training to women on
its use, it emerged that men were the ones attending the meeting and taking decisions on behalf of the
household on whether to adopt the technology. The donor eventually pulled out of the project as he failed to
see how the project would benefit women.
In responding to the presentation, participants noted that the project had erred in failing to define the
gender goals it sought to meet, and to develop strategies on involving men and women in its implementation
while integrating the measures to ensure benefits accrued to women. The project also erred in failing to
recognize the cultural factors that limit the participation of women in public fora. Thus while a pilot number
of women had been trained on the technology and were using it, they did not show up at the launch meeting
hence the skepticism of the donor.
At the same time, the project should have sought to demonstrate to the donor that his agenda was not
expressly compatible within the community context, and that it would be necessary to involve men and
women in the implementation of the project.
Other case studies developed by participants but not presented to the workshop are presented in annex 5.

Paul Mbuthi
To enable participants undertake more precise considerations on gender in projects, the workshop went
through the gender analytic tools as detailed in Module 2 of the training package.
Gender analytic tools are used to help to diagnose the existing gender situation and assess the likely impact
of the project interventions on women. In this function, they serve as early warning systems to enable
preventive action against negative impacts. Gender analytic tools enable planners to ensure that gender
differences are not overlooked in planning and implementation.
Mainstream gender analytical tools such as the Harvard Matrix, or Gender Assessment Matrix are not well
suited to energy projects as they do not examine the roles of men and women, and what energy services
may ease work and expand opportunities for men and women. They also offer little guidance that is relevant
to energy services planning.
Gender tools generally take the form of matrixes or checklists, the former being more suited to quantitative
data while the latter relate more easily to qualitative data. Gender analysis in energy planning calls for a
combination of the two and are further refined by specific project frameworks i.e. whether the project is an
energy only project or energy is a component in a wider project.
To be effective, gender analysis needs to be integrated at all stages of the project lifecycle i.e.
Identification of the stakeholders
Analysis of the problem and formulation of the Project
Identification of assumption and external factors that may disturb the project plan
Summing up and making a final decision
Participants then considered several tools as presented in the module. It was noted these tools have been
refined to ease the identification of critical gender concerns in energy and energy integral projects.
In considering the Capabilities and Vulnerability Assessment (CVA) tool, the session noted that a CVA
analysis is essential in developing a rational expectation on men and women by identifying what resources
they can access and within what constraints. It was also noted that the tool enables a planner to begin
outlining the possible areas of intervention needed in a community to ensure progressive forces out-power
the retrogressive ones. It was noted that a force field analysis in poor communities generally shows that the
retrogressive forces are more than progressive ones, and the onus is on project planners to reverse this.
The session also considered the Harvard Gender Analysis Matrix with respect to which it was noted that this
is a data intensive tool, and while it may not lend itself to easy application in resource limited applications, it
can be scaled down according to the needs at hand. The tool is also strong in discerning the deeper and
wider implications of gender relations, and any changes to the status quo.

Faith Odongo
From the foregoing, it is clear that various stakeholders have a great influence in energy and energy integral
projects especially as relates to gender. To build the skills of participants in stakeholder identification and
engagement, Faith Odongo took participants through the session on stakeholder identification.
The session began with a recap of gender analysis tools whereby it was noted that standard gender
analytical tools are not precisely suited to energy and energy integral project planning and implementation.
Further, the precise application of the tools depends on the nature of the project i.e. if the project is energy
only or an energy integral project.
While energy technology projects are implemented primarily to promote specific energy technologies, energy
integral projects have energy as just one of several components geared towards a wider development
project. In this context, planners have the flexibility to identify the most appropriate energy technology to
The participants were introduced to the Gender Planning Framework, a tool that has been found to be very
useful in incorporating gender considerations in energy planning. It comprises four major steps.
Identification of Stakeholders is the first integral part of the gender sensitive planning framework. It
progresses to Problem Analysis/Project Formulation, Identifying Assumptions and ends with Summing up.
The gender planning framework is flexible and may be integrated with other planning frameworks, e.g. the
Sustainable Livelihoods framework.
In identifying stakeholders, it is essential to recognize that stakeholders have different categories and
therefore different interests. To highlight this point, participants considered the worked example in module
two (SAMBA implemented development program in Sudan). From reviewing the case study, participants
were able to appreciate the diversity of stakeholders that may have bearing on a project. Stakeholders may
be differentiated even within gender categories e.g. wealthy women, poor women, women living in dispersed
villages, women heads of households etc. Differences within gender categories are particularly important as
women and men engaged in different livelihood activities and with different social economic status, will often
have very different energy needs even within the same community. Stakeholders may also be external to
the community e.g. sponsors, implementers, regulatory authorities etc. Inclusion of a category is determined
by whether they have different energy requirements, or whether they are at different levels of access to
energy. It was emphasized that categories should only be formed if there are strong reasons to think that
their energy situations may be different.
Gender goals differ for different stakeholders, and these goals must be accurately identified and refined for
each gender category. In this respect, it was noted that identifying stakeholders also involves establishing
their expectations. Different sources of data on the expectations of stakeholders present themselves to a
project planner, ranging from written sources such as policy statements to community focus group
discussions to establish community needs and expectations. As each stakeholder may have several
expectations, it is also necessary to prioritize the ones which will be addressed by the project.
Further, it was noted that communities may not be able to identify their gender needs explicitly; project
planners have to help communities translate their needs into the gender goals. Even other stakeholders may
be inept at identifying the relevance of energy services to delivering their mandates. Here again, planners
have a responsibility to demonstrate how energy will enable the delivery of various organizational mandates.
Ultimately, planners have to reconcile the different expectations and goals of stakeholders in a project.
Often, the donor priorities will be different from those of the community, and the planner has to find a way
to bridge the two.
At a strategic level, greater harmony may be achieved by getting donor agencies to subscribe to a donor
panel which can help develop a comprehensive assistance program that is informed by verified community
needs. Given the diversity of interests among stakeholders, a planner must develop clear indicators that can
measure progress towards different goals. Indicators must be objective and verifiable. They must also be
collectible within the data collection constraints within a project.
Perhaps more importantly, the indicators must measure what the program seeks to know. For instance, is
the presence of women in a committee a valid indicator of the participation of women in decision making? It
may be necessary to get women to separately identify their priorities and develop specific monitoring and
evaluation frameworks to monitor these.

In developing indicators for monitoring, it is imperative that the indicators have internal validity. Internal
validity means that changes in the indicator must be traceable to interventions made i.e. causality. The
indicators must also include statements on how much change is sought. Not withstanding these criteria,
planners often face goals for which it is difficult to develop valid indicators. For instance, what indicator can
accurately measure reduction of drudgery, or how a monitoring and evaluation officer can demonstrate that
the reduction in respiratory disease is as a result of cleaner fuels. Data required for some indicators is also
difficult to collect with any accuracy and indicators that rely on this type of data should be avoided.
Identifying stakeholders also requires that the planner identify opportunities and constraints to the
participation of different stakeholders. Constraints may include cultural factors, such as those that inhibit the
participation of women in the public forums, constraints related to access to resources etc. Where such
constraints are of a magnitude and nature as to dilute the impact of the project, it becomes necessary to find
ways of removing or working round them.

Paul Mbuthi
Problem analysis and project formulation is the second part of a gender aware planning framework. This
again requires several data sets, requiring systematic collection through various data collection tools. The
data collection tools applied differ depending on whether the project at hand is an integrated or energy only
To explore the data collection tools in an integrated development project, the workshop considered the
SAMBA integrated development project in Sudan.
When considering the case, participants were able to identify how problem analysis and problem
identification can be conducted in an integrated development project. Of particular interest was the methods
used by Samba in identifying the different priorities of men and women, and subdivisions within the two (e.g.
by income, household headship etc)
It was also interesting to note the differences in the needs of the subcategories of men and women as well
as the data collection methods employed. From examining the case, the workshop was also able to identify
the import of identifying access and control over resources, and how this relates to the selection of a project
In concluding the session, it was noted that by examining and analyzing the viability of various energy
options, a project planner can identify the most optional project formulation.

Faith Odongo
In project formulation, a number of assumptions are often inherently incorporated into the design. In some
instances, some of these assumptions may produce complications later in the project if they have a
confounding effect on the project design.
In relation to engendered planning, it is critical to identify assumptions that may affect the positive or
negative impacts on men and women. To illustrate how assumptions affect the selected project formulation,
the workshop considered the use of the matrix on page 81 of Module 2. This analysis, it was noted, needs to
be carried out in relation to each of the gender goals selected for the project in relation to the selected
project components/actions. The analysis also involved reexamining the assumptions on the inputs of various
gender categories, the benefits they are expected to accrue and identifying any confounding variables in this
For instance, the operation and maintenance of an energy technology may be so demanding as to negate its
benefits or as to dilute any transformations in gender relations that it may have brought about. The control
and access of a technology may have a similar effect, for instance, assuming that installation of household
Solar PV systems in a household will improve lighting for women may be an erroneous assumption if the
lighting points are installed in areas women spend little time in.
Critiquing assumptions also requires a review of the capacity building needs required to deliver project goals
and how this capacity fits into existing and expected gender goals in the future. For instance the project
wants to improve the status of women in community; it may need to explicitly target women in capacity
building/training that enables them to play a more prominent role in the household and community.
Summing up also requires a reexamination of the agencies capacity vis--vis what is needed for the project
e.g. does the agency have a gender aware policy and what are its stated positions on equity, equality,
welfare and productive needs of men and women, does the absence of such a policy guideline affect the
ability of the agency to implement engendered projects?
Planners also need to look at opportunities and constraints that exist in the wider institutional framework
e.g., what are the policy needs of the project? Are these in place or do they need to be developed and
In conclusion, it was noted that the engendered planning process not only delivers a well rounded and
validated project design, but also eases the implementation of the project by anticipating most probable
scenarios that will be encountered.

To strengthen the understanding of participants on the relationship between energy services and the wider
development agenda, especially as set by the Millennium Development Goals, participants were asked to
break into three groups and try to derive what they perceive to be the relationship between energy, gender
and the MDGs.
The following is a summary of the presentations by the groups to the workshop;
Goal 1 eradicate Target 1 reduce by half Energy for productive uses Involve men and women in
extreme poverty the proportion of people Easy access to energy services planning for the provision of
and hunger living on less than a energy services
dollar a day Increased household incomes
may not be equally distributed
between men and women.
Target 2 Reduce by half Energy for preservation (post Increased food security for the
the proportion of people harvest applicationsdrying whole household will ease tasks
who suffer from hunger etc) for both men and women, but
Energy for irrigation greater benefits will accrue to

Goal 2 Achieve Target 3 Ensure that all Electrification of schools Overall increases in school
universal primary boys and girls complete a improves learning conditions enrolment will give girls more
education full course of primary Availability of energy for safe opportunities to complete
schooling drinking water pumping opens primary schooling.
up opportunities for girls to Female teachers may be
attend school unwilling to serve in unlighted
Energy for school feeding schools where they may feel
programs insecure.
Energy services can help
ensure teachers are willing to
serve in rural, remote areas
hence providing more schooling
opportunities for all children
Goal 3 Promote Target 4 Eliminate Street lighting improves Women feel more secure and can
gender equality gender disparity in security for women so they can participate in more community
and empower education attend night school activities especially those that
women Energy powers information take place at night. This will also
technology (ICTs) that can increase their status within their
increase the quality of communities
education offered. Women become more literate
Energy can open up new and informed on other issues
opportunities for productive
work for both men and women
Goal 4 Reduce Target 5 - Reduce by two Energy to meet health facility Reduce exposure of children to
child mortality thirds the mortality rate needs e.g. sterilization, storage environmental heath risks
of children under five of medicines
Providing modern energy
services contributes to reduced
indoor air pollution, and the
risks to children who are
particularly susceptible
Target 6 Reduce by Energy for improved health Safer motherhood for women.
three quarters the services including lighting, Better fatherhood for men in
maternal mortality ratio heating, and sterilization for the comfort of the fact that
delivery rooms will help should their wives have
improve maternal care. complications at child birth, they
will be adequately catered for.

Goal 6 Combat Target 7 Have halted Increased access to energy Higher life expectancy for all in
HIV/AIDS and by 2015 and began to opens up opportunities for the household and better quality
malaria reverse the spread of productive work, reducing the of life for those infected.
HIV/AIDS temptation to engage in risky
behaviour especially among the
Target 8 Have halted youth
by 2015 and began to Productive work creates
reverse the spread of incomes that can be used in
malaria and other major protective and curative health
diseases care

Goal 7 ensure Target 9 Reverse loss Efficient energy technologies A more sustainable environment
environmental of environmental and switch to non biomass for all
sustainability resources fuels will reduce pressure on Cleaner and safe water for all
forest resources Less drudgery for women in
Target 10 Reduce by Energy services are central to collecting biomass fuels
half the proportion of water pumping and purification Less threats to personal security
people without for women while out collecting
sustainable access to firewood.
safe drinking water Time freed from firewood
collection can be used by women
for other productive activities.

Paul Mbuthi
Given the centrality of data collection in engendered planning, this session provided participants with an
opportunity to explore some methods of participatory data collection.
Each of the four stages of engendered project planning requires different types of data which can be
obtained through various means. For most data sets that need to be collected from communities, and
creating data sets from professional and institutional sources, participatory data collection methods offer a
rapid and efficient way to collect data.
Most Participatory methods are coalesced around the Participatory Rural Appraisal/Rapid Rural Appraisal
(PRA/RRA) methodologies. These methods differ fundamentally in the more rapid methodology used in RRA.
RRA is generally used to conduct a scoping study, either as an end to itself, or as a precursor to a more
rigorous inquiry using various methods including PRA.
Using participatory methods such as focus group discussions and key informant interviews allows a data
collector to identify specific gender issues by holding sessions with persons or groups who can give an insight
to various gender dynamics of interest to the planning process.
In participatory data collection, it is essential to identify the gate keepers within a community. These are
persons who mediate the communitys interface with eternal parties. While these persons are generally rich
sources of information, the data collection team must also be conscious of the fact they have their own
interests and these may be counter to the projects interests.
PRA/RRA teams need to be conscious of the need to de-homogenize their data collection samples into
various categories depending on the project objectives these categories can include; women headed
households, wealthy women, poor men, educated women, itinerant families etc. To identify which categories
exist, all RRA/PRA exercises need to be launched at village/community meetings during which these
categories can be identified.
In relation to energy planning, certain PRA tools are particularly useful in obtaining planning data. For
instance, village mapping and transect walks are useful in obtaining information about the location of various
energy resources and hence the effort and time used in obtaining them. Daily calendars can help discern
time expenditure in obtaining fuelwood. Pair-wise ranking helps identify community priorities and challenges.
The identification of community priorities and what they perceive to be their opportunities and weaknesses is
particularly important in ensuring project planners respond to community perceived priorities, which can be
quite different from what they appear to be from the outside.
In combination these and other tools help identify the opportunities, challenges and constraints from which
the right energy or energy integral project design can be derived.

Paul Mbuthi
While the training program being rolled out in Kenya for the TIE-ENERGIA program does not include Modules
3 and 4, within which energy policy and advocacy is covered, the training needs assessment prior to the
workshop highlighted strong demand for training in this respect. This session was therefore held as a primer
on which more comprehensive training can be built.
The need to engender energy policy stems from the fact that gender needs are not gender neutral. As such,
a gender blind policy will not respond effectively to the different energy needs of different genders. The low
representation of women in energy planning stems from among other reasons, the low presence of women in
energy and decision making fora, the low status generally accorded to womens needs among others.
Advocacy includes all those activities that aim to change aspects of the current situation by influencing
people with the power to make decisions. Advocacy is about influencing people, communities, policy,
institutional structures, etc. in order to achieve certain changes.
As advocacy involves challenging existing positions and status, a person intending to engage in policy
advocacy needs to be well prepared with the facts and approaches to persuade policy makers see the merit
in the proposed changes. Energy advocacy faces the additional challenge that the energy issues are not well
understood outside a relatively small number of energy professionals, and advocates have the additional task
of illustrating how energy relates to the mandates of various policy makers.
Further, policy makers tend to have an elitist approach and even when they admit other stakeholders into
the policy development process, there is always a tendency to exclude these other stakeholders as the policy
development process enters finalization and implementation. Where policy advocacy faces particularly steep
challenges, it is often a useful strategy to use existing policy as the point of departure in elaborating how
policy changes can increase the efficacy of existing policy.
Advocacy activities can be sequenced into awareness raising, changing attitudes, influencing policy and
ensuring implementation (of policy) advocacy activities. Effective advocacy also requires an understanding of
the content within which advocacy is carried out. This includes existing policy, policy processes, responsibility
for various aspects of policy development and implementation etc.
Advocacy strategies include among others
Addressing policymakers on behalf of the people you try to help;
Helping communities to address the policymakers themselves;
Forming alliances with other individuals or groups to address the policymakers;
Building up networks to share information.
Other strategies include lobbying resource and power brokers who can bring pressure to bear on policy
makers. Entities involved in advocacy must also ensure all parties they work with are well aware of the
desired changes. This not only solidifies support for advocacy but also gives the process legitimacy.
Legitimate advocacy should also be reconcilable with the wider national and sector development agenda,
failure to which the ensuing policy will find it difficult to attract resources and the commitment among
stakeholders it needs for implementation.
In commenting on the session, participants noted that most government policies are not well articulated or
even available to stakeholders let alone the public. Even the government communications office which is
supposed to serve this role seems more concerned with defending the governments political stance rather
than articulating policy.
Further, resource allocation policy via the budget is largely inaccessible to stakeholders. Although the recent
trend of pre-budget conferences is a positive development, there is still little opportunity to actually
participate in deciding how much resources are allocated where.

Day 3 of the workshop ended with a group work session during which group members prepared tools to
conduct energy needs assessment for households and groups within the environs of Nakuru town. The
prepared tools were presented to the workshop plenary for comments and subsequent adjustment before the
actual data collection in the field. After the adjustments the groups left on morning of day 4 to collect data
from four situations namely: use of solar drying technology by a group of men and women; a household
using biogas technology for cooking; a household using solar photovoltaic lighting system, and a group that
did not have any energy technology interventions from the institutions operating around Nakuru area.
The detailed reports are appended as Annex 6 to this report. A summary of the group reports is as presented
here below.


The information gathered indicated that the project was initiated by SCODE and with support from the
National Agriculture and Livestock Extension Programme (NALEP). It targeted both men and women of
Ndungeri focal area. Ten (10) men and twenty five (25) women came together to form the group. The
members provide voluntary services on rotational basis to the project. Members of the group are men and
women originally belonging to other Common Interest Groups (CIGs) that were mobilised by NALEP.
The aim of setting up the project was to ensure food security, as the area is prone to long dry spells, and to
generate income for upkeep in-case of surpluses. Savings from the sale of dried vegetables is the main
economic benefit to the group members. The project has contributed to enlightening of the members and
growth in personality, members have been exposed to various groups/communities where they freely share
their opinions and ideas and women have had the opportunity to benefit from the exposure and as a result
changed their lifestyle and view to issues. In addition, the project reduced the workload of the men, women
and children, thus freeing time for other assignments.
The solar vegetable drying and preservation led to reduced food wastage as the food produced can be dried
and stored for future use. This in effect means that seasonal vegetables that grow freely during the rain
season can be dried and stored.
In terms of performance indicators of the project, the group indicated that 16 packets of dried vegetables
equivalent to 336 servings per week are dried. It was also noted that 3.2 kilogrammes of vegetable is
consumed weekly per household. So far, all vegetables dried are for own consumption by the group
members and hence no sales are made. The community members expressed lots of interest and satisfaction
from the technology. Other benefits are increased food security especially the micro nutrients from the
vegetables and fruits, improved lifestyles and reduced brain drain through active involvement of learned
housewives and men. The project has also improved gender relations at household decision making. Its
impact was summarized as: awareness of improved technologies; increased economic and food security
which stabilizes the community; and introduction of the need for cooperation and interdependence.


The group visited a household using a Solar PV system to conduct an energy services needs review. The
household installed the system with the assistance of Sustainable Community Development (SCODE).
Using the structured interview method, the group identified stakeholders of the solar PV project to comprise
the family members, neighbors and SCODE.
Following the situational analysis framework, the group documented the various ways in which the
empowerment, productivity, welfare and efficiency gender goals addressed the specific needs of each of the
identified stakeholder. In addition, the group analyzed and documented a range of the development impacts
and indicators of the achievement of each of the gender goals accruing from the implementation of the solar
PV home system. The impacts include reduced drudgery, improved health and monetary savings as well as
enhanced gender equity in decision making and increased access to information. The group went further to
identify the opportunities created by the project and possible constraints that restrain rapid uptake of the
technology by other potential beneficiaries.
In summary, the group concluded that Solar Home Systems have the potential to improve rural livelihoods if
they are properly sized and cited within the household. It emphasized the need to incorporate gender
considerations during project planning in order to ensure gender equity and equality.


The group visited Jesse Cheges farm/household, a former employee of Pyrethrum Board of Kenya. The
household is engaged in rearing dairy cattle, chicken breeding, crop farming and sand mining within the
farm. The group noted that the household was among the first to benefit from biogas technology support
from SCODE.
The stakeholders identified include: the family members, SCODE, women groups and relevant government
institutions who benefit from awareness created by the functional plant.
The family enumerated a number of benefits derived from the biogas plant in the household. These include:
reduced labor on fuel collection, time saved on cooking and water heating, reduced health risks for the
mother and the kids and additional income from the associated savings.

In summary, the biogas technology has improved the quality of life of all the family members. The goals of
all stakeholders have been achieved. The technology has also brought additional benefits to the family and
the community.


The group visited Bahati Umoja Self-help group with no Energy service intervention from development
agencies within Nakuru environs. It comprises 32 members (18 men and 14 women) each of which
represents a household/family. They came together to assist each other meet various basic needs by pooling
together resources through a merry-go-round. The farm sizes in the area range from small plots to a
maximum of 2 acres. At the time of the visit, some members of the group already owned Meko Jikos.
The group members interviewed included two men, two women and one young man from the family visited.
The members interviewed stated their energy needs and interests to include energy for cooking, lighting,
economic activities such as baking, chicken rearing and welding and for water pumping.


In summing up the presentation of the field exercise reports, it was noted that the groups had put up a
commendable effort, but there were still areas of improvement. In this respect, members were advised to
review the gender analytical tools presented in Module 2.

To provide participants with a framework for implementing the skills gained from the training within their job
functions and organisations, participants were required to prepare action plans. These plans form the basis of
mainstreaming gender within the various organisations represented at the workshop, and also the basis for
backstopping support by the ENERGIA focal point in East Africa.
The detailed action plans are annexed to this report. The following is a summary of the gist of the action


The action plan for the REP will focus on identifying the productive gender needs in and around rural load
centres. This will entail the identification of beneficiaries REP projects, and working with them to identify
their reproductive, productive and to a limited extent, their strategic gender needs. By identifying beneficiary
categories and their gender goals, the REP program intends to develop a more efficient methodology and
criteria for the selection of rural load centres, and methods for ensuring the provision of electricity meets the
productive needs of men and women. The action plan will be monitored primarily against the number of new
connections to the grid, number of enterprises set up to exploit energy services in newly electrified load
centres and improvements in income attributable to energy services (electricity).

The PSDA action plan will focus on promotion of environment friendly energy services, specifically, fuel
efficient (woodfuel) cook stoves. The promotion of these stoves will meet both reproductive and productive
needs by reducing the drudgery and health risks associated with inefficient wood fuel stoves and also by
creating income generation opportunities in the production of the stoves by women. The program, which has
been ongoing, will now include gender considerations by proactively targeting women in providing assistance
to technical, financial and marketing assistance to producers of cook stoves. The action plan shall be
monitored primarily against the uptake of stoves by households, and also against the number of women
involved in production, marketing and installation of the stoves.


This action plan will focus on incorporating analysis of gender energy needs in the dissemination of PV solar
technology to remote, off grid households and institutions. This will be achieved primarily through
participatory energy needs assessment to establish differences in gender needs for energy and energy
applications, and taking this into consideration in the design of PV solar solutions for households and
institutions. It is expected the action plan can be implemented with minimal additional resources. The action
plan will be monitored primarily against gender disaggregated use of PV solar in enabling income generation

This action plan will focus on providing energy for reproductive and productive uses, as well as mitigating the
environmental impacts of woodfuel harvesting. The action plan will focus on establishing tree nurseries and
woodfuel lots within communities and disseminating efficient cookstoves. The selection of the afforestation
program will be developed with due consideration to access and control of resources, especially land and
trees to ensure equitable distribution of benefits. The action plan will require external funding to cover the
establishment of nurseries and staff costs. Monitoring will be against the number of tree seedlings planted for
wood lots and number of efficient cookstoves installed.


The action plan for the department shall be implemented in three phases. In the first phase training will be
conducted to sensitize staff on the relation between gender, energy and forests from which most energy
needs in the country are met. This will include demonstration of the link between gender, energy and the
MDGs. The second phase shall be the incorporation of gender concerns in forestry planning, which will be
succeeded by phase three monitoring the impact of gender aware planning on the performance of forestry
programs. Monitoring will be in the first phase according to the number of staff trained. Additional monitoring
and evaluation targets will be developed by staff depending on their job functions. The action plan will
require external resources to cover training costs as these are not provided for in existing budgets.

This action plan will focus on capacity building of community based organizations on the relevance of gender
on the performance of livelihood enhancement efforts. The action plan will also include mainstreaming
gender in Practical Actions work in the region. The primary strategy will be training and use of gender
analytic tools in planning processes. In particular, the action plan envisions the development of a compact
module covering all five modules in the TIE-ENERGIA training package to enable quick dissemination to other
stakeholders. Monitoring will be against specific gender goals set on a project to project basis within Practical
Actions work in the region.


SCODEs action plan will focus on integrating gender concerns in the dissemination of biogas technology, and
the ongoing program of work within SCODE. This will be achieved mainly through the use of gender analytic
tools with a view to ensuring that gender goals are identified and delivered, especially for women.
Implementation of the action plan will be staggered across four geographical areas covered by SCODE
programs. The primary resource requirement will be staff time. Monitoring will be against the meeting of
gender goals defined by beneficiaries.


The action plan will be implemented in three parts, starting with training of departmental staff on gender
approaches to planning and identifying ways in which these can be integrated into the departments work.
This will be aided by the dissemination of the gender analytical tools through the departments technical
notes series. The second, mid term phase will be to create awareness among the departments clients on
how gender relates to their needs, especially household energy needs. This will be achieved through the
departments open days and other materials. This phase will also include the identification of stakeholders in
household energy services. The long term, the third phase will include a more intensive training of trainers
(TOT) training for the department and the wider ministry, a detailed gender and energy study (with
emphasis on the performance of household technologies disseminated by the ministry of agriculture) and the
demonstration of gender-energy linkages to ministry officers to promote adoption of gender approaches to
energy planning.


The SCI action plan will focus on gender-energy policy advocacy, with emphasis on creating wider
understating of the different energy needs of men and women, and why this difference requires policy
recognition. The action plan will involve a review, in collaboration with stakeholders, of existing policies that
touch on energy, and developing an advocacy program of work that will seek to have identified gender needs
in energy policy incorporated. Review of the existing policy will be facilitated in part through the EATDN
network, and will be monitored against the incorporation of identified gender-energy needs in relevant


The CERES action plan will focus on the integration of renewable energy technologies in marginalized areas,
with a focus on the promotion of biodiesel both as an energy service, and income generation activity. While
this is an ongoing program of work, care will now be taken to consider gender differences in access and
control of resources required in biodiesel production, and wider consultation with stakeholders. Monitoring
will be against gender goals developed in consultation with beneficiary communities.

This evaluation of the workshop is based on daily training reviews provided by the participants. The
evaluation examines participants perception on the delivery on each of the sessions. Details of participants
perception on training delivery, and the relevance of skills imparted to their job functions are annexed to this
By and large, participants indicated they were able to grasp the core concepts and skills the training intended
to impart. A close examination of the learning outcomes of the sessions indicates most participants grasped
the core concepts covered in each session.
However as expected of any training exercise, some concepts were poorly grasped by participants. The
following concepts stand out by the high number of participants who indicated difficulties in grasping them;
1. A sizable proportion of participants indicated that while they understood gender as a concept they felt
they were inadequately briefed on what tools they can use to stimulate a change of gender roles in
communities where existing gender contracts are particularly inequitable and irreconcilable with
development objectives.
2. There was a strong feeling among participants that the training is very valuable in increasing the
efficiency and efficacy with which they deliver their job functions. However, they also felt that without
the training being expanded to cover more of their colleagues, they (participants) would be able to
apply the concepts and skills only to a limited extent.
3. There was also a palpable feeling of puzzlement as to how to establish what constitutes an equitable
distribution of costs and benefits, without which they felt most planners would remain in limbo as to
whether projects are having sufficient gender impacts especially as relates to gender equity.
4. There were a sizable number of participants who indicated they had difficulties in reconciling the newly
learnt concept of gender goals, to project goals they are more accustomed to developing and designing
projects around. This difficulty seems to stem from the fact that gender goals appear to be a new,
extra set of project performance parameters, which some participants felt may be hard to reconcile
with the conventional project goals.
5. Some participants also expressed puzzlement over the criteria to use in selecting a gender planning
approach for a given situation. In particular some participants seemed to have poorly understood the
shortcomings of non-mainstreamed approaches to planning and why they should not be chosen over
mainstreaming approaches.
6. Stakeholder identification, analysis and engagement was another area in which a sizable proportion of
participants reported difficulties in. These problems seem to stem from identifying the gender needs
and goals of different stakeholders, and incorporating these into a project design. In particular,
participants expressed apprehension over how to identify and engage passive stakeholders.
7. Identification of assumptions and summing up was another area of reported learning difficulty. In
particular, participants seem to have developed the impression that all possible factors impacting on a
project must be identified and assumptions. Given the breadth of factors with possible impact on
project design, this understandably created a sense of apprehension over how to conduct an
examination of assumptions around a project.
8. The trainings coverage of policy advocacy was seen as wanting by most participants who felt that the
training did not sufficiently prepare them for advocacy work. This is to be expected given that the
session was covered within a period of only one hour, and was not a core training objective of the
workshop. Instead, the session was included as more of a primer on training in advocacy work, and a
more comprehensive training program on policy advocacy is envisioned at a later point in time.
9. While participants seem to have grasped the gist of data collection tools, and this is reinforced by the
field exercise, some participants expressed a sense of uncertainty as to how intensive data collection
should be, especially in the context of limited resources to collect data.
These perceptions by participants are very valuable in determining the efficacy of the training workshop.
Some of them also touch on core objectives of the training, and therefore merit reflection as to how learning
difficulties will impact on the implementation of the skills learnt;
On the coverage of tools on changing gender roles (point 1), it must be appreciated that it is difficult to
stimulate a change of gender roles by direct action, and therefore covering tools in this respect would be of
limited impact. If anything, such approaches would be more in the province of feminism than gender
activism. Further, by appreciating the different gender needs and goals (as participants indicated they did),
planners can ease the performance of gender roles, and open up new opportunities for men and women,
hence challenging the existing gender contract.

On the need to cover more people in the training (point 2), it is critical that participants understand that
this is their role, having being trained to train others. On the other hand, most participants action plans
included training others in their workplaces on gender planning skills. What is needed is a sustained line of
communication with participants to enable the provision of technical backstopping in the implementation of
this aspect of action plans.

On the establishment of what is an equitable gender contract (point 3) , the intensity of data need for
effective gender planning (point 9) and identifying assumptions (point 7) it should be noted that
planning by default imbued by a degree of uncertainty and there are no clear cut parameters for some
aspects. As such it is more important to make progress relative to a base position rather than to worry too
much about what is probably an achievable absolute measure of progress. By making progress, no matter
how limited a more equitable situation is brought closer, and by collecting a base set of data on the prior
situation, it is possible to measure how fast this change is being made. On identifying assumptions, it
should be noted that planners need not worry too much about all possible assumptions, as planning is a
continuous process, any substantial assumptions relevant to a project that may have been overlooked can
be identified within the monitoring and evaluation framework and appropriate measures to address them

Regarding the reconciliation of project and gender goals (point 4), this is a central competency required for
gender aware planning and technical backstopping in the delivery of the action plans will need to focus on
this area to ensure participants are able to reconcile the two. However, with the reported strong
understanding of gender goals, it is more a matter of enabling participants to reflect on what contribution a
gender goal makes to project goals and vice versa.

On stakeholder engagement (point 6) it is necessary to note that as with assumptions, planners need to be
more concerned with exercising due diligence in stakeholder identification and engagement, any
stakeholders who are relevant and are overlooked will eventually register on the project during
implementation, a good monitoring and evaluation framework can identify this and planners can then make
appropriate changes.


Participants also made several important observations on the methodology used to deliver the training, the
following points were particularly emphasised:
The training package (modules) should be circulated to participants in advance of the training to enable
participants acquaint themselves with training content, and identify areas of particular interest for follow-
up during the workshop.

Delivery should employ more group work sessions to enable more focused discussion of the concepts
covered. Interactive sessions should also be increased, more so in the afternoons when concentration
tends to reduce.

In covering the relevance of gender to energy planning, it may be more effective to introduce the relevance
of gender in planning at large first, then narrow down to its application in energy issues. This will provide
participants with the ability to plan and sell the gender approach to planning to a wider audience, most of
whom have limited understanding of energy issues, let alone gender and energy issues.

It was suggested that a summarised version of the two modules be produced as it will enable the
participants effectively pass on the message within limited periods of time and resources.

Trainers should judge participants understanding of the modules they are covering, it is monotonous and
irritating to cover in detail areas in which it is evident participants are conversant. On the other hand, more
time should be spent on areas in which participants have difficulties. One way of doing this would be by the
aforementioned distribution of training content prior to the workshop so participants can guide facilitators
on where to spend more or less time.

Participants also noted that more time should have been allotted to gender analytical tools. One way of doing
this is to spend less time on areas participants are evidently conversant with.

The training program should include a session where participants can tell the workshop how energy related
to their job functions.

Regarding the facilitation and facilitators, it was noted it could help if more than two facilitators were used.
The training program is long and intensive and having different facilitators will help sustain participants
interest in different sessions, and also allow trainers to stay refreshed through out.

Participants also noted that more care should be taken in the preparation of visual aids; in particular, it was
noted that some slides had too much detail and were hard to read. In addition, participants noted that
references to pages in the modules in a jumbled manner caused confusion. The training should refer to
pages in a sequential manner, not referring to some later pages then some earlier in the module, back to
some later pages and so on.

Facilitators should also take closer control of discussions to ensure they remain focused on the issue at hand
and not drift into peripheral themes.
Participants also noted that in future, more care should be taken to select a well ventilated and cooled room
to ease concentration especially in the afternoon.


Regarding the relevance of the training to policy issues, participants made the following observations;
The workshop highlighted the need for the enactment of regulatory and policy frameworks for affirmative
action and providing enabling clauses that speed up the progression of women by exempting women from
some requirements or easing compliance with these requirements.

As energy and gender issues are poorly understood in most planning quarters, the ENERGIA network should
identify and document case studies that demonstrate the efficacy of gender and energy in development
and poverty reduction.

For there to be any meaningful policy advocacy agenda, there is a need for closer engagement with sector
actors. This can be accomplished by widening the reach of networks such as ENERGIA and also by
intensifying and coordinating the policy advocacy efforts of different actors in the networks.

For effective and rapid mainstreaming of gender in planning, policy advocacy work should focus not only
capacity building in this respect, but also in the enactment of planning requirements that compel planners
to demonstrate and document what measures they have put in a particular program towards
mainstreaming gender.
However, as noted before participants noted that the coverage of advocacy for gender in energy in the
workshop was way inadequate to enable them to undertake any meaningful advocacy work. As such,
participants emphasised the need for more training focused on this area.

The workshop came to a close at 5 pm on Friday 27th November 2006 after 5 days of productive training,
deliberations and practical exercises. The closing ceremonies were as follows;


Daniel Theuri, Senior Programme Manager, Practical Action in Eastern Africa

Mr.Theuri presented certificates to the participants after which he made closing remarks. In his closing
speech, Mr. Theuri noted that the TIE-ENERGIA training program is quite intensive, and expressed his
appreciation for the participants tenacity in completing the whole course. The real challenge however he
noted was the implementation of the concepts covered in the course. Energy services in developed countries
are critical in enabling technological and industrial development, and the lack of modern energy services in
developing countries is one of the hurdles to economic growth and better quality of life.
The skills gained by participants at this workshop has give them an opportunity, and responsibility to speak
on behalf of the voiceless, more so women, who despite their large contribution in energy procurement
receive minimal consideration in planning and policy processes. Participants will have particularly heard that
the Sessional Paper No.4 on Energy, despite being a technically sound document gives little attention to
gender needs in energy planning. The onus is therefore on participants at this workshop to ensure that the
implementation of the paper is done with due consideration to gender needs.
Even so, the TIE-ENERGIA program will conduct a gender sensitivity analysis of Sessional Paper No.4 on
Energy with a view of capturing whatever opportunities that may present themselves to review it into a more
gender sensitive document.
On the other hand, participants, and their agencies will have to contend with the fact that only 3.8% of
Kenyas oil and electric power are consumed in rural areas. While this situation is partly a legacy of
ineffective policy, the current challenges are those of delivery as most requisite enabling policies are now in
place. For energy to contribute to Kenyas ambitious development agenda, including better welfare and
productivity, innovative and effective delivery strategies are needed.
The training provided at this workshop is an important step in this direction. It lays the foundation for raising
awareness on the possibilities of an energy driven development path, and provides participants with the skills
to enable communities demand that this path be embarked upon. Training at this workshop has concentrated
on engendering energy planning and delivery, participants are obliged to move forward from this forum, to
ensure by their actions, and influencing others to adopt engendered planning, which is one of the most
effective ways of raising the effectiveness of development efforts.
Participants will therefore be well advised to rigorously establish the different energy needs of men and
women within their areas of work and develop viable implementation strategies using the skills gained at this
workshop. In doing this, we will be delivering the benefits of modern energy to those who need them most
men and women in already disadvantaged communities.
Ultimately, ladies and gentlemen, it is practical actions towards wider access to modern energy services that
will judge how effective this training has been. Every small increment in access to energy services counts
and the challenge is on you to deliver.
With those sentiments ladies and gentlemen, I declare this workshop officially closed.


Andrew Isoe
The vote of thanks on behalf of participants was given by Mr. Isoe, who expressed their appreciation for the
investment in time and resources that had been expended to plan and conduct the workshop. On behalf of
the participants, he promised to demonstrate this appreciation by ensuring engendered planning and
implementation in the various sectors from which participants were drawn.




Turning Information into Empowerment: Strengthening Gender and Energy Networking in Africa TIE-
ENERGIA Programme in collaboration with Practical Action - Eastern Africa and The East African Energy
Technology Development Network (EAETDN) under the Capacity Building Programme undertook a Training of
Trainers programme to strengthen capacity of 12 professional trainers from 6 countries of Kenya, Uganda,
Tanzania, Ghana and Nigeria in order to build a critical mass of self confident women leaders and gender
sensitive men to change policies, programmes and practices that affect womens energy choices within the
context of poverty. The training covered two themes: Gender and Energy concepts and Gender and Energy
Project Planning. It was organized and hosted by Practical Action - Eastern Africa.
As a result of the above training the participants were expected to:
develop long term goals and work plans for national level training based on national needs and
include plans for follow up.
Prepare training materials including adopting existing modules/gender tools for use in the national
training workshop.

Justification: Gender and Energy situation in Kenya

International development aid in Africa for energy specific projects is 4% of the total aid to Africa (ITDG
2005). The focus of aid and international finance is on large scale provision of energy at national or regional
level, or on exporting of energy resources. There is little focus on rural energy services in order to reach the
poor. Since large energy projects often use international technologies and local companies are not involved
in these projects, there is general consensus that little knowledge building will occur in Africa, and local
companies can not benefit from the funds. Practical Action stresses in a 2005 report that while Africa
undoubtedly needs growth fuelled by modern power in its drive for growth, the majority of the population
could be left behind.
Kenyas energy sector comprises woodfuel which accounts for about 68% of the total primary energy
consumption, followed by petroleum at 22%, electricity at 9% and other energy sources at less than 1%
(Republic of Kenya, 2004). The commercial energy sector is driven by electricity and petroleum while the
rural people and the urban poor are heavily dependent on woodfuel in the form of fuelwood and charcoal
respectively. As an environmental effect, deforestation is becoming a serious problem. Other energy
resources used in rural areas include crop residues (21% of households). An estimated 92% of the
population use kerosene for lighting and a minor part also use it for cooking (ITDG, 2005). The per capita
consumption of commercial energy was estimated at 89.4 kilograms of oil equivalent in the year 2000 which
is very low by the standards of many developing countries (Republic of Kenya 2004). Electricity access
countrywide is about 15.3% of the total population while in the rural areas it is estimated at 3.8% (Republic
of Kenya, 2004). In Kenya, about 80% of the urban households and 99.5% of the rural households have no
electricity at all (Rabah, 2004). There is no indication that this situation will improve significantly in the near
The petroleum subsector is constrained by limited supply facilities, poor standards, inadequate distribution to
remote parts and insufficient legal and regulatory framework among other constraints. The renewable energy
sub sector is characterised by heavy dependence on woodfuel, declining availability of wood energy and
limited access to alternative energy technologies due to the high initial cost. Renewable energy plays a major
role in Kenyas commercial and development programmes. Due to its location near the equator, there is a
large potential for solar energy. In Kenya, the unsubsidized sale of solar home systems (SHS) can be called a
success (Refocus, 2003).

The Government of Kenya in Sessional Paper No.4 on Energy of 2004 recognises the need to provide quality
energy services in a sustainable, cost effective and affordable manner to all sectors of the economy. This
document recognises the fact that at the energy sector level there are close linkages between various forms
of energy which necessitate energy planning for example; increased use of LPG would lead to a reduction in
biomass consumption and attendant health risks. Gender is recognised as an important issue in planning for
energy development. The availability of energy and energy efficient technologies enables women realize
better health services and engagement in micro-enterprises like baking, fish-drying, etc. It is stated that
men only get involved when there is commercialisation of activities. The main challenges identified include:
the mainstreaming of gender issues in policy formulation and in energy planning, production and use; public
education and awareness creation on the cultural structures and practices hindering the access by women to
energy resources and the promotion of fuel efficient devices. The above recognition provides leverage for
advancing gender issues among energy policy makers and planners.
Energy issues cut across various institutions namely Government, Non-governmental organisations, private
sector, academia etc. In order to prepare for the national level Gender and Energy training for policy makers
in Kenya, participation in the workshop was deliberately sought from these institutions as it is believed that
they will have a direct influence on policy formulation, project planning, implementation, monitoring and
evaluation. A training needs assessment was carried out with a view to develop the appropriate training
materials. This assessment targeted high level officers at policy and planning level from the Ministries of
Energy, Agriculture, Education, Trade and Industry the private sector, academia and Non-governmental
organizations. The assessment covered 4 areas namely: employment and education details and experience
in policy development/review and knowledge in gender and energy planning, training needs and desired
skills and relationship of the training to current duties.

Summary of the findings

Personal data:
In total there were 24 respondents for the Kenya training workshop, who have not yet participated in the
national TOT-workshop. Of the 24 respondents only 18 managed to attend the workshop. 9 of the
participants were male and 9 were female drawn from the following institutions: government (from the
Ministries of Energy, Agriculture, Trade and Industry, Environment and Natural Resources, and Teachers
Service Commission), regional and international NGOs (although two of them are working for GTZ on
secondment from government), and the academia. Most of them are of Masters and First degree level, post
graduate diploma, diplomas. Whereas the guidelines for recruitment are specific on the education level being
graduate and above the few diploma holders included are working in strategic positions in their respective
ministries and thus will be useful in information dissemination. It is expected that all respondents will benefit
from the training to influence the energy policy, the majority in their own projects, a few in national policies
as well.
The gender distribution is in good balance, but the balance in institutional types is leaning to governmental
institutes, and more participants from NGOs could be invited. It is however noted that the Ministries of
Energy and Agriculture are at the forefront of dealing with many aspects of renewable energy which is used
by the majority of Kenyans and therefore inclusion of many respondents from these organizations is
expected to enhance gender mainstreaming in energy programmes. Furthermore, some respondents are
from the same organisation, for example three respondents work for GTZ-PSDA, and two work for SCODE.
Some respondents do not meet all the variables in the selection criteria, special note will be made by the
trainers during the planning of the training programme to ensure their training needs are also met.

Knowledge and Experience

The majority of the respondents already have an academic basis in energy and to a lesser extent the
corresponding gender related issues, quite a few have a degree in technical aspects and do not yet know
about gender issues. Some the respondents wish to learn more about how gender and energy can be
mainstreamed into project planning and how to economically empower women. Note that the described
situation can lead to other interests and needs in the training due to the knowledge gaps. The responsibilities
of the respondents in their respective organizations include training, project co-ordination, programme
management, planning, project design, monitoring and supervision, marketing and fund raising. These
responsibilities are ideal for the dissemination of the knowledge acquired during the workshop.

All the respondents have experience in energy planning and/or managing energy projects ranging from 2 to
13 years. 10 of them have been involved in different aspects of gender and/or development planning. Their
involvement ranges from addressing gender disparities in education, mainstreaming gender issues in the
dissemination of technologies, awareness creation on the role of women in environmental conservation,
gender integration in agriculture and energy needs assessment. A few of the respondents have not
participated in policy development and/review while several have done so at different levels. The
participation includes identification of beneficiaries, policy development and implementation, participation in
stakeholders workshops, data collection, policy review, district development planning and monitoring and
evaluation of projects.
All the respondents indicated that the training is related to what they do in their respective organizations and
are therefore able to pass on the knowledge acquired through seminars, workshops, agricultural extension
services, publications, advocacy and focus groups. Two respondents have provided very little information,
and should be contacted before the training to ask about their expectations and role.

Knowledge of the Countrys gender, energy and development issues and needs
The respondents knowledge of countrys gender, energy and development issues and needs is very different
as some are policy planners with good knowledge in national policies and development, while others are
practitioners and have more knowledge in technology. 17 of them indicated that they are familiar with
national energy, gender and development issues and needs. There is a gap between those who are well
oriented as district managers, and those who are not. It will be necessary to address this area with a view to
bringing the respondents to the same level of understanding.
The respondents identified the following gender and energy needs/issues in the country:
The absence of gender mainstreaming in institutions
Failure to involve communities in project identification, implementation and monitoring
Depletion of wood energy and thus the need to promote alternatives to wood energy
Conservation of available wood stocks and planting of additional ones
The need to involve men and women in energy and development as opposed to women only projects
The need to take into account womens health and workload when implementing energy projects
The need to eliminate barriers that prevent access by women to biomass energy resources
Limited gender sensitivity contributing to low level of adoption of interventions
Failure to attach value to womens contribution to national development
Increasing cost of petroleum products means they will remain out of reach of the rural poor

Training needs
The respondents expressed the need to be trained in the following areas:
1. Identification of gender roles and activities
2. Alleviation of gender disparities in project planning, budgeting and implementation
3. Proposal development
4. Empowerment and advocacy for vulnerable groups
5. Gender mainstreaming in energy projects
6. Incorporation of gender in policy formulation
7. Involvement of males in energy issues
8. Identification of gender gaps

The respondents expressed the desire to acquire skills in the following areas:
1. Evaluation of the impact of programmes in qualitative and quantitative terms
2. Policy formulation and energy planning
3. Implementation of energy projects
4. Proposal writing
5. Gender sensitive budgeting, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
6. Participatory community needs assessment and planning
7. Resource mobilization
8. Lobbying and advocacy in the energy sector
9. Gender sensitive technology selection
10. Information dissemination

From the assessment it is clear that there is a need to strengthen the energy policy practitioners in gender
awareness and appreciation in order to enable them attain the knowledge and confidence to address gender
related issues in the energy sector. It is however noted that Module 1 and 2 do not cover the themes on
Gender and Energy policy, Gender and advocacy in the Energy sector and project proposal development.
There is need to find a way of meeting these training needs that were expressed by the respondents.

Way Forward
The information acquired from the expression of interest to participate in the workshop has helped the
trainers to prepare for the training scheduled for 23rd to 27th October 2006. Based on the available training
materials and the needs expressed by the respondents the proposed training will focus on the following
themes and issues in order to meet the training needs expressed by the participants:
1. Module 1: Concepts in Gender and Energy (Is a prerequisite as an introduction to understanding
the rationale of other training packages It will be adopted as it is but case studies will be identified
as they apply to the local situation)

2. Module 2: Gender Tools for Energy Projects

a. Gender analytic tools
b. Identifying stakeholders
c. Problem analysis/project formulation
d. Participatory data gathering methods

3. A short session on Gender Energy Policy and advocacy will be slotted in the time table with an
assurance to comprehensively cover the topics at a later date. It was agreed that since Module 3 and
4 that cover this topic were available at the time of the Kenya training the participants would be
given soft copies to take back home.

4. It would be very difficult to slot in a session on Project proposal and therefore the participants will
have to carry the soft copy of Module 5 to acquaint themselves with project proposal writing.

1. Rabah, K.V.O. (2005), Integrated solar energy systems for rural electrification in Kenya, Renewable
Energy, Volume 30, Issue 1, January 2005, Pages 23-42

2. Refocus (2003), Solar PV in Kenya: Hurdles and strengths, Refocus, Volume 4, Issue 5, October 2003,
Pages 40-41

3. ITDG (2005) (ITDG is now known as Practical Action), Europes chance to help light up Africa:
energising poverty reduction, last
visited on March 26, 2006.

4. Republic of Kenya (2004). Sessional paper No.4 of 2004 on Energy. Government printer, Nairobi, Kenya.



Day 1, Monday 23rd October 2006

Time Topic Facilitator

8.30-9.00 am Registration of Participants All
9.00-9.30 am Introduction, Course objectives
Participants expectations Faith Odongo
9.30-10.00 am Introduction to the TIE-Energia Programme Lydia Muchiri
10.00-10.30 am Tea Break
10.30-11.30 am Official Opening PS, M.O.E
11.30-1.00 pm Gender and Energy in Kenya Prospects
and Challenges Nelson Manyeki
Plenary Discussion & Experience sharing
1.002.00 pm Lunch
2.00-4.00 pm Gender and Gender roles Paul Mbuthi
4.004.30 pm Afternoon Tea
4.30-6.00 pm Importance of Gender in Energy Planning Faith Odongo
Briefing on Action Planning Lydia Muchiri
Collection of case studies from participants
Evening Assignment

Day 2, Tuesday 24th October 2006

8.15-8.30 am Review of previous days activities
8.30-10.00 am Gender mainstreaming Paul Mbuthi
10.00-10.30 am Tea Break
10.30 -12.30 pm Relating Energy to Gender Goals Faith Odongo
Case study of the Women and energy Project James Mureithi
12.30-1.00 pm Case studies & Experience sharing All
1.00-2.00 pm Lunch
2.00-2.30 pm Exercise on Millennium Goals Paul Mbuthi
2.30-3.00 pm Case Study of the Tungu Kabiiri Community Micro Hydro Project
Lydia Muchiri
3.00-3.30 pm Gender Analytic Tools Paul Mbuthi
3.30-4.30 pm Identifying Stakeholders Faith Odongo
4.30-5.00 pm Tea Break
5.00-6.00 pm Problem Analysis and Project formulation Paul Mbuthi

Day 3, Wednesday, 25th October 2006

8.15-8.30 am Review of the previous days activities

8.30-9.30 am Identifying assumptions & summing up Faith Odongo
9.30-10.30 am Participatory Data Gathering Methods Paul Mbuthi
10.30-11.00 am Tea Break
11.00-1.00 pm Gender, Policy and Advocacy Paul Mbuthi
1.00-2.00 pm Lunch
2.00-4.00 pm Preparation for field activities Faith Odongo
4.00-4.30 pm Tea

Day 4, Thursday, 26th October 2006

8.15-8.30 am Review of previous days activities
8.30-1.00 pm Field work SCODE
1.00-2.00 pm Lunch
2.00-5.00 pm Preparation of field reports 4 Groups

Day 5, Friday, 27th October 2006

8.30-10.30 am Presentation of field reports Groups
10.30-11.00 am Tea
11.00-1.00pm Preparation of action plans Participants
1.00-2.00 pm Lunch
2.00-3.30 pm Presentation of action plans Participants
3.30-4.30 pm Evaluation
Closing Daniel Theuri
Vote of thanks



There are 4 situations to examine:

A group of women using solar drying technology
A home using Solar home systems (PV)
A home using biogas technology
A group with no energy intervention

Use of Energy Planning tools in project planning

Imagine you are a planner sent out to make an intervention in each of the above situations

Assess the energy situation in the community/household

Use the knowledge & skills acquired under module 2 to do the following:
1. Identify the stakeholders
2. Identify the problem
3. Formulate a project
4. Identify assumptions and sum up
5. Make recommendations on viable energy intervention(s)

Remember the Planning must be done in a gender sensitive manner

You need to decide whether your intervention is an Integrated Development Project or an Energy
Technology project.
Feel free to use the participatory data gathering methods where you find them appropriate
Make a report on how you went about arriving at the recommendations made.




Formulate activities which demonstrate either:

i. The link between gender, energy and poverty.
ii. How to mainstream gender in energy policy planning or project planning. Take into consideration
implementation and monitoring aspects.

1. Areas of focus and Activities:

Identify activities that you can undertake to address one or two of the following areas:
i. Energy for sustainable development
Energy for productive end use
Energy accessibility for poverty reduction
Changing patterns of energy consumption and production
Information sharing on cleaner technologies
Policy Advocacy
Energy for equity in different sectors (trade, agriculture, education, environment etc)

ii. Energy for industrial development

iii. Air/atmosphere pollution
iv. Climate change etc

2. Strategies:

i. How will the activity be undertaken?

ii. What assistance will you require from your line Ministry/institution to implement your activities?

3. Stakeholders:

i. Which other stakeholders and social subgroups will you involve in this activity?
ii. Why are those stakeholders and social subgroups important towards the effectiveness of your activity?
iii. What will be the contribution from each stakeholder/social subgroup in terms of skills, funds, physical

4. Resources:

i. What resources will be needed (Personnel, finance, physical)?

ii. How will you obtain the resources?
iii. Which resources do you already have?

5. Monitoring, documentation and reporting:
How will you monitor these activities?
How will you report the progress to the Ministry of Energy/Practical Action?
How will you share this information with other stakeholders?




Evelyne Heyi- Stoves Cluster Manager, Trans mara, Ministry of Agriculture /GTZ / PSDA
During promotion of energy saving stoves, women were trained so that they can train other community
members as stove installers. This proved to be a big problem since they could not go out of their home areas
for more than a day because of the following reasons:
a) Their husbands refuse
b) They could not be accommodated by women from another locality
c) It is not cultural for married women to sleep in hotels especially in the rural set up
d) The women have to prepare meals for their families at the time when trainings are going on.
Possible interventions
Use Youth groups as trainers.
Sensitize the men on the importance of the jikos and the involvement of their wives.
Rocket Mud Stove
Efficiency is 80%.
One cooks only when standing.
Have two cooking places.
Women prefer to cook when seated and therefore the fact that they have to stand while cooking makes the
energy saving stove unpopular.
Women designed a mud stove where they cook while seated and with the same efficiency and cooking


Margaret Ndungu- Ministry of Agriculture
Kieni East Division is one of the dry divisions of Nyeri District. It falls under the Arid and Semi Arid Lands
(ASALs). A chance of getting a good harvest of maize which is a traditional staple crop in Nyeri district is one
in five (5) years. However with introduction of irrigation schemes, horticultural farming was introduced
particularly the growing of cabbages and tomatoes.
Growing of crops like beans and other green vegetables was considered as the job of women as the men
engaged themselves with commercial farming of tomatoes and cabbages that could be transported as far as
Mombasa. Women were thus assigned those crops that were meant to service the family.
With time as various horticultural companies realized the potential with irrigation in the division, they
approached the farmers to contract them in growing of French beans. Since growing of beans was basically
the role of women, men were not keen. The companies supplied inputs-seeds, fertilizers and chemicals on
credit and women started earning income from the crop and managed to repay the credit. Within a couple of
years the men realized that they could also earn money from the crop. With time they soon took over the
growing of the French beans which gave them back power and control of finances which they perceived the
women to be taking over.

Joyce Kabura Administrative Officer, Policy Planning and Research Division, TEACHERS SERVICE
Teachers Service Commission (TSC) was established by an Act of parliament in 1967 enacted under Cap 212
of the Laws of Kenya. It was mandated to employ, remunerate, deploy and staff teachers in all public
primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. Currently TSC employs for about 18,000 primary schools and
4,000 secondary and tertiary institutions. There are about 235,000 teachers and they are served by about
2,400 secretariat staff and thus TSC translates into the largest human resources employer in sub-Saharan
Africa. The parent ministry is the Ministry of Education. There has been great evolution in policy issues within
the operations of TSC and government as a whole. Mostly influence on change of policies governing teachers
has been due to various factors such as change in curriculum content, provision of free primary education
and many other major economic factors. Remuneration and provision of incentives is a key area with great
influence on teacher retention and workforce mobility. Gender bias has been a hurdle in this area. For
Previously female teachers never enjoyed house allowance when they were married.
Until very recently the Widows Compensation Act applied only to male colleagues who contributed
2% of their salary. However things have changed and the contribution is now called Widows and
Widowers Compensation Act.
There are various reasons why one can retire from the teaching fraternity. It can either be on
reaching the mandatory age of 55 years, on health grounds etc. Mere resignation does not attract
compensation at all. However, a loop hole has been established where female teachers can be
compensated so long as they retire on marriage grounds. It may sound good but working relations
have become sour and in some instances it is perceived that too much soft ground has been created
for female teachers.
New teacher employees sign a contract to work in a particular work station for five years before they
can get a transfer. However, female teachers can get their contract revoked on marriage grounds.
This is an irregularity in the sense that now marriage tends to be taken as something that binds you.


Hellen N. Owala Projects Officer, Practical Action in Eastern Africa, Lake Victoria Region.
Kitchen smoke is silent killer yet 2.4 billion people around the world still rely on traditional biomass fuels,
associated with high levels of indoor air pollution to meet their energy needs. As a result, 1.6 million people
die annually with diseases related to smoke. These victims are mainly women and children.
Harmful pollutants investigated in this case study were respirable particulate matter (RPM) and Carbon
monoxide (CO).
Health Effects
Pneumonia in Children
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) in adults.
Reduced immunity
Predisposition to Lung cancer, TB, and Asthma

Project Objectives Major Activities
1/1998 Evaluation of the indoor Air Pollution Scientific measuring of
levels in rural areas of Kenya- Kajiado, levels of harmful pollutants
Mumias and Kisii. (RPM and CO) using Air
sampling pumps run by a
Participatory technology development of car battery.
smoke interventions. Consulting the community
on possible interventions.
2/2002 Evaluation of the indoor Air Pollution levels Scientific measuring of
in rural areas of Kenya, Kenya Sudan and levels of harmful pollutants
Nepal (RPM and CO) using Air
sampling pumps run by a
car battery.
Consulting the community
on possible interventions.
3/2004 Researching pathways for scaling up Dissemination strategies for
smoke alleviation technologies in Sudan smoke interventions. (PTD,
Kenya and Nepal Training of entrepreneurs,
Training of installers of
interventions (male and
female) running a community
revolving fund)
Baseline data collection

Health impact monitoring. Adoption of smoke

Measuring womens CO
breath, room CO and doing
lung function tests

Raise the profile of smoke as a silent killer Use of theatre for

Development for Community
Education on smoke as a
silent killer

Key Results
Levels of pollution
Pollution levels are significantly high. In Kajiado the levels are 1000 time higher than the
recommended levels.
In Western Kenya they are 100 times higher.
One of the key killer diseases of infants is pneumonia
In Kisumu District Hospital and a health centre visited in Kakamega Forest, Malaria is the number 1
disease for which people seek medical attention followed by URTI.
Intervention for smoke reduction
Among the adopted interventions, improved stoves combined with improved ventilation reduce
pollution levels by 55-65%
Smoke hoods reduce pollution by 70-75%.
Use of Solar energy for cooking and LPG is encouraged.
An increasing number of the population is becoming aware that the smoke is a silent killer.
1. The cost of interventions are quite high for those that are most vulnerable and those living below one
dollar a day.
2. Socio- cultural issues relating to change of super structures and participation of women in the project
3. Indoor Air pollution is a health agenda that does not have any significant position in the Ministry of

Coverage of indoor air pollution in the Energy policy is only a paragraph hence it is still a long
way from being comprehensively addressed at policy level.
Having an enabling environment for traditional biomass users to go through the energy

Efforts to cope with the Challenges

1. Promoting a menu of interventions running from zero cost to high cost efficient technologies
(improved ventilation, insulated fireless cookers, improved stoves, solar cookers, smoke hoods and
LPG gas)
2. Working closely with the Ministry of Health and formation of the Smoke Forum. Working closely with
WHO and USEPA. Advocacy at International fora etc.


The raw materials are obtained from trust-lands, communal lands and individual farms. The gathering is
done by both women and men while kiln preparation and burning is by men. Women take the role of packing
into sacks and transporting them to a central place. They also do the sorting into grades and the un-saleable
is left for domestic use.
Some of the graded charcoal is sold on-farm to traders who take it to major urban areas. This trade is
dominated by men due to the long absences from home and other economic and social issues. The other is
sold in nearby market centers or along major highways. Transport is by bicycle, donkey, oxen and human
labor. Women are responsible for the transportation to the market by whatever means.
At the point of sale women take charge. Men may not like the idea of spending a whole day on the road side
waiting for customers. Women sellers easily socialize amongst themselves. Most highway charcoal buyers are
men. A group of men selling charcoal may scare the customers.
Men, however, remain in the background to provide security and take the proceeds for the family. They set
the minimum prices, make decisions on where to sell (location) and when and how much to sell to traders
from urban areas.


Ogeya Calvince Mbeo - Centre for Environment and Renewable Energy Studies (CERES)
Statement of the situation
In many cases in rural set-up we see women carrying bundles of fuelwood for the basic household utilities
like warming the house, cooking, heating water and many others. What we often do not realise is that the
same women walk similar or longer distances to the market, carrying agriculture produce, or to fetch water
from water points. Energy is not unique in this respect and no more a crisis than a lot of other hardships
facing poor people, mostly women. Two situations occurred in Oyugis at god bimbe (mount of baboons)
Rachuonyo District - when two young ladies came home complaining of having been seriously harassed by
baboons in a forest when they went to fetch firewood and one had a minor fracture on her ankle in the
course of the struggle to escape the fierce animals.
Background of the situation
In Kenya, most communities particularly Luo Nyanza just to mention my own community - have a natural
tendency of gender discrimination where women are to take the responsibility of the familys immediate
basic needs such as food preparation and sourcing that only comes by in the presence of energy. Energy is
thus the core resource and is mainly sourced from biomass and human; the attainment and use of biomass
energy (wood fuel) is unquestionably womens/girls responsibility.
CERES specializes in energy policy development including study and development of regulatory frameworks,
renewable energy systems development and promotion, and impact of energy use to the environment. It has
developed particular expertise in renewable energy and energy efficiency regional and local level energy
planning, modeling and forecasting. As a project officer this is a situation that needs to be looked into and

The two girls also complained of harassment from men and attempted rape while in the forest, risk of being
bitten by snakes, lack of enough study time like their counterpart boys and naturally developing inferiority
complexes due to being treated as beast of burdens in a family set-up. In addition the older women complain
of back-aches and possible miscarriages by pregnant women who sometimes fall down while carrying
bundles of fuelwood; the problem extends indoors where they suffer eye ailments and respiratory diseases
due to pollution. The workload of women to-date thus remains enormous. Lack of access to adequate,
affordable, reliable, safe and environmentally benign energy is a severe constraint on development and low
productivity of women and due to this menace, it extends the vicious cycle of poverty within the rural
Issue to be resolved
Reliance on biomass (woodfuel) as a major source of energy
Women security and protection
Environmental degradation and indoor air pollution
Energy improvement strategies for poverty reduction
Reduction of human energy as the main source of energy in agriculture

Procedures to be employed
Creating an enabling environment for effective poverty eradication efforts i.e:
Ensuring full participation of women in poverty eradication initiatives e.g rural electrification
Providing a coordinating mechanism for the implementation of poverty eradication initiatives
Promoting equality of opportunity for men and women to be productive
Human economy is dependent and embedded on the natural ecosystem; hence there is need for creation
of favorable legal, institutional and regulatory climate for sustainable energy development and
increase involvement of the private sector.
Promotion of various means to improve the utilization of modern energy services that will help to
improve the living standards of rural households and promote delivery of more energy efficient
Support of measures to develop indigenous capacity in the areas of sustainable energy.

Possible outcomes
1. Time that could have otherwise been spent in firewood collection, long duration of cooking and
walking long distances by women will be saved to do other resourceful and more productive work.
2. Women security would be enhanced and health benefits that come with enhanced reliable and
environment friendly source of energy.
3. Women will now be able to take up income generating activities like operating a kiosk or other small
scale business.
4. With the development of new services and retail shops, poverty situations will be up-lifted.

Women were greatly at risk from the fierce baboons, and their insecure situation as they source energy was
further heightened by the opportunist rapist. Misuse by men as they trespassed to other peoples land in
search of wood fuel was also rampant. It hasnt changed much to-date however the introduction of fuel
saving charcoal stove has led to several households turning to the use of charcoal as their source of cooking


Andrew Isoe Senior Inspector, Electrical, Ministry Energy
In 1998, Lakipia District Development Committee forwarded Rumuruti Water Project for Rural Electrification.
This was a community borehole to ease the water problem as the only water point was 7 Km away.
The Project was being steered by a committee comprising men only as it was agreed that women did not
have time to run the project as they were busy searching for water for their families and animals. The
sinking of the borehole was to be financed through community fund-raising.
Without delay the Ministry approved the electrification of the project on the strength of recommendations by
the local District Development Committee. However, on the ground the project had stalled due to factors
ranging from lack of adequate finances, diverse priorities, denial of wayleaves and lack of cohesiveness in
the steering committee. On the wayleaves men argued that they needed their land and allowing power lines
to run through it would hinder any future development. The chairman on the other hand was running a
private diesel powered borehole to water his animals and provide water to his family.
Using his influence as the Chairman, he made sure that the opportunity is not lost to have power to the area
in the pretext that it was the intended community borehole. Upon completion, the borehole was restricted to
the family use. Anybody wishing to get water from it was threatened with trespass.


Mary Gathoni Kiema, Industrial Coordinator and Marketer-GEF-KAM

Project Title
Removal of Barriers to Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SME) in
Policy Objective
The overall objective is the provision of adequate energy for growth of Kenyas industrial sector.

The specific objectives are to:

assist the industrial sector reduce energy cost through energy efficiency
increase profitability
increase employment
reduce poverty
reduce CO2 emissions

Project Activities
Awareness and Capacity Building
Seminars and energy auditing workshops throughout the country
An industrial energy efficiency network covering 8 sectors
Developed and distributed information on energy efficiency and conservation
Training in energy management over 1000 industry personnel, government officers and
consultants trained
Energy Audits conducted and results of 5 demonstration projects documented and disseminated

Impact of GEF-KAM Energy Project on Gender

High level women involved in the Project. They were champions in lobbying for inclusion of women
in various training
Industry Sector: Training on Energy Efficiency (EE) benefited both genders. Some of these people
went on to start their own energy business
Reduced production cost resulted in job retention and increased employment
Reduced environmental pollution

Gender in GEF-KAM Energy Project

Built some capacity on energy efficiency at industry, ministry level, who are potential policy makers

Initiated collaboration with the utilities and the public universities to entrench gender sensitive
energy efficiency in their plans and operations. Both women and men would benefit from this
Women GEF-KAM project employees

Lessons on How Project Can Benefit Women More

Need to sensitize employers and employees on the benefits of women as technical professionals in
the energy sector programmes
Need to incorporate Gender Courses in the curriculum on the Energy Efficiency Training Courses in
the Public Universities
Have more women review energy policy which might ensure the inclusion of energy efficiency policies
that benefit women.



Group members
1) Margaret Ndungu
2) Andrew Isoe
3) Evelyne Heyi
4) Denis Langat
The group used the tools below to collect information on a community based group using solar food drying
technology. The technology was introduced to the group by SCODE.


Sponsoring Implementing Supporting Target

agencies Agencies Agencies Community
Who was involved SCODE Through The group NALEP and SCODE Both the Women
in formulating the provision of one solar through the who introduced the and Men of
project? dryer assistance of technology and Ndungeri focal
SCODE. training area.

Who is currently involved?

(10-Men and 25 Women came together to form the group)
Who else works with you?
i) Is there a Committee? No.
ii) Are there contracted employees (men/women)?
They offer the service on rotational and voluntarily basis.
iii) Who has access and control to/of the facility? The members
iv) Who are the members of the group?

Men and Women originally belonging to other Common Interest Groups(CIGs) that were
mobilised by the National Agricultural and Livestock Extension Program (NALEP)


i) What was the aim of setting up the project as regards the following aspects?
- To ensure food security as the area is prone to long dry spells.
- To generate income for upkeep in-case of surpluses.
ii) The economic benefits to the community for :Women/Men
- Savings made from the purchase is available for other household use.
iii) How has the project contributed to the members in being opinion leaders (especially
women members)?
- Enlightened members and growth in personality
- Members have been exposed to various groups/communities
- Members can freely share their opinions and ideas in society.
- Women have had the opportunity to benefit from the exposure and as a result changed their
lifestyle and view to issues.

iv) Has the project increased/reduced the workload (men/women/Children)?

Workload reduced as result of not spending time to go looking for vegetables.
Free time for the children to other assignments
The technology does not require any supervision
v) How has this affected the food preservation/production?
Preservation has led to reduced food wastage
Food produced can be dried and stored for future use.
Seasonal vegetables that grow freely during the rain season can be dried and stored.


i) How much are you able to dry in a week?

With the current dryer they able dry 16 packets equivalent to 336 servings per week.
ii) What is the average consumption of the products? (Kilos/monetary)
About 3.2 kilos per a week
iii) How much income has been raised (within 1 year)?
No income as they have not achieved their requirements.
iv) Are there additional groups /individuals who have adopted the technology?
No. But they are only showing the interest.
v) Would you wish to improve your handling capacity?
Yes. There is need to improve as the current unit is overstretched.


i) What is the perception of this technology?

The community expresses lots of interests and satisfactions
ii) How does the community react towards the technology?
They view it as an improvement over the previous technology that was considered unhygienic
and lost vital nutrients.

Members are able to have self prepared foods that are free from pesticides
iii) What are the benefits resulting from the project?
There is increased food security especially the micro nutrients from the vegetables and fruits.
Improved lifestyles
Reduced brain drain through active involvement of learned housewives and men
Harmony in the family through forum sharing reduced deficiencies in food and income.
iv) How has the project impacted on the family?
Positive approach to issues
Gender integration in family decision making
v) What impact has the project had on the community?
- Awareness of improved technologies
- Increased economic and food security which stabilizes the community
- Introduced the need for cooperation and interdependence
vi) Are there positive aspects from this project that can be replicated on the whole
Yes. Preservation of food and gender integration
vii) Who controls community/project meetings?
- Both men and women
viii) Are both parties free to air their opinions?
ix) How has this affected the literacy levels amongst group members?
Improved exposure especially to project management, maintenance and repair.


The project is an integrated development project in that it handles the energy, nutritional and income
generating activities.
The task carried out by the community is vegetable drying; however the equipment (dryer) is too small to
satisfy the group needs. There is therefore, need to acquire more units to increase their output capacity for
consumption and commercial purposes.
The men and women will be in a position to achieve their food requirements and be able to generate some
income from the sales of their produce. The area being prone to long dry spells dictates that the community
devise methods of ensuring food security and provision of sustainable supply of necessary nutrients. The
community feels that through solar drying which involves no overhead costs will provide a means through
which food security and nutritional values can be assured.


The community will be assured of food security and that the surplus produce will be available for the market
during the low seasons.
Both men and women will be responsible for the management, production and supply of raw materials. The
members will undergo basic training to run and maintain the units. The implementing and group will involve
both men and women in the project. The energy policy is advocating for use/promotion of cleaner and
environmental friendly energy sources.


The women will be empowered through project management responsibilities and controls.
The economic status in the households will be improved. Cohesiveness in families will be uplifted.
Food and nutritional security will be enhanced thus improving living standards.


The technology will positively improve the living standards and alleviate poverty.


Participants sought to know if energy for food preservation was the only energy need of the community.
In response, it was noted that while other energy needs exist in the community, the group had opted to
enhance the efficacy of areas in which investments in energy had already been made. However, group
members conceded they should also have at least scoped other energy needs in the community.
Participants noted that the group had not derived and explicitly stated the gender goals for the project.
Participants also noted that SCODE, being interested as it is in integrated development projects, the
group should have taken the initiative to identify other community priorities, and to explore possible
ways in which energy may contribute to meeting these priorities.


The group visited a household using a Solar PV system to conduct an energy services needs review. The
household had installed the system with the assistance of SCODE. The group presented the following report:
Group Members
George Gikonyo
Margaret Owino
Faith Kathambi
Monica Waweru
Duncan Muchiri

Father- Mr. Charles Thuku

Using interviews and observation (RRA), the following information was obtained;
Empowerment Productivity Welfare Efficiency
Father Pioneer- Reduced cost Improved Lighting
raised self- of lighting academic needs
esteem. hence performance satisfied
Access to investments for the
mass media children
information. Improved
Attended family
seminars and relations.
training on Family
use and satisfaction
of the
Mother Consulted in the Savings made Improved Satisfied with
decision making academic the system
in system performance because she
acquisition. for the was
children. disappointed
Improved when the
family health battery failed
meals with

Children Happy to do Improved Improved Satisfied with
studies academic health and the good
comfortably in performance. family performance
any room. Less conflicts relations of system
with teachers
and parents.
SCODE Access the Generation of Goals met System
technology to the income Donor installed in
poor. satisfied 1999 and
still in good
condition and



Welfare Reduced drudgery Ease of food preparation
Improved health Reduced incidences of
Productivity Savings made No. of investments
Empowerment Takes part in decision Self confident and
making. assertive
Increased access to More enlightened and
information informed.
Efficiency Project implementation Operational system for
successful expected number of


Knowledge and skill acquisition on solar PV lighting system.
Dissemination of technology to others
Can be a source of income e.g. cell phone charging
Advancement in academic/literacy levels
Improved health

Waste of resources if not well maintained
Health hazards if mishandled
Lack of family privacy

Solar PV System Man Woman
Practical needs
Reduction of drudgery of No major effect More pleasant working
work environment.
Reduces need to carry the
kerosene lamp around.
Health Safer and healthier for all, lower risk from fire accidents.
Better lighting for reading.
Quality of life Better for all. Source of entertainment, exposure to
Productive needs
Income Could offer opportunity e.g. Home based small scale

cell phone charging enterprises.
Opportunity to be trainers Opportunity to be trainers
and technicians. and technicians.
General economic well- Improved living standards, esteem and status.
Strategic Interests
Education Reading is easier at night., Access to mass media.
Self reliance Not much Improvement if women are
more involved.
Opportunities for small Not much Needle work, basketry.

Solar Home Systems have the potential to improve rural livelihoods if they are properly sized and sited
within the household. Further, when gender considerations are put in place during project planning, equity
and equality is ensured.


In responding to the presentation participants raised the following points
The group did well but also failed to establish other non lighting energy needs the household might have
The group would have made a more comprehensive assessment had they tried to establish if the cost of
the system was comparable to the benefits enjoyed.


The group visited a household using a biogas digester and presented the following report:
Group Members
Mr. Samwel Ihure Chairman
Mrs. Hellen Odhiambo Secretary
Mr. Mbeo Calvince Member
Mrs. Monica Wangare
Mrs. Faith Odongo
The group visited Jesse Cheges farm/household, a former employee of Pyrethrum Board of Kenya. He is
currently an aggressive farmer; rearing dairy cattle, chicken breeding and practicing farm agriculture. He
also has a sand mine in his farm. He was the first person to benefit from biogas technology with support
from SCODE.
Objective of the Exercise
To practice use of gender analysis tools for biogas energy project


Identified stakeholders were:

1. Sustainable community development (SCODE)installation of the technology and the provision of
revolving fund
2. Women group-identification of the technology and introduction of the technology in the community.
3. Cheges family-Adoption and use of the technology
4. Ministry of agriculture- Awareness creation
5. Ministry of livestock- Awareness creation
6. Agricultural society of Kenya (ASK) - Awareness creation
NB: The family consisted of the couple, school going children and hired workers


Spread energy technology that is minimally used
Provide credit facility to support women group activities


Father Mother Children Others

To have a cleaner To reduce on her
energy to tedious labor of
maintain the collecting
standard of firewood
cleanliness in his To have a cleaner
new house. source of energy
Cheaper source To have access to
of energy. cheap source of


Father Mother Children Others
Negligible Reduced labor on Additional income to Creation of
expenditure on fuel fuel collection. go to school employment
for cooking. Time saved on opportunity
Improved cooking and water
agricultural heating
production. Reduced health risk
Improved food for the mother and
security the kids

Gender goals Development Possible indicators
Womens Womens Woman spends no time on fuel wood collection- Biogas
welfare drudgery and grid electricity
Food preparation activities are not strenuous

Womens health No biomass pollution


Productivity of Woman earn Improved participation of the woman in zero grazing

women more income and poultry keeping
Able to afford school fee for his children without going
for credit facilities.

Empowerment Increased The woman is a treasurer to the community welfare

womens group.
participation in She is a member of the women group and attends
community their meetings regularly.
decision making Both the man and the woman are able to organize
their time and have meals in time.

Project Implementation Has been functioning for six years with minimal
Efficiency of project is maintenance
successful Biogas is there main cooking fuel and intends to use it
for lighting in spite of his grid electricity.
Neighbors scheme to have but are hindered with
several factors such as finances, animals etc.

The challenges encountered included: -
Availability and readiness to feed the digester when the workers are not there
Management of the excess slurry
Opportunities included: -
Channeling the gas to the neighborhood at some costs
Compressing and packing the gas in cylinders
Hatchery or brooding technology can be introduced
Other productive end-use e.g. hotel enterprises


B1. The role of energy technology in changing tasks

Technology Potential uses for Potential uses for Who is likely to be
current task new tasks the main user
Biogas Cooking and lighting Productive end use Both man and woman
in the kitchen e.g. hatchery,
brooding, food
processing etc

B2. Division of labor

Refer to B3
B3. Control of the energy technology
Control Man Woman
Decision to purchase Yes Yes
Payment of technology Yes Yes
Available technologies
biogas LPG, Paraffin, wood,
Who take responsibility for Yes Yes


C1. Positive and negative impacts of the technology

Proposed energy intervention Benefits Disadvantages
Man Woman Man Woman
Practical needs
Work load/Nature of work Reduced Reduced
Health Improved Improved

Forests Conserved Conserved
Clean/Affordable energy Accessed Accessed
Pumped water
Quality of life in general Improved Improved
Productive needs
Income Alleviated Alleviated
Access to credit Not required Not required
General economic well being Good Good
Strategic interest
Education Improved Improved
Self reliance Self reliant Self reliant
Access information and Yes Yes
Family management Good Good
Social status High High

Impacts extended to non-family members
Employment opportunity
Fuel wood given to other people
Adoption rate slow due to the cost, basic requirement etc.


The biogas technology has improved the quality of life of all the family members. The goals of all
stakeholders have been including the unconscious gender goals. It has brought additional benefits to the
family and the community.


In responding to the presentation, participants raised the following points:
While the installation of the biogas plant had eliminated the need to fetch firewood, it is essential to
recognize that the maintenance of the plant is work, which needs to be factored into the gender analysis of
the impact of the digester. It was noted that the work done in cleaning the zero grazing unit is work that
must be performed with or without the biogas plant and therefore there is no additional workload for the
person responsible.
Participants sought to know if surplus methane gas can be liquefied or distributed via a mini grid. In
response it was noted this would be technically complex and would also have to grapple with considerable
safety issues. If anything, the energy expended in the liquefaction of the gas would be much more than the
energy value of the gas.
It was observed that the farmer had more gas than he required that probably would be of benefit if piped to
neighbours households at a cost. It was explained that this is likely to cause a drop in pressure which may
be unfavourable for the farmer. However, it was suggested that the excess gas could be used to operate a
hatchery which the farmer had expressed the desire to have. Alternatively, use of biogas to run the engine
that operates the chaff cutter would save on the cost currently being incurred on the use of grid electricity
for this task.

Group Members
Julius K.Kirima
Joyce Kabura Njenga
Nancy W. Nguru
Paul Mbuthi
Group Visited: Bahati Umoja Self group, P.O. BOX 3843, NAKURU

Contact Person: Mr. Thimbara Maina Ndungu - Tel:0722904509
This is a Group of Men and Women with no Energy service intervention.
Background Information
Group 4 visited the above mentioned self-help group which comprises 32 members i.e. 18 men and 14
women each of which represents a household/family. They came together to assist each other meet various
basic needs by pooling together resources through a merry-go-round. The farm sizes range from small plots
to a maximum of 2 acres. To date they have been able to buy MEKO Jikos for some households.
The four group members interviewed were included 2 men and 2 women. A young man from the family
visited was also interviewed.
1. Energy Needs and Interests
Economic activities (such as baking & chicken rearing for women and welding for men)
Pumping water from wells/boreholes.

2. Gender Energy needs and interest for Bahati Umoja Self-Help Group
Energy needs Source Supply method Limitations Equipment Responsible Current Proposed intervention
gender(M or intervention
Cooking Wood Purchase of wood Wood is not Three stones (M or W) Use of energy saving Getting financial
& fuel & charcoal readily available meko jiko assistance to equip all
Charcoal from the farms members with the Jikos.
and is expensive
to purchase. Installation of biogas
The method of facilities
cooking is not
energy efficient
Maize stalk Collected from the The method of cooking Three stones W Use of energy saving
farm after harvest. is not energy efficient meko jiko
Lighting Kerosene Purchase from Escalating cost of Lantern & tin (M or W) Some households Installation of solar & biogas
dealers kerosene lamps have installed solar facilities for all group
(Ngwatira) panels members.
Pumping water River Purchase from High cost of water Drums Mostly men Contending with the Increase storage capacities
Chania & venders Causing drudgery Pipes use of:- and pumping of water from
Rain water Drawing from for those going to Storage Drums wells and boreholes using
households draw from the river. tanks Pipes electricity.
that have Drying of taps Bicycle Storage
pipe. during the dry tanks
Rain water season Bicycle
harvesting High cost of storage to supply water
Productive Metabolic Men and women Not cost effective and Drums Mostly men Contending with the Installation of mains electricity
purposes :- drawing water drudgery to those Pipes use metabolic energy to facilitate productive
baking & concerned Storage activities
Chicken tanks
rearing for Bicycle
Welding for

3. Stakeholders - Men and Women who benefit from the energy project
Stakeholder Gender Goals Productive Needs Practical needs Strategic Needs
Men, Women and children Lighting Studying for children Lighting Generation of family income to improve their financial status
Cooking Cooking
Provision of water Provision of water
Economic needs
Women Keeping chicken Reduction of drudgery and generation of income to status of women
Men Welding for men Reduction of drudgery and generation of income to status of men
4. Identified Problem
Nature of the Problem - limited finance to facilitate acquisition of the
necessary technologies such biogas solar installation as well getting
connected to the mains electricity which is within the neighborhood
5. Formulated Project
The proposed Project seeks to address the identified gender energy needs and
interests for all the stakeholders. The needs are:-
Pumping Water using electricity
Productive purposes such as welding, baking and keeping chicken among
The proposed Project will involve installation of:-
Biogas facilities
Solar systems and/or electricity supply
Reliable piped water to every family
The above are in order of priority needs for the group.
6. Assumptions
All will participate in the proposed project
There will be no cultural barriers to the proposed intervention
The group will embark on good management principals and will not
disintegrate within the project period (within which is intended to facilitate
addressing the above needs)
7. Recommendations on viable energy intervention(s)
(a) Institutional intervention
Technical Know-how: The group can be assisted with technical know-
how on the installation of renewable energy sources by SCODE, which is
an NGO based in Nakuru and Government Ministries (MOE, MOA MoLF &
MoTI) who are already disseminating some of those technologies. The
group can make proposal seeking to obtain this assistance.
Funding: The group can seek funding from various micro-financial
institutions like K-REP, FAULU-Kenya, and KWFT among others, who fund
community-based projects. Equally the group can seek funding from the
Constituency Development Fund (CDF), Youth Development Fund, etc.
(b) Group Intervention
The Group itself can enhance their pooling together to facilitate members to
satisfy the identified needs through merry-go-round, harambee, etc.



Andrew Isoe -Ministry of Energy
Activity: Demonstrating How Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Policy and Project Planning.
Rural Electrification as a stimulant to commercial activities and growth of Small and
Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs).
Energy for sustainable development through employment of Energy for productive end use
Identify individual energy needs in upcoming commercial load centres of different groups
and subgroups evaluating the gender needs and goals.
Evaluate the existing criteria for:
Identifying beneficiaries and priority load centres
Classifying of core activities and targets as a basis for gender needs inclusion such
as uplifting living standards, empowerment, income generation/economic


Activity Who is involved Priority Ranking
Jua kali
Salon Women Low
Bakery Women Low
Tailoring & Dressmaking Men/Women Medium
Moulding and Form works Men (majority) High
Welding & garages Men High
Food Processing Men/Women(majority) Medium
Food production Women/Men Medium

Lighting and other uses

Household Men/Women Low
Commercial entities Men/women Medium
Preservation Women(Majority)/Men Medium

On the basis of the above case women related activities are ranked low/medium in
the current scenario of project identification yet are the easiest to set up and thus
form the bulk of the commercial centres.
While identifying the loads to be connected it will be assumed that activities ranked
high will be the best basis of selecting the load centres.

A man being the head of a family is assumed to take care of the family needs if he
is empowered economically and thus improve living standards.
Sidelining women energy needs leads leaves a gap both in the family and social set up.
Planning criteria being gender insensitive denies women being economically and
socially empowered.
Benefits derived from the resource seem to boost one gender and relegates the other
to non-productive activities and imbalanced resources distribution.
Stakeholder Involvement
The example indicates that all stakeholders i.e. implementer, sponsor and
beneficiary need to be involved to identify the critical needs and gender goals.
The sponsor needs to understand the impact and assess the various goals on each
Realize the benefits derived from both men and women and weigh the need
satisfaction levels and the rate of problem solving.
Stakeholder involvement leads to proper utilization and allocation of resources.
This will improve public perception of the project and improve the productivity
Need to develop guidelines for project identification and design process in the following
Load centre identification criteria.
Be based on activity and energy needs
Need driven
Design based on
Gender needs and empowerment
Be all inclusive and gender sensitive
Economic empowering
Welfare and needs satisfaction
Stakeholder involvement through random interviews before implementation and
Resources Required
Physical (e.g. Land)
Resources Available
Funds provided or mobilised by the government
Set goals and targets that are achievable such as
Number of connections,

Effect on economic growth
Number of economic activities set up
Assessment of status of living standards of the beneficiaries

Monitoring carried periodically to evaluate programs and gauge the impact and
implementation status.
Report on status, impact and achievements be done periodically with a view to
make follow-ups to identify the successes or shortcomings and overall effect.
Make policy decisions that will be disseminated to all levels of the stakeholders to
improve in project identification, prioritization, implementation, design and


Within the GTZ-PSDA program one component focuses on promotion of resource friendly
technologies which include the improved stoves.
Why stove activities?
Prevention of environmental degradation
Save energy, time and money
Income generation
Improving living standards of the families
Ease women workload.
Improve nutrition for the family
Improve health standards of the family
In stove activities, energy for productive end use, poverty reduction and cleaner
technologies are being addressed through;
1. Increased stove production, creation of awareness that the firewood stoves exist,
encouraging groups and individuals to stock and market, and also training on stove
installation skills
2. The types of stoves and energy saving technologies being promoted are household
stoves, institutional stoves, fireless cookers, briquettes etc.
3. Linkages to financial institutions

The intervention targets 75% of the Kenyan population that use firewood for cooking
(96.7% baseline, Kisii 98.6%)
It has been established that firewood demand exceeds supply and this rate is very high
in developing countries including Kenya (3.5MT vs 1.5MT)
Sources of firewood have changed drastically from free public forests and others to
buying (45.3% in all, 54.16% in Kisii buying)
The excessive use of fuel wood resources has contributed a lot to environmental
degradation resulting in food insecurity, a situation we are experiencing in the country
right now.

The use of energy saving stoves can reduce depletion of resources created by this
demand/supply imbalance.
Areas for engendering
a) Production level
Marketing problem Wait for home, low user awareness
Technical problems - production skills/tools, working space
Organizational problems Group cohesiveness, profit sharing
b) Marketing level
c) Installation level

A. Production level
At production level, most activities are done by women. This wears them out because they
still have other roles to perform. As a result, they are not able to go out looking for market
for their products.
There is need to incorporate the youth in the production so that some activities are done
by the youth. There is need to train the producers on gender issues.
This also happens at Marketing and Installation levels

Target group Strategies Stakeholders Resources Monitoring
Stove 3 day sensitization training on i) MOA, MOE, Producers, interested men i)Personnel, finances i) MOA through reports
Producers gender and energy and youth, MOCD, Civil society, provincial ii)from the employer ii) send soft copies
follow ups administration. iii) Stakeholders iii)meetings with
ii)technical skills, moral support, advocacy, iv)Other willing donors stakeholders, barazas,
recognition i.e. practical action etc. field days

Marketers 3 day sensitization training on i) MOA, MOE, marketers interested men i)Personnel, finances i)MOA through reports
gender and energy and youth, MOCD, Civil society, provincial ii)from the employer ii) send soft copies
follow ups admin. iii) Stakeholders iii)meetings with
ii)technical skills, moral support, advocacy, stakeholders, barazas,
recognition field days

Installers 1 day sensitization training on i) MOA, MOE, installers, interested men i)Personnel, finances i)MOA through reports
gender and energy during and youth, MOCD, Civil society, provincial ii)from the employer ii) send soft copies
installation trainings admin. iii) Stakeholders iii)meetings with
follow ups ii)technical skills, moral support, advocacy, stakeholders, barazas,
recognition field days

Stakeholders 1 day sensitization, once every MOA, NEEMA, Civil Society, PA, Church, i)Personnel, finances i) GTZ PSDA Cluster
quarter during stakeholder GTZ-PSDA ii)from the employer Managers.
meetings. Program Managers, Program Officers. iii) Stakeholders

Denis .K. Langat - Ministry of Energy


Solar PV Isolated Arid Identify the Consult Initiate Requirements Provide
dissemination Areas, target group with Problem of the Energy for
and institutions to do the the identification , institutions on productive
promotion and dissemination target analysis and energy use use
communities groups formulation of consider the Energy
solar PV school access to
project enrollment of achieve
boys /girls as poverty
well as local reduction
community Information
sharing on
Energy for
Background As above
of what is
available for
energy use at
the institution
and local
Evaluate the As above
energy source
to ascertain
Try to As above
formulate a
solar PV
system to
meet the
Energy needs
Establish from As above
the boys/girls
of the energy
uses. The
exercise to
Assumption , The As above
Implementation institutions
and Supervision will acquire
support for
and trainings
on use of the
Technical As above
designs and
on of the
The activity will be done in phases starting with the institutions followed by others like the community.
Local community
Education sector
Health sector
Power sector
The stakeholders are the owners of the institutions as well as facilitate the site for implementation of the
Target Goals
Promotion of Technology
Cohesiveness of communities
The ministry is currently undertaking the projects and since the areas covered are diverse the projects
might find the resources not adequate hence may require outsourcing assistance.
Gender streamlining and Policy
The projects are considered to be targeting the basic infrastructures of learning and will be an enabling
environment to enhance gender issues as selection should base on say boy/girl enrolment.
Since the projects targets mainly off grid arid areas the empowerment of the communities will be


Youth Agency for Development of Science and Technology Innovations (YADSTI) is an organisation made
up of young scientists, all of whom are graduates from University of Nairobi). Its vision is to make a
positive difference in society and improve the living standards of rural communities in Kenya by facilitating
and taking part in community development projects.
The proposed project will involve the planting of trees, which will not only provide cheap and easy access
to fuel for the community but will also be environmentally friendly. The community will also be introduced
to energy saving cook-stoves, which reduce the amount and hence the cost of fuel used in meal
preparation for the house-holds.
This project will be initiated through a womens self help group, and hence will be engendered. However,
the whole community will be involved because in most communities, issues of land are considered to be
masculine. This will also provide a source of income to the entire community, as they will be involved in
tree-planting, charcoal burning and selling of the cook-stoves. Schools will also be targeted to take an
active role in the project. Generally, this project will benefit men and women equally.
Energy accessibility for poverty reduction
Energy for productive end-use
Changing patterns for energy consumption and production
Information sharing on cleaner technologies
Air pollution
Climate change

The activity involves the identification of a rural community in which the plan can be implemented. The
programme will start by holding meetings within the community to inform them of the intended activity.
The targeted groups for the project will be mostly women; hence the women groups will be given the first
priority. Men will also be included due to issues dealing with ownership of land. They will be taught the
importance of planting of trees and the use of cleaner technologies.

The intended activity will be carried out as follows:

Members of the community will take part in an afforestation program, with the implementer
providing the tree seedlings at no cost.
The tree seedlings will be of a species that grows fast and can regenerate.
The implementer will also introduce the concept of energy- saving cook stoves to the villagers,
with demonstrations on the reduced amount of fuel required to use.
During initiation of the project, the women groups will get free cook-stoves and be provided
with some capital to start businesses for supplying cook- stoves.
The villagers will be encouraged to replant these trees after cutting.

a) Sponsoring agency
The sponsoring agency will provide funds for the initiation and implementation of the project, e.g.
buying of tree- seedlings, energy saving cook stoves, capital for the businesses.
b) YADSTI- Project Implementer
YADSTI will provide the man-power for the implementation of the project.
c) Women self-help groups
The self-help groups will be the first beneficiaries of the program and will also provide physical
d) Entire community
Their co-operation for the success of the project will be required. Men are also important in this

Resources required will include;
Buying of tree seedlings
Buying of energy saving cook-stoves
General project implementation
Program implementation team
Women self-help groups
Tree planting work
Charcoal burning
Monitoring of the project will be continuous upon project implementation with the progress being
evaluated by the number of tree seedlings planted and the number of energy-saving cook-stoves bought
from the women self-help groups. Visits will be made to monitor the growth of the planted trees, and also
monitor the extent to which the use of the energy-saving cook stoves has been embraced since project

The project reports will be submitted to the sponsoring agencies, Practical Action and the relevant
ministries on a regular basis. This information will also be shared with other stake-holders e.g.
environmental awareness organizations for support and also in order that they can be able to implement
similar projects in other regions.


There is no gender desk in the department
Gender issues not mainstreamed - gender blind policies, programmes and projects
Forestry has a lot to do with gender and energy. Wood fuel contributes significantly to domestic
fuel needs to rural and urban communities
Gathering, transportation and use of this energy brings about women drudgery and health
problems. It is time consuming reducing time available for other chores and activities
Forest programmes policies and projects for entrenching gender goals.
To create gender awareness through training for policy and decision makers at head quarters and field
level. It is important to incorporate gender goals in energy in forest programmes, policies and projects
Introduce gender awareness in planning meetings and sessions through MDG
Introduce gender tools for energy projects as one of the tools for planning and implementing
programmes and projects
Mainstream gender in training workshops and seminars
Solicit for support both financial and material
Training of trainers on gender in the forest department
Chief executivefor acceptance and providing leadership
Programmes and project managers
Planning staff
Field managersimplementers
Donor agencies running projects in the departmentfunding
Non governmental organizations advocacy and funds
TIE-ENERGIA- training
Personneltrainers including author
Funds from projects and programs with support of CEO since this is not budgeted for
Physical training facilities and equipment (laptops and LCD screens) are available
Progress reports on officers sensitized
Back to office reports after training with a way forward
Communicate with stakeholders electronically on progress
Gender energy goals are mainstreamed in forestry policy, programs and projects



1. Build the capacity of CBOs in Lake Victoria Region on Gender and Energy.
2. Sensitise the communities on Gender Concept and how addressing gender in energy affects the
livelihood of the community and impress on them how sustainable livelihoods can be achieved
through gender in energy
3. Mainstream gender in Practical Action work in the Lake Victoria Region.
The activities that will be undertaken will be to offer services in the area of energy for sustainable
development and Indoor Air Pollution
They will include the following:
Building the capacity of communities to increase access to improved energy technologies as
entrepreneurs-establishment of the energy shops.
Changing the patterns of energy consumption and production
Activities undertaken to reduce Indoor Air Pollution
I. Practical Action is refocusing its work to scale up its experiences in Water and Sanitation, waste
management and energy. Hence there is development on various new projects.
II. I hope to integrate gender goals in these projects and ensure that they address gender issues. It
offers us the opportunity to have both Integrated Project situations and Energy Technology Project
III. The current Practical Action Projects are in the area of energy and I will use the gender analysis
framework tools to evaluate their gender sensitivity
IV. With a single sensitisation module covering all the five modules, I hope to have sensitisation
integrated in our workshops with partners to advertise and sell these modules so that the other
organisations, NGOs and CBOs know about them.
V. Solicit resources where possible for gender mainstreaming into community projects
The assistance required from the line Ministry is:
1. Get the support of the trainers in certain occasions for example in policy meetings.
2. Summarising the modules into a single sensitisation module to be used in sensitisation meetings.
The module to be a 1 to 1 hour presentation.
3. Help identify potential resource acquisition avenues for implementation of strategy 4.
The stakeholders that will be involved include:
Government departments- Ministry of Energy (Managers of Energy Centres)
Ministry of Agriculture
Forest Department
Ministry of Culture & social services
NGOs and CBOs doing work in the area of the infrastructure services in the Lake Victoria Region.
Private Sector particularly those involved with interventions for improved infrastructure services.
Contribution of the stakeholders may not be clear until they are sensitised.
The resources needed will include personnel, finance and physical.
Work will be integrated in existing work without much additional resources. For cases where additional
resources are required discussions will be held with the relevant stakeholders

A monitoring framework will be developed for successful Lake Victoria Projects and this will include
monitoring of gender goals.

Every activity undertaken will be documented and shared with Ministry of Energy and the Energia
Focal Point at Practical Action

I will develop a list of stakeholders and any useful gender information will be forwarded to the
focal point to circulate.

Any energy, health or stakeholder forums with any form of media for information sharing e.g.
Newsletter or magazine will be used.


1.0 Areas of focus and Activities

Activities to be undertaken to address:-

I. Energy and Sustainable Development
Energy End-use Gender Goal Practical Needs Productive Needs Strategic Needs Proposed intervention
Energy for Productive Men and women to Identify the productive Facilitate Men and women to
End -use access energy sources opportunities which access appropriate energy
the communities can and related technologies for
exploit to generate productive purposes.
Energy accessibility for Helping the nomadic Energy for lighting Solar drying of green To improve the status of Facilitate communities to
poverty reduction communities in the at night so that vegetable for storage women by availing some acquire solar facilities for
ASAL areas access children can study purposes and cooking source of finance Cooking and lighting
affordable renewable using the abundant
energy solar energy
Changing patterns of Helping men and Provision of reliable Provision of reliable Need to lessen/ remove Intensify awareness
energy consumption women from poor energy for:- energy for:- drudgery suffered by the campaign on the various
and Production communities Cooking Productive poor, especially women technology options for the
appreciate the Lighting activities poor and facilitating them
interdependence of adapt those that are
environment and affordable and most
development and the appropriate to them.
need to go for
renewable energy
options for
sustainability purposes
Information Sharing on Men and women to Communities need Educating communities Women and other Facilitate the women in the
cleaner technologies be made aware of to be educated on such as the women disadvantaged groups need Turkana and Gucha regions
the energy options the technologies groups on the to be able to improve their to generate some income
available to them that are appropriate opportunities available status in life by facilitating from Aloe vera and Gum
to enable them to their needs and for them to engage in them to earn livelihoods arabica sales and to use part
make informed are affordable. productive activities and thus making them of the incomes obtained to
choices. respectable by the society. acquire appropriate energy
Facilitating the devices for their practical,
poor to harness the Productive and strategic
resources around needs and interests.
them to address
their energy and
Policy Advocacy
Energy for Equity in
different sectors (trade,
agriculture, education,
environment, etc)
II. Energy for Industrial Development. By working with other stakeholders in the rural
communities, it can be possible to facilitate the poor access renewable solar energy with which they
can undertake some industrial activities. Communities can also be urged to pool their resources
together to enable them get connected to the mains electricity, which would in turn support
industrial activities.
III. Air/Atmospheric Pollution. Adoption of cleaner Production Technologies and renewable energy
sources will greatly help to reduce air/atmospheric pollution. As one of KTPP capacity building
activities, the program can greatly help to create awareness on this approach.
IV. Climate change. Environment Conservation by way of empowering communities adapt renewable
energy sources to satisfy their energy requirements will go a long way in curbing/slowing climate

KTPP will work closely with other stakeholders to undertake the above within, the programmes
mandate of championing Trade as a tool for development and fighting poverty
Assistance needed from the Ministry to implement the activities
Use of Field Officers to disseminate information to the target groups

3.0 Stakeholders
(i) Other Stakeholders to be involved
DFID for financial support
CUTS & IEA for information dissemination
Oxfam for both Financial and Logistical Support
Practical Action for both Financial and Logistical Support
(ii) These other stakeholders are important towards the effectiveness of the activities above
because they, too, have similar mandates as KTPP
(iii) As indicated in (ii) some of the stakeholders will offer logistical and others financial support.

4.0 Resources
(i) Resources needed
Expertise - (both in-house and affiliates)
Finance Some funds for capacity building available
(ii) Pooling together - We have been working together with other stakeholders and have agreed
to work together.
(iii) Resource already available to KTPP
Personnel and some Funds

5.0 Monitoring , Documentation & Reporting

(i) Monitoring We will use our field officers to make regular visits and report on set goals and
(ii) Reporting Progress Quarterly Progress Reports will be made as is currently the practice
for other program activities
(iii) Sharing Information- Information obtained will be documented (Ministerial bulletin) and other
printed material which will be circulated to stakeholders. Stakeholders fora such as seminars
and workshops will be conducted for information sharing



SCODE is a Kenyan community development organisation registered in 1996 as an NGO. Its mission is to
enable the poor to improve the quality of life by adopting technologies and approaches that are
environment friendly and contribute towards sustainable development. Biogas technology has for a long
time been the major solution to the rural folk in cooking and lighting using raw material (that majority
have and go unutilized).


SCODE Community mobilization
Technical/ expertise support
Solicit funds from potential donors
Manage, control and channel the raised funds to the community
COMMUNITY Identify and internalize their energy needs in cooking and
Acknowledge biogas as an alternative solution.
Mobilize direct and indirect resources towards biogas
GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES Provide professionals to provide information in their areas of
Mobilize the community
DONOR Provide funds



Productive Enable them participate in Save money directed to fuels and
other income generating invest in income generating activity
activities. and savings.
Welfare Drudgery reduced Improved health due to hygienically
Respiratory diseases cooked food.
High standards of
hygiene achieved
Empowerment Equality and equity Raised self-esteem having
achieved by their satisfactorily provided for his family.
participation in other
social activities.
Increases self-
confidence when
disseminating the

The project will be implemented in 4 phases each phase representing a geographical area of location
within the selected location. Registered groups will be registered to be sure of cohesiveness. Specific
number of biogas will be assigned to each group. The group will be left to decide on who will benefit.
They will be required to demonstrate through an action plan the criteria used and how they will ensure
that every member owns a plant.
i. Finance
ii. Personnel Train more
iii. Collaborators

How to acquire the said resources:

Fund raise
Resources SCODE has:
Personnel - inadequate
Training facilities & physical office
Computers - inadequate



The Teachers Service Commission (TSC) is charged with the responsibility of remunerating, redeploying
and disciplining teachers in all the government schools. Retention of teachers has been an escalating
problem and more pronounced in the rural areas. The transfer rate has been monitored but it has not
been documented nor has it been gender segregated. There is an employee satisfaction survey being
carried out which would depict all the underlying problems. Though the teachers based in the rural areas
are paid a house allowance availability of reliable energy services for lighting cooking and other
household activities in the rural areas is a problem. Also house allowance for teachers in these areas is
lesser than for those based in the urban centers. There is a need to establish terms of service that would
cater for such needs like provision of housing for teachers within the rural schools so as to balance and
enhance competitiveness.

As mentioned, teachers are paid a house allowance to cater for their housing needs but it is assumed
that where one is going to look for housing all these other amenities will be available. However the
assumption can be nullified as it is known that efficient and reliable energy services are not readily
available in the rural areas. Also their pay is minimal and so the house allowance forms part of the net
pay. It is important to establish a teacher housing policy as part of the teachers terms of reference. The
policy would force the employer to cater for their employees housing need and maybe manage to
mobilize for provision of these amenities as well as bringing them closer to the communities around
The government can for example build housing units for teaching staff within rural schools and address
availability for all their energy needs and services. These would have women greatly benefit as they are
the ones who get very affected by lack of these amenities.

Stakeholders Gender
Teachers Male Need to improve their housing.
Female Need to improve their housing and cater for their scarce energy
Reduce drudgery as they spend their energy trying to cater for
their energy needs.
Teachers service To provide housing to their employees.
commission(TSC) To reach out to the community around the schools.
Effective teacher management.
Schools Harmony as the teachers will concentrate more in schools.
Communities around the Energy nearer to them
School going children Improved performance
Extended schooling hours.


Resource Source
Finance Allocation of funds from
Funding from organizations
anticipating a trickle down
effect to the communities
Proposal paper to establish the projects.


Utilize the current monitoring and evaluation committee within the Commission to monitor the
progress of the project and write reports.
Allow the proposed donors to participate in evaluation.

Time Span Activity Details
1 Short term 1. Briefing: Immediately after leaving the workshop, there will be need
Activities to brief the DDA/Gender and Home Management, Head/Nutrition and
Home Economics and Head/ Gender and Youth in Agriculture as well
These will be
as other relevant officers on what the workshop was all about.
2. Consultation: Consult with Head/Gender and Youth on how her work
immediately after
plan can integrate gender and energy.
leaving the
3. Production of Home Economics Update
This activity is already in process and home economics technical articles are
being collected from the field. One of the topics to be incorporated will be a
summarized version of gender mainstreaming in energy projects.
2 Medium Term 1. Hold workshop to review and develop technology: Already
Activities approved in the AWP&B. If funds will be allocated to carry out the
activity that is targeting 25 District gender and Home Management
These will be
officers, a session on energy and gender will be covered.
integrated into the
2. Study on types of solar driers available to the community:
work-plan of the
When carrying out this study, gender issues will be covered
ministry of
particularly the gender goals.
agriculture based on
3. Attend field days- During field days, I will endeavour to create
what was approved
awareness on gender and energy.
in the financial year
4. Sourcing for information on household resources from
stakeholders: This involves making a number of visits to other
organizations dealing with household resources/ appropriate
technology. When collecting this information, gender and energy
aspects will be included as to who prefers to own certain technologies,
why and the gender goals.
5. Production of information, education and communication (IEC)
material: - If possible, a flier on gender and energy will be produced
while producing other nutrition and home economics educational
material. These will be distributed to the districts.

Time Span Activity Details
3 Long term 1. TOT Course: this would require some selected gender and home
Activities: These management officers to be trained for at least one week on the two
will depend on modules of energy. This will enable them to go and train other field
external funding staff. It would be ideal to start with a team of at least 20 staff.
preferably from 2. A detailed gender and energy study: This will be particularly with
Practical Action regard to those technologies disseminated by the MOA such as
Maendeleo stoves, KCJ, drum ovens, Kitengela Charcoal ovens, solar
driers and solar cookers
3. Provision of Demonstration devices to groups with emphasis to
different gender goals
4. Provision of the different gender and energy manuals to all
district and divisional gender and home management officers. This will
help them by providing a full kit which they can use as reference in
their work.

Trainings: TOT will be carried out by the staff who have been trained in this workshop. This
includes MOA staff, and others who are trained from other ministries or organizations. Short
sessions on gender mainstreaming in energy will be incorporated in other activities by the trained
officer (Household Resource Management Officer-HRMO)

Briefing and Consultation: To be done by the HRMO.

Gender and Energy study: HRMO and other home economics officers at the ministry
headquarter will do the study.

Production of IEC materials and Home Economics Update: Contribution of articles will come
from the district and divisional Gender and Home management officers. The energy and gender
article will be done by the HRMO. Agricultural Information and Resource Centre (AIRC) will do the
printing at a fee.

Field days: Organized by districts and Agricultural Training Centres (ATCs) and the staff from
the ministry headquarter attend to backstop and to give advise.

Sourcing of information on household resources: This will be collected from various

stakeholders and will be done by HRMO.

Name of Stakeholder Why important Contribution
Women and men farmers They are the target group of They give the information and
our technologies implement on those projects that
are beneficial to them
Farmers groups As above As above
Other ministries and -They assist with technical -Resources
organizations dealing with information -Technical information
energy and gender -They are partners in -Complementing each other
planning and implementation
of certain energy projects.

Personnel, finances, venues for trainings, subsistence allowance, transport
Stationary, publications, photocopying facilities, computers, etc
The ministry has all these facilities but they are limited and not adequate.

-Periodic reports from the field staff
-Scheduled follow-ups to the field
-Making visits to see other stakeholders
-Ensure incorporation of gender and energy issues in the quarterly and annual reports


It has come to my attention that the proposed energy policy as contained in Sessional Paper No. 4 of
2004 on Energy is gender blind, whereas it is discussing a very critical area for sustainable development.
Energy is an enabling factor in all areas of human life and as such it should be treated with the
seriousness it deserves. Moreover, men and women play different roles in society and also have different
uses for various energy sources. An engendered policy would ensure that all their needs are met equally.
Issues of gender have come to the forefront in all areas of development. The mistaken notion has always
been that gender issues are women issues, however, this is not the case as gender issues deal with
societal issues and how they impact on men and women differently.
As policy shapes the direction of how things are done by governments and even development agencies it
is important that an energy policy should take care that it is engendered. This project proposes to study
the Sessional Paper No. 4 of 2004 on Energy, to highlight the key issues that would lead to thorough
gender mainstreaming, in all aspects of energy acquisition, distribution, use and management for
sustainable development. Thereafter, it proposes to sensitize policy makers and all other stakeholders on
the same and proceed to advocate to the necessary changed.
Desk-top study of the Sessional Paper with a view of highlighting the gaps
Isolate, document and propose the desired changes
Discuss the proposed changes with all stakeholders
Formulate joint strategies on how advocate for the inclusion of the changes
Build awareness amongst policy makers
NGOs and development partners
CBOs with and energy agenda
Gender related NGOs
University departments


Need for inclusion
Need to use a participatory approach/division of labour would hasten results
Bigger numbers make more impact
Issue specific research may generate detailed data

Shared experiences would bring forth a stronger case
Funds to undertake the project

Have Need additional Dont have
Information tools
Computer packages


Use the EATDN network to gather data
Use skills of trainers in this workshop to resound ideas
Use volunteer university students to gather data and analyse it
Write grant proposals to fund the activity


Develop a work plan with objectives and indicators and time lines to monitor progress
i. Prepare a report, hard copies and soft copies for distribution to all stakeholders
ii. Organize several one- day workshops to discuss the findings and plan for the
advocacy activities
iii. Organize for a training of trainers to further disseminate the findings to all NGOs
and various government departments.
iv. Influence donors to ask for engendered proposals


CERES specializes in energy policy development including study and development of regulatory
frameworks, renewable energy systems development and promotion and assessing the consequent
impacts of energy use to the environment. Energy as the core source of livelihood constrains
development in various aspects and hence increasing poverty levels. With efficient, affordable and
environmental friendly form of energy several gender needs will be addressed, that is education,
improved living standards, infrastructure and other energy related services.
Biomass and paraffin are the major source of fuel in household levels while petrol-diesel is the commonly
used fuel in transport industry, production and manufacturing industries. Petrodiesel has several
negative impacts to the environment which include: -
Increased global warming

Environmental pollution

Benefits of biodiesel and other household related benefits include:

Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50% and carbon dioxide
by 78%
It also eliminates sulfur emissions (SO2), because biodiesel does not contain sulfur.
Biodiesel reduces by as much as 65% the emission of particulates, small particles of solid
combustion products. This reduces cancer risks by up to 94% according to testing sponsored by
the Department of Energy.
biodiesel is less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as quickly as sugar.
The byproducts such as glycerine can be used in the manufacture of soap and in lighting in
The seed cakes can be sold as fertilizers
It can also be grown as a hedge to protect from wild animals

CERES with its expertise would therefore wish to integrate sustainable renewable energy alternative
(Biodiesel) for sustainable development and poverty eradication in maginalised communities (Kajiado,
Baringo and West Pokot). The climatic conditions in these regions are hot and dry and does not support
extensive agriculture, and Jatropha plant has three fold advantages: it can be grown as a commercial
product for poverty eradication; environmental conservation and alternative industrial energy
1. Identify community and community groupings within the target societies
2. Carry out a gender feasibility study within the communities and the identified community sub-
3. Hold community workshops on alternative source of fuel for integrated development
4. Start pilot projects with the identified community groupings
5. Organize a market structure and motivate private sectors, government organs and other relevant
authorities to invest in biodiesel
6. Monitoring and evaluation


Stakeholder Expected involvement
CERES Identify, consult with, and actively seek involvement of all other
stakeholders in the biodiesel project
Support and provide assistance to local government, community groups
and other organizations.
Monitoring and evaluation of the project
Local community Gather and share information
Participate in implementation, field trials and projects development
Assist in developing best management practices, standards and
Assist in data collection monitoring and evaluation
Government Organs Provide technical and strategic support to the development and
implementation of the project
Ministry of agriculture
Expand rural infrastructure development alleviate transport.
Ministry of environment Provide resources and extension services to assist in the suitable
and natural resource, management of natural resources
other government Assist in monitoring, evaluation and reviewing the strategic plan
organs include: KEFRI, Develop legislation and policies that support and encourage the
KARI sustainable management of natural resources and the Jatropha system

NGOs Provide technical and strategic support to the development and

implementation of the project
Provide resource extension services to the region to assist in
sustainable management of natural resources.
Gather and share information
Provide funding or participate in research, field trials and projects.
Assist in developing best management practices, standards and

Assist in data collection, monitoring and evaluation
Funding Agencies Support financial support to the project
Participate in decision making and provide strategic support to the
Assist in monitoring and evaluating strategic plan

Stakeholders Men Women
Community groups Involved in Jatropha Provide financial support
propagation Provide labor
Give farms for the project Help in marketing during the
Technical support and provide initial stages
Provide financial support

Resources currently available
Resources required
Raw materials
Qualified personnel
The Jatropha system technology


As indicated in the stakeholders involvement table above, every stakeholder will be involved in
monitoring and evaluation of the project; it will be a participatory and all inclusive activity.
Gender goals Possible indicators
Welfare Womens health improved due less toxic emissions form jatropha oil
Increased family income will alleviate education levels of the
Productive Small scale enterprises on soaps, lighting oil and biodiesel started
Women empowerment Access to credit facilities ones funding is availed
Women groups formed and more women participation in productive
Project efficiency Biodiversity conserved
Biodiesel technology installed
Environmental pollution reduced

NB: financial reporting will be availed to all stakeholders on yearly basis and there will be availed
quarterly progress report for evaluation by stakeholders.

The origins and objectives of ENERGIA and the Better understanding on how gender can
TIE program. increase the efficacy of poverty reduction
The different interest in gender for people activities.
from different professions and job functions The Energia network ( through EATDN the EA
e.g. planners, policy makers, project focal point can help energy planners address
implementers some planning challenges
Differences between gender and sex sex is Training colleagues on how incorporating There was poor coverage of tools
biologically determined, gender is a social gender is relevant, in creating greater /approaches that can be used to
construct planning efficiency and also in more effective stimulate communities to change
The social cultural definition of gender, and program implementation their gender roles, especially where
the variation of gender roles across The need for legislative appreciation of the role existing roles are incompatible with
communities of women in creating demand for some development goals e.g.
The variability of gender roles across unsustainable woodfuel harvesting education of girl children
communities and cultures (especially through the charcoal trade), ergo Tools for increasing the participation
Complexity and interrelatedness of gender the need to provide alternative sustainable of women in decision making
roles fuels as a way of reducing the demand for forums they are members of
How gender roles define the different energy charcoal often, despite efforts to get women
needs of the genders Need to heighten appreciation at all levels of into these forums, they do not fully
Different arguments for the inclusion of gender government on gender as a concept, as they exploit the opportunity.
in planning are a key link between policy and
That men too have gender related needs, implementation if civil servants are not
gender is not only for the betterment of gender aware, it becomes difficult for other
women. actors to incorporate gender .
The different gender roles reproductive,
productive and community management,
and how these can be used to illustrate the
manifestation of gender roles in
communities, planning forums etc
The dilution of differences in gender roles in
modern society, especially among educated
How the treatment of gender concerns in a
planning process can determine the failure
or success of a project/program.


Importance of involving men and women in Incorporating the different needs of men and Reasons for neglect of gender
project planning processes women in project planning in realisation of considerations in past planning
The justification for the inclusion of gender in their different needs that derive from gender approaches
energy planning, especially as it relates to roles The difference between a tool and a
the different energy needs of men and The importance of rethinking the acculturation concept
women of children ( boys and girls) as what children How to challenge existing gender
The role of energy services (or more precisely learn largely defines what perceptions on roles especially as to what are
lack thereof) in the low participation of gender they will hold as adults appropriate roles, work and careers.
women in the industrial sector. Providing equal or affirmative action based Especially as these tend to
Decisions made by men may perpetuate the opportunities for womens participation in constraint opportunities for men,
oppression/disadvantage of women; hence planning and implementation but more so for women
planners need to be conscious of the gender Need to provide cleaner, renewable energy for Need to widen the coverage of this
implications of all decisions. women training especially as both energy
The energy pyramid, and how typically women Need to consider the distribution of the benefits and gender, and their relevance to
access energy forms at the lower ends of and costs of a project equitably between man the wider development agenda are
the pyramid and women generally poorly understood.
In project evaluation, there will be different Incorporating appreciation of the energy needs Creating wider sensitisation will
outcomes for men and women, this is of men and women in the performance of increase the buy in to engendered
important in demonstrating the need to agro forestry projects women appreciate planning approaches.
incorporate gender from the planning stage, the fuel wood that will be eventually
and also to illustrate to communities why provided, but men may be more interested in
gender is relevant in development planning cash incomes from farming (esp. through
shamba system) and may therefore sabotage
tree growing to sustain their access to land/
Enabling community based groups appreciate
the cost- benefit distribution of energy
projects they undertake
Implications of the legacy of gender blind Identifying the practical, productive and Disadvantages of mainstreaming and
approach to energy planning strategic needs of target communities women only approaches
The evolution of gender approaches to Developing gender mainstreamed planning The relationship between gender
planning. approaches for (participants) job function an needs and planning goals
How to classify gender approaches to planning organisation. How to formulate gender goals that
into either gender blind or, gender biased. Causes for the un-sustainability of some gender are consistent with project planning
How to identify shortcomings in various mainstreamed projects despite measures to goals.
gender approaches to planning, and their address the needs of men and women. Policy advocacy towards more pro
relevance to specific planning contexts gender approaches in government.
The rationale for mainstreaming over other Reconciling gender goals to other
gender planning approaches project goals the aptness of
Shortcomings of gender mainstreamed mainstreamed projects in contexts
projects. where women may have barriers to
effective participation.
How to choose which gender approach
to use e.g., women only or

Identifying practical, productive and strategic Identifying and relating to gender needs within
gender needs job function and incorporating these into
The relationship between gender needs and project planning goals
project planning goals Promoting gender mainstreamed approaches to
Importance of gender goals in energy planning work mates and organisational.
Relevance of energy services to the Reconciling project goals defined by donors and
attainment of the MDGs and how this other stakeholders to gender goals.
relationship can be used to stimulate buy-in The relationship between energy services and
of gender aware approaches to energy the satiation of gender needs
service provision by other stakeholders. Choosing gender goals for specific projects
Need to identify the different energy related especially in rural, alternative energy
goals for men and women, and sub programs
categories within the two Isolating the differential gender needs and
gender differentiated impacts on
communities vis--vis energy services
Identifying relevant gender goals BEFORE
project implementation
Incorporation of gender concerns in the
development of project concept notes,
proposals and designs
Identifying critical gender needs within various Identifying gender related factors that affect How to establish parameters for
planning contexts and their relation to the ability of various gender categories to fairness, equity and equity in
energy access energy services establishing gender and project
Importance of identifying gender goals in Relating gender goals to project goals, and goals and indicators for monitoring
projects identifying ways in which gender needs affect each.
Need for clarity in the identification of gender planning efficacy and efficiency
goals Developing safeguards against project
Gender needs differ even within the same constraints that stem from unresolved
community, and it is essential to involve gender needs.
communities sin identifying gender needs as Ensuring gender needs of different categories
to ensure the needs of all gender sub are met in different planning, implementation
categories are met and energy technology contexts
How gender mainstreaming can reduce
wastage and improve efficacy and efficiency
of energy projects

Various types of gender analytical tools, their Use of gender analytical tools in project design
strengths and weaknesses, and their and planning
limitation in relation to energy planning Selecting appropriate tools based on planning
Selection and use of matrix and checklist context
based tools based on planning context and
nature of data to be collected
Use of tools to identify status and trends in
various gender and project goals and in the
development of monitoring baselines
Identifying stakeholders Planning for and implementing projects with Conducting a project feasibility study
Identifying passive stakeholders due cognisance to the capacities, vis--vis stakeholder interest
Identifying stakeholder interest contributions, interests and goals of How to incorporate reluctant
Identifying differences in stakeholder interests stakeholders stakeholders in project processes,
across stakeholder sub groupings (stake especially where some stakeholder
holders gender goals) interest are in conflict with project
Identifying stakeholders and their different and gender goals
gender goals and needs Stakeholder analysis for project
Relevance of different types of stakeholders planning
to planning and implementation processes How to identify latent stakeholders
How identifying stakeholders enables a more
comprehensive understanding of gender
identifying different types of stakeholders
Considerations to undertake in developing a Integrating stakeholder gender goals to the
project design selection of project objectives, outcomes
Integrating gender goals of different and indicators
stakeholders in the project design Use of RRA/PRA techniques in planning for new
Relating project design to community needs projects and reviewing existing ones.
How to use understanding of gender concepts, Relevance of access and control over resources
needs and goals in formulating a gender to the project formulation process.
mainstreamed project
Use of PRA and RRA methodologies in
participatory project formulation.
Different formulation processes for energy
technology and integrated development
Designing for gender specific impacts in

Examining assumptions about benefits and Developing safe guards against unintended, Identifying assumptions that though
costs, and the distribution of these across negative outcomes from a project on distal to the project planning
stakeholders and gender categories different gender categories process have the potential to affect
Developing objectively verifiable, quantitative Involving stakeholders in identifying its performance.
and qualitative indictors for measuring assumptions on the project design. This session was rather rushed, hence
progress towards gender goals. Identifying assumptions on access and control not fully understood
Identifying assumptions on the selected of resources relevant to a program.
energy technology and the provision and Identifying factors that determine uptake of
dissemination model. energy technologies an services by different
Examining determinants of access to energy communities, gender sub categories etc.
services especially for disadvantaged
Identifying the impact of existing policy on Poor coverage on carrying forward
what energy technologies can be legally policy advocacy exercises especially
undertaken as these need sustained and close
Understanding the import of policy on gender partnerships with other organisations
Translating field experiences into suitable
formats for advocacy work.
How the energy and other policy
environments affects the efficacy of actions
geared to empowering women
Refining various gender analytical framework The exercise refined the standard gender Developing questionnaires /checklists
tools for particular field and energy analytical tools to a form more amiable to for field use there such a wide
technology contexts e.g. Household/ energy projects range of data to be collected that it
communal energy systems is difficult to select what to collect
Allocation of duties to a field evaluation team especially with limited time.
to ensure comprehensive assessment. Identifying at what point sufficient
Practical experience in using the data planning data in terms of width
collection and analytical tools. (diversity of sources) and depth
(detail of collected data) has been
collected to begin project



(This is a sample of the evaluation done on day 1 of the workshop. The same format was used to evaluate day 2 and 3 by changing the date and topics
in column 1)
Date: 23rd. October 2006. Name of participant (optional) ..
Name of organization (optional)..

CONTENT project, programme or policy activity in my organization)
planning, implementation)
What did you What was difficult What specific tool, concept or Give suggestions on a specific activity
learn from this for you to example from this session, will you where you can apply what you have
session? understand? use/apply in your work? learnt in this session in your work
Day One
Introduction Course
Objectives and
Participants Expectations

Concept of Gender/
Gender and gender roles

Importance of gender in
energy planning

What should have been done differently in the sessions today in order to make training more effective and applicable to your work on policy and
practice/activities at the Local/Regional/National level?
Give suggestions for change or improvement in:
a) Content taught

b) Methods used

c) Application to policy and practice/activities at the Local/Regional/National level?


Name of participant (OPTIONAL) ...................................................................................

Name of organization (OPTIONAL) .................................................................................

Expectations and time allocated to training workshop

1. What were your expectations about the programme?

2. Were your expectations fulfilled?

Yes [ ] or No [ ]

Please elaborate below


3. In the light of the objectives of the programme, do you think the time allocated for the
whole training workshop was sufficient?
Yes [ ] or No [ ]

Please elaborate below


Course content

4. What content of the sessions did you find easy to understand and you feel that you will
be able to use in your own situation?

What made it easy for you to understand?



5. What content of the sessions did you find difficult to understand and use in your own

Why was it difficult for you to understand?


6. What changes do you suggest should be made in the manual?


7. Appraise areas where satisfactory work was done and make suggestions on change or improvements that need to be done in the following:

WORKSHOP undertaken in a change or
satisfactory way improvement
A. Preparation for training
i) Participants application process

i) Admission of participants to training;

ii) Communication to participants & orientation to the training

iii) Participants travel arrangements

iv) Training space

v) Meals

B. Training process
i) Participants expectations requested for and discussed

ii) Trainers illustrated how to adapt the core materials to the specific audience and target group
iii) Trainers provided participants with practical guidelines on how to deliver the material of a
particular unit and to adopt the core materials to specific audience as well as target group.

WORKSHOP undertaken in a change or
satisfactory way improvement
iv) Participants evaluated the course content, methods of delivery and its relevance to their
work situation (during the training as well as at the end of the training)
C: Achievement of objective of the training
Skills objective: Strengthened the knowledge and skills of already experienced trainers to
implement and evaluate national gender and energy training courses based on the content of
the training packages developed
Learning objective: Provided trainees with a comprehensive understanding of the concepts
and tools of individual training packages so that the trainees themselves can impart this
knowledge to practitioners at the national level
D: Contribution to expected outcome of the training workshop
Participants capacity built to develop and deliver training sessions on key energy, poverty and
gender issues
Participants awareness, knowledge and skills increased in ways that enable them to integrate
gender and energy concerns into sustainable development and poverty reduction programmes.

Plans for the way-forward

8. Will you be able to carry out training as indicated in your application forms and the
action plans you have formulated? (INDICATED YES OR NOT YET ABLE)

9. If yes, indicate the skills, knowledge and materials that you have acquired, which
will enable you to carry out training.

10. If no, indicate what problem you are still finding with carrying out training.

11. Indicate any other issue(s) that will enable or hinder you from carrying out training
when you go back to your institution.

Thank you for participating in the Kenya National Gender and

Energy Training workshop


Name Organisation/Position Address E- mail address Mobile Tel Office Telephone

1 Andrew Electrical Dept P.O Box 0722 834 132 020 310 112
Isoe Ministry of Energy Senior Inspector Electrical 30582,00100 GPO, Ext 258
2 Dennis Electrical Dept P.O Box 0723 816 209 020 310 112
Langat Ministry of Energy 30582,00100 GPO, Fax: 240 910
Senior Inspector Electrical

3 Nelson Maina Renewable Energy Dept P.O Box 0722 610 114 020 316 193
Manyeki Ministry of Energy Assistant Director 30582,00100 GPO, 020 310 112 Ext 243
4 George Muraguri Renewable Energy Dept P.O Box 1400 0722 262 144 061 203 4342
Gikonyo Ministry of Energy Centre manager Nyeri
5 Margaret Solar Cookers International P.O Box 51190- or 0722 305 895 020 434 7144/
00200, NBI
Owino Regional Director (EA) 434 7295
6 Nancy GTZ PSDA P.O Box 68, Muranga 0722 686 765 060 30239
Wanjiku Nguru Gender and Energy Coordinator Tel: 060-31338 Fax:060-31104
7 Evelyn Ministry Of Agriculture, Trans-mara Cluster P.O Box 52, Kisii 0720 335 398 020 2713417 0r
Manager, Improved Cookstove project 2722419
Heyi Avagala Tel: 058- 31492
Fax 020 2718044
8 Mary Gathoni P.O Box 14418 NBI 0722 628 896 020 375 3204-6
GEF-KAM Industry coordinator Fax 020 374 6028
9 Margaret Ndungu P.O Box 30028 NBI O725 532 818 020 718 870-9
Wairimu Min of Agriculture Home resource management
10 Samuel Ihure P.O Box 30513 0722 756 039
Forest Department 00100 NBI
11 Faith Kathambi P.O Box 4483-00200 0721 698 740
University of Nairobi NBI

Name Organisation/Position Address E- mail address Mobile Tel Office Telephone
12 James Muriithi Ministry of Energy P.O Box 30582 0733 949 888 020 310 112 Ext 239
00100 GPO Nairobi
Mechanical Engineer 0725 607 728

13 Calvince Ogeya P.O Box 153-00100 0720 932 261 020 675 1437
Mbeo Centre for Renewable Energy and natural Nairobi
14 Hellen Nyakinda Practical Action P.O Box 2260 Kisumu 0727 108 408 Tel: 057 202 2486
Owalla Odhiambo Lake Victoria Regional Office
15 Kamwati Wango Practical Action P.O Box 7013-0100 0720 279 490

16 Monicah Wangari SCODE P.O Box 13177 0723 767 265 051 221 1941
Waweru Nakuru
17 Joyce Kabura Teachers Service Commission P.O Box Private Bag 0721 899 548 020 312 068 ext 2366
Njenga Nairobi
18 Julius Kithinji Ministy of Trade and Industry P.O Box 30418
Kirima Kenya Trade and Poverty Program Nairobi


1. Name: Faith Hamala Odongo (Mrs)

Position Senior Renewable Energy Officer
Organisation: Ministry of Energy
Institution Type: Government
Contact Details:
Address: P.O Box 30582 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254 020 310112 Extension 238
Fax: 254 020 240910
Mobile: 254 721 738848 or
254 733 770238
Physical Address: Nyayo House 24th floor room 24-29

2. Name: Paul Nzomo Mbuthi (Mr)

Position Research Officer
Organisation: Ministry of Energy
Institution Type: Government
Contact Details:
Address: P.O Box 21552 00505 Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254 020 2701997
Fax: 254 020 240910
Mobile: 254 722 894155
Physical Address: Jamhuri Energy Centre, off Ngong road


3. Name: Eng. James Muchira Muriithi
Position: Mechanical Engineer
Organisation: Ministry of Energy
Institution Type: Government
Contact Details:
Address: P.O Box 30582 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254 020 310112 Ext 239
Fax: 254 020 240910
E-mail: or
Mobile: 254 733 949 888 or 254 725 607728
Physical Address: Nyayo House 24th floor room 24-28

4. Name: Nelson Maina Manyeki
Position Assistant Director of Renewable Energy
Organisation: Ministry of Energy
Institution Type: Government
Contact Details:
Address: P.O Box 30582 00100 GPO Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254 020 310112 Ext 243
Fax: 254 020 240910
Mobile: 254 722610114
Physical Address: Nyayo House 24th floor room 24-24

5. Name: Lydia Muchiri

Position : Project Officer
Organisation: Practical Action in Eastern Africa
Institution Type: Non Governmental Organisation
Contact Details:
Address: P.O Box 39493 00623, Nairobi, Kenya
Telephone: 254 020 2713540/ 2719313/ 2719413
Fax: 254 020 2710083
Mobile: 254 722777944
Physical Address: AAYMCA Building, Along State House Crescent off State House Avenue