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Final Project Presentation

Delivery Performance Improvement of an


Automotive Part using DMAIC Approach

Sreejesh SP
BUB0412005 PT12
M. Sc. [Engg.] in Engineering and Manufacturing Management

Academic Guide : Industrial Guide :


Mr. Vijaya Kumar S Mr. Subash Sundar
Asst. Prof, MSRUAS Asst. Manager, Production
Team Concepts. Pvt. Ltd
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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Aim of the project

To improve delivery performance of roof rail


by 30% using DMAIC approach

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Project objectives

To carryout literature survey on delivery performance, painting,


aluminum finishing process, first pass yield improvement, DMAIC
To understand current process flow and monitor datas
To identify root causes of problem using QC tools
To suggest and implement appropriate solutions to reduce the
rejection level
To standardize the process for sustenance

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Methods and Methodologies
Literature survey carried out for delivery performance, painting,
aluminum finishing process, first pass yield improvement, DMAIC
referring journals, publications, books and other related documents.

The details of existing process flow collected from process flow


diagram ( PFD)

Gemba study carried out to understand the process requirements and


to identify the possible reason for rejections from process engineers and
operators

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Methods and Methodologies
Collected the rejection/rework data from team by using QC tools
and technique and root cause was found by why-why analysis

Appropriate solution for each problems found

Validation of the implemented solution and standardization done


by generations of operating standards

Horizontal deployment on other running roof rail projects ( Ford


Figo roof rail)- Proposal

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Place of work

Team Concepts Pvt. Ltd.


#1A/07, 2nd Floor, East End Main road,
Jayanagar 4th 'T' Block, Bangalore
Karnataka - 560041.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Introduction
Products of Team Concepts Pvt. Ltd.

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Literature Review
Sl no Author Papers Topic
Joseph H. Berk, J.H. Delivery Performance Improvement
1 Berk and Associates 6 Ps for Improved Delivery Performance

Factor model of manufacturing difficulties , First pass


2 A conceptual model for manufacturing
M.A. Karim
performance improvement yield
Ranjan Raj,
On-Time Delivery Improvement Using Lean
3 Dr. B.P.Mahesh Concepts - A Case Study of Norglide Bearings Value stream mapping , Lead time, Kanban
Sandesh S
Seema Banu, Improving First Pass Yield and Reducing Defect
Six Sigma, First Pass Yield, Design of
4 M Rajesh Cost of Honing Machine Using Six Sigma
Experiments,DMAIC
, G S Prakash Approach

I.B. Silva, G.F. Batalha Integrated product and process system with
5 M. Stipkovik Filho c, continuous improvement in the auto parts Quality System; CIM; DFMA; Lean Six Sigma
F.Z. Ceccarelli , J.B. industry
Anjos , M. Fesz
De Mast J and International Journal of Production Economics Six Sigma DMAIC method from the perspective of
6
Lokkerbol J 139(2) 604614. problem solving
IOSR Journal of Mechanical and civil
DMAIC methodology for increasing quality in textile
7 Neha Gupra engineering (IOSR-JSME) 2278-1684 Volume
industry
6, PP 50-65
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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Literature Review
Joseph H. Berk, J.H. Berk and Associates
Experience indicates that in MRP-based manufacturing organizations, delivery delinquencies are
systemically driven by failures to understand and abide by lead times, failures to address capacity
constraints, ignoring manufacturing productivity, diffused organizational responsibilities for on-time
delivery performance, internal procurement failures, and non-robust processes.
Recommendations for delivery performance improvement include understanding the nature of the
capacity/load/lead time relationship, developing meaningful lead times, and only departing from lead
times with supporting reschedules and focused management.

M.A. Karim

As per author product quality and reliability is the main competitive factor for manufacturers.
Design and manufacturing capability and on time delivery came second. Price is considered as the
least important factor for the Australian manufacturers.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Literature Review

Results show that collectively the advanced quality practices proposed in this study neutralize the
difficulties manufacturers face and contribute to the most performance objectives of the manufacturers.
The results validate the proposed conceptual model and lend credence to hypothesis that proposed
relationship between quality practices, manufacturing difficulties and manufacturing performances.

Ranjan Raj Urs S, Dr. B.P.Mahesh, Sandesh S


The paper outlines how On-Time Delivery is to be improved by using Lean concepts. For this
purpose lean tools are used because lean focus on the continuous improvement of a company towards
the ideal through the relentless reduction of waste.
Lean tool such as Value Stream Mapping are used to reduce Lead time. We have studied production
process of one product and drawn the current state value stream map. From the current data analysis
found out the problems as high Lead time and Inventory.
Implemented Kanban system to reduce the lead time, Inventory and provide a future state value
stream map. Production schedule is fixed and by this On-time Delivery is Improved.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Literature review summary
Seema Banu, M Rajesh, G S Prakash

This paper focuses on the use of Six Sigma approach to improve the First Pass yield
(FPY) of honing machine.
Six Sigma is a disciplined method of using extremely rigorous data gathering and
statistical analysis to pinpoint sources of errors and ways of eliminating them.
The main focus of this work is to reduce potential process variations and reach the six
sigma quality level.
FPY is an important manufacturing metric for measuring quality and production
performance.
I.B. Silva, G.F. Batalha M. Stipkovik Filho c, F.Z. Ceccarelli , J.B. Anjos , M.
Fesz

Paper shows what the problems are during the factory quality system management.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Literature review summary

The results achieved in the studied company show the performance quality evolution
through their indicators. Furthermore, the QSF (Quality System Final) produced not only a
"correction of problems", but an elimination of the "root causes" to ensure the discipline
requirements of the system with emphasis on continuous improvement to achieve quality
assurance in the supply chain.

De Mast J and Lokkerbol J.


According to this paper, Six Sigma is defined as an organized and systematic method for
strategic process improvement and new product and service development that relies on statistical
methods and the scientific method to make dramatic reductions in customer defined defect rates.
Six Sigmas structured improvement procedure is seen as a novel and effective contribution to
quality management.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Literature review summary

Neha Gupta

DMAIC is a systematic six-sigma project management practice inspired by Deming's


PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Act) Cycle. The process consists of the five phases called
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and control. Six Sigma, on the other hand, is a data
driven methodology used to identify root causes for variations in a production process in
order to achieve organizational excellence.

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
DEFINE PHASE

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Problem identification
Problem Background :

Monthly OEM Sales in %


5%
10% Toyota
Nissan
10% 45% Renault
MSIL
15% M&M
FORD
15%
Toyota Monthly Sales in % Split -
Up
5%
5% 5% 860 A ROOF RAIL
Innova RR Bull Guard
5% Innova Spoiler BMC
50% 860 A BCP
15%
Corolla Altis CBP
Innova CBP
15% Innova fender Pole

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Defining the problem
Problem Background :

860A roof rail Sale order Vs Delivery

Roof Rail Delivery performance for April and May 2014


Sales Order (Nos) Delivered (Nos) In Percetage (%)
14-Apr 1800 1254 69.7
14-May 1728 1190 68.9

Business Loss Of Rs.27 Lakhs

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Target of the project
GOAL Set a Target

70% 100%
Delivery

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Component details

3 5
4
2
1 7
6

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Component details contd.
Part No./Dwg Raw Material Process
Sl No1 Part Name Qty Process done
No. Specs Invovled
PLATE ROOF RACK SUPPORT
1 63441-0D020-B ASA 1 Mouding Inhouse
NO.1
Moulding- Inhouse+
2 63443-0D020 PROTECTOR ROOF RACK FR RH ABS 1
Painting supplier
Bending,
Cutting, drilling. Inhouse+
3 63447-0D020-B BAR, ROOF CARRIER RH Aluminium 1
Buffing, supplier
painting
4 63471-0D010-D LEG, ROOF RACK FR RH Aluminium 1 Casting Supplier
5 63473-0D010-G LEG, ROOF RACK RR RH Aluminium 1 Casting Supplier
6 63486-0D020 CUSHION ROOF RACK LEG FR RH EPDM 1 Moulding Supplier
7 63488-0D020-A CUSHION ROOF RACK LEG RR RH EPDM 1 Moulding Supplier
PLATE ROOF RACK SUPPORT
8 63442-0D020-B ASA 1 Mouding Inhouse
NO.2
Moulding- Inhouse+
9 63444-0D020 PROTECTOR ROOF RACK FR LH ABS 1
Painting supplier
Bending,
Cutting, drilling. Inhouse+
10 63448-0D020-B BAR, ROOF CARRIER LH Aluminium 1
Buffing, supplier
painting
11 63472-0D010-D LEG, ROOF RACK FR LH Aluminium 1 Casting Supplier
12 63474-0D010-G LEG, ROOF RACK RR LH Aluminium 1 Casting Supplier
13 63487-0D020 CUSHION ROOF RACK LEG FR LH EPDM 1 Moulding Supplier
14 63489-0D020-A CUSHION ROOF RACK LEG RR LH EPDM 1 Moulding Supplier
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Process Flow Chart
In house In house + supplier Supplier

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


MEASURE PHASE

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Data Collection and Analysis
Child Part Availability for assembly APR -14

1200

1000
Number of Parts

800

600

400

200

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Data Collection and Analysis
Child Part Availability for assembly MAY -14
1200

1000
Number of Parts

800

600

400

200 Datenreihen1
Datenreihen2
0

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Data Collection and Analysis
Cumulative ChildPart avilability for April and May 2014
1200
Not meeting Plan

1000

800
Number of Parts

600

400

200

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Bar Process Mapping

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Bar Process First Pass Yield data

Painting
Rework 34%
Buffing Rework
21% Less FPY
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ANALYSIS PHASE

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Buffing

Buffing is the process done to finish the surface of aluminum


bars
Problems at buffing
Dents
Scratches
Over Buffing
Shape deformation

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Rejection/Rework in Buffing Pareto

Pareto for buffing


50 100.00%

45 90.00%

40 80.00%
90% of the
35 rejection/rework is 70.00%
Number of parts

contributed by dents
30 60.00%
and scratches
25 50.00%

20 40.00%

15 30.00%

10 20.00%

5 10.00%

0 0.00%
Dents scratches Over buffing Shape deformation
Rew. Qty 44 18 5 1
Pareto Percentage 64.71% 91.18% 98.53% 100.00%

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Types of rejection/ reworks in buffing

DENT DENT

SCRATCH

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Cause and Effect diagram

MAN MACHINE
Improper air
pressure
Improper pad
selection
Low/high rpm
Skill Wrong
handling

Loose wheel
Dent and
scratches

Dust Non Burrs


particle uniform
scratch buffing

Handling Raw material


Handling of
High scratch problems
parts
pressure
METHOD MATERIAL Deep dents
in material
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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Dents and scratches:- Root cause-1

Deep dents in material

WHY Dents getting formed in bending process

Impression and rust marks from


WHY
supporting material in bending
transferred to bar

Supporting material
WHY Supporting bending material is soft and
corrosion prone

Supporting bend material needs to be


HOW? change

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 32


Dents and scratches:- Root cause-2

Dust particle scratch

WHY Scratches coming from dust particle

WHY Dust accumulation in work place

Buffing dust falling directly on table


WHY

WHY Operating table doesnt have provision


to collect falling dust

HOW? Proper operating and holding table to


be modified

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 33


Dents and scratches:- Root cause-3

Handling scratches

WHY Scratches while handling part

WHY Parts touching each other

WHY WHY
Parts touching each other in trolley Parts touching in bins

WHY No proper holding in trolley WHY No proper holding in bins

HOW?
Modified Bins and trolley to be introduced

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 34


Solutions -Proposal

Change support material in


bending process

Work table to be modified to


avoid scratches from table

Bins and trolley modification to


avoid handling scratches

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Painting
Painting of the bar include two coats-
Primer coating and clear coating

Problems at buffing

Sagging
Dust / Seeds
Orange peel
Touch marks
Pin hole
Handling damage
Yarn
Dent

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Rework in Painting Pareto

Painting Pareto
70 100.00%

90.00%
60
80.00%
78% of the rework is
50 contributed by sag and 70.00%
dust
Number of parts

60.00%
40

50.00%

30
40.00%

20 30.00%

20.00%
10
10.00%

0 0.00%
Handling
Sagging Dust / Seeds Orange peel Touch marks Pin hole Yarn Dent
damage
Rew. Qty 64 30 14 4 3 2 2 1
Pareto Percentage 53.33% 78.33% 90.00% 93.33% 95.83% 97.50% 99.17% 100.00%

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Painting defect

Sagging

Dust/Seeds

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Cause and Effect diagram

MAN MACHINE
Improper cleaning of
gun
Dust in work
place High air
Unclean PPE
pressure
Skill

Lack of
awareness Dust/
seeds &
Sagging
Hardener Raw
Temperatur material
percentage
e impurities
in paint
Non Dust in
Drooling
1 uniform aluminum Less paint
baking bar viscosity

Angle of Dust in
METHOD paint MATERIAL
primer paint
application
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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Seeds:- Root cause

Dust in primer paint

WHY Dust depositing after paint mixing

WHY Dust in working area WHY No closed lid put after


paint mixing

WHY Open paint booth

HOW?
Paint booth to be sealed and Closed lid painting to be put

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 40


Sagging:- Root cause

Drooling

WHY Clear coat settling down

WHY Drooling down due to gravity

Part height is more


WHY

WHY Part is vertically placed

HOW?
Horizontal painting to be introduced

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 41


Solutions -Proposal

Closed pot painting to avoid dust and


booth to be sealed

Change from vertical to


horizontal type painting

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IMPROVE PHASE

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Action 1 Change of support Plate

Current material -MS

-Hardness 120BH
-Poor corrosion resistance

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 1 Change of support Plate

Sl. Requirement Criteria


No.
1 Corrosion resistant Yes
2 Hardness >120BH

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Action 1 Change of support Plate

SS 304 material
selected for the bend
support material

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Action 2 Buffing Table Change

Current material Buffing


in table

Sl. No Requirements
1 The part should be lifted from table
2 Part should not rotate while buffing
3 Easy to load and unload parts

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 2 Buffing Table Change
Concept 1

Aluminum
bar holding

V- stand
for easy
rotation

Sl. Requirements
No
1 The part should be lifted from table
2 Part should not rotate while buffing
3 Easy to buff the part

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 2 Buffing Table Change

Concept 2

Shape
modified for
aluminum
bar profile

Sl. Requirements
No
1 The part should be lifted from table
2 Part should not rotate while buffing
3 Easy to buff the part

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 2 Buffing Table Change

Concept 3

Handles for
easy rotation

Sl. Requirements
No
1 The part should be lifted from table
2 Part should not rotate while buffing
3 Easy to buff the part

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 2 Buffing Table Change

Implemented buffing table

Provision for
buffing M/c 1 2 3
holding
4

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change

Before condition

Bins

Trolley
M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Action 3 Bins and Trolley change

Economic bin quantity


calculation

Avg. load that can be carried out


by Men = 5Kg
Approx weight of Bin= 1Kg
Weight of aluminum bar = 0.6Kg

Number of part to be carried in


Bin= 4Kg/0.6Kg
= 6.6653 6 number

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change

Requirement Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3


Contact free storage YES YES YES
Bin Quality LOW HIGH HIGH
Handling POOR POOR GOOD

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change
Implemented Bins

Additional cover to
protect from dust

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change

Trolley: concept was developed such that bins can be


stored in trolley

Sl. No Requirements
1 100 set of material movement reqd. (
50LH+50RH)
2 Easy movement
3 Approx loading height: 180cm
4 Contact free storage

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change

Trolley: concept was developed such that bins can be


stored in trolley

Sl. Requirements
No

1 100 set of material movement Carrying


reqd. ( 50LH+50RH) capacity
108Nos
2 Easy movement. Poor

3 Approx loading height:

4 Contact free storage Yes

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 3 Bins and Trolley change
Implemented Bins

LH/RH in
different side
for easy
accounting

Wheels for
movement

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Solutions -Validation

Change support material in bending SS plate used


process

Work table to be modified to avoid scratches from V type fixture


table for holding

Bins and
Bins and trolley modification to avoid handling trolleys
scratches modified

Sl No Defect Solution proposals Trial done observation Judgemen


Further action Current status
Deep dents in Change support 100 sets material tried and no deep
material in bending OK Implemented
material dents observed in parts
process
Work table to be
1 Buffing Dust particle scratch modified to avoid 100 sets material tried and no dust
OK Implemented
scratches observed
scratches from table
Bins and trolley 1 trolley and 10 bins modified- found
Handling scratches OK Implemented
modification to avoid lower defect rate at tier-2

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Action 4 Closed Pot painting

Before improvement

Paint is poured into the gun. Dust


formation and settling of metallic particle
is higher

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 4 Closed Pot painting

Implemented Pressure pot

Closed pot avoid


dust particles Outlet

Inlet

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 5 Horizontal painting

Before improvement

Sl. No Requirements

1 The part should be horizontally placed

2 Part should not rotate while painting

3 Easy to load and unload parts

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 4 Horizontal painting

Sl. Requirements
No
1 The part should be
horizontally placed
2 Part should not rotate while
painting
3 Easy to load and unload parts

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Action 4 Horizontal painting

Implemented Painting jig

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Action 4 Horizontal painting

Total number of Trial Parts painted (horizontally) = 200 Nos

Total number of rejection/rework : 3


No sag
Total number of parts with sag : 0 concern
observed
DFT (Dry film thickness) observed out of spec

Requirement : ED : 20-25 micron


Paint (Primer + Clear coat) : 50-55 micron

Observed : ED : 20-25 micron


Paint (Primer + Clear coat) : 95-115 micron

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Action 4 Horizontal painting
Paint DFT high

Paint DFT high

WHY More paint thickness

WHY Number of layer high

WHY Over coating

Operator not able to judge start and stop


WHY
of jig rotation

HOW?
Jig rotation to be controlled

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 66


Action 4 Horizontal painting

Stopper provided to restrict


rotation

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Solutions -Validation

Closed pot painting to avoid dust and Pressure pot


booth to be sealed type painting
system installed

Change from vertical to horizontal type painting Horizontal type


painting trial done

Paint DFT increased Jig modified

Closed pot painting to Tried with 1L closed pot container-


Dust in primer paint OK Implemented
avoid dust and booth out of 100set trial dust level defect
to be sealed clocked to 2% Jig modified to control the
1 Painting Change from vertical No sag issue in 100 sets trial in
rotation.Trial of 100set
Drooling to horizontal type horizontal type painting- Paint DFT Not OK Implemented
done -No sag- DFT
painting increased
thickness within spec.
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Bar Process First Pass Yield data

FPY improved
98%
97%
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CONTROL PHASE

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SOP and check sheets

SOP s Revised
Revised document
Number:
Painting part monitoring MC/BE/01- Bending
check sheet MC/BF/01- Buffing

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Cost for Equipments

Cost split up for Equipments


Sl no Item Qty Cost per Item (Rs.) Total cost (Rs.)
1 SS plates 1 500 500
2 Buffing table 1 5000 5000
3 Bins 1 1250 1250
4 Trolley 1 10000 10000
5 Painting Jig 1 150 150
16900
Supplier
6 Painting fixture 1 8000 8000
7 Paint booth modification 1 50000 50000
58000

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Results

Roof Rail Delivery performance for Dec 2014 and Jan 2015
Sales Order Delivered In percentage (%)
15-Jan 1303 1440 111
14-Dec 1400 1550 111

Project Result
120%

100%
Delivery percentage

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
Apr& May 2014 Target Dec 14 and Jan 15
Datenreihen1 70% 100% 111%

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Project Schedule Vs Actual
Week numbers
Activity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Project P
presenation A
P
Literature review A
Importance of the P
problem A
Data collection for P
the current state A
Root cause P
analysis A
P
Solution proposal A
Interim P
presentation A

Action plan for P


implementation A
Implementation P
of action A
Monitoring and P
standardisation A
Final project P
review A
P
Thesis draft A
Final project P
presentation A
Final dissertation
P
and thesis
submission A

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M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies
Conclusion
The project achieved the targeted delivery
performance
FPY of Buffing and painting station was
improved from 77% to 98% and 61% to 97%
respectively.
Painting rejection reduced from 5% to 1%
DMAIC approach helped to solve the problem

Recommendations of Future Work

LAB value for colour data study and study on parameters


affecting the same
Alternate process for Buffing of aluminum
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Reference

[1] http://www.namosteel.co.in/stainless-steel-
grades.html

[2]
http://www.suncorstainless.com/sites/default/files/Stai
nless%20Steel%20Chart%20-%20General.jpg

[3] http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=965

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Benefits of the work

Will it result into a publication? Yes

Will it result into a product? No

Will it be a solution to an existing problem of an industry? Yes

Is it pursued for academic interest? Yes

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