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SEBU8119-01

May 2006

Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1106D Industrial Engine
PJ (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-
ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8119-01 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................ 58

Warranty Section
Foreword ................................................................. 4
Warranty Information ............................................ 88
Safety Section
Index Section
Safety Messages .................................................... 5
Index ..................................................................... 89
General Hazard Information ................................... 7

Burn Prevention ...................................................... 8

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9

Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11

Mounting and Dismounting .................................... 11

High Pressure Fuel Lines ...................................... 11

Before Starting Engine .......................................... 13

Engine Starting ..................................................... 13

Engine Stopping ................................................... 14

Electrical System .................................................. 14

Engine Electronics ................................................ 15

Product Information Section


General Information .............................................. 16

Model Views ......................................................... 17

Product Identification Information ........................ 20

Operation Section
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 23

Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 25

Features and Controls .......................................... 26

Engine Diagnostics ............................................... 32

Engine Starting ..................................................... 36

Engine Operation .................................................. 39

Engine Stopping ................................................... 40

Cold Weather Operation ....................................... 42

Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities .................................................... 46
4 SEBU8119-01
Foreword

Foreword Recommended service should be performed at the


appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
Literature Information of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe,
This manual contains safety, operation instructions, dusty, wet or freezing cold operating conditions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This more frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
manual should be stored in or near the engine area specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read, be necessary.
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information. The maintenance schedule items are organized for
a preventive maintenance management program. If
English is the primary language for all Perkins the preventive maintenance program is followed, a
publications. The English used facilitates translation periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
and consistency. of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
show details or attachments that may be different downtime and failures.
from your engine. Guards and covers may have
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design Maintenance Intervals
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question Perform maintenance on items at multiples of
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please the original requirement. We recommend that the
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
distributor for the latest available information. near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engines permanent record.
Safety
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. distributor can assist you in adjusting your
In addition, this section identifies hazardous, maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
warning situations. Read and understand the basic operating environment.
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product. Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in
Operation the Operation and Maintenance Manual except
for the interval and the maintenance items in that
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are interval. Major repairs should only be carried out by
basic. They assist with developing the skills and Perkins authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer
techniques required to operate the engine more or your Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques regarding overhaul programs. If you experience
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the a major engine failure, there are also numerous
engine and its capabilities. after failure overhaul options available. Consult with
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
The operation section is a reference for operators. information regarding these options.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a California Proposition 65 Warning
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
Maintenance birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care. and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
SEBU8119-01 5
Safety Section
Safety Messages

Safety Section
i02288680

Safety Messages

There may be several specific warning signs on your


engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.

Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean


the warning signs or replace the warning signs if
the words cannot be read or if the illustrations are
not visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean
the warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off of the engine.

Replace any warning sign that is damaged or


missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
distributor can provide new warning signs.

(1) Universal Warning

Do not operate or work on this equipment unless


you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.

g01154807
Illustration 1
Typical example

The Universal Warning label (1) is located on the left


hand side of the valve mechanism cover base.
6 SEBU8119-01
Safety Section
Safety Messages

g01177669
Illustration 2
Location of labels
(1) Universal warning (2) Ether (3) Hand (High Pressure)

(2) Ether (3) Hand (High Pressure)

Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
personal injury. el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

g01154809
Illustration 3
Typical example
g01154858
Illustration 4
The ether warning label (2) is located on the cover Typical example
of the inlet manifold.
SEBU8119-01 7
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (3) is Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
located on the top of the fuel manifold.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
i02328435
Report all necessary repairs.
General Hazard Information Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.

Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before


you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.

Perform maintenance on the engine with the


equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the
OEM information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.

Pressure Air and Water


Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
g00104545
Illustration 5 The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
Attach a Do Not Operate warning tag or a similar injury.
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you When pressurized air and/or water is used for
repair the equipment. cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes


must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).

Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
g00702020
Illustration 6
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
protective equipment, as required. may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
on controls or on other parts of the engine. information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.

Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove


debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.

Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.


Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
8 SEBU8119-01
Safety Section
Burn Prevention

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60


seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

g00687600 Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in


Illustration 7
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
Always use a board or cardboard when you check items are disconnected.
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can Coolant
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment When the engine is at operating temperature, the
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury. engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
are contained during performance of inspection, cool before the cooling system is drained.
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
suitable container before any compartment is opened and the engine has been allowed to cool.
or before any component is disassembled.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
fluids. order to relieve pressure.
Only use the tools that are suitable for containing Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
fluids. the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Oils
i02334785 Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
Burn Prevention skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.

Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Batteries


Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine. Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for servicing
batteries. Wash hands after touching the batteries
and connectors. Use of gloves is recommended.
SEBU8119-01 9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

i02320721 Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust


components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
Fire Prevention and Explosion a tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
Prevention installed correctly.

Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable


fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.

Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical


wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires
that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.

Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.


Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
g00704000 and/or circuit breakers.
Illustration 8

All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
are flammable. connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot or sparking.
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
After the emergency stop button is operated ensure
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
are removed.
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury, seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
property damage, or engine damage could result. purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
If the application involves the presence of combustible
gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/or your Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
Perkins distributor for additional information about and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
suitable protection devices. must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
the engine. manual for more information.

Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked


containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.

Do not expose the engine to any flame.


10 SEBU8119-01
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause


an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.

Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause an


explosion.

The batteries must be kept clean. The covers


(if equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.

Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
g00704059
Illustration 9
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
stop the engine before refueling. damaged.

Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer


or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.

Replace the parts if any of the following conditions


are present:

High pressure fuel line or lines are removed.


End fittings are damaged or leaking.
Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
Wires are exposed.
Outer coverings are ballooning.
Flexible part of the hoses are kinked.
Outer covers have embedded armoring.

g00704135
End fittings are displaced.
Illustration 10
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other
not smoke in battery charging areas. parts, and excessive heat.

Never check the battery charge by placing a metal


object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
a hydrometer.
SEBU8119-01 11
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

i02143194 i02325622

Crushing Prevention and High Pressure Fuel Lines


Cutting Prevention

Support the component correctly when work beneath


the component is performed. Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided, el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
never attempt adjustments while the engine is low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
running. structions may cause personal injury or death.

Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving


parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance
is performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.

Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan


blades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in


order to avoid injury to the eyes.

Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects


are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.

i02235492

Mounting and Dismounting

Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work area


before mounting the engine. Keep these items clean
and keep these items in good repair.

Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at


locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.

Face the engine in order to mount the engine or


dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use any
controls as handholds.

Do not stand on components which cannot support


your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.

Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the


engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a hand
line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
12 SEBU8119-01
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines

g01162364
Illustration 11
(1) High pressure line (4) High pressure line (7) High pressure fuel manifold
(2) High pressure line (5) High pressure line (8) High pressure line
(3) High pressure line (6) High pressure line

The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order
are between the high pressure fuel pump and the to remove air from the fuel system. This procedure
high pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are is not required.
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines before
systems. the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
This is because of the following differences:
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
The high pressure fuel lines are constantly charged the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
with high pressure. a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information.
The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system. Inspect the high pressure fuel lines for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
The high pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process. Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak do not tighten the connection in order
Do not step on the high pressure fuel lines. Do not to stop the leak. The connection must only be
deflect the high pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
strike the high pressure fuel lines. Deformation or Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel injection lines -
damage of the high pressure fuel lines may cause a Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install.
point of weakness and potential failure.
If the high pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the and the high pressure fuel lines are leaking the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the high pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
engine has stopped allow 60 seconds to pass in order
to allow the pressure to be purged before any service
or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
SEBU8119-01 13
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine

Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel lines i02251260
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing or loose. Engine Starting
Do not attach any other item to the high pressure
fuel lines.

Loosened high pressure fuel lines must be


replaced. Also removed high pressure fuel lines Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
assembly manual, Fuel Injection Lines - Install. personal injury.

i02322199 If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch


or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
Before Starting Engine the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.

All protective guards and all protective covers must


The initial start-up of an engine that is new, serviced be installed if the engine must be started in order
or repaired make provision to shut the engine to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may be accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel around the parts carefully.
supply to the engine.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for from the engine start switch.
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop Always start the engine according to the procedure
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine. that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Engine Starting topic in the Operation
Inspect the engine for potential hazards. Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on, Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the personal injury.
area is free of personnel.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all correctly, check the water temperature gauge
lights work correctly, if equipped. and/or the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
around the parts carefully. area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
engine damage. required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
See the Service Manual for repairs and for operation.
adjustments.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake
air in order to improve starting.
14 SEBU8119-01
Safety Section
Engine Stopping

i02234873 Grounding Practices


Engine Stopping

Stop the engine according to the procedure in


the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
Stopping (Operation Section) in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.

Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY


in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.

Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs


during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
g01162916
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the Illustration 12
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply Typical example
to the engine. (1) Starting motor to engine block
(2) Ground to starting motor
(3) Ground to battery
i02234878

Electrical System

Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery


circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.

To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible


gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative terminal
of the starting motor. If the starting motor is not
equipped with a negative terminal, connect the
cable to the engine block.

Check the electrical wires daily for wires that


are loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
g01162918
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started. Illustration 13
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for Typical example
specific starting instructions. (4) Ground to engine
(5) Ground to battery

Correct grounding for the engine electrical system


is necessary for optimum engine performance
and reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
SEBU8119-01 15
Safety Section
Engine Electronics

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in Derate


damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components. Shutdown
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame The following monitored engine operating conditions
ground straps can be damaged by electrical have the ability to limit engine speed and/or the
discharge. engine power:

To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical Engine Coolant Temperature
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be Engine Oil Pressure
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame. Engine Speed
The connections for the grounds should be tight and Intake Manifold Air Temperature
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative - battery terminal with The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
a wire that is adequate to handle the full charging engine models and different engine applications.
current of the alternator. However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always Note: Many of the engine control systems and display
be from the isolator to the battery. modules that are available for Perkins Engines will
work in unison with the Engine Monitoring System.
Together, the two controls will provide the engine
i02321383
monitoring function for the specific engine application.
Engine Electronics Refer to the Electronic Troubleshooting Manual for
more information on the Engine Monitoring System.

Tampering with the electronic system installation


or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.

Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injec-


tors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the elec-
tronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.

This engine has a comprehensive, programmable


Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.

The following actions are available for engine


monitoring control:

Warning
16 SEBU8119-01
Product Information Section
General Information

Product Information
Section

General Information
i01889424

Welding on Engines with


Electronic Controls

NOTICE
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order
to avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the compo-
nent. If removal of the component is not possible, Illustration 14
g00765012
the following procedure must be followed when you Use the example above. The current flow from the welder to
weld with a unit that is equipped with an Electronic the ground clamp of the welder will not cause damage to any
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be associated components.
the safest procedure to weld a component. This pro- (1) Engine
cedure should provide a minimum risk of damage to (2) Welding rod
electronic components. (3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
NOTICE (7) Electrical/Electronic component
Do not ground the welder to electrical components (8) Maximum distance between the component that is being
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can welded and any electrical/electronic component
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic (9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
components, electrical components, and other com- (11) Ground clamp for the welder
ponents.
4. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the com- part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
ponent that will be welded. Place the clamp as close close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the pos- possibility of welding current damage to bearings,
sibility of damage. hydraulic components, electrical components, and
ground straps.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position. Note: If electrical/electronic components are used
as a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
2. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the components are located between the welder ground
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided, and the weld, current flow from the welder could
open the switch. severely damage the component.

3. Disconnect the J1/P1 connectors from the ECM. 5. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris
Move the harness to a position that will not allow and spatter.
the harness to accidentally move back and make
contact with any of the ECM pins. 6. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
SEBU8119-01 17
Product Information Section
Model Views

Model Views
i02235118

Model View Illustrations

The following model views show typical features


of the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.

Note: Only major components are identified on the


following illustrations.

g01176033
Illustration 15
Front left engine view
(1) Fuel pump (8) J2 connector (15) Timing case cover
(2) Secondary fuel filter (9) Electronic control module (16) Oil filler
(3) Air intake (10) J1 connector (17) Fan
(4) Hand primer (11) Oil cooler (18) Fan pulley
(5) Primary fuel filter (12) Oil filter (19) Water pump
(6) Crankcase breather (13) Oil gauge
(7) Fuel manifold (14) Damper
18 SEBU8119-01
Product Information Section
Model Views

g01176963
Illustration 16
Rear right engine view
(20) Rear lifting eye (25) Alternator (30) Starting motor
(21) Valve mechanism cover (26) Belt tensioner (31) Flywheel
(22) Front lifting eye (27) Timing case (32) Flywheel housing
(23) Exhaust elbow (28) Crankshaft pulley (33) Turbocharger
(24) Alternator pulley (29) Oil pan (34) Exhaust manifold

i02235503

Engine Description

The 1106 Electronic Engine model PJ is designed


for the following applications: machine and industrial
mobile equipment. The engine is available in the
following type of aspiration:

Turbocharged aftercooled

Engine Specifications
g01127295
Illustration 17
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right 1106 Electronic Engine model PJ
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel (A) Exhaust valves
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder. (B) Inlet valves
SEBU8119-01 19
Product Information Section
Model Views

Table 1 There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,


1106 Electronic Engine Model PJ Specifications
logged, and event.

Operating Range (rpm) 900 to 2800(1) Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored
Number of Cylinders 6 In-Line
in the ECM. For additional information, refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
Bore 105 mm (4.13 inch) Diagnostics topic (Operation Section).
Stroke 127 mm (5.0 inch)
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
Aspiration Turbocharged aftercooled controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Compression Ratio 16.2:1
Displacement 6.6 L (403 in3)
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
Firing Order 1-5-3-6-2-4
The cooling system consists of the following
Rotation (flywheel end) Counterclockwise components:
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet) 0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
Valve Lash Setting
Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
(Exhaust)
Water temperature regulator which regulates the
(1) The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the engine coolant temperature
application and the configuration of the throttle.
Gear-driven oil pump (gear type)
Electronic Engine Features
Oil cooler
The engine operating conditions are monitored.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a gear
response of the engine to these conditions and to type pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and
the demands of the operator. These conditions and the engine lubricating oil is filtered. Bypass valves
operator demands determine the precise control of provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine engine parts when oil viscosity is high. Bypass valves
control system provides the following features: can also provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil
to the engine parts if the oil cooler should become
Engine monitoring plugged or if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine speed governing
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
Cold start strategy engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Automatic air/fuel ratio control Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
Torque rise shaping coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule for more
Injection timing control information on maintenance items.

System diagnostics
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Features and Controls topic (Operation Section).

Engine Diagnostics
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a Stop or
Warning lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display
the diagnostic codes.
20 SEBU8119-01
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Product Identification Serial Number Plate (1)


Information The engine serial number plate is located on the
left side of the cylinder block to the rear of the front
engine mounting.
i02285914

Plate Locations and Film


Locations

g01094203
Illustration 19
Serial number plate

i02164876

Reference Numbers

Information for the following items may be needed to


order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
g01144128
Illustration 18 Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
Location of the serial number plate information for future reference.

Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial Record for Reference


number.
Engine Model _______________________________________________
An example of an engine number is PJ*****U000001J.
Engine Serial number _____________________________________
***** ____________________ The list number for the engine
Engine Low Idle rpm ______________________________________
PJ __________________________________________Type of engine
Engine Full Load rpm _____________________________________
U ____________________________Built in the United Kingdom
Primary Fuel Filter _________________________________________
000001 ___________________________Engine Serial Number
Water Separator Element ________________________________
J _____________________________________Year of Manufacture
Secondary Fuel Filter Element __________________________
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components Lubrication Oil Filter Element ___________________________
that were included with the engine. This permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers. Auxiliary Oil Filter Element _______________________________
The numbers for fuel setting information for electronic Total Lubrication System Capacity _____________________
engines are stored within the personality module.
These numbers can be read by using the Electronic Total Cooling System Capacity _________________________
Service Tool.
Air Cleaner Element _______________________________________
SEBU8119-01 21
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Fan Drive Belt ______________________________________________

Alternator Belt ______________________________________________

i02308954

Emissions Certification Film

Label for compliant engines


Typical examples of emissions labels

g01173630
Illustration 20
This typical example of a label is installed on engines that have electronic fuel injection systems and installed on engines that have electronic
fuel injection pumps.

g01156733
Illustration 21
This typical example of a label is installed on engines that have mechanical fuel injection pumps.
22 SEBU8119-01
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Label for engines that do not


comply with emissions

g01156734
Illustration 22
This typical example of a label is installed on engines that do not comply with emissions.

g01157127
Illustration 23
This typical example of a label is installed on engines that are stationary engines.
SEBU8119-01 23
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage

Operation Section Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to


obtain correct balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that


Lifting and Storage are on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific


i02164186 engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
Engine Lifting fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure
that correct lifting devices are provided. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.

i02308881

Engine Storage

If the engine is not started for a month or longer the


lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls and
from the piston rings. Rust can form on the cylinder
walls. Rust on the cylinder walls will cause increased
engine wear and a reduction in engine service life.

Perkins are not responsible for damage which may


occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.

Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can


assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the


engine is not planned for more than one month, a
complete protection procedure is recommended.

Illustration 24
g01097527 To help prevent excessive engine wear and corrosion
to the engine, use the following guidelines:
NOTICE 1. Completely clean the outside of the engine.
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem- 2. Ensure that the vehicle is on level ground.
ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object be- 3. Drain the fuel system completely and refill
comes less than 90 degrees. the system with preservative fuel. 1772204
POWERPART Lay-Up 1 can be mixed with
When it is necessary to remove a component at an the normal fuel in order to change the fuel into
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for preservative fuel.
the weight.
If preservative fuel is not available, the fuel system
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use can be filled with normal fuel. This fuel must
an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All be discarded at the end of the storage period
supporting members (chains and cables) should be together with the fuel filter elements.
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
24 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage

9. If equipped, replace the crankcase breather


element. Seal the end of the breather pipe.
Personal injury can result from hot coolant. Any
10. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Spray
contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 around the
severe burns. Allow cooling system components
rocker shaft assembly.
to cool before the cooling system is drained.
11. Remove the glow plugs. Slowly rotate the
4. Drain and refill the cooling system. Refer to this crankshaft. By checking the valves, position the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Cooling piston at BDC. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
System coolant (Commercial Heavy Duty - Lay-Up 2 for two seconds into the cylinder bore.
Change or Cooling System coolant (ELC) - This procedure must be carried out on each
Change for information on draining, flushing and cylinder.
refilling the cooling system.
12. Install the glow plugs. Install the valve mechanism
cover.

13. Remove the pipes that are installed between


Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid the air filter assembly and the turbocharger.
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu- Spray 1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 into
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol- the turbocharger. The duration of the spray is
low these inspection, maintenance and service in- printed on the container. Seal the turbocharger
structions may cause personal injury or death. with waterproof tape.

5. Operate the engine until the engine reaches 14. Remove the exhaust pipe from the output side of
normal operating temperature. Stop the engine. the turbocharger. Spray 1762811 POWERPART
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60 Lay-Up 2 into the turbocharger. The duration of
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be the spray is printed on the container. Seal the
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any turbocharger with waterproof tape.
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel
lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments. 15. Seal the vent of the fuel tank or the fuel filler cap
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel with waterproof tape.
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that 16. Remove the alternator drive belt and put the drive
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly belt into storage.
Manual, Fuel Injection Lines - Install.
17. In order to prevent corrosion to the outside of
6. Drain the lubricating oil from the oil pan. the engine, spray the engine with 1734115
POWERPART Lay-Up 3. Do not spray the area
Renew the canister(s) of the lubricating oil filter. inside the alternator.

Fill the oil pan to the Full Mark on the engine oil
level gauge with new, clean lubricating oil. Add
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 to the oil in
order to protect the engine against corrosion. If
1762811 POWERPART Lay-Up 2 is not available,
use a preservative of the correct specification
instead of the lubricating oil. If a preservative is
used, this must be drained completely at the end
of the storage period and the oil pan must be
refilled to the correct level with normal lubricating
oil.

7. Operate the engine in order to circulate engine oil.

8. Disconnect the battery. Ensure that the battery is


in a fully charged condition. Protect the terminals
against corrosion. 1734115 POWERPART
Lay-Up 3 can be used on the terminals. Put the
battery into safe storage.
SEBU8119-01 25
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators

Gauges and Indicators 1. Remove the load.

2. Stop the engine.


i02322200
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Gauges and Indicators
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature
Typical temperature range is 83 to 95C
(181.4 to 171F). The maximum allowable
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of temperature at sea level with the pressurized cooling
the gauges that are described. For more information system at 48 kPa (7 psi) is 103 C (217.4 F). Higher
about the gauge package, see the OEM information. temperatures may occur under certain conditions.
The water temperature reading may vary according
Gauges provide indications of engine performance. to load. The temperature reading should never
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order. exceed 7 C (44.6 F) below the boiling point for the
Determine the normal operating range by observing pressurized system that is being used.
the gauges over a period of time.
If the engine is operating above the normal range
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
also be indicated by gauge readings that change procedure:
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant 1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator reducing the load.
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange 3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
Tachometer This gauge indicates engine
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways: speed (rpm). When the throttle control lever
is moved to the full throttle position without
load, the engine is running at high idle. The engine is
The indicator lamps can be used to identify the running at the full load rpm when the throttle control
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine lever is at the full throttle position with maximum
rated load.
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
NOTICE
The indicator lamps can be used to identify active To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
pressing the Flash Code button. damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceed-
ing high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, Indicator
Lamps for further information.
Ammeter This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
NOTICE battery charging circuit. Operation of the
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If indicator should be to the + side of 0 (zero).
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Fuel Level This gauge indicates the fuel
level in the fuel tank. The fuel level gauge
Engine Oil Pressure The oil pressure operates when the START/STOP switch
should be greatest after a cold engine is is in the on position.
started. The typical engine oil pressure with
SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at rated
Service Hour Meter The gauge indicates
rpm.
total operating hours of the engine.

A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load


is stable and the gauge reading changes, perform
the following procedure:
26 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Features and Controls Warning


The Warning lamp and the warning signal (orange
i02308958 lamp) turn ON and the warning signal is activated
continuously in order to alert the operator that one or
Monitoring System more of the engine parameters is not within normal
operating range.

Warning/Derate
The Diagnostic lamp turns ON and the warning
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown may engine power will be derated. The warning lamp will
take as little as 20 seconds from the time the warn- begin to flash when the derating occurs.
ing indicator is activated. Depending on the ap-
plication, special precautions should be taken to The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted preset operational limits. The engine derate is
following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
necessary. available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
NOTICE to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee predetermined reduction in engine power.
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the Warning/Derate/Shutdown
engine.
The Diagnostic lamp turns ON and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning,
The following parameters are monitored: the engine power will be derated. The engine will
continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown
Coolant temperature of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted
after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
Intake manifold air temperature
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little
Intake manifold air pressure as 20 seconds. The engine can be restarted after
a shutdown for use in an emergency. However,
Oil pressure the cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.
The engine may shut down again in as little as 20
Engine speed/timing seconds.

If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolant


Programmable Options and temperature, there will be a two second delay in
Systems Operation order to verify the condition.

For each of the programmed modes, refer to


Troubleshooting Guide, Indicator Lamps for more
information on Indicator Lamps.
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates, For more information or assistance for repairs, consult
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. De- your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
pending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.

The engine can be programmed to the following


modes:
SEBU8119-01 27
Operation Section
Features and Controls

i02296746

Monitoring System

Table 2
Warning Shutdown
Lamp Status Description of lamp status Engine Status
Lamp Lamp
Lamp check When the engine start switch is turned to the The engine has not been
ON ON ON position both lamps will illuminate for 2 started.
seconds only.
No faults There are no active diagnostic faults. The engine is running
OFF OFF
normally.
Active An active diagnostic fault has been detected. The engine is running
ON OFF diagnostic normally.
fault
Active A serious active diagnostic fault has been The engine is running
ON FLASHING diagnostic detected and an engine derate has been but the engine has been
fault invoked. derated.
Warning One or more of the engine protection values The engine is running
FLASHING OFF
has been exceeded. normally.
Derate and One or more of the engine protection values The engine is running
FLASHING FLASHING warning has been exceeded. but the engine has been
derated.
Engine One or more of the engine protection values has The engine is shutdown or
ON ON shutdown been exceeded or a serious active diagnostic shutdown is imminent.
fault has been detected.

i02330154

Sensors and Electrical


Components

Sensor Locations
Illustration 25 shows the typical locations of the
sensors on the engine. Specific engines may appear
different from the illustration due to differences in
applications. The location of the electronic control
module is illustrated.
28 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Features and Controls

g01158591
Illustration 25
(1) Coolant temperature sensor (5) Electronic control module (ECM)
(2) Inlet air temperature sensor (6) Oil pressure sensor
(3) Inlet air pressure sensor (7) Crankshaft position sensor
(4) Fuel pressure sensor (8) Secondary position sensor
SEBU8119-01 29
Operation Section
Features and Controls

g01158681
Illustration 26

Illustration 26 shows the sensors in position on the Programmable Monitoring System


engine. (PMS)
Failure of Sensors The Programmable Monitoring System determines
the level of action that is taken by the Engine Control
All Sensors Module (ECM) (5) in response to a condition that can
damage the engine. These conditions are identified
A failure of any of the sensors may be caused by one by the ECM from the signals that are produced from
of the following malfunctions: the following sensors. Refer to illustration 25 for the
ECM.
Sensor output is open.
Inlet Air Temperature Sensor
Sensor output is shorted to - battery or + battery.
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
Measured reading of the sensor is out of the
specification. Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
Engine Speed/Timing Sensors
30 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Fuel Pressure Sensor Low Oil Pressure Warning


Inlet Air Pressure Sensor The setpoint for the low pressure warning is
dependent upon the engine speed. The fault will be
active and logged only if the engine has been running
Coolant Temperature Sensor 1 for more than 8 seconds.
The coolant temperature sensor monitors engine
coolant temperature. The output of the ECM (5) can Very Low Oil Pressure Warning
indicate a high coolant temperature through a relay
or a lamp. The coolant temperature sensor is used The very low oil pressure setpoint is dependent
by the ECM to determine initiation of the Cold Start upon the engine speed. If the DERATE mode of the
Condition. engine monitoring system is selected, the ECM (5)
will derate the engine power. The engine horsepower
will be limited.
Failure of the Coolant Temperature
Sensor
Failure of the Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
The ECM (5) will detect a failure of the coolant
The ECM (5) will detect failure of the engine oil
temperature sensor. The diagnostic lamp will warn the
operator about the status of the coolant temperature pressure sensor. The diagnostic lamp warns the user
about the status of the engine oil pressure sensor.
sensor. A failure of the coolant temperature sensor
The engine oil pressure related strategies will be
will not cause a shutdown of the engine or any
horsepower change. The faulty sensor should be disabled in the event of a failure of the engine oil
pressure sensor. A failure of the engine oil pressure
replaced. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
sensor will not cause a shutdown of the engine or
Manual, Coolant Temperature Sensor - Remove and
Install. any horsepower change. The faulty sensor should
be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, Engine Oil Pressure Sensor - Remove and
Inlet Air Temperature Sensor 2 Install.

The inlet air temperature sensor measures the inlet


air temperature. A signal is sent to the ECM (5). The Crankshaft Position Sensor 7
inlet air temperature sensor is also used by the ECM
If the ECM (5) does not receive a signal from the
to determine initiation of the Cold Start Strategy.
crankshaft position sensor , the DIAGNOSTIC lamp
will indicate a diagnostic fault code which will be
Inlet Air Pressure Sensor 3 logged in the ECM memory.

The inlet air pressure sensor measures boost If the ECM does not receive a signal from the primary
pressure in the inlet air manifold. A signal is sent to speed/timing sensor (7), the ECM will read the signal
the ECM (5). from the secondary speed/timing sensor (8). The
ECM continually checks in order to determine if
Fuel Pressure Sensor 4 there is a signal from both sensors. If either sensor
fails, the faulty sensor should be replaced. Refer to
The fuel pressure sensor measures the fuel pressure Disassembly and assembly Manual, Crankshaft
in the fuel manifold. A signal is sent to the ECM (5). Position Sensor - Remove and Install.

Intermittent failure of the sensors will cause erratic


Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 6 engine control.

The engine oil pressure sensor is an absolute


pressure sensor that measures the engine oil Secondary Position Sensor 8
pressure in the main oil gallery. The engine oil
pressure sensor detects engine oil pressure for The signal from the secondary position sensor is
diagnostic purposes. The engine oil pressure sensor used by the ECM (5) on engine start-up in order
sends a signal to the ECM (5). to check the stroke of the pistons. The secondary
sensor may be used by the ECM in order to operate
the engine if the crankshaft position sensor is faulty.
SEBU8119-01 31
Operation Section
Features and Controls

i02237393

Overspeed

An overspeed condition is detected by the Electronic


Control Module (ECM). The event code will be
logged if the engine speed exceeds 3000 rpm. The
DIAGNOSTIC lamp will indicate a diagnostic active
code. The diagnostic active code will remain active
until the engine speed drops to 2800 rpm.
32 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics

Engine Diagnostics Use the following procedure to retrieve the flash


codes if the engine is equipped with a DIAGNOSTIC
lamp:
i01902950
1. Move the keyswitch from the on/off two times
Self-Diagnostics within three seconds.

A flashing YELLOW lamp indicates a 3 digit code for


the engine. The sequence of flashes represents the
Perkins Electronic Engines have the capability to system diagnostic message. Count the first sequence
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system of flashes in order to determine the first digit of the
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp flash code. After a two second pause, the second
is activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in sequence of flashes will identify the second digit of
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module the flash code. After the second pause, the third
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved sequence of flashes will identify the flash code.
by using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting Guide, Electronic Service Tools for Any additional flash codes will follow after a pause.
further information. These codes will be displayed in the same manner.
Flash Code 551 indicates that No Detected Faults
Some installations have electronic displays that have occurred since the ignition keyswitch has been
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic turned to the ON position.
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided
by the OEM for more information on retrieving For further information, assistance for repairs, or
engine diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to the troubleshooting, refer to the Service Manual or
Troubleshooting Guide, Indicator Lamps for further consult an authorized Perkins dealer.
information.
Table 3 lists the flash codes and the table also gives
Active codes represent problems that currently exist. a brief description of the flash codes.
These problems should be investigated first.
Note: Table 3 indicates the potential effect on engine
Logged codes represent the following items: performance with ACTIVE flash codes.

Intermittent problems Some codes record events. Also, some codes


may also indicate that a mechanical system needs
Recorded events attention. Troubleshooting is not required for code
551. Code 001 will not display a flash code. Some
Performance history codes will limit the operation or the performance of
the engine.
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that Table 3 indicates the potential effect on the engine
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals performance with active flash codes. Table 3 also
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to forms a list of Electronic diagnostic codes and
troubleshoot problems. descriptions.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.

i02525302

Diagnostic Flash Code


Retrieval

Diagnostic Lamp
Use the DIAGNOSTIC lamp or an electronic service
tool to determine the diagnostic flash code.
SEBU8119-01 33
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics

Table 3
Flash Codes for 1106D Industrial Engine
Effect On Engine Performance (1) Suggested Operator Action

Diagnostic Flash Code Reduced Shut


Engine Low Engine Schedule a
Engine Down the Service (3)
Misfire Power Shutdown Service. (4)
Speed Engine (2)
111 Cylinder 1 Fault X X X
112 Cylinder 2 Fault X X X
113 Cylinder 3 Fault X X X
114 Cylinder 4 Fault X X X
115 Cylinder 5 Fault X X X
116 Cylinder 6 Fault X X X
Intake Manifold
133 Temperature sensor X X
fault (5)
High Injection
137 X X X
Actuation Pressure
Crank Timing
141 X X
Sensor Fault
Pump Timing Sensor
142 X
Fault
Timing Calibration
143 X X
Fault
Oil Pressure Sensor
157 X X
Fault(5)
Fuel Rail Pressure
159 X X
Sensor Fault
High Pressure Fuel
162 X X X
Pump Fault
Coolant
169 Temperature Sensor X X
Fault
Wastegate Solenoid
177 X
Fault
Intake Manifold
197 Pressure Sensor X X
Fault
Incorrect Engine
415 X X X
Software
Intermittent Battery
422 X X X X
Power to ECM
439 Key Switch Fault X
(continued)
34 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics

(Table 3, contd)

Flash Codes for 1106D Industrial Engine


Effect On Engine Performance (1) Suggested Operator Action

Diagnostic Flash Code Reduced Shut


Engine Low Engine Schedule a
Engine Down the Service (3)
Misfire Power Shutdown Service. (4)
Speed Engine (2)
516 Sensor Supply
X X
517 Voltage Fault (5)
Check Customer
Parameters or
527 X X X
System Parameters
(5)

(1) An X indicates that the effect on engine performance may occur if the code is active.
(2) Shut Down the Engine: Operate the engine cautiously. Get immediate service. Severe engine damage may result.
(3) The operator should go to the nearest location that has a qualified service program.
(4) Schedule Service: The problem should be investigated when the operator has access to a qualified service program.
(5) These Flash Codes may affect the system under specific environmental conditions such as engine start-up at cold temperature and
cold weather operation at high altitudes.

i01902948 i01902951

Diagnostic Lamp Engine Operation with Active


Diagnostic Codes
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence
of an active fault. Refer to the Troubleshooting
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
Guide, Indicator Lamps for more information. A fault
diagnostic code will remain active until the problem operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use the electronic service
is repaired. The diagnostic code may be retrieved
tool to check the active diagnostic codes.
by using the electronic service tool. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide, Electronic Service Tools
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
for more information.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
i01902949 code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Fault Logging
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging. may be significantly slower and power outputs may be
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM) automatically reduced. Refer to the Troubleshooting
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will Guide, Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code for
be logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes more information on the relationship between each
that have been logged by the ECM can be identified active diagnostic code and the possible effect on
by the electronic service tool. The active codes that engine performance.
have been logged will be cleared when the fault
has been rectified or the fault is no longer active.
The following logged faults can not be cleared from
the memory of the ECM without using a factory
password: Overspeed, low engine oil pressure, and
high engine coolant temperature.
SEBU8119-01 35
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics

i01902995

Engine Operation with


Intermittent Diagnostic Codes

If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine


operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine


because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.

Low power
Limits of the engine speed
Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
36 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Engine Starting

Engine Starting i02322203

Starting the Engine


i02322201

Before Starting Engine


Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Before the engine is started, perform the required
daily maintenance and any other periodic Starting the Engine
maintenance that is due. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval 1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
Schedule for more information. engine.
Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped). 2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
NOTICE light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel 3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START
failure or other damage. position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks, Note: The operating period of the warning light for
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air the glow plugs will change due to the temperature
may have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel of the engine.
filters have been changed, some air pockets will be
trapped in the engine. In these instances, prime the
fuel system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance NOTICE
Manual, Fuel System - Prime for more information Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
on priming the fuel system. turning. Do not start the engine under load.

If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release


the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion start the engine again.
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the 4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
outside. after the engine starts.

5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails


Do not start the engine or move any of the controls to start.
if there is a DO NOT OPERATE warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls. i02325155

Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components (if Cold Weather Starting
equipped).

Ensure that any equipment that is driven by the


engine has been disengaged from the engine.
Minimize electrical loads or remove any electrical
loads. Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.

Startability will be improved at temperatures below


18 C (0 F) from the use of a jacket water heater
or extra battery capacity.
SEBU8119-01 37
Operation Section
Engine Starting

When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items i02322204


provide a means of minimizing starting problems
and fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan Starting with Jump Start
heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters, and fuel
line insulation.
Cables
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.

Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during


start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will Improper jump start cable connections can cause
control the engine speed during start-up. an explosion resulting in personal injury.

1. Disengage any driven equipment. Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished. Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for
the starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, Engine
NOTICE Will Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is for further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
turning. Do not start the engine under load. the engine will not start only due to the condition of the
battery, either charge the battery, or start the engine
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release by using another battery with jump start cables.
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to The condition of the battery can be rechecked
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to after the engine has been switched OFF.
start the engine again.

3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is NOTICE


extinguished turn the keyswitch to the START Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
position in order to engage the electric starting electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
motor and crank the engine. jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the temperature Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
of the engine. be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts. Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails
to start. Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF posi-
tion before attaching the jump start cables to the en-
Note: The engine should not be raced in order to gine being started.
speed up the warm up process.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
6. Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or OFF position. Turn off all the engines accessories.
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the 2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable
engine has started in cold weather, increase the to the positive cable terminal of the discharged
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This will battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods electrical source.
will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.

7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems


reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
38 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Engine Starting

3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable


to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.

4. Start the engine.

5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect


the jump start cables in reverse order.

After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to


fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Battery - Replace and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, Battery - Test.

i02330138

After Starting Engine

Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60C


(32 to 140F), the warm-up time is approximately
three minutes. In temperatures below 0C (32F),
additional warm-up time may be required.

When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the


following conditions:

Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the


engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a
fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information.

Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.

Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or


allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.

Note: Gauge readings should be observed and


the data should be recorded frequently while the
engine is operating. Comparing the data over time
will help to determine normal readings for each
gauge. Comparing data over time will also help
detect abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
SEBU8119-01 39
Operation Section
Engine Operation

Engine Operation i02330149

Fuel Conservation Practices


i02330143

Engine Operation
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors all applications. Follow the recommended procedures
in obtaining the maximum life and economy of in order to attain optimum performance for the life
the engine. If the directions in the Operation and of the engine.
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized. Avoid spilling fuel.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
engine reaches operating temperature. The engine may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
will reach normal operating temperature if the engine leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
is operated at low idle speed and operated with a
light load. This procedure is more effective than idling Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
the engine at no load. The engine should reach Use only the recommended fuels.
operating temperature in a few minutes.
Avoid unnecessary idling.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
is operating. Comparing the data over time will time.
help to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect Observe the air cleaner service indicator frequently.
abnormal operating developments. Significant Keep the air cleaner elements clean.
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Maintain the electrical systems.
One damaged battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This will consume excess power and excess fuel.

Ensure that the drive belts are correctly adjusted.


The drive belts should be in good condition.

Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are


tight. The connections should not leak.

Ensure that the driven equipment is in good


working order.

Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat


from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators.
All of these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
40 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Engine Stopping

Engine Stopping i02330274

After Stopping Engine


i02334873

Stopping the Engine


Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow
the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and ac-
celerated wear of the engine components. Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it down. el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize tur- structions may cause personal injury or death.
bocharger shaft and bearing life.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
Note: Individual applications will have different 60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
are understood. Use the following general guidelines any service or repair is performed on the engine
in order to stop the engine. fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that
to idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine. has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, Fuel Injection Lines - Install.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. between the MIN mark and the MAX mark on
If necessary, refer to the instructions that are the engine oil level gauge.
provided by the OEM.
If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that
i01903586
is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Emergency Stopping Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent


accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or NOTICE
controls for normal stopping procedure. Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
the Coolant Specifications that are in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual. Failure to do so can cause
The OEM may have equipped the application with engine damage.
an emergency stop button. For more information
about the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.

Ensure that any components for the external system Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
that support the engine operation are secured after ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
the engine is stopped. stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure.

Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.


SEBU8119-01 41
Operation Section
Engine Stopping

Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection


and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

Perform all required periodic maintenance on all


driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
42 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

Cold Weather Operation Install the correct specification of engine lubricant


before the beginning of cold weather.

i02525191 Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts, etc)
weekly.
Cold Weather Operation
Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
the following items:
Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
The type of fuel that is used Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
The viscosity of the engine oil
Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
The operation of the glow plugs Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual, Glow Plug
- Test.
Optional Cold starting aid
Battery condition
This section will cover the following information: Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Potential problems that are caused by cold weather Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable and
operation
toxic and if improperly stored could result in injury
or property damage.
Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating problems
when the ambient air temperature is between
0 to40 C (32 to 40 F).

The operation and maintenance of an engine in Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
freezing temperatures is complex . This is because ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
of the following conditions: personal injury.

Weather conditions For jump starting with cables in cold weather,


refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Engine applications Starting with Jump Start Cables. for instructions.

Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or


your Perkins distributor are based on past proven Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
practices. The information that is contained in Oil
this section provides guidelines for cold weather
operation. Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to
Hints for Cold Weather Operation crank the engine. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations for
the recommended viscosity of oil.
If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 81 C (177.8 F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will Recommendations for the Coolant
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking. Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this Operation
The cooling system and the lubrication system and Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations
for the engine do not lose heat immediately upon for the recommended coolant mixture.
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period of time and the engine can still
have the ability to start readily.
SEBU8119-01 43
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

In cold weather, check the coolant often for the Free operation of the valves is prevented.
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection. Valves become stuck.
Engine Block Heaters Pushrods are bent.

Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the Other damage to valve train components can
engine jacket water that surrounds the combustion result.
chambers. This provides the following functions:
For this reason, when the engine is started,
Startability is improved. the engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 71 C (160 F) minimum. Carbon
Warm up time is reduced. deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
An electric block heater can be activated once components will be maintained.
the engine is stopped. An effective block heater
is typically a 1250/1500 W unit. Consult your In addition, the engine must be thoroughly warmed in
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for more order to keep other engine parts in better condition
information. and the service life of the engine will be generally
extended. Lubrication will be improved. There will be
less acid and less sludge in the oil. This will provide
Idling the Engine longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
When idling after the engine is started in cold idle time to ten minutes in order to reduce wear and
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 unnecessary fuel consumption.
rpm. This will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
The Water Temperature Regulator and
throttle. The engine should not be raced in order to Insulated Heater Lines
speed up the warm up process.
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
While the engine is idling, the application of a light regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the correct operating temperature jacket water circulates
minimum operating temperature. The minimum through the engine cylinder block and into the
operating temperature is 82 C (179.6 F). engine cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
Recommendations for Coolant ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
Warm Up cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal water has reached the correct minimum operating
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This should temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
be performed before the engine is returned to full rises above the minimum operating temperature the
operation. During operation in very cold temperature water temperature regulator opens further allowing
conditions, damage to engine valve mechanisms can more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
result from engine operation for short intervals. This heat.
can happen if the engine is started and the engine is
stopped many times without being operated in order The progressive opening of the water temperature
to warm up completely. regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
When the engine is operated below normal operating head. This ensures maximum coolant flow to
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes dissipation.
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and Note: Perkins discourages the use of all air flow
the deposits are burned off during operation at restriction devices such as radiator shutters.
normal engine operating temperatures. Restriction of the air flow can result in the following:
high exhaust temperatures, power loss, excessive
When the engine is started and the engine is stopped fan usage, and reduction in fuel economy.
many times without being operated in order to warm
up completely, the carbon deposits become thicker.
This will cause the following problems:
44 SEBU8119-01
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The When Group 2 diesel fuels are used the following
feed from the engine and the return lines from the components provide a means of minimizing problems
cab should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss in cold weather:
to the outside air.
Glow plugs (if equipped)
Insulating the Air Inlet and Engine
Compartment Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
When temperatures below 18 C (0 F) will be
frequently encountered, an air cleaner inlet that Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
is located in the engine compartment may be
specified. An air cleaner that is located in the engine Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
compartment may also minimize the entry of snow There are three major differences between Group
into the air cleaner. Also, heat that is rejected by the
1 fuels and Group 2 fuels. Group 1 fuels have the
engine helps to warm the intake air.
following different characteristics to Group 2 fuels.
Additional heat can be retained around the engine by
insulating the engine compartment. A lower cloud point
A lower pour point
i02322217
A higher energy per unit volume of fuel
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Note: Group 3 fuels reduce the life of the engine. The
Weather use of Group 3 fuels is not covered by the Perkins
warranty.

Group 3 fuels include Low Temperature Fuels and


Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
Aviation Kerosene Fuels.
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fluid Recommendations.
Special fuels include Biofuel.
The following fuels can be used in this series of
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
engine.
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
Group 1
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel
Group 2 will thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant
to flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Group 3
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
Special Fuels purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engines application. Engines
Perkins prefer only Group 1 and Group 2 fuels for
that are fueled in one climate may not operate well if
use in this series of engines.
the engines are moved to another climate. Problems
can result due to changes in temperature.
Group 1 fuels are the preferred Group of Fuels for
general use by Perkins. Group 1 fuels maximize
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
engine life and engine performance. Group 1 fuels
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
are usually less available than Group 2 fuels.
Frequently, Group 1 fuels are not available in colder
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
climates during the winter.
operation at temperatures below 0 C (32 F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
Note: Group 2 fuels must have a maximum wear
temperatures.
scar of 650 micrometers (HFRR to ISO 12156-1).
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
Group 2 fuels are considered acceptable for issues
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Cold
of warranty. This group of fuels may reduce the life
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
of the engine, the engines maximum power, and the
Cold Weather.
engines fuel efficiency.
SEBU8119-01 45
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation

i02323237

Fuel Related Components in


Cold Weather

Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.

Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining


water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water


and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.

Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel


directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.

Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage


tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals, and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.

Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel
tank and the engine fuel inlet. After you change
the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system in order
to remove air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.

The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold


weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.

Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 C (163 F) at the fuel transfer
pump.

For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),


refer to the OEM information.
46 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Maintenance Section i02519551

Fluid Recommendations
Refill Capacities
General Lubricant Information
i02237872

Refill Capacities Because of government regulations regarding the


certification of exhaust emissions from the engine,
the lubricant recommendations must be followed.

Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA)


Lubrication System
Oils
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase
reflect the approximate capacity of the crankcase The Engine Manufacturers Association
or sump plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil is
systems will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM recognized by Perkins. For detailed information
specifications for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. about this guideline, see the latest edition of EMA
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, publication, EMA DHD -1.
Maintenance Section for more information on
Lubricant Specifications. API Oils
Table 4 The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System by
Engine the American Petroleum Institute (API) is recognized
Refill Capacities by Perkins. For detailed information about this
system, see the latest edition of the API publication
Compartment or System Minimum Maximum No. 1509. Engine oils that bear the API symbol are
13.5 L 16.5 L authorized by API.
Crankcase Oil Sump(1) (2.9696 (3.6295
Imp gal) Imp gal)
(1) These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory
installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require
additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity
of the auxiliary oil filter.

Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will
be needed in order to determine the amount of
coolant/antifreeze that is required for the Total
Cooling System. g00546535
Illustration 27
Table 5 Typical API symbol
Engine
Refill Capacities Diesel engine oils CC, CD, CD-2, and CE have
not been API authorized classifications since 1
Compartment or System Liters January 1996. Table 6 summarizes the status of the
9 L (1.9797 classifications.
Engine Only
Imp gal)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1) The External System includes a radiator or an expansion
tank with the following components: heat exchanger and
piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the
capacity of the External System in this row.
SEBU8119-01 47
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Table 6 DHD-1 oils will meet the needs of high performance


API Classifications
Perkins diesel engines that are operating in many
applications. The tests and the test limits that are
Current Obsolete used to define DHD-1 are similar to the new API
CH-4, , CI-4 CE, CC, CD
CH-4 classification. Therefore, these oils will also
meet the requirements for diesel engines that require
- CD-2 (1) low emissions. DHD-1 oils are designed to control the
(1) The oil CD-2 is for a two-cycle diesel engine. Perkins does not harmful effects of soot with improved wear resistance
sell engines that utilize CD-2 oil. and improved resistance to plugging of the oil filter.
These oils will also provide superior piston deposit
Terminology control for engines with either two-piece steel pistons
or aluminum pistons.
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of
SAE J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183 All DHD-1 oils must complete a full test program
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the with the base stock and with the viscosity grade of
EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine the finished commercial oil. The use of API Base
Oil. In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other Oil Interchange Guidelines are not appropriate for
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing DHD-1 oils. This feature reduces the variation in
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found performance that can occur when base stocks are
in this publication, Fluid Recommendations/Engine changed in commercial oil formulations.
Oil topic (Maintenance Section).
DHD-1 oils are recommended for use in extended oil
change interval programs that optimize the life of the
Engine Oil oil. These oil change interval programs are based
on oil analysis. DHD-1 oils are recommended for
Commercial Oils conditions that demand a premium oil. Your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor has the specific
NOTICE guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
CI-4 oil must be used on aplications 168Kw and
above. API CH-4 API CH-4 oils were developed in order to
meet the requirements of the new high performance
diesel engines. Also, the oil was designed to
The performance of commercial diesel engine meet the requirements of the low emissions diesel
oils is based on American Petroleum Institute engines. API CH-4 oils are also acceptable for use
(API) classifications. These API classifications are in older diesel engines and in diesel engines that
developed in order to provide commercial lubricants use high sulfur diesel fuel. API CH-4 oils may be
for a broad range of diesel engines that operate at used in Perkins engines that use API CG-4 and API
various conditions. CF-4 oils. API CH-4 oils will generally exceed the
performance of API CG-4 oils in the following criteria:
Only use commercial oils that meet the following deposits on pistons, control of oil consumption, wear
classifications: of piston rings, valve train wear, viscosity control,
and corrosion.
API CH-4 CI-4
Three new engine tests were developed for the API
In order to make the correct choice of a commercial CH-4 oil. The first test specifically evaluates deposits
oil, refer to the following explanations: on pistons for engines with the two-piece steel piston.
This test (piston deposit) also measures the control
EMA DHD-1 The Engine Manufacturers of oil consumption. A second test is conducted
Association (EMA) has developed lubricant with moderate oil soot. The second test measures
recommendations as an alternative to the API oil the following criteria: wear of piston rings, wear of
classification system. DHD-1 is a Recommended cylinder liners, and resistance to corrosion. A third
Guideline that defines a level of oil performance for new test measures the following characteristics with
these types of diesel engines: high speed, four stroke high levels of soot in the oil: wear of the valve train,
cycle, heavy-duty, and light duty. DHD-1 oils may resistance of the oil in plugging the oil filter, and
be used in Perkins engines when the following oils control of sludge.
are recommended: API CH-4, API CG-4, and API
CF-4. DHD-1 oils are intended to provide superior
performance in comparison to API CG-4 and API
CF-4.
48 SEBU8119-01
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In addition to the new tests, API CH-4 oils have Use the following guidelines for fuel sulfur levels that
tougher limits for viscosity control in applications that exceed 1.5 percent:
generate high soot. The oils also have improved
oxidation resistance. API CH-4 oils must pass an Choose an oil with the highest TBN that meets one
additional test (piston deposit) for engines that use of these classifications: EMA DHD-1 and API CH-4.
aluminum pistons (single piece). Oil performance is
also established for engines that operate in areas Reduce the oil change interval. Base the oil
with high sulfur diesel fuel. change interval on the oil analysis. Ensure that the
oil analysis includes the condition of the oil and
All of these improvements allow the API CH-4 a wear metal analysis.
oil to achieve optimum oil change intervals. API
CH-4 oils are recommended for use in extended oil Excessive piston deposits can be produced by an oil
change intervals. API CH-4 oils are recommended with a high TBN. These deposits can lead to a loss
for conditions that demand a premium oil. Your of control of the oil consumption and to the polishing
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor has specific of the cylinder bore.
guidelines for optimizing oil change intervals.
NOTICE
Some commercial oils that meet the API Operating Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines with fuel
classifications may require reduced oil change sulphur levels over 0.5 percent will require shortened
intervals. To determine the oil change interval, closely oil change intervals in order to help maintain adequate
monitor the condition of the oil and perform a wear wear protection.
metal analysis.

Table 7
NOTICE
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause Percentage of Sulfur in Oil change interval
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or the fuel
excessive wear. Lower than 0.5 Normal
0.5 to 1.0 0.75 of normal
Total Base Number (TBN) and Fuel Sulfur
Greater than 1.0 0.50 of normal
Levels for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel
Engines
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
The Total Base Number (TBN) for an oil depends on for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
the fuel sulfur level. For direct injection engines that
use distillate fuel, the minimum TBN of the new oil The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
must be 10 times the fuel sulfur level. The TBN is by the minimum ambient temperature during
defined by ASTM D2896. The minimum TBN of the cold engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
oil is 5 regardless of fuel sulfur level. Illustration 28 temperature during engine operation.
demonstrates the TBN.
Refer to Table 8 (minimum temperature) in order to
determine the required oil viscosity for starting a cold
engine.

Refer to Table 8 (maximum temperature) in order to


select the oil viscosity for engine operation at the
highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.

Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is


available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.

g00799818
Illustration 28
(Y) TBN by ASTM D2896
(X) Percentage of fuel sulfur by weight
(1) TBN of new oil
(2) Change the oil when the TBN deteriorates to 50 percent of
the original TBN.
SEBU8119-01 49
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Table 8 Lubricants for Cold Weather


Engine Oil Viscosity
When an engine is started and an engine is operated
EMA LRG-1 Ambient Temperature in ambient temperatures below 20 C (4 F), use
API CH-4 multigrade oils that are capable of flowing in low
Viscosity Grade Minimum Maximum
temperatures.
SAE 0W20 40 C (40 F) 10 C (50 F)
These oils have lubricant viscosity grades of SAE
SAE 0W30 40 C (40 F) 30 C (86 F) 0W or SAE 5W.
SAE 0W40 40 C (40 F) 40 C (104 F)
When an engine is started and operated in ambient
SAE 5W30 30 C (22 F) 30 C (86 F) temperatures below 30 C (22 F), use a synthetic
SAE 5W40 30 C (22 F) 40 C (104 F) base stock multigrade oil with an 0W viscosity grade
or with a 5W viscosity grade. Use an oil with a pour
SAE 10W30 20 C (4 F) 40 C (104 F) point that is lower than 50 C (58 F).
SAE 15W40 10 C (14 F) 50 C (122 F)
The number of acceptable lubricants is limited in
cold weather conditions. Perkins recommends the
Synthetic Base Stock Oils following lubricants for use in cold weather conditions:

Synthetic base oils are acceptable for use in First Choice Use oil with an EMA DHD-1
these engines if these oils meet the performance Recommended Guideline. Use a CH-4 oil that has
requirements that are specified for the engine. an API license. The oil should be either SAE 0W20,
SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40, SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40
Synthetic base oils generally perform better than lubricant viscosity grade.
conventional oils in the following two areas:
Second Choice Use an oil that has a CH-4
Synthetic base oils have improved flow at low additive package. Although the oil has not been
temperatures especially in arctic conditions. tested for the requirements of the API license, the oil
must be either SAE 0W20, SAE 0W30, SAE 0W40,
Synthetic base oils have improved oxidation SAE 5W30, or SAE 5W40.
stability especially at high operating temperatures.
NOTICE
Some synthetic base oils have performance Shortened engine service life could result if second
characteristics that enhance the service life of the choice oils are used.
oil. Perkins does not recommend the automatic
extending of the oil change intervals for any type of
oil. Aftermarket Oil Additives

Re-refined Base Stock Oils Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
Re-refined base stock oils are acceptable for additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
use in Perkins engines if these oils meet the service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
performance requirements that are specified by finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
Perkins. Re-refined base stock oils can be used additive packages. These additive packages are
exclusively in finished oil or in a combination with blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
new base stock oils. The US military specifications order to help provide finished oils with performance
and the specifications of other heavy equipment characteristics that meet industry standards.
manufacturers also allow the use of re-refined base
stock oils that meet the same criteria. There are no industry standard tests that evaluate
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
The process that is used to make re-refined base additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may
stock oil should adequately remove all wear metals not be compatible with the finished oils additive
that are in the used oil and all the additives that package, which could lower the performance of the
are in the used oil. The process that is used to finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
make re-refined base stock oil generally involves the mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge
process of vacuum distillation and hydrotreating the in the crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
used oil. Filtering is adequate for the production of aftermarket additives in finished oils.
high quality, re-refined base stock oil.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
50 SEBU8119-01
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Refill Capacities

Select the correct oil, or a commercial oil that meets Viscosity___________ 2,0 to 4.5 cSt at 40 C (104 F)
the EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel
Engine Oil or the recommended API classification. Density________________________ 0.835 to 0.855 Kg/liter
See the appropriate Lubricant Viscosities table in Sulfur_______________________0.2% of mass, maximum
order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for your
engine. Distillation___________________85% at 350 C (662 F)
At the specified interval, service the engine. Use Lubricity______________________________460 micrometers
new oil and install a new oil filter. maximum wear scar on ISO 12156 - 1

Perform maintenance at the intervals that are Cetane number


specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule. This indicates the properties of ignition of the fuel.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root
Oil analysis cause of problems during cold start. This will affect
combustion.
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required the oil sampling valve Viscosity
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance This is the resistance to flow of a fluid. If this
program. resistance is outside the limits, the engine and the
engine starting performance in particular can be
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to affected.
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured Sulfur
through the use of the oil analysis. The oil analysis
includes the following tests: High sulfur content of the fuel is not normally found
in Europe, North America or Australasia. This can
The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the cause engine wear. When only high sulfur fuels
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and are available, it will be necessary that high alkaline
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The lubricating oil is used in the engine or that the
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the lubricating oil change interval is reduced.
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil. Distillation

Tests are conducted in order to detect This is an indication of the mixture of different
contamination of the oil by water, glycol or fuel. hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of combustion.
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the Lubricity
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of This is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump wear.
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance Diesel engines have the ability to burn a wide variety
of the oil according to the specification during the of fuels. These fuels are divided into four general
entire oil change interval. groups:

Group 1 (preferred fuels)


Fuel Specifications
Group 2 (permissible fuels)
Fuel Recommendations
Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels)
To get the correct power and performance from
the engine, use a fuel of the correct quality. The Other fuels
recommended fuel specification for Perkins engines
is shown below: Group 1 (preferred fuels): Specification

Cetane number___________________________45 minimum DERV to EN590


SEBU8119-01 51
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Refill Capacities

Note: Only use Arctic fuels when the temperature is Note: These fuels that lack lubricity may cause the
below 0 C (32 F). Do not use Arctic fuels when the following problems:
ambient temperature is above 0 C (32 F). To ensure
that the time period between cranking the engine and Low engine power
first fire is kept to a minimum, only use fuel of the
correct viscosity and at the correct temperature. Difficult starting in hot conditions or in cold
conditions
Gas oil to BS2869 Class A2
White smoke
ASTM D975 - 91 Class 2D This can only be used if
the fuel has the correct specification of lubricity. Deterioration of emissions and misfire at certain
operating conditions
JIS K2204 (1992) Grades 1,2,3 and Special Grade
3 This can only be used if the fuel has the correct Biofuel: Specification
specification of lubricity.
Biofuel: A 5% mix of RME to EN14214 in conventional
Note: If low sulfur or low sulfur aromatic fuels are fuel is permitted.
used, then fuel additives can be used to increase
lubricity. NOTICE
Water emulsion fuels: These fuels are not permitted
Group 2 (permissible fuels): Specification

These fuel specifications are considered acceptable Refer to the following fuel specifications for
for issues of warranty. However,these fuels may North America.
reduce the life of the engine, the engines maximum
power and the engines fuel efficiency. The preferred fuels provide maximum engine service
life and performance. The preferred fuels are distillate
ASTM D975 - 91 Class 1D fuels. These fuels are commonly called diesel fuel
or gas oil.
JP7, Mil T38219
The permissible fuels are crude oils or blended fuels.
NATO F63 Use of these fuels can result in higher maintenance
costs and in reduced engine service life.
NOTICE
These fuels should have a wear scar value of 650 Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in Table
micrometers maximum *HFRR to ISO 12156 - 1.* 9 will help to provide maximum engine service life
and performance. In North America, diesel fuel that
is identified as No. 2-D in ASTM D975 generally
Group 3 (aviation kerosene fuels): Specification meets the specifications. Table 9 is for diesel fuels
that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from
These fuels need additives to achieve lubricity of 650 other sources could exhibit detrimental properties
micrometers wear scar and the reliability of the fuel that are not defined or controlled by this specification.
pump and fuel injectors will be reduced. The fuel
injection pump is not covered by a warranty, even Table 9
when the additives are included.
Perkins Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel
JP5 MIL T5624 (Avcat FSII, NATO F44 Specifications Requirements ASTM Test

JP8 T83133 (Avtur FSII, NATO F34 Aromatics 35% maximum D1319
0.02% maximum
Ash D482
Jet A (weight)
(continued)
Jet A1, NATO F35, XF63

Low temperature fuels

Special fuels for use in cold weather may be available


for engine operation at temperatures below 0 C
(32 F). These fuels limit the formation of wax in the
fuel oil at low temperatures. If wax forms in the fuel
oil, this could stop the flow of fuel oil through the filter.
52 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

(Table 9, contd) (Table 9, contd)


Carbon Residue 0.35% maximum Gum and Resins 10 mg per 100
D524 D381
on 10% Bottoms (weight) (3) mL maximum
40 minimum (DI 0.38 mm
Cetane Number engines) D613 (0.015 inch)
Lubricity (4) D6079
maximum at
The cloud 25 C (77 F)
point must not (1) Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate
exceed the - on high sulfur fuels. Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust
Cloud Point
lowest expected emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential
ambient for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
temperature. above 0.5 percent may significantly shorten the oil change
interval. For additional information, see this publication, Fluid
Copper Strip No. 3 maximum Recommendations/Engine Oil topic (Maintenance Section).
D130
Corrosion (2) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel
is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. If a fuel with a low
10% at 282 C viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to
(540 F) maintain a 1.4 cSt viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels
maximum with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to bring
Distillation D86 down the viscosity to a 20 cSt viscosity.
90% at 360 C (3) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(680 F) (4) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with low sulfur fuel. To
maximum determine the lubricity of the fuel, use either the ASTM D6078
Scuffing Load Wear Test (SBOCLE) or the ASTM D6079 High
Flash Point legal limit D93 Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test. If the lubricity of a
30 minimum fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your
API Gravity D287 fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel
45 maximum supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives
can cause problems in the fuel system.
6 C (10 F)
minimum
Pour Point D97 NOTICE
below ambient
temperature Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins rec-
ommendations can cause the following effects: Start-
0.2% maximum D3605 ing difficulty, poor combustion, deposits in the fuel in-
Sulfur (1) or jectors, reduced service life of the fuel system, de-
D1552
posits in the combustion chamber, and reduced ser-
2.0 cSt minimum vice life of the engine.
Kinematic and 4.5 cSt
D445
Viscosity (2) maximum at
40 C (104 F) NOTICE
Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Residual fuel, or Blended fuel
Water and 0.1% maximum
D1796 must NOT be used in Perkins diesel engines. Severe
Sediment
component wear and component failures will result if
Water 0.1% maximum D1744 HFO type fuels are used in engines that are configured
0.05% maximum to use distillate fuel.
Sediment D473
(weight)
(continued) In extreme cold ambient conditions, you may use the
distillate fuels that are specified in Table 10. However,
the fuel that is selected must meet the requirements
that are specified in Table 9. These fuels are intended
to be used in operating temperatures that are down
to 54 C (65 F).
SEBU8119-01 53
Maintenance Section
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Table 10
Distillate Fuels (1) NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
Specification Grade regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
MIL-T-5624R JP-5 regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system prob-
ASTM D1655 Jet-A-1 lems can develop without water temperature regula-
MIL-T-83133D JP-8 tors.
(1) The fuels that are listed in this Table may not meet the
requirements that are specified in the Perkins Specifications Many engine failures are related to the cooling
for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Consult the supplier for the system. The following problems are related to cooling
recommended additives in order to maintain the correct fuel system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
lubricity.
pump, and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
These fuels are lighter than the No. 2 grades of fuel.
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
The cetane number of the fuels in Table 10 must be
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
at least 40. If the viscosity is below 1.4 cSt at 38 C
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
(100 F), use the fuel only in temperatures below
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
0 C (32 F). Do not use any fuels with a viscosity
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
of less than 1.2 cSt at 38 C (100 F). Fuel cooling
oil.
may be required in order to maintain the minimum
viscosity of 1.4 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives, and glycol.
There are many other diesel fuel specifications that
are published by governments and by technological
societies. Usually, those specifications do not Water
review all the requirements that are addressed
in this specification. To ensure optimum engine Water is used in the cooling system in order to
performance, a complete fuel analysis should be transfer heat.
obtained before engine operation. The fuel analysis
should include all of the properties that are listed in Distilled water or deionized water is
Table 9. recommended for use in engine cooling systems.

DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling


Cooling System Specifications systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
General Coolant Information
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
NOTICE use water with the properties that are listed in Table
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine 11.
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
Table 11
Acceptable Water
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area Property Maximum Limit
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system Chloride (Cl) 40 mg/L
must be either protected to the lowest outside temper-
ature or drained completely to prevent damage. Sulfate (SO4) 100 mg/L
Total Hardness 170 mg/L
NOTICE Total Solids 340 mg/L
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for Acidity pH of 5.5 to 9.0
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.

For a water analysis, consult one of the following


Clean the cooling system for the following reasons: sources:
Contamination of the cooling system Local water utility company
Overheating of the engine Agricultural agent
Foaming of the coolant Independent laboratory
54 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
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Additives Table 12
Ethylene Glycol
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or Freeze Boil
Concentration
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following Protection Protection
conditions to occur: 50 Percent 36 C (33 F) 106 C (223 F)

Corrosion 60 Percent 51 C (60 F) 111 C (232 F)

Formation of mineral deposits NOTICE


Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-
Rust ceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycols
reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
Scale in conditions that require additional protection against
boiling or freezing.
Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation. Table 13
These additives must be replaced periodically. Propylene Glycol
Additives must be added at the correct concentration. Freeze Anti-Boil
Concentration
Overconcentration of additives can cause the Protection Protection
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can 50 Percent 29 C (20 F) 106 C (223 F)
enable the following problems to occur:

Formation of gel compounds To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,


measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Reduction of heat transfer
Coolant Recommendations
Leakage of the water pump seal
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages engines:

Glycol Preferred Perkins Extended Life Coolant (ELC)

Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection Acceptable A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
against the following conditions: that meets ASTM D4985 specifications

Boiling NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that on-
Freezing ly meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive appli-
Cavitation of the water pump cations.

For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a


1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution. Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection optimum heavy-duty performance as a antifreeze.
against the lowest ambient temperature. This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of 23 C (9 F). Note: A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that
meets ASTM D4985 specifications MAY require a
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol. treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Read the label
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture or the instructions that are provided by the OEM of
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide the product.
similar protection against freezing and boiling. See
Tables 12 and 13.
SEBU8119-01 55
Maintenance Section
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In stationary engine applications and marine engine ELC Concentrate is also available. ELC Concentrate
applications that do not require anti-boil protection can be used to lower the freezing point to 51 C
or freeze protection, a mixture of SCA and water (60 F) for arctic conditions.
is acceptable. Perkins recommends a six percent
to eight percent concentration of SCA in those Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized water your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for the
is preferred. Water which has the recommended part numbers.
properties may be used.

Engines that are operating in an ambient temperature


ELC Cooling System Maintenance
above 43 C (109.4 F) must use SCA and water.
Engines that operate in an ambient temperature Correct additions to the Extended Life
above 43 C (109.4 F) and below 0 C (32 F) due Coolant
to seasonal variations consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for the correct level of NOTICE
protection. Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concen-
trated coolants.
Table 14

Coolant Service Life Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products re-
duces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure to
Coolant Type Service Life
follow the recommendations can reduce cooling sys-
6,000 Service Hours or tem components life unless appropriate corrective ac-
Perkins ELC
Three Years tion is performed.
Commercial Heavy-Duty
3000 Service Hours or
Antifreeze that meets In order to maintain the correct balance between
Two Years
ASTM D4985 the antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain
Perkins POWERPART 3000 Service Hours or the recommended concentration of Extended Life
SCA Two Years Coolant (ELC). Lowering the proportion of antifreeze
lowers the proportion of additive. This will lower the
Commercial SCA and 3000 Service Hours or ability of the coolant to protect the system from pitting,
Water Two Years
from cavitation, from erosion, and from deposits.

Extended Life Coolant (ELC) NOTICE


Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
Perkins provides Extended Life Coolant (ELC) for system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
use in the following applications:
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines (SCA).

Heavy-duty diesel engines When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCAs
or SCA filters.
Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from ELC Cooling System Cleaning
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC
is an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam cleaning agents are not required to be used at
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC the specified coolant change interval. Cleaning
has been formulated with the correct amount of agents are only required if the system has been
these additives in order to provide superior corrosion contaminated by the addition of some other type of
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems. coolant or by cooling system damage.

ELC is available in a 1:1 premixed cooling solution Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
with distilled water. The Premixed ELC provides when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
freeze protection to 36 C (33 F). The Premixed
ELC is recommended for the initial fill of the cooling
system. The Premixed ELC is also recommended for
topping off the cooling system.
56 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
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After the cooling system is drained and after the Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
cooling system is refilled, operate the engine while flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
the cooling system filler cap is removed. Operate cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
the engine until the coolant level reaches the normal coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
operating temperature and until the coolant level system.
stabilizes. As needed, add the coolant mixture in
order to fill the system to the specified level. 8. Repeat Steps 6 and 7 until the system is
completely clean.
Changing to Perkins ELC
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins ELC.
ELC, perform the following steps:
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are NOTICE
contained during performance of inspection, main- Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effective-
tenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the ness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concen-
containers before opening any compartment or dis- trate coolants. Failure to follow these recommenda-
assembling any component containing fluids. tions can result in shortened cooling system compo-
nent life.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates. ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of ten percent of conventional heavy-duty
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container. antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds ten
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local the following procedures:
regulations.
Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to Dispose of the coolant according to local
remove any debris. regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
4. Use Perkins cleaner to clean the system. Follow
the instruction on the label. Drain a portion of the cooling system into a suitable
container according to local regulations. Then, fill
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush the cooling system with premixed ELC. This should
the cooling system with clean water. lower the contamination to less than 10 percent.

6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
49 to 66C (120 to 150F). the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
can result in damage to copper and other metal com- SCA
ponents.
NOTICE
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
completely flush the cooling system with clear water. Amine as part of the corrision protection system must
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the not be used.
cleaning agent are gone.

NOTICE
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container Never operate an engine without water temperature
and flush the cooling system with clean water. regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system prob-
lems can develop without water temperature regula-
tors.
SEBU8119-01 57
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
order to ensure adequate protection against boiling Coolant For Maintenance
or freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested
at 500 hour intervals for the concentration of Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA). of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test. Schedule (Maintenance Section). Test the
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour concentration of SCA.
intervals.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
Refer to Table 15 for part numbers and for quantities test. The size of the cooling system determines the
of SCA. amount of SCA that is needed.
Table 15
Use the equation that is in Table 18 to determine the
Perkins Liquid SCA amount of Perkins SCA that is required, if necessary:
Part Number Quantity Table 18
21825755 . Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant V 0.014 = X
at the Initial Fill V is the total volume of the cooling system.

Commercial heavy-duty antifreeze that meets ASTM X is the amount of SCA that is required.
D4985 specifications MAY require an addition of
SCA at the initial fill. Read the label or the instructions Table 19 is an example for using the equation that
that are provided by the OEM of the product. is in Table 18.

Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the Table 19


amount of Perkins SCA that is required when the Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
cooling system is initially filled. The Heavy-Duty Coolant For Maintenance
Table 16 Total Volume Multiplication Amount of SCA
of the Cooling Factor that is Required
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty System (V) (X)
Coolant At The Initial Fill
15 L (4 US gal) 0.014 0.2 L (7 oz)
V 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Antifreeze
Table 17 is an example for using the equation that Perkins cooling system cleaners are designed
is in Table 16. to clean the cooling system of harmful scale
and corrosion. Perkins cooling system cleaners
Table 17 dissolve mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To contamination and sludge.
The Heavy-Duty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume Multiplication
Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
Amount of SCA drained or before the cooling system is filled with
of the Cooling Factor that is Required
new coolant.
System (V) (X)
15 L (4 US gal) 0.045 0.7 L (24 oz) Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
58 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i02519567 Every 2000 Service Hours


Maintenance Interval Schedule Aftercooler Core - Inspect ..................................... 59
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 60
Engine Mounts - Inspect ....................................... 73
Starting Motor - Inspect ........................................ 84
When Required Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 84
Water Pump - Inspect ........................................... 86
Battery - Replace .................................................. 60
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect .................. 61 Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years
Engine - Clean ...................................................... 68
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) -
Clean/Replace .................................................... 68 Change ............................................................... 62
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Inspect/Replace .................................................. 70 Every 4000 Service Hours
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain .................................. 73
Fuel System - Prime ............................................. 77 Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ............................... 59
Severe Service Application - Check ..................... 83
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years
Daily
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change ............. 63
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect ........................ 60
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 65
Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 67
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 71
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ................... 71
Engine Oil Level - Check ...................................... 73
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator -
Drain ................................................................... 79
Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ 85

Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly


Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 81

Initial 500 Service Hours


Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 76

Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year


Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace ....................... 60
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 61
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 66
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 67
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -
Clean/Replace .................................................... 68
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Inspect/Replace .................................................. 70
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace ... 72
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ............................. 74
Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................ 78
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace .............................................. 80
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace .................. 82
Radiator - Clean .................................................... 83

Every 1000 Service Hours


Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ...................... 76
SEBU8119-01 59
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test

i02322260

Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test


Personal injury can result from air pressure.

Personal injury can result without following prop-


1. Remove the core. Refer to the OEM information er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
for the correct procedure. tective face shield and protective clothing.

2. Turn the aftercooler core upside-down in order Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
to remove debris. than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

8. Dry the core with compressed air. Direct the air in


the reverse direction of the normal flow.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
9. Inspect the core in order to ensure cleanliness.
Personal injury can result without following prop- Pressure test the core. If necessary, repair the
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro- core.
tective face shield and protective clothing.
10. Install the core. Refer to the OEM information for
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less the correct procedure.
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
11. After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate
the engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the
3. Pressurized air is the preferred method for removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
removing loose debris. Direct the air in the engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order
opposite direction of the fans air flow. Hold the to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the
nozzle approximately 6 mm (.25 inch) away from cleaning, if necessary.
the fins. Slowly move the air nozzle in a direction
that is parallel with the tubes. This will remove
debris that is between the tubes. i02322295

4. Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. Aftercooler Core - Inspect
The maximum water pressure for cleaning
purposes must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use
pressurized water in order to soften mud. Clean
the core from both sides. Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
NOTICE
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
Do not use a high concentration of caustic cleaner to
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
clean the core. A high concentration of caustic cleaner
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
can attack the internal metals of the core and cause
leakage. Only use the recommended concentration of
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
cleaner.
are used for cleaning radiators.

5. Back flush the core with a suitable cleaner.

6. Steam clean the core in order to remove any


residue. Flush the fins of the aftercooler core. Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Remove any other trapped debris.
Personal injury can result without following prop-
7. Wash the core with hot, soapy water. Rinse the er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
core thoroughly with clean water. tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less


than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
60 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect

After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the If the belt (1) has more than four cracks per
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal 25.4000 mm (1 inch) the belt must be replaced.
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine.
Use a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect Check the belt of cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if and splitting.
necessary.

Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened


with a comb.

Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired


or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.

Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,


mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps,
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

i02322311

Alternator - Inspect

Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of


the alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in g01155963
Illustration 29
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required. i02307647

Check the alternator and the battery charger for


Alternator and Fan Belts -
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly Replace
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold, Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual ,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the Alternator Belt - Remove and Install.
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
i02322315
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge. Battery - Replace
i02307633

Alternator and Fan Belts -


Inspect
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible gas-
es to ignite. This can result in severe personal in-
NOTICE jury or death.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed. Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in or-
der to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the serviced.
belt is worn or damaged.
SEBU8119-01 61
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check

The battery cables or the batteries should not be All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
removed with the battery cover in place. The bat- can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
tery cover should be removed before any servic- shield and protective clothing when working on or
ing is attempted. near batteries.

Removing the battery cables or the batteries with


1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury. level to the FULL mark on the battery.

If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled


1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove water. If distilled water is not available use clean
all electrical loads. water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers. 2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. The NEGATIVE - cable connects the NEGATIVE
- battery terminal to the NEGATIVE - terminal 3. Install the caps.
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE - battery terminal. 4. Keep the batteries clean.

4. The POSITIVE + cable connects the POSITIVE Clean the battery case with one of the following
+ battery terminal to the POSITIVE + terminal cleaning solutions:
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE + battery terminal. A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of washing soda or
baking soda and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and 1 L
recycling facility. (1 qt) of clean water

5. Remove the used battery. Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.

6. Install the new battery.


i02323088

Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that


the engine start switch is OFF.
Battery or Battery Cable -
Disconnect
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE + battery terminal.

8. Connect the NEGATIVE - cable to the


NEGATIVE - battery terminal.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
i02322318 removed with the battery cover in place. The bat-
tery cover should be removed before any servic-
Battery Electrolyte Level - ing is attempted.
Check Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries 1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries and remove the key and all electrical loads.
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation. 2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
62 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change

3. Remove the positive connection. The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals. Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items Drain
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
a suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly. Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
prevent accidental starting. components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs. sure.

8. In order to connect the battery, connect the 1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
positive connection before the negative connector. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
i02238072 system filler cap.

Cooling System Coolant


(Commercial Heavy-Duty) -
Change

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids.

Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and


mandates.

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. g01144180
Illustration 30

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened Typical example


component life.
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling drain plug on the radiator.
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist: Allow the coolant to drain.

The engine overheats frequently. NOTICE


Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
Foaming of the coolant is observed. methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
The oil has entered the cooling system and the procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
coolant is contaminated. reclaim the coolant.
SEBU8119-01 63
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

For information regarding the disposal and the 3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high
or your Perkins distributor. idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Decrease the
engine speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order 4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
to remove any debris.
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.

NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the


cooling system filler cap.

4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the


temperature reaches 49 to 66 C (120 to 150 F). Illustration 31
g00103639

Filler cap
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling 5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
clean water. pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
Fill
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on leaks and for correct operating temperature.
the engine. Close the drain cock or install the
drain plug on the radiator.
i02238084

NOTICE Cooling System Coolant (ELC)


Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks. - Change
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

NOTICE
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
Heavy-Duty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
Additive to the coolant. For the correct amount, ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
Fluid Recommendations topic (Maintenance ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
Section) for more information on cooling system nent containing fluids.
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap. Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations and
mandates.
64 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change

NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened


component life.

Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling


system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:

The engine overheats frequently.


Foaming of the coolant is observed.
The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.

The fuel has entered the cooling system and the


coolant is contaminated.
g01144180
Illustration 32
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and Typical example
replaced.
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
temperature regulator after the cooling system has drain plug on the radiator.
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator and Allow the coolant to drain.
the hoses, if necessary.
NOTICE
Drain Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation
procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to
reclaim the coolant.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system For information regarding the disposal and the
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres- or your Perkins distributor.
sure.
Flush
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
to remove any debris.
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.

NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.

Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.

3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the


cooling system filler cap.
SEBU8119-01 65
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check

4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the 5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 C (120 to 150 F). gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock install a new filler cap.
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow
the water to drain. Flush the cooling system with 6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
clean water. leaks and for correct operating temperature.

Fill i02335378

1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on Cooling System Coolant Level
the engine. Close the drain cock or install the
drain plug on the radiator.
- Check

NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Cooling system air locks may result in engine damage.
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life is for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
Coolant (ELC). Refer to the Operation and information for the correct procedures.
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations
topic (Maintenance Section) for more information Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
on cooling system specifications. Do not install the and cool.
cooling system filler cap.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the tank. Maintain the coolant level to COLD FULL
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high mark on the coolant recovery tank.
idle for one minute in order to purge the air from
the cavities of the engine block. Decrease the
engine speed to low idle. Stop the engine.

4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level. components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure.

2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any


pressure. Remove the filler cap.

3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.


Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Refill Capacities and Recommendations for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Refill Capacities and Recommendations
for the cooling system capacity. Do not fill the
coolant recovery tank above COLD FULL mark.
g00103639
Illustration 33
Filler cap
66 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add

2. Maintain the coolant level within 13 mm (0.5 inch)


of the bottom of the filler pipe. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.

3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the


gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.

g00103639
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Illustration 34

4. Clean filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall the i02335389


filler cap and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Cooling System Supplemental
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats Coolant Additive (SCA) -
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank Test/Add
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.

Engines Without a Coolant


Recovery Tank Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling system
and cool. coolant additive.

Test for SCA Concentration


Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA

NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supple-
mental coolant additive concentration.

Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check


the concentration of the SCA.

g00285520
Illustration 35
Cooling system filler cap

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-


ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure.

1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in


order to relieve pressure.
SEBU8119-01 67
Maintenance Section
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace

Add the SCA, If Necessary i02344038

Crankcase Breather (Canister)


NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of sup- - Replace
plemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive
supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engines heat transfer NOTICE
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temper- or repair is performed.
ature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water 1. Place a container under the canister (2).
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped) 2. Clean the outside of the canister. Use a suitable
at the same time. The use of those additives together tool in order to remove the canister.
could result in supplemental coolant additive concen-
tration exceeding the recommended maximum.

Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-


ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
sure.

1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in


order to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.

Note: Always discard drained fluids according to


local regulations.

2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling Illustration 36


g01159923
system into a suitable container in order to allow
Typical example
space for the extra SCA.
3. Lubricate the O ring seal (1) on the new canister
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
with clean engine lubricating oil. Install the new
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
canister. Tighten the canister to 12 Nm (8 lb ft).
Capacities and Recommendations for more
Do not overtighten the canister.
information on SCA requirements.
4. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
and any split oil in a safe place.
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket
is not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump i02151646
in order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If Driven Equipment - Check
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.

Refer to the OEM specifications for more information


on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:

Inspection
Adjustment
68 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean

Lubrication i02334355

Other maintenance recommendations Engine Air Cleaner Element


Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
(Dual Element) - Clean/Replace
which is recommended by the OEM.

i01909392 NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
Engine - Clean installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent air-
borne debris from entering the air inlet.
Personal injury or death can result from high volt-
age.
NOTICE
Moisture can create paths of electrical conductiv- Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
ity. running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.

Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock


out the starting controls and tag the controls DO Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
NOT OPERATE.
Note: The air filter system may not have been
provided by Perkins. The procedure that follows
NOTICE is for a typical air filter system. Refer to the OEM
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire haz- information for the correct procedure.
ard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and fluid
spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
the engine. can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal
engine wear. Refer to the OEM information for the
NOTICE correct air cleaner elements for your application.
Failure to protect some engine components from
washing may make your engine warranty invalid. Check the precleaner (if equipped) and the dust
Allow the engine to cool for one hour before washing bowl daily for accumulation of dirt and debris.
the engine. Remove any dirt and debris, as needed.

Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended. Operating in dirty conditions may require more
frequent service of the air cleaner element.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits: The air cleaner element should be replaced at least
one time per year. This replacement should be
performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Easy detection of fluid leaks
Replace the dirty air cleaner elements with clean air
Maximum heat transfer characteristics cleaner elements. Before installation, the air cleaner
elements should be thoroughly checked for tears
Ease of maintenance and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
electrical components from being damaged by
for replacement purposes.
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of Dual Element Air Cleaners
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner element.
in order to wash the engine.
SEBU8119-01 69
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) - Clean/Replace

The primary air cleaner element can be used up Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
to six times if the element is properly cleaned and
properly inspected. The primary air cleaner element
Elements
should be replaced at least one time per year. This
Refer to the OEM information in order to determine
replacement should be performed regardless of the
the number of times that the primary filter element can
number of cleanings.
be cleaned. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
Refer to the OEM information for instructions in order
at least one time per year. This replacement should
to replace the secondary air cleaner element.
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
When the engine is operating in environments that
are dusty or dirty, air cleaner elements may require NOTICE
more frequent replacement. Do not tap or strike the air cleaner element.

Do not wash the primary air cleaner element.

Use low pressure (207 kPa; 30 psi maximum) pres-


surised air or vacuum cleaning to clean the primary
air cleaner element.

Take extreme care in order to avoid damage to the air


cleaner elements.

Do not use air cleaner elements that have damaged


pleats, gaskets or seals.

Refer to the OEM information in order to determine


Illustration 37
g00736431 the number of times that the primary air cleaner
element can be cleaned. Do not clean the primary
(1) Cover
(2) Primary air cleaner element
air filter element more than three times. The primary
(3) Secondary air cleaner element air cleaner element must be replaced at least one
(4) Air inlet time per year.

1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air Cleaning the air filter element will not extend the life
cleaner element. of the air filter element.

2. The secondary air cleaner element should be Visually inspect the primary air cleaner element
removed and discarded for every three cleanings before cleaning. Inspect air cleaner elements for
of the primary air cleaner element. damage to the pleats, the seals, the gaskets and
the outer cover. Discard any damaged air cleaner
Note: Refer to Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner element.
Elements.
Two methods may be used in order to clean the
3. Cover the air inlet with tape in order to keep dirt primary air cleaner element:
out.
pressurized air
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth. Vacuum cleaning
5. Remove the tapefrom the air inlet. Install the
secondary air cleaner element. Install a primary
air cleaner element that is new or cleaned.

6. Install the air cleaner cover.

7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.


70 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace

Pressurized Air Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Elements.

Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner


Personal injury can result from air pressure. Elements
Personal injury can result without following prop-
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
tective face shield and protective clothing.

Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less


than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.

Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air


cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than three times. Use filtered, dry air with a maximum
pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi). Pressurized air will not
remove deposits of carbon and oil.

g00281693
Illustration 39

Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.


Use a 60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears
and/or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element
for light that may show through the filter material. If it
is necessary in order to confirm the result, compare
the primary air cleaner element to a new primary air
cleaner element that has the same part number.

g00281692 Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has


Illustration 38
any tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not
use a primary air cleaner element with damaged
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard damaged primary
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) air cleaner elements.
in order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
i02152042
Aim the air hose so that air flows along the length of
the filter. Follow the direction of the paper pleats in Engine Air Cleaner
order to prevent damage to the pleats. Do not aim
the air directly at the face of the paper pleats.
Element (Single Element) -
Inspect/Replace
Note: Refer to Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements.

Vacuum Cleaning Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine


Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect.
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for removing
accumulated dirt from the dirty side (outside) of a NOTICE
primary air cleaner element. Vacuum cleaning is Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
especially useful for cleaning primary air cleaner installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
elements which require daily cleaning because of a cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
dry, dusty environment. damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
Cleaning from the clean side (inside) with pressurized components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent air-
air is recommended prior to vacuum cleaning the borne debris from entering the air inlet.
dirty side (outside) of a primary air cleaner element.
SEBU8119-01 71
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect

Test the Service Indicator


NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine Service indicators are important instruments.
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the Check the movement of the yellow core when
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner. the engine is accelerated to the engine rated
speed. The yellow core should latch at the greatest
i02335405
vacuum that is attained.

Engine Air Cleaner Service If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
Indicator - Inspect the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
Some engines may be equipped with a different The service indicator may need to be replaced
service indicator. frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet i02343354
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and Engine Air Precleaner -
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner Check/Clean
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.

The service indicator may be mounted on the air


cleaner element or in a remote location.

g00287039
Illustration 41
Typical example
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
g00103777
Illustration 40
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
Typical service indicator accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
should be replaced when one of the following wing nut (1).
conditions occur:
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone. applications, more frequent cleaning is required.

The red piston locks in the visible position.


72 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace

i02304789

Engine Crankcase Breather


Element - Replace

g01156334
Illustration 42
The breather assembly
(1) The O-ring for the top cover (3) The O-ring for the filter element (5) The breather body
(2) The top cover (4) The filter element (6) The side cover

1. Remove all dirt and oil from the outside of the


NOTICE breather assembly. Remove the top cover (2) by
Ensure that the components of the breather assembly turning the top cover counterclockwise until the
are installed in the correct position. If installed incor- lugs disengage. The breather element includes
rectly, engine damage can result. an O ring (3). Remove the breather element (4)
by turning and lifting the element. Discard the
element. Clean the inner surfaces of the breather
Note: There are several vent holes under the top body (5). Clean the top cover and inspect the O
cover (2) and under the side cover (6). Keep the area ring (1) in the top cover. If the O ring in the top
around the vent holes clean. Do not restrict the vent cover is worn or damaged, replace the O ring.
holes.
SEBU8119-01 73
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Inspect

2. Lubricate the O ring (3) in the new filter element


(4) with clean engine lubricating oil. Carefully
insert the element into the breather body (5).
Lubricate the O ring (1) in the top cover with clean
engine lubricating oil. Carefully insert the top cover
(2) into the breather body (5). Rotate the top cover
clockwise until the lugs are fully engaged.

i02323089

Engine Mounts - Inspect

Note: The engine mounts may not have been Illustration 43


g01165836
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information
(Y) Min mark. (X) Max mark.
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
NOTICE
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that
the engine is in the normal operating position in order
Incorrect mounting of the engine to obtain a true level indication.
Deterioration of the engine mounts Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for ten minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
Loose engine mounts to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should
1. Maintain the oil level between the ADD mark (Y)
be replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
and the FULL mark (X) on the engine oil dipstick.
recommended torques.
Do not fill the crankcase above the FULL mark
(X).
i02335785

NOTICE
Engine Oil Level - Check Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
FULL mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oils lubricating char-
acteristics and could result in the loss of power.

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to 2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
contact the skin. Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.

i01907674

Engine Oil Sample - Obtain

The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be


checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
74 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order i02295918


to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is Engine Oil and Filter - Change
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.

Obtain the Sample and the Analysis


Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal


injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to NOTICE
contact the skin. Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis, collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
record the following information before an oil sample ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
is taken: nent containing fluids.
The date of the sample Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Engine model
Engine number NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Service hours on the engine
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
The number of hours that have accumulated since component life.
the last oil change
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
The amount of oil that has been added since the engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
last oil change
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and the oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
clearly labelled. stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
To ensure that the sample is representative of the suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample. Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean. Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
The sample can be checked for the following: the Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the enough to collect the waste oil.
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in
the oil, and the existence of any nonferrous metal After the engine has been run at the normal operating
particles in the oil. temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
SEBU8119-01 75
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change

Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous


metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.

Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the


aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings, and
turbocharger bearings.

Due to normal wear and friction, it is not


uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.

g01157128
Illustration 44
Typical example

If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn the


drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to drain
the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise in order to close the drain valve.

If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,


remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the oil
to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow oil
pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from both
ends of the oil pan.
g01157129
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plugs should be Illustration 45
cleaned and installed. If necessary, replace the O Typical example
ring seal. Tighten the drain plug to 34 Nm (25 lb ft).
3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter head (2).
Replace the Oil Filter Ensure that the union is secure in the filter head.

4. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (3) for


NOTICE the new oil filter.
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins speci-
fications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended NOTICE
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the en- Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
gine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminat-
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine ed. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear to
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended engine components.
by Perkins.

5. Install the oil filter. Tighten the oil filter to 12 Nm


1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool. (8.8 lb ft). Do not overtighten the oil filter.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as Note: Some oil filters may be installed horizontally.
part of the preventive maintenance program. Refer to illustration 46. This type of oil filter assembly
can be drained before the filter is removed. The
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break torque for this drain plug (4) is 12 Nm (8 lb ft). If
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal necessary, install a new O ring seal (5). Start at step 1
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in in order to remove the oil filter and install the oil filter.
the oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
76 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust

g01165836
Illustration 47
(Y) Min mark. (X) Max mark.

4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to


check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the MIN and MAX marks on the engine oil level
Illustration 46
g01169166 gauge.
Typical example
i02348484

Fill the Oil Pan Engine Valve Lash -


1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Inspect/Adjust
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fluid
Recommendations for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct
amount of new engine lubricating oil. Refer This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
Refill Capacities for more information on refill schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
capacities. life.

NOTICE NOTICE
If equipped with an auxilliary oil filter system or a re- Only qualified service personel should perform this
mote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manu- maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your au-
factures remonmendations. Under filling or over filling thorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage. the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.

Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve lash


2. Start the engine and run the engine at LOW can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
IDLE for two minutes. Perform this procedure in component life.
order to ensure that the lubrication system has
oil and that the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil
filter for oil leaks.

3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to Ensure that the engine can not be started while
the oil pan for a minimum of ten minutes. this maintenance is being performed. To help pre-
vent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.

Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow


additional time for the engine to cool before mea-
suring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
SEBU8119-01 77
Maintenance Section
Fuel System - Prime

Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring Hand Fuel Priming Pump
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the temperature of the Use the following procedures in order to remove air
engine is hot or cold. from the fuel system:

Refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, 1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust for more Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
information. the ON position.

i02304660

Fuel System - Prime

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid


penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
structions may cause personal injury or death.

Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual ,


General Hazard Information and High Pressure Fuel
Lines before adjustments and repairs are performed.

Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual


, Cleanliness of Fuel System Components g01154164
Illustration 48
for detailed information on the standards of typical example
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system. 2. Operate the fuel priming pump (1). Count the
number of operations of the fuel priming pump.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are performed After 100 depressions of the fuel priming pump
by authorized personnel that have had the correct stop.
training.
3. The engine fuel system should now be primed and
NOTICE the engine should now be able to start.
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two 4. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
minutes before cranking the engine again. After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of five minutes, immediately
after air has been removed from the fuel system.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the help ensure that the fuel system is free of air.
following events occur:
Note: Do not loosen the high pressure fuel line
The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been in order to purge air from the fuel system. This
partially drained. procedure is not required.
The low pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
A leak exists in the low pressure fuel system.
The fuel filter has been replaced.
78 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Filter - Replace

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
any service or repair is performed on the engine Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information.
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
i02527034
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, Fuel
Fuel System Filter - Replace
Injection Lines - Install.

If you inspect the engine in operation, always use


the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information. Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-
trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
Electric Fuel Priming Pump changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the ON position. Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual
, Cleanliness of Fuel System Components
for detailed information on the standards of
NOTICE
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
The electric fuel priming pump will operate for 90 sec-
work on the fuel system.
onds. If necessary the electric fuel priming pump can
be stopped during the 90 seconds of operation, by op-
eration of the switch. NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Operate
the switch for the electric priming pump. After
90 seconds of the electric fuel priming pump After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
operation the fuel system will be primed and the 60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
electric fuel priming pump will turn off. be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
3. The engine should now be able to start. fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
4. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine. and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
low idle for a minimum of five minutes, immediately Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, Fuel
after air has been removed from the fuel system. Injection Lines - Install.

Note: Operating the engine for this period of time will 1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
help ensure that the fuel system is free of air. the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filter in order to catch any fuel that might
Note: Do not loosen the high pressure fuel line spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
in order to purge air from the fuel system. This
procedure is not required.

After the engine has stopped, you must wait for


60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, Fuel
Injection Lines - Install.
SEBU8119-01 79
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain

NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing
or repair is performed.

NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during nor-
mal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.

1. Place a suitable container under the water


separator in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.

g01153855
Illustration 49
Typical example

2. Clean the outside of the fuel filter. Use a suitable


tool in order to remove the canister (1) from the
engine and dispose of the canister in a safe place.

3. Ensure that dirt can not enter the new canister. Do


not fill the canister with fuel before the canister is
installed. Do not lubricate the O ring seal on the
new canister.

4. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool in order


to install the canister. Tighten the canister by hand.

5. Remove the container and dispose of the fuel in a g01153817


safe place. If equipped, open the fuel supply valve. Illustration 50
Typical example
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Fuel System - Prime for 2. Install a suitable tube onto the drain (1). Open the
more information. drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.

3. Tighten the drain (1) by hand pressure only.


i02334301 Remove the tube and dispose of the drained fluid
in a safe place.
Fuel System Primary
Filter/Water Separator - Drain

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-


trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
80 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace

i02527045

Fuel System Primary Filter


(Water Separator) Element -
Replace

Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or elec-


trical components can cause a fire. To help pre-
vent possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.

Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual


, Cleanliness of Fuel System Components
for detailed information on the standards of
g01153445
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL Illustration 51
work on the fuel system. Typical example

NOTICE 3. Install a suitable tube onto the drain (1). Open the
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing drain (1). Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
or repair is performed. Remove the tube.

4. Tighten the drain (1) by hand pressure only.


After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to 5. If equipped, remove the wiring harness from the
be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before sensor on the bottom of the glass bowl.
any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments. 6. Hold the glass bowl (3) and remove the screw (2).
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system Remove the glass bowl (3) from the canister (4).
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked. 7. Use a suitable tool in order to remove the canister
Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, Fuel (4). Discard the old seals (5 and 6) and the
Injection Lines - Install. canister in a safe place.

1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF 8. Clean the glass bowl (3).
position before performing this maintenance.

2. Place a suitable container under the water


separator in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside
of the water separator.
SEBU8119-01 81
Maintenance Section
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain

i02335436

Fuel Tank Water and Sediment


- Drain

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting, and repair of the product. Be prepared
to collect the fluid with suitable containers before
opening any compartment or disassembling any com-
ponent containing fluids.

Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and


mandates.

Fuel Tank
g01153488
Illustration 52 Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
Typical example service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
9. Do not lubricate the O ring seal on the new
canister. Install the new canister. Do not use a tool Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
in order to install the canister. Tighten the canister fuel tank is being filled.
by hand.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
10. Install the new O ring seal (5) onto the setscrew of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
(2). Install the new O ring seal (6) into the glass through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
bowl. fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
11. Align the glass bowl to the canister. Ensure that fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
the sensor (if equipped) is in the correct position. in the fuel.
Install the setscrew (2). Tighten the setscrew to a
torque of 5 Nm (44 lb in). Drain the Water and the Sediment
12. If equipped, install the wiring harness to the Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
sensor. water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
13. Remove the container and dispose of the fluid in
a safe place. Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank
in order to drain the water and the sediment. Close
14. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same the drain valve.
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual , Fuel System Filter - Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the
Replace. fuel tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.

Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in


order to drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The
fuel expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
82 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace

Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel loose clamps.
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If Check for the following conditions:
the engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important. End fittings that are damaged or leaking

Fuel Storage Tanks Outer covering that is chafed or cut

Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
storage tank at the following intervals:
Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Weekly
Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Service intervals
Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
Refill of the tank A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
This will help prevent water or sediment from being of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
clamp.
tank.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
clamps.
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
Each installation application can be different. The
When possible, water separators should be used.
differences depend on the following factors:

i02349879 Type of hose


Hoses and Clamps - Type of fitting material
Inspect/Replace
Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings

Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol- Refer to the OEM information for further information
low these inspection, maintenance and service in- on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
structions may cause personal injury or death.
The coolant system and the hoses for the coolant
system are not usually supplied by Perkins. The
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use following text describes a typical method of replacing
the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM information for
a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and further information on the coolant system and the
Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information. hoses for the coolant system.

Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the


following conditions:
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
Cracking ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
Softness components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
Loose clamps sure.
SEBU8119-01 83
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean

1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.

2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in


Personal injury can result from air pressure.
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Personal injury can result without following prop-
er procedure. When using pressure air, wear a pro-
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
tective face shield and protective clothing.
container. The coolant can be reused.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.

4. Remove the hose clamps. Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction
5. Disconnect the old hose. to the fans air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose. move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench. that is between the tubes.

Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
Maintenance Manual, Fluid Recommendations. The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
information for further information on refilling the both sides.
cooling system.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
cooling system filler caps seals. Replace the with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged. core with clean water.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
leaks. system.

After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow


i02335774
the engine to operate at low idle speed for three to
Radiator - Clean five minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This
will help in the removal of debris and the drying of
the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle
and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator. Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a comb. Inspect these items for good condition:
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
the effects of the operating environment. clamps, and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.

Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins, i02335775


corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil, and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary. Severe Service Application -
Check

Severe service is the application of an engine that


exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
84 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Starting Motor - Inspect

Performance such as power range, speed range, Altitude Problems can arise when the engine is
and fuel consumption operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
Fuel quality should be made.

Operational Altitude Incorrect Operating Procedures


Maintenance intervals Extended operation at low idle
Oil selection and maintenance Frequent hot shutdowns
Coolant type and maintenance Operating at excessive loads
Environmental qualities Operating at excessive speeds
Installation Operating outside the intended application
The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to Extending the maintenance intervals
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters. Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants and
coolant/antifreeze
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
i02177969
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Starting Motor - Inspect
Due to individual applications, it is not possible
to identify all of the factors which can contribute Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
to severe service operation. Consult your Perkins starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique may not start in an emergency situation.
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
The operating environment, incorrect operating the electrical connections and clean the electrical
procedures and incorrect maintenance procedures connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
can be factors which contribute to a severe service and Adjusting Manual, Electric Starting System -
application. Test for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
Environmental Factors or your Perkins distributor for assistance.

Ambient temperatures The engine may be


i02326098
exposed to extended operation in extremely
cold environments or hot environments. Valve Turbocharger - Inspect
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance. A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. On some engines, the fumes from
Quality of the air The engine may be exposed the crankcase are returned to the air inlet system.
to extended operation in an environment that is Therefore, by-products from oil and from combustion
dirty or dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned can collect in the turbocharger compressor housing.
regularly. Mud, dirt and dust can encase components. Over time, this buildup can contribute to loss of
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can engine power, increased black smoke and overall
contain corrosive chemicals. loss of engine efficiency.
Buildup Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals and salt can damage some components.
SEBU8119-01 85
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection

If the turbocharger fails during engine operation, 2. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder The presence of oil may be the result of extended
head. engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line
NOTICE for the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quanti- the turbocharger to slobber.
ties of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine 3. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine
damage. outlet for corrosion.

Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extend- 4. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
ed low idle operation should not cause problems as pipe to the turbocharger housing.
long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not oc-
cured. i02323090

When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied Walk-Around Inspection


by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize for Loose Connections
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential A walk-around inspection should only take a few
damage to other engine parts. minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
Removal and Installation
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
Note: The turbochargers that are supplied are inspection of the engine compartment before starting
nonserviceable. the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
For options regarding the removal, installation, and trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
replacement, consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor. Refer to the Disassembly and The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
Assembly Manual, Turbocharger - Remove and damaged guards or replace missing guards.
Turbocharger - Install for further information.
Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
Inspecting contamination.

NOTICE NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
not be removed from the turbocharger for cleaning. fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
The actuator linkage is connected to the compressor more often than recommended until the leak is found
housing. If the actuator linkage is moved or disturbed or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
the engine may not comply with emmissions legisla- unwarranted.
tion.

NOTICE
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Re-
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
fer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, En-
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes
gine - Clean for more information.
in order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
86 SEBU8119-01
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect

Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly After the engine has stopped, you must wait for
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are 60 seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all be purged from the high pressure fuel lines before
pipes. any service or repair is performed on the engine
fuel lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks. Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication or air systems.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the Replace any high pressure fuel line that has leaked.
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small Refer to Disassembly and assembly Manual, Fuel
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down Injection Lines - Install.
and the parts contract.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to the proper inspection procedure in order to avoid
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump. a fluid penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly , Water Pump - Maintenance Manual, General hazard Information.
Remove and Install. For more information, consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor. Visually inspect the high pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front damaged high pressure fuel lines or high pressure
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil fuel lines that have leaked.
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
Ensure that all clips on the high pressure fuel lines
Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the are in place and that the clips are not loose.
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc. for loose fuel line clamps.

Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
clear. tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage. Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
Inspect the wiring harness for damage. wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing
tie-wraps.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will Inspect the ground strap for a good connection and
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced. for good condition.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break. Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte level
High Pressure Fuel Lines of the batteries, unless the engine is equipped with
a maintenance free battery.

Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any


Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu- can not be calibrated.
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
i02499304
structions may cause personal injury or death.
Water Pump - Inspect

A failed water pump may cause severe engine


overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:

Cracks in the cylinder head


SEBU8119-01 87
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect

A piston seizure
Other potential damage to the engine

g01249453
Illustration 53
(1) Weep hole

Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the


coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.

Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. The water


pump is not a serviceable item. In order to install
a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly Manual, Water Pump - Remove and
Install.
88 SEBU8119-01
Warranty Section
Warranty Information

Warranty Section

Warranty Information
i01903596

Emissions Warranty
Information

This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust


emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
SEBU8119-01 89
Index Section

Index
A E

After Starting Engine ............................................. 38 Electrical System ................................................... 14


After Stopping Engine............................................ 40 Grounding Practices .......................................... 14
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test ................................ 59 Emergency Stopping ............................................. 40
Aftercooler Core - Inspect...................................... 59 Emissions Certification Film .................................. 21
Alternator - Inspect ................................................ 60 Label for compliant engines ............................... 21
Alternator and Fan Belts - Inspect ......................... 60 Label for engines that do not comply with
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace ....................... 60 emissions ......................................................... 22
Emissions Warranty Information............................ 88
Engine - Clean....................................................... 68
B Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element) -
Clean/Replace ..................................................... 68
Battery - Replace................................................... 60 Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements ...... 69
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 61 Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 68
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ................... 61 Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) -
Before Starting Engine .................................... 13, 36 Inspect/Replace ................................................... 70
Burn Prevention....................................................... 8 Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 71
Batteries............................................................... 8 Test the Service Indicator................................... 71
Coolant................................................................. 8 Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.................... 71
Oils....................................................................... 8 Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace.... 72
Engine Description ................................................ 18
Electronic Engine Features................................ 19
C Engine Cooling and Lubrication ......................... 19
Engine Diagnostics ............................................ 19
Cold Weather Operation........................................ 42 Engine Specifications......................................... 18
Hints for Cold Weather Operation...................... 42 Engine Diagnostics................................................ 32
Idling the Engine ................................................ 43 Engine Electronics................................................. 15
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .......... 43 Engine Lifting......................................................... 23
Recommendations for the Coolant .................... 42 Engine Mounts - Inspect........................................ 73
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil............... 42 Engine Oil and Filter - Change .............................. 74
Cold Weather Starting ........................................... 36 Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil ........................ 74
Cooling System Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Fill the Oil Pan.................................................... 76
Change ................................................................ 62 Replace the Oil Filter ......................................... 75
Drain .................................................................. 62 Engine Oil Level - Check ....................................... 73
Fill ...................................................................... 63 Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................... 73
Flush .................................................................. 63 Obtain the Sample and the Analysis.................. 74
Cooling System Coolant (ELC) - Change.............. 63 Engine Operation................................................... 39
Drain .................................................................. 64 Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic Codes ... 34
Fill ...................................................................... 65 Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic
Flush .................................................................. 64 Codes .................................................................. 35
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 65 Engine Starting ................................................ 13, 36
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank............. 65 Engine Stopping .............................................. 14, 40
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank........ 66 Engine Storage...................................................... 23
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ....................... 76
(SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 66
Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 67
Test for SCA Concentration ............................... 66 F
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace ............. 67
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ......... 11 Fault Logging......................................................... 34
Features and Controls ........................................... 26
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .............. 9
D Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 10
Lines, Tubes and Hoses .................................... 10
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ........................... 32
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 32
Diagnostic Lamp.................................................... 34
Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 67
90 SEBU8119-01
Index Section

Fluid Recommendations........................................ 46 M
Cooling System Specifications........................... 53
ELC Cooling System Maintenance .................... 55 Maintenance Interval Schedule ............................. 58
Engine Oil .......................................................... 47 Maintenance Section ............................................. 46
Fuel Specifications............................................. 50 Model View Illustrations......................................... 17
General Lubricant Information ........................... 46 Model Views .......................................................... 17
Foreword ................................................................. 4 Monitoring System........................................... 2627
California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4 Programmable Options and Systems
Literature Information........................................... 4 Operation ......................................................... 26
Maintenance ........................................................ 4 Mounting and Dismounting..................................... 11
Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Operation ............................................................. 4
Overhaul .............................................................. 4 O
Safety................................................................... 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ................. 44 Operation Section.................................................. 23
Fuel Conservation Practices.................................. 39 Overspeed ............................................................. 31
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .......... 45
Fuel Filters ......................................................... 45
Fuel Heaters ...................................................... 45 P
Fuel Tanks.......................................................... 45
Fuel System - Prime .............................................. 77 Plate Locations and Film Locations....................... 20
Electric Fuel Priming Pump................................ 78 Serial Number Plate (1) ..................................... 20
Hand Fuel Priming Pump................................... 77 Product Identification Information .......................... 20
Fuel System Filter - Replace ................................. 78 Product Information Section .................................. 16
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace ............................................... 80
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - R
Drain .................................................................... 79
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ................. 81 Radiator - Clean .................................................... 83
Drain the Water and the Sediment..................... 81 Reference Numbers .............................................. 20
Fuel Storage Tanks ............................................ 82 Record for Reference......................................... 20
Fuel Tank ........................................................... 81 Refill Capacities..................................................... 46
Cooling System.................................................. 46
Lubrication System ............................................ 46
G

Gauges and Indicators .......................................... 25 S


General Hazard Information .................................... 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ..................................... 8 Safety Messages ..................................................... 5
Fluid Penetration.................................................. 7 (1) Universal Warning .......................................... 5
Pressure Air and Water........................................ 7 (2) Ether ............................................................... 6
General Information............................................... 16 (3) Hand (High Pressure)..................................... 6
Safety Section ......................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics..................................................... 32
H Sensors and Electrical Components ..................... 27
Coolant Temperature Sensor 1 .......................... 30
High Pressure Fuel Lines ....................................... 11 Crankshaft Position Sensor 7 ............................ 30
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ................... 82 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor 6............................ 30
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .................. 82 Failure of Sensors.............................................. 29
Fuel Pressure Sensor 4 ..................................... 30
Inlet Air Pressure Sensor 3 ................................ 30
I Inlet Air Temperature Sensor 2 .......................... 30
Programmable Monitoring System (PMS) ......... 29
Important Safety Information ................................... 2 Secondary Position Sensor 8............................. 30
Sensor Locations ............................................... 27
Severe Service Application - Check ...................... 83
L Environmental Factors ....................................... 84
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures .................... 84
Lifting and Storage ................................................ 23 Incorrect Operating Procedures......................... 84
Starting Motor - Inspect ......................................... 84
SEBU8119-01 91
Index Section

Starting the Engine ................................................ 36


Starting the Engine ............................................ 36
Starting with Jump Start Cables ............................ 37
Stopping the Engine .............................................. 40

Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .......................................... 84
Inspecting........................................................... 85
Removal and Installation.................................... 85

Walk-Around Inspection ........................................ 85


High Pressure Fuel Lines................................... 86
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ..................................................... 85
Warranty Information ............................................. 88
Warranty Section ................................................... 88
Water Pump - Inspect............................................ 86
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls ........ 16
92 SEBU8119-01
Index Section
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section Product Identification Information in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.

Delivery Date:

Product Information
Model:

Product Identification Number:

Engine Serial Number:

Transmission Serial Number:

Generator Serial Number:

Attachment Serial Numbers:

Attachment Information:

Customer Equipment Number:

Dealer Equipment Number:

Dealer Information
Name: Branch:

Address:

Dealer Contact Phone Number Hours

Sales:

Parts:

Service:
Copyright 2006 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved Printed in U.K.
SENR9982-01
May 2006

Troubleshooting
1104D and 1106D Industrial Engines
NH (Engine)
NJ (Engine)
PJ (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-
ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SENR9982-01 3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Intermittent Engine Shutdown ...............................


Intermittent Low Power or Power Cutout ..............
71
72
Low Engine Oil Pressure ...................................... 73
Low Power/Poor or No Response to Throttle ....... 74
Troubleshooting Section Mechanical Noise (Knock) in Engine .................... 76
Noise Coming from Cylinder ................................. 77
Electronic Troubleshooting
System Overview .................................................... 5
Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code
Glossary .................................................................. 8
Diagnostic Code Cross Reference ....................... 78
Electronic Service Tools ........................................ 12
No Diagnostic Codes Detected ............................. 80
Indicator Lamps .................................................... 14
CID 0001 FMI 02 .................................................. 80
Replacing the ECM ............................................... 17
CID 0001 FMI 05 .................................................. 81
Self-Diagnostics .................................................... 18
CID 0001 FMI 06 .................................................. 81
Sensors and Electrical Connectors ....................... 18
CID 0001 FMI 07 .................................................. 82
Engine Wiring Information .................................... 25
CID 0002 FMI 02 .................................................. 82
ECM Harness Connector Terminals ..................... 29
CID 0002 FMI 05 .................................................. 83
CID 0002 FMI 06 .................................................. 83
Programming Parameters
CID 0002 FMI 07 .................................................. 84
Programming Parameters ..................................... 31
CID 0003 FMI 02 .................................................. 84
Test ECM Mode .................................................... 31
CID 0003 FMI 05 .................................................. 84
ECM Snapshot ...................................................... 31
CID 0003 FMI 06 .................................................. 85
Factory Passwords ............................................... 32
CID 0003 FMI 07 .................................................. 85
Factory Passwords Worksheet ............................. 33
CID 0004 FMI 02 .................................................. 86
Flash Programming .............................................. 33
CID 0004 FMI 05 .................................................. 86
Injector Trim File ................................................... 34
CID 0004 FMI 06 .................................................. 87
Mode Switch Setup ............................................... 35
CID 0004 FMI 07 .................................................. 87
Throttle Setup ....................................................... 36
CID 0005 FMI 02 .................................................. 87
Multiposition Switch Setup .................................... 39
CID 0005 FMI 05 .................................................. 88
CID 0005 FMI 06 .................................................. 88
Customer Specified Parameters
CID 0005 FMI 07 .................................................. 89
Customer Specified Parameters ........................... 41
CID 0006 FMI 02 .................................................. 89
Customer Specified Parameters Table ................. 44
CID 0006 FMI 05 .................................................. 90
Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet ......... 45
CID 0006 FMI 06 .................................................. 90
CID 0006 FMI 07 .................................................. 91
System Configuration Parameters
CID 0041 FMI 03 .................................................. 91
System Configuration Parameters ........................ 46
CID 0041 FMI 04 .................................................. 92
CID 0091 FMI 02 .................................................. 92
Troubleshooting without a Diagnostic Code
CID 0091 FMI 03 .................................................. 93
Alternator Noise .................................................... 47
CID 0091 FMI 04 .................................................. 93
Alternator Will Not Charge .................................... 47
CID 0091 FMI 08 .................................................. 94
Battery .................................................................. 48
CID 0100 FMI 03 .................................................. 94
Can Not Reach Top Engine RPM ......................... 48
CID 0100 FMI 04 .................................................. 95
Coolant in Engine Oil ............................................ 50
CID 0100 FMI 10 .................................................. 95
Coolant Temperature Is Too High ......................... 51
CID 0110 FMI 03 ................................................... 96
ECM Will Not Accept Factory Passwords ............. 52
CID 0110 FMI 04 ................................................... 96
ECM Will Not Communicate with Other Systems or
CID 0168 FMI 00 .................................................. 96
Display Modules .................................................. 52
CID 0168 FMI 01 .................................................. 97
Electronic Service Tool Will Not Communicate with
CID 0168 FMI 02 .................................................. 97
ECM .................................................................... 52
CID 0172 FMI 03 .................................................. 98
Engine Cranks but Will Not Start .......................... 53
CID 0172 FMI 04 .................................................. 98
Engine Has Early Wear ........................................ 56
CID 0190 FMI 08 .................................................. 99
Engine Misfires, Runs Rough or Is Unstable ........ 56
CID 0247 FMI 09 .................................................. 99
Engine Oil in Cooling System ............................... 58
CID 0247 FMI 12 .................................................. 99
Engine Speed Does Not Change .......................... 59
CID 0253 FMI 02 ................................................ 100
Engine Stalls at Low RPM .................................... 60
CID 0261 FMI 11 ................................................. 100
Engine Vibration ................................................... 61
CID 0262 FMI 03 ................................................ 100
Engine Will Not Crank ........................................... 62
CID 0262 FMI 04 ................................................ 101
Excessive Black Smoke ........................................ 63
CID 0268 FMI 02 ................................................ 101
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption ...................... 65
CID 0342 FMI 08 ................................................ 101
Excessive Fuel Consumption ............................... 66
CID 0526 FMI 05 ................................................ 102
Excessive Valve Lash ........................................... 68
CID 0526 FMI 06 ................................................ 102
Excessive White Smoke ....................................... 68
CID 0526 FMI 07 ................................................ 102
Intake Air Temperature Is Too High ...................... 69
CID 0774 FMI 02 ................................................ 103
4 SENR9982-01
Table of Contents

CID 0774 FMI 03 ................................................ 103


CID 0774 FMI 04 ................................................ 104
CID 0774 FMI 08 ................................................ 105
CID 1639 FMI 09 ................................................ 105
CID 1743 FMI 02 ................................................ 105
CID 1779 FMI 05 ................................................ 106
CID 1779 FMI 06 ................................................ 106
CID 1785 FMI 03 ................................................ 106
CID 1785 FMI 04 ................................................ 107
CID 1785 FMI 10 ................................................ 107
CID 1797 FMI 03 ................................................ 108
CID 1797 FMI 04 ................................................ 108
CID 1834 FMI 02 ................................................ 108
CID 2246 FMI 06 ................................................ 109

Troubleshooting with an Event Code


Event Codes ....................................................... 110
E172 High Air Filter Restriction ............................ 110
E194 High Exhaust Temperature ......................... 110
E232 High Fuel/Water Separator Water Level ..... 111
E360 Low Engine Oil Pressure ............................ 111
E361 High Engine Coolant Temperature ............. 113
E362 Engine Overspeed ...................................... 114
E396 High Fuel Rail Pressure ............................. 115
E398 Low Fuel Rail Pressure .............................. 115
E539 High Intake Manifold Air Temperature ........ 116
E2143 Low Engine Coolant Level ........................ 117

Diagnostic Functional Tests


5 Volt Sensor Supply Circuit - Test ...................... 118
Analog Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test .... 125
CAN Data Link Circuit - Test ............................... 130
Data Link Circuit - Test ........................................ 133
Digital Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test ..... 139
ECM Memory - Test ............................................ 146
Electrical Connectors - Inspect ........................... 147
Engine Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit -
Test ................................................................... 151
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test ........ 158
Engine Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit -
Test ................................................................... 166
Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid - Test .......................... 171
Idle Validation Switch Circuit - Test ..................... 176
Ignition Keyswitch Circuit and Battery Supply Circuit -
Test ................................................................... 181
Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test ............................... 187
Injector Data Incorrect - Test ............................... 190
Injector Solenoid Circuit - Test ............................ 192
Mode Selection Circuit - Test .............................. 202
PTO Switch Circuit - Test .................................... 206
Starting Aid (Glow Plug) Relay Circuit - Test ...... 210
Throttle Switch Circuit - Test ............................... 213
Wastegate Solenoid - Test .................................. 217

Index Section
Index ................................................................... 223
SENR9982-01 5
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting Section

Electronic Troubleshooting
i02488451

System Overview

System Operation

g01236714
Illustration 1
1104D engine
(1) Electronic Unit Injector (6) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (11) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump (7) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (12) Diagnostic Connector (if equipped)
(3) Wastegate Regulator (if equipped) (8) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (13) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(4) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (9) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
(5) Fuel Rail Pump (10) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
6 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

g01178531
Illustration 2
1106D engine
(1) Electronic Unit Injector (6) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (11) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump (7) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (12) Diagnostic Connector (if equipped)
(3) Wastegate Regulator (if equipped) (8) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (13) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(4) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (9) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
(5) Fuel Rail Pump (10) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
SENR9982-01 7
Troubleshooting Section

The engine is designed for electronic control. The Speed/timing sensors


engine has an Electronic Control Module (ECM),
a fuel rail pump and electronic unit injectors. All of Throttle position sensor
these items are electronically controlled. There are
also a number of engine sensors. Turbocharged At engine start-up, the ECM determines the top
engines can be equipped with an electronically center position of the number 1 cylinder from the
controlled wastegate for the turbocharger. The ECM speed/timing sensors. The ECM determines when
controls the engine operating parameters through fuel injection should occur relative to the top center
the software within the ECM and the inputs from the position. The ECM optimizes engine performance
various sensors. The software contains parameters by control of each of the electronic unit injectors so
that control the engine operation. The parameters that the required amount of fuel is injected at the
include all of the operating maps and customer precise point of the engines cycle. The electronic unit
selected parameters. injectors are supplied with high pressure fuel from
the fuel rail. The ECM also provides the signal to the
The electronic system consists of the ECM, the solenoid in the fuel rail pump. The solenoid in the fuel
engine sensors and inputs from the parent machine. rail pump controls a valve in the fuel rail pump. This
The ECM is the computer. The flash file is the valve controls the pressure in the fuel rail. Fuel that is
software for the computer. The flash file defines the not required for the engine is diverted away from the
following characteristics of the engine: fuel rail pump back to the fuel tank.

Engine power The ECM adjusts injection timing and fuel pressure
for the best engine performance, the best fuel
Torque curves economy and the best control of exhaust emissions.

Engine speed (rpm) Fuel Injection


Engine Noise The flash file inside the ECM sets certain limits on
the amount of fuel that can be injected.
Smoke and Emissions
The Fuel Ratio Control Limit is a limit that is based
The ECM determines the injection timing, the amount on intake manifold pressure and engine rpm. The
of fuel that is delivered to the cylinders and the intake FRC Limit is used to control the air/fuel ratio in order
manifold pressure if an electronically controlled to control the engines exhaust emissions. When
wastegate is installed on the turbocharger. These the ECM senses a higher intake manifold pressure,
decisions are based on the actual conditions and the the ECM increases the FRC Limit. A higher intake
desired conditions at any given time. manifold pressure indicates that there is more air in
the cylinder. When the ECM increases the FRC Limit,
Engine Speed Governor the ECM allows more fuel into the cylinder.

The governor has software that compares the desired The Rated Fuel Limit is a limit that is based on the
engine speed to the actual engine speed. The actual power rating of the engine and on the engine rpm.
engine speed is determined through the primary The Rated Fuel Limit enables the engine power and
speed/timing sensor and the secondary speed/timing torque outputs to conform to the power and torque
sensor. If the desired engine speed is greater than curves of a specific engine model.
the actual engine speed, the governor injects more
fuel in order to increase engine speed. If the actual These limits are in the flash file and these limits
engine speed is greater than the desired engine cannot be changed by the operator.
speed, the governor limits the amount of fuel that is
supplied to the electronic unit injectors in order to
reduce engine speed.
Diagnostic Codes
When the ECM detects an electronic system fault,
Timing Considerations the ECM generates a diagnostic code. Also, the ECM
logs the diagnostic code in order to indicate the time
Fuel injection timing is determined by the ECM after of the occurrence of the fault. The ECM also logs the
considering input from the following components: number of occurrences of the fault. Diagnostic codes
are provided in order to indicate that the ECM has
Engine coolant temperature sensor detected an electrical fault or an electronic fault with
the engine control system. In some cases, the engine
The sensor for the intake manifold air temperature performance can be affected when the condition that
is causing the code exists.
The sensor for the intake manifold pressure
8 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

If the operator indicates that a performance problem Adaptive Trim This is a software process that is
occurs, the diagnostic code may indicate the cause of performed in the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
the fault. Use the electronic service tool to access the that optimizes engine performance.
diagnostic codes. The fault should then be corrected.
Alternating Current (AC) Alternating current is an
Event Codes electric current that reverses direction at a regular
interval that is reoccurring.
Event Codes are used to indicate that the ECM has
detected an abnormal engine operating condition. Before Top Center (BTC) BTC is the 180 degrees
The ECM will log the occurrence of the event code. of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches the
This does not indicate an electrical malfunction top dead center position in the normal direction of
or an electronic malfunction. For example, if the rotation.
temperature of the coolant in the engine is higher
than the permitted limit, then the ECM will detect the Breakout Harness A breakout harness is a
condition. The ECM will then log an event code for test harness that is designed to connect into the
the condition. engine harness. This connection allows a normal
circuit operation and the connection simultaneously
provides a Breakout T in order to measure the
Programmable Parameters signals.
Certain parameters that affect the engine operation Bypass Circuit A bypass circuit is a circuit that is
may be changed with electronic service tools. The used as a substitute circuit for an existing circuit. A
parameters are stored in the ECM and some of the bypass circuit is typically used as a test circuit.
parameters are protected from unauthorized changes
by passwords. These parameters are System CAN Data Link (see also J1939 CAN Data Link)
Configuration Parameters. The CAN Data Link is a serial communications
port that is used for communication with other
System Configuration Parameters are set at the microprocessor based devices.
factory. System Configuration Parameters affect the
emissions or the power ratings within the engine. Code Refer to Diagnostic Code or Event Code.
Factory passwords must be obtained and used in
order to changesome of the System Configuration Communication Adapter Tool The
Parameters. Examples of these parameters are FLS communication adapter provides a communication
and FTS. link between the ECM and the electronic service tool.

Passwords Component Identifier (CID) The CID is a number


that identifies the specific component of the electronic
System Configuration Parameters are protected by control system that has experienced a diagnostic
factory passwords. Factory passwords are calculated code.
on a computer system that is available only to
Perkins distributors. Since factory passwords contain Coolant Temperature Sensor The coolant
alphabetic characters, only an electronic service temperature sensor detects the engine coolant
tool may change System Configuration Parameters. temperature for all normal operating conditions and
System Configuration Parameters affect the power for engine monitoring.
rating or the emissions.
Data Link The Data Link is a serial communication
Refer to Troubleshooting, Programming Parameters port that is used for communication with other devices
and Troubleshooting, Factory Passwords. such as the electronic service tool.

Derate Certain engine conditions will generate


i02517212 event codes. Also, engine derates may be applied.
The map for the engine derate is programmed into
Glossary the ECM software. The derate can be one or more of
3 types: reduction of rated power, reduction of rated
engine speed, and reduction of rated machine speed
for OEM products.
Active Diagnostic Code An active diagnostic
code alerts the operator or the service technician that
an electronic system malfunction is currently present.
Refer to the term Diagnostic Code in this glossary.
SENR9982-01 9
Troubleshooting Section

Desired Engine Speed The desired engine speed Engine Oil Pressure Sensor The engine oil
is input to the electronic governor within the ECM. pressure sensor measures engine oil pressure. The
The electronic governor uses the signal from the sensor sends a signal to the ECM that is dependent
throttle position sensor, the engine speed/timing on the engine oil pressure.
sensor, and other sensors in order to determine the
desired engine speed. Engine Speed/Timing Sensor An engine
speed/timing sensor is a hall effect switch that
Diagnostic Code A diagnostic code is sometimes provides a digital signal to the ECM. The ECM
referred to as a fault code. These codes indicate an interprets this signal as the crankshaft position and
electronic system malfunction. the engine speed. Two sensors are used to provide
the speed and timing signals to the ECM. The primary
Diagnostic Lamp A diagnostic lamp is sometimes sensor is associated with the crankshaft and the
called the check engine light. The diagnostic lamp secondary sensor is associated with the camshaft.
is used to warn the operator of the presence of
an active diagnostic code. The lamp may not be Event Code An event code may be activated
included in all applications. in order to indicate an abnormal engine operating
condition. These codes usually indicate a mechanical
Digital Sensor Return The common line (ground) problem instead of an electrical system problem.
from the ECM is used as ground for the digital
sensors. Failure Mode Identifier (FMI) This identifier
indicates the type of failure that is associated with
Digital Sensors Digital sensors produce a pulse the component. The FMI has been adopted from the
width modulated signal. Digital sensors are supplied SAE practice of J1587 diagnostics. The FMI follows
with power from the ECM. the parameter identifier (PID) in the descriptions of
the fault code. The descriptions of the FMIs are in
Digital Sensor Supply The power supply for the the following list.
digital sensors is provided by the ECM.
0 The data is valid but the data is above the normal
Direct Current (DC) Direct current is the type of operational range.
current that flows consistently in only one direction.
1 The data is valid but the data is below the normal
DT, DT Connector, or Deutsch DT This is a type operational range.
of connector that is used on Perkins engines. The
connectors are manufactured by Deutsch. 2 The data is erratic, intermittent, or incorrect.

Duty Cycle Refer to Pulse Width Modulation. 3 The voltage is above normal or the voltage is
shorted high.
Electronic Engine Control The electronic
engine control is a complete electronic system. 4 The voltage is below normal or the voltage is
The electronic engine control monitors the engine shorted low.
operation under all conditions. The electronic engine
control also controls the engine operation under all 5 The current is below normal or the circuit is open.
conditions.
6 The current is above normal or the circuit is
Electronic Control Module (ECM) The ECM grounded.
is the control computer of the engine. The ECM
provides power to the electronics. The ECM monitors 7 The mechanical system is not responding
data that is input from the sensors of the engine. The properly.
ECM acts as a governor in order to control the speed
and the power of the engine. 8 There is an abnormal frequency, an abnormal
pulse width, or an abnormal time period.
Electronic Service Tool The electronic service
tool allows a computer (PC) to communicate with the 9 There has been an abnormal update.
ECM.
10 There is an abnormal rate of change.
Engine Monitoring Engine Monitoring is the part
of the electronic engine control that monitors the 11 The failure mode is not identifiable.
sensors. This also warns the operator of detected
problems. 12 The device or the component is damaged.
10 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Flash File This file is software that is inside Full Torque Setting (FTS) The FTS is the
the ECM. The file contains all the instructions parameter that represents the adjustment for the
(software) for the ECM and the file contains the engine torque. This adjustment is made at the factory
performance maps for a specific engine. The file may in order to fine tune the fuel system. This adjustment
be reprogrammed through flash programming. is made in conjunction with the FLS. This parameter
must be programmed.
Flash Programming Flash programming is the
method of programming or updating an ECM with Glow Plug The glow plug is an optional starting aid
an electronic service tool over the data link instead for cold conditions. One glow plug is installed in each
of replacing components. combustion chamber in order to improve the ability of
the engine to start. The ECM uses information from
Fuel Injector E-Trim Fuel injector E-trim is a the engine sensors such as the engine temperature
software process that allows precise control of fuel to determine when the glow plug relay must provide
injectors by parameters that are programmed into power to each glow plug. Each of the glow plugs
the ECM for each fuel injector. With the use of the then provides a very hot surface in the combustion
electronic service tool, the service technician can chamber in order to vaporize the mixture of air and
read status information for the E-Trim. Data for fuel. This improves ignition during the compression
E-Trim can also be programmed. stroke of the cylinder.

FRC See Fuel Ratio Control. Glow Plug Relay The glow plug relay is controlled
by the ECM in order to provide high current to the
Fuel Pump See Fuel Rail Pump. glow plugs that are used in the starting aid system.

Fuel Rail This item is sometimes referred to as Harness The harness is the bundle of wiring
the High Pressure Fuel Rail. The fuel rail supplies (loom) that connects all components of the electronic
fuel to the electronic unit injectors. The fuel rail pump system.
and the fuel rail pressure sensor work with the ECM
in order to maintain the desired fuel pressure in the Hertz (Hz) Hertz is the measure of electrical
fuel rail. This pressure is determined by calibration frequency in cycles per second.
of the engine in order to enable the engine to meet
emissions and performance requirements. High Pressure Fuel Rail Pump See Fuel Rail
Pump.
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor The fuel rail pressure
sensor sends an electronic signal to the ECM that is High Pressure Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Valve
dependent on the pressure of the fuel in the fuel rail. See Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Valve.

Fuel Rail Pump This item is sometimes referred High Pressure Fuel Rail See Fuel Rail.
to as the High Pressure Fuel Rail Pump. This is a
device that supplies fuel under pressure to the fuel Injector Codes The injector codes or injector trim
rail (high pressure fuel rail). codes are numeric codes or alphanumeric codes
that are etched or stamped on individual electronic
Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Valve This is sometimes unit injectors. These codes are used to fine tune the
referred to as the High Pressure Fuel Rail Pump fuel delivery.
Solenoid Valve. This is a control device in the high
pressure fuel rail pump. The ECM controls the Injector Trim Files Injector trim files are
pressure in the fuel rail by using this valve to divert downloaded from a disk to the ECM. The injector
excess fuel from the pump to the fuel tank. trim files compensate for variances in manufacturing
of the electronic unit injector and for the life of the
Fuel Ratio Control (FRC) The FRC is a limit that electronic unit injector. The serial number for the
is based on the control of the ratio of the fuel to air. electronic unit injector must be obtained in order to
The FRC is used for purposes of emission control. retrieve the correct injector trim file.
When the ECM senses a higher intake manifold
air pressure (more air into the cylinder), the FRC Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor The
increases the FRC Limit (more fuel into the cylinder). intake manifold air temperature sensor detects the
air temperature in the intake manifold. The ECM
Full Load Setting (FLS) The FLS is the parameter monitors the air temperature and other data in the
that represents the fuel system adjustment. This intake manifold in order to adjust injection timing and
adjustment is made at the factory in order to fine tune other performance functions.
the fuel system. The correct value for this parameter
is stamped on the engine information ratings plate.
This parameter must be programmed.
SENR9982-01 11
Troubleshooting Section

Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor The Intake Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) The PWM is a
Manifold Pressure Sensor measures the pressure signal that consists of pulses that are of variable
in the intake manifold. The pressure in the intake width. These pulses occur at fixed intervals. The ratio
manifold may be different to the pressure outside of TIME ON versus total TIME OFF can be varied.
the engine (atmospheric pressure). The difference This ratio is also referred to as a duty cycle.
in pressure may be caused by an increase in air
pressure by a turbocharger (if equipped).

Integrated Electronic Controls The engine is


designed with the electronic controls as a necessary
part of the system. The engine will not operate
without the electronic controls.

J1939 CAN Data Link This data link is a SAE


standard diagnostic communications data link that
is used to communicate between the ECM and the
electronic devices.

Logged Diagnostic Codes Logged diagnostic


codes are codes which are stored in the memory.
g00284479
These codes are meant to be an indicator of possible Illustration 3
causes for intermittent problems. Refer to the
term Diagnostic Code in this glossary for more Rated Fuel Limit This is a limit that is based on
information. the power rating of the engine and on the engine rpm.
The Rated Fuel Limit enables the engine power and
OEM OEM is an abbreviation for the Original torque outputs to conform to the power and torque
Equipment Manufacturer. This is the manufacturer of curves of a specific engine model. These limits are in
the machine or the vehicle that uses the engine. the flash file and these limits cannot be changed.

Open Circuit An open circuit is a condition that is Reference Voltage Reference voltage is a
caused by an open switch, or by an electrical wire regulated voltage and a steady voltage that is
or a connection that is broken. When this condition supplied by the ECM to a sensor. The reference
exists, the signal or the supply voltage can no longer voltage is used by the sensor to generate a signal
reach the intended destination. voltage.

Parameter A parameter is a value or a limit that Relay A relay is an electromechanical switch. A


is programmable. This helps determine specific flow of electricity in one circuit is used to control the
characteristics or behaviors of the engine. flow of electricity in another circuit. A small current or
voltage is applied to a relay in order to switch a much
Password A password is a group of numeric larger current or voltage.
characters or a group of alphanumeric characters
that is designed to restrict access to parameters. The Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor This sensor
electronic system requires correct passwords in order determines the position of the camshaft during engine
to change some parameters (Factory Passwords). operation. If the primary speed/timing sensor fails
Refer to Troubleshooting, Factory Passwords for during engine operation, the secondary speed/timing
more information. sensor is used to provide the signal.

Personality Module See Flash File. Sensor A sensor is a device that is used to
detect the current value of pressure or temperature,
Power Cycled Power cycled happens when power or mechanical movement. The information that is
to the ECM is cycled: ON, OFF, and ON. Power detected is converted into an electrical signal.
cycled refers to the action of cycling the keyswitch
from any position to the OFF position, and to the Short Circuit A short circuit is a condition that has
START/RUN position. an electrical circuit that is inadvertently connected to
an undesirable point. An example of a short circuit
Primary Speed/Timing Sensor This sensor is a wire which rubs against a vehicle frame and
determines the position of the crankshaft during this rubbing eventually wears off the wire insulation.
engine operation. If the primary speed/timing Electrical contact with the frame is made and a short
sensor fails during engine operation, the secondary circuit results.
speed/timing sensor is used to provide the signal.
Signal The signal is a voltage or a waveform that
is used in order to transmit information typically from
a sensor to the ECM.
12 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Supply Voltage The supply voltage is a continuous Wastegate Regulator (if equipped) The
voltage that is supplied to a component in order to wastegate regulator controls the pressure in the
provide the electrical power that is required for the intake manifold to a value that is determined by the
component to operate. The power may be generated ECM. The wastegate regulator provides the interface
by the ECM or the power may be battery voltage that between the ECM and the mechanical system that
is supplied by the engine wiring. regulates intake manifold pressure to the desired
value that is determined by the software.
System Configuration Parameters System
configuration parameters are parameters that affect
i02517580
emissions and/or operating characteristics of the
engine. Electronic Service Tools
Tattletale Certain parameters that affect the
operation of the engine are stored in the ECM.
These parameters can be changed by use of the Perkins electronic service tools are designed to help
electronic service tool. The tattletale logs the number the service technician:
of changes that have been made to the parameter.
The tattletale is stored in the ECM.
Retrieve diagnostic codes.
Throttle Position The throttle position is the
interpretation by the ECM of the signal from the
Diagnose electrical problems.
throttle position sensor or the throttle switch.
Read parameters.
Throttle Position Sensor The throttle position
sensor is a sensor that is usually connected to an
Program parameters.
accelerator pedal or a hand lever. This sensor sends
a signal to the ECM that is used to calculate desired
Install trim files.
engine speed.
Required Service Tools
Throttle Switch The throttle switch sends a signal
to the ECM that is used to calculate desired engine Table 1
speed. Required Service Tools
Part Number Description
Timing Calibration The timing calibration is the
adjustment of an electrical signal. This adjustment is CH11155 Crimp Tool (12AWG TO 18AWG)
made in order to correct the timing error between the
2900A019 Wire Removal Tool
camshaft and the engine speed/timing sensors or
between the crankshaft and the engine speed/timing 27610285 Removal Tool
sensors.
- Suitable Digital Multimeter
Top Center Position The top center position refers
to the crankshaft position when the engine piston Two short jumper wires are needed to check the
position is at the highest point of travel. The engine continuity of some wiring harness circuits by shorting
must be turned in the normal direction of rotation in two adjacent terminals together in a connector. A
order to reach this point. long extension wire may also be needed to check the
continuity of some wiring harness circuits.
Total Tattletale The total tattletale is the total
number of changes to all the parameters that are
stored in the ECM.
Optional Service Tools
Table 2 lists the optional service tools that can be
Wait To Start Lamp This is a lamp that is included
used when the engine is serviced.
in the cold starting aid circuit in order to indicate when
the wait to start period has expired. The glow plugs
have not deactivated at this point in time.

Wastegate This is a device in a turbocharged


engine that controls the maximum boost pressure
that is provided to the inlet manifold.
SENR9982-01 13
Troubleshooting Section

Table 2 Table 3
Part Number Description Service Tools for the Use of the Electronic
Service Tool
U5MK1092 Spoon Probe Kit(MULTIMETER)
Part Description
- Suitable Digital Pressure Indicator Number
or or
- Engine Pressure Group -(1) Single Use Program License
- Suitable Battery Load Tester -(1) Data Subscription for All Engines
- Suitable Temperature Adapter Communication Adapter (Electronic
27610251
(MULTIMETER) Service Tool to ECM interface)
28170107 Bypass Harness As 27610164 Adapter Cable As
2900A038 Harness As (1) Refer to Perkins Engine Company Limited.

Note: For more information regarding the use of the


Perkins Electronic Service Tool Electronic Service Tool and the PC requirements
for the Electronic Service Tool, refer to the
The Perkins Electronic Service Tool can display the documentation that accompanies your Perkins
following information: Electronic Service Tool software.

Status of all pressure sensors and temperature Connecting the Electronic Service Tool
sensors
and the Communication Adapter II
Programmable parameter settings
Active diagnostic codes and logged diagnostic
codes

Logged events
Histograms
The Electronic Service Tool can also be used to
perform the following functions:

Diagnostic tests
Sensor calibrations
Programming of flash files
Parameter programming
Copy configuration function for ECM replacement
Data logging
Graphs (real time)
Table 3 lists the service tools that are required in
order to use the Electronic Service Tool. g01121866
Illustration 4
(1) Personal Computer (PC)
(2) Adapter Cable (Computer Serial Port)
(3) Communication Adapter II
(4) Adapter Cable Assembly

Note: Items (2), (3) and (4) are part of the


Communication Adapter II kit.
14 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Use the following procedure in order to connect Flashing The lamp will be flashing when a derate
the Electronic Service Tool and the Communication is active or when a derate is present because of
Adapter II. an active diagnostic code. An example of an active
diagnostic code is System Voltage High.
1. Turn the keyswitch to the OFF position.
On The lamp will be on when the shutdown level
2. Connect cable (2) between the COMPUTER in the engine protection strategy has been reached.
end of communication adapter (3) and the RS232 The Warning lamp will also be on.
serial port of PC (1).
Warning Lamp
Note: The Adapter Cable Assembly (4) is required to
connect to the USB port on computers that are not Lamp check When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
equipped with a RS232 serial port. the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
then go off unless there is an active warning.
3. Connect cable (4) between the DATA LINK end
of communication adapter (3) and the service tool Flashing The lamp will be flashing when a
connector. warning or a warning and derate is active. This
includes low oil pressure.
4. Place the keyswitch in the ON position. If the
Electronic Service Tool and the communication On The lamp will be on when the shutdown level
adapter do not communicate with the Electronic has been reached. The Shutdown lamp will also
Control Module (ECM), refer to the diagnostic be on.
procedure Troubleshooting, Electronic Service
Tool Will Not Communicate With ECM.
Wait to Start Lamp
i02492452 Lamp check When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
Indicator Lamps then go off unless Wait to Start is active.

On The lamp is on during a Wait to Start period.

Indicator Lamps Low Oil Pressure


The functions of the indicator lamps are designed to Lamp check When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
display the maximum amount of information on the the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
minimum number of lamps. then go off unless there is an active warning.

Five lamps are available as options. The Shutdown On The lamp will come on when a low oil pressure
lamp and the Warning lamp will normally be event is detected. The Warning lamp and the
installed in the application. Dedicated optional lamps Shutdown lamp may also come on.
for other items may also be installed. The remaining
optional lamps are Wait to start, Low oil pressure PTO Lamp
and PTO mode on.
Lamp check When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
The Shutdown lamp and the Warning lamp can the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will
also be used to indicate a diagnostic code by use of then go off unless the PTO mode is active.
the Flash Code feature. The Flash Code feature
can be used to indicate all active diagnostic codes Flashing The lamp will be flashing when the PTO
and logged diagnostic codes. mode is turned on but when the PTO is not engaged.

Functions of the Lamps On The lamp will come on when PTO mode is
engaged.
Shutdown Lamp
Color of Lamps
Lamp check When the keyswitch is turned to ON,
the lamp will come on for 2 seconds. The lamp will Typically, the Shutdown lamp is colored red and the
then go off unless there is an active warning. Warning lamp is colored amber. The other lamps
are optional.
SENR9982-01 15
Troubleshooting Section

Operation of the Indicator Lamps


Table 4
Warning Shutdown Lamp State Description of the Indication Engine State
Lamp Lamp
(Alert (Action
Lamp) Lamp)
Lamp Check When the keyswitch is switched on, the lamps The keyswitch is on but the
On On come on for a period of 2 seconds and the lamps engine has not yet been
will then go off. cranked.
No Faults With the engine in operation, there are no active The engine is operating with
Off Off
warnings, diagnostic codes or event codes. no detected faults.
Active If the warning lamp comes on during engine The engine is operating
Diagnostic operation, this indicates that an active diagnostic normally but there is one or
On Off code (an electrical fault) is present. more faults with the electronic
management system for the
engine.
Derate If the warning lamp comes on and the shutdown The engine is operating but
(A derate is lamp flashes during engine operation, this there is one or more active
caused by indicates that an active diagnostic code (an diagnostic codes that have
On Flashing
certain active electrical fault) is present. The diagnostic is initiated an engine derate.
codes.) sufficiently serious in order to cause an engine
derate.
Warning When the warning lamp flashes during operation The engine is operating
(Warning of the engine, the lamp indicates that one or more normally. However, there is
only) of the warning values for the engine protection one or more of the monitored
Flashing Off
strategy has been exceeded. However, the value engine parameters that are
has not been exceeded to a level that will cause a outside of the range that is
derate or a shutdown. acceptable.
Derate If both the warning lamp and shutdown lamp flash The engine is operating.
(Warning and during operation of the engine, the lamps indicate However, one or more of the
Derate) that one or more of the values for the engine monitored engine parameters
protection strategy have been exceeded beyond is outside of the acceptable
Flashing Flashing
the level that will cause an engine derate. range. The acceptable range
has been exceeded to a level
which requires a warning and
an engine derate.
Engine If both the warning lamp and the shutdown lamp The engine is either shutdown
Shutdown come on during engine operation, this indicates or an engine shutdown is
one of the following conditions. imminent. One or more
monitored engine parameters
1. One or more of the shutdown values for the have exceeded the limit for an
On On engine protection strategy has been exceeded. engine shutdown. This pattern
of lamps can be caused by
2. A serious active diagnostic code has been the detection of a serious
detected. active diagnostic code.
After a short period of time, the engine will shut
down.

Flash Codes
The Flash Code feature is used to flash the code
of all active diagnostic codes and logged diagnostic
codes.
16 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

The sequence for the flash code is started by moving


the keyswitch to Off and then moving the keyswitch
to On twice within a period of three seconds. After
a delay of 2 seconds, the Shutdown lamp will flash
once for a period of half a second. This sequence
indicates the start of the active fault codes. After
a further delay of 2 seconds, the Warning lamp
will flash repeatedly in order to indicate the active
diagnostic codes. Each flash will be on for half a
second and off for 300 milliseconds. The Warning
lamp will remain off for 2 seconds between each digit
of a code. If there is more than one active diagnostic
code, the Shutdown lamp will go off for 2 seconds.
The lamp will then come on for a period of half a
second. The Warning lamp will go off for a period of
2 seconds before starting the next code. If there are
no active diagnostic codes, the Warning lamp will
flash the code 551. Refer to Troubleshooting Guide,
No Diagnostic Code Detected.

As an example, an active diagnostic code of 21 is


indicated by the Warning lamp coming on for 500
ms, then off for 300 ms, then on for 500 ms, then off
for 2000 ms, then on for 500 ms and then off.

g01194272
Illustration 5

After all of the active diagnostic codes have been After all of the codes have been displayed, the
displayed, the Shutdown lamp will go off for 2 Shutdown lamp will flash 3 times in order to
seconds. The Shutdown lamp will flash twice in indicate that there are no further codes. Cycling the
order to indicate the start of the sequence that will keyswitch twice within a period of 3 seconds will
display the logged diagnostic codes. The process for start the process again. All codes will be displayed in
flashing logged diagnostic codes is identical to the ascending numerical order.
process for flashing active diagnostic codes.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, Diagnostic
Note: If there are no logged codes then the 551 Codes for the flash code that is related to the
code should be flashed again. diagnostic code.

Note: Flash codes are always sent in ascending


numerical order.
SENR9982-01 17
Troubleshooting Section

i02517235
NOTICE
Replacing the ECM If the flash file and engine application are not matched,
engine damage may result.

NOTICE Perform the following procedure in order to replace


Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained the ECM.
during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to 1. Connect the Electronic Service Tool to the
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open- diagnostic connector.
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
nent containing fluids. 2. Use the Copy Configuration ECM Replacement
function from the Electronic Service Tool. If the
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and Copy Configuration is successful, proceed to
mandates. Step 5. If the Copy Configuration failed, proceed
to Step 3.

NOTICE Note: Record any Logged Faults and Events for your
Keep all parts clean from contaminants. records.

Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened 3. Record the following parameters:
component life.
Record all of the parameters on the
The engine is equipped with an Electronic Control Configuration screen.
Module (ECM). The ECM contains no moving parts.
Follow the troubleshooting procedures in this manual Record all of the parameters on the Throttle
in order to be sure that replacing the ECM will correct Configuration screen.
the problem. Verify that the suspect ECM is the
cause of the problem. Record all of the parameters on the Mode
Configuration screen.
Note: Ensure that the ECM is receiving power
and that the ECM is properly grounded before Record the serial numbers of the electronic unit
replacement of the ECM is attempted. Refer to the injectors. The injector serial numbers are shown
Schematic Diagram. on the Injector Trim Calibration screen.

A test ECM can be used in order to determine if the Note: If the parameters cannot be read, the
ECM on the engine is faulty. Install a test ECM in parameters must be obtained elsewhere. Some
place of the suspect ECM. Install the flash file into parameters are stamped on the engine information
the test ECM. Program the parameters for the test plate, but most parameters must be obtained from
ECM. The parameters must match the parameters in the PTMI data on PerkinsSecured Internet.
the suspect ECM. Refer to the following test steps
for details. If the test ECM resolves the problem, 4. Remove power from the ECM.
reconnect the suspect ECM. Verify that the problem
returns. If the problem returns, replace the ECM. 5. Remove the ECM. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Control Module - Remove
Use the Electronic Service Tool to read the and Install.
parameters in the suspect ECM. Record the
parameters in the suspect ECM. Install the flash file 6. Install the replacement ECM. Refer to
into the new ECM. After the ECM is installed on the Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Control
engine, the parameters must be programmed into Module - Remove and Install.
the new ECM.
7. Download the flash file.
Note: When a new ECM is not available, you may
need to remove an ECM from an engine that is not in a. Connect the Electronic Service Tool to the
service. The ECM must have the same serial number diagnostic connector.
suffix. Ensure that the replacement ECM and the
flash file match the suspect ECM. Be sure to record b. Select WinFlash from the Utilities menu of
the parameters from the replacement ECM. Use the the electronic service tool.
Copy Configuration ECM Replacement function in
the Electronic Service Tool. c. Select the downloaded flash file.
18 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

8. If necessary, use the electronic service tool to Logged Code Every generated code is stored
clear the rating interlock. To clear the rating in the permanent memory of the ECM. The codes
interlock, enter the factory password when the are logged for 100 operating hours unless a code is
electronic service tool is first connected. Activating cleared by use of the electronic service tool.
the Test ECM mode will also clear the rating
interlock. Event Code An event code is generated by the
detection of an abnormal engine operating condition.
9. Use the electronic service tool to program the For example, an event code will be generated if the
parameters. Perform the following procedure. oil pressure is too low. In this case, the event code
indicates the symptom of a problem.
a. If the Copy Configuration procedure was
successful, use the Copy Configuration, ECM Logged codes may not indicate that a repair is
Replacement function to load the configuration needed. The problem may have been temporary. The
file into the ECM. problem may have been resolved since the logging
of the code. If the system is powered, it is possible
Note: During the following procedure, Factory to generate an active diagnostic code whenever a
Passwords may be required. component is disconnected. When the component is
reconnected, the code is no longer active. Logged
b. If the Copy Configuration procedure failed, codes may be useful to help troubleshoot intermittent
configure the parameters individually. The problems. Logged codes can also be used to review
parameters should match the parameters from the performance of the engine and the electronic
step 3. system.

Perform the Fuel System Verification Test.


i02488455

10. Check for logged diagnostic codes. Factory Sensors and Electrical
passwords are required to clear Logged Events.
Connectors
i02492454

Self-Diagnostics The Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the


sensors are located on the left side of the engine.
Refer to Figure 6 or 8.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has the ability
to detect problems with the electronic system and
with engine operation. When a problem is detected, a
code is generated. An alarm may also be generated.
There are two types of codes:

Diagnostic
Event
Diagnostic Code When a problem with the
electronic system is detected, the ECM generates a
diagnostic code. This indicates the specific problem
with the circuitry.

Diagnostic codes can have two different states:

Active
Logged
Active Code An active diagnostic code indicates
that an active problem has been detected by the
control system. Active codes require immediate
attention. Always service active codes prior to
servicing logged codes.
SENR9982-01 19
Troubleshooting Section

g01248060
Illustration 6
Sensor locations on the 1104D engine
(1) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (5) Oil Pressure Sensor (9) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
(2) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (6) Oil Pressure Sensor (alternative location) (10) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
(3) Electronic Control Module (ECM) (7) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (alternative location)
(4) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (8) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump (11) Coolant Temperature Sensor

Note: If equipped, the wastegate regulator is installed


on the right side of the engine.
20 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

g01248066
Illustration 7
Close up views of the sensor locations on the 1104D engine
SENR9982-01 21
Troubleshooting Section

g01178874
Illustration 8
Sensor locations on the 1106D engine
(1) Coolant Temperature Sensor (4) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (7) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor
(2) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (5) Electronic Control Module (ECM) (8) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor
(3) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (6) Oil Pressure Sensor (9) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump

Note: If equipped, the wastegate regulator is installed


on the right side of the engine.
22 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

g01178875
Illustration 9
Close up views of the sensor locations on the 1106D engine
SENR9982-01 23
Troubleshooting Section

Table 5

Connector Function
P1 Machine Harness to ECM Connector (64 Pin Connector)
P2 Engine Harness to ECM Connector (64 Pin Connector)
P532 Fuel Rail Pump Solenoid Connector (2 Pin Connector)
P402 Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (2 Pin Connector)
P401 Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (2 Pin Connector)
P201 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor (3 Pin Connector)
P228 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (3 Pin Connector)
P200 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (3 Pin Connector)
P103 Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (2 Pin Connector)
P100 Coolant Temperature Sensor (2 Pin Connector)
J23 Diagnostic Connector (if equipped)
P691/J691 Electronic Unit Injectors for No. 1 and No. 2 Cylinders (4 Pin
Connector)
P692/J692 Electronic Unit Injectors for No. 3 and No. 4 Cylinders (4 Pin
Connector)
P693/J693 (1106D engine only) Electronic Unit Injectors for No. 5 and No. 6 Cylinders (4 Pin
Connector)
P511 Wastegate regulator (if equipped) (2 Pin Connector)
24 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

g01236714
Illustration 10
Schematic diagram for the 1104D engine
(1) Electronic Unit Injector (6) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (11) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump (7) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (12) Diagnostic Connector (if equipped)
(3) Wastegate Regulator (if equipped) (8) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (13) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(4) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (9) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
(5) Fuel Rail Pump (10) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor
SENR9982-01 25
Troubleshooting Section

g01258794
Illustration 11
Schematic diagram for the 1106D engine
(1) Electronic Unit Injector (6) Primary Speed/Timing Sensor (11) Coolant Temperature Sensor
(2) Solenoid for the Fuel Rail Pump (7) Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor (12) Diagnostic Connector (if equipped)
(3) Wastegate Regulator (if equipped) (8) Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor (13) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(4) Secondary Speed/Timing Sensor (9) Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
(5) Fuel Rail Pump (10) Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor

i02488469

Engine Wiring Information

Harness Wire Identification


Perkins identifies all wires with eleven solid colors.
The circuit number is stamped on the wire at a 25 mm
(1 inch) spacing. Table 6 lists the wire colors and the
color codes.
26 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Table 6

Color Codes for the Harness Wire


Color Code Color Color Code Color
BK Black BU Blue
BR Brown PU Purple
RD Red GY Gray
OR Orange WH White
YL Yellow PK Pink
GN Green

For example, a wire identification of F730-OR on


the schematic would signify an orange wire with the
circuit number F730. F730-OR identifies the power
supply for the oil pressure sensor.

Note: Always replace a harness wire with the same


gauge of wire and with the same color code.

Note: In the following diagrams, Pxxx signifies a


plug and Jxxx signifies a jack.
SENR9982-01 27
Troubleshooting Section

Schematic Diagrams

g01238742
Illustration 12
Schematic Diagram for the 1104D Engine Harness
28 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

g01258486
Illustration 13
Schematic Diagram for the 1106D Engine Harness
SENR9982-01 29
Troubleshooting Section

g01246520
Illustration 14
Schematic Diagram for a Typical Application

Note: The functionality of most of the connections to


the J1 connector depend on the engine application.

i02414687

ECM Harness Connector


Terminals

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) uses


connectors that have 64 terminals to interface to the
wiring harness.
g01170706
Illustration 15
Layout of the Connector Pins (view from the rear)
30 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Removal and Installation of the


Harness Connector Terminals
Terminal Removal
Table 7
Required Tools
Part Number Part Description Qty
27610285 Removal Tool 1

g01201632
Illustration 17
Removal Tool

3. Insert the removal tool into the hole that is


adjacent to the terminal in order to release the
locking device.

Note: Make sure that the tool stays perpendicular to


the face of the connector.

4. Hold the tool in position and gently pull the wire in


order to remove the terminal from the rear of the
connector (3).

5. Remove the removal tool from the face of the


connector (3).

Note: If a terminal must be replaced, part number


g01201559
Illustration 16 28170085 must be used.
Removal of Terminal Position Assurance Components
Terminal Insertion
1. Remove the connector from the ECM. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Control 1. Push the terminal into the rear of the connector (3)
Module - Remove and Install. until the terminal engages with the locking device.
2. Use a screwdriver that has a flat blade (1) to 2. Gently pull on the wire in order to make sure that
remove the two terminal position assurance the terminal is retained by the locking device.
components (2) from the connector (3).
3. Install the two terminal position assurance
Note: Do not use the removal tool to remove the components (2) into the sides of the connector (3).
terminal position assurance components.
4. Connect the connector to the ECM. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Control
Module - Remove and Install.
SENR9982-01 31
Troubleshooting Section

Programming Parameters Note: Test ECM Mode can only be activated if


the engine serial number has not already been
programmed during normal operation of the ECM.
i02415216 If the engine serial number is programmed and the
ECM is not in Test ECM Mode, the ECM can never
Programming Parameters be used as a test ECM.

6. Use the Copy Configuration feature on the


electronic service tool to program the test ECM.
The electronic service tool can be used to view
certain parameters that can affect the operation of the Note: If the ECM Replacement feature can not be
engine. The electronic service tool can also be used used, program the test ECM with the values from the
to change certain parameters. The parameters are Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet and the
stored in the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Some values from the System Configuration Parameters.
of the parameters are protected from unauthorized
changes by passwords. Parameters that can be 7. Program the engine serial number into the test
changed have a tattletale number. The tattletale ECM.
number shows if a parameter has been changed.
Note: The Test ECM Mode must be activated
i02415218
before the engine serial number is programmed into
the ECM.
Test ECM Mode
8. Verify that the test ECM fixes the problem.

When the Test ECM Mode is activated, an internal


Test ECM Mode is a feature in the software that timer sets a 24 hour clock. This clock will count down
can be used to help troubleshoot an engine that may only while the ECM is powered and the keyswitch
have a problem with the Electronic Control Module is in the ON position. After the ECM has counted
(ECM). This feature allows a standard ECM to be down the 24 hour period, the ECM will exit the Test
used as a test ECM. This feature eliminates the need ECM Mode. The parameters and the engine serial
to stock a test ECM. number will be set.

1. Search for the latest flash file for the engine. If the test ECM fixes the problem, the engine can be
released while the Test ECM Mode is still active.
Note: If a newer software version is available for the
engine, install the newest software on the suspect Once an ECM has been activated in the Test ECM
ECM. If the new software does not fix the problem Mode, the ECM will stay in the Test ECM Mode
continue with this procedure. until the timer times out. If the ECM is used as a test
ECM for more than one engine, the Test ECM Mode
2. Use the Copy Configuration feature on the must be reactivated. Anytime prior to the Test ECM
electronic service tool to copy the parameters Mode timing out, the ECM can be reset to 24 hours.
from the suspect ECM.
i02415222
Note: If the ECM Replacement feature cannot
be used, record the programmed values into the ECM Snapshot
Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet. Also
record the system configuration parameters.

3. Disconnect the suspect ECM. Temporarily connect The Electronic Control Module (ECM) can record a
the test ECM to the engine. Do not mount the test snapshot of certain engine parameters. The snapshot
ECM on the engine. records the parameters for a period of 13 seconds
that surround an event. The following events trigger
4. Flash program the test ECM with the newest snapshots:
software that is available.
Certain diagnostic codes
5. Start the Test ECM Mode on the electronic
service tool. Access the feature through the Operator request
Service menu. The electronic service tool will
display the status of the test ECM and the hours The ECM can store a maximum of two snapshots that
that are remaining for the Test ECM Mode. are triggered by a diagnostic code. Two snapshots
can be triggered manually. The snapshots are stored
in a circular buffer. The newest snapshot will replace
the oldest snapshot.
32 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

The ECM stores the snapshots in memory. Snapshots 1. Toggle the switch quickly from the OFF position
are maintained in the ECM until the snapshots (1) to the RAISE position (2).
are cleared. The following conditions will clear a
snapshot: 2. Toggle the switch quickly from the RAISE position
(2) to the RESUME position (3).
Operator request via the electronic service tool
3. Toggle the switch quickly from the RESUME
The snapshot has been stored for 100 hours of position (3) back to the OFF position (1).
engine operation.
Note: All three steps must occur within a one second
Snapshot That is Triggered by a time period in order to take a snapshot. Performing
the steps in the reverse order also triggers a
Diagnostic Code snapshot.

When certain diagnostic codes occur, the ECM


records many of the status parameters that are
Use of Snapshot Data
available on the electronic service tool. The ECM
Use snapshot data only to help determine engine
records this information for approximately nine
operating conditions when an intermittent problem
seconds before the code occurs and approximately
four seconds after the code occurs. occurs. If an intermittent diagnostic code is causing
problems, use the snapshot data. Snapshot data can
be used to determine whether the problem occurs
Snapshot That is Triggered by the under specific circumstances. The following list
Operator contains examples of specific circumstances:

A snapshot can be triggered by the operator by using Engine rpm


the electronic service tool.
Range of coolant temperatures
On the electronic service tool, the snapshot can
be triggered from the Snapshot Recorder Tool. Use the snapshot data in order to determine the
Refer to the instructions on the screen or refer to the operating conditions that were present during the
documentation for help on the system. event. Attempt to duplicate the conditions in order
to get the code to recur.
The Raise/Resume switch for the Power Take Off
(PTO) may be able to generate a snapshot, if the Replacement of electronic components should
option is installed. not be based on snapshot data alone. If too much
emphasis is put on snapshot data, the result could
If a snapshot can be generated by use of the be a misdiagnosed root cause. Also when snapshot
Raise/Resume switch for the PTO, perform the data that is triggered by a diagnostic code is being
following procedure to trigger a snapshot: viewed, the ECM sets a sensor value with an active
diagnostic code to a default value when the code
is active. This is the reason that the sensor value
suddenly jumps to a specific value at the trigger point
and the sensor value remains at the specific value for
the rest of the snapshot frames.

i02415228

Factory Passwords

NOTICE
Operating the engine with a flash file not designed for
g00627693
that engine will damage the engine. Be sure the flash
Illustration 18 file is correct for your engine.
Typical Raise/Resume Switch for the PTO
(1) OFF position
(2) RAISE position Note: Factory passwords are provided only to
(3) RESUME position Perkins dealers.
SENR9982-01 33
Troubleshooting Section

Factory passwords are required to perform each of Table 8


the following functions: Factory Passwords Worksheet

Program a new Electronic Control Module (ECM). Dealer Code


Customers Name
When an ECM is replaced, the system
configuration parameters must be programmed Address
into the new ECM. A new ECM will allow these
parameters to be programmed once without factory
passwords. After the initial programming, some
parameters are protected by factory passwords. Telephone Number
Information From the Engine Information Plate
Rerate the engine.
Engine Serial Number
This may require changing the interlock code,
which is protected by factory passwords. Full Load Setting
Full Torque Setting
Clear engine events and certain diagnostic codes.
Information From the Diagnostic Clock
Most engine events require factory passwords in Miles, Kilometers or Hours
order to clear the code from ECM memory. Clear (As applicable)
these codes only when you are certain that the
problem has been corrected. For example, Information From the Factory Password Entry
the E362-1 Engine Overspeed requires the Screen on the Electronic Service Tool
use of factory passwords in order to clear the Electronic Service Tool
code from ECM memory. Serial Number
Engine Serial Number
Since factory passwords contain alphabetic
characters, the electronic service tool must be ECM Serial Number
used to perform these functions. In order to obtain
Total Tattletale
factory passwords, proceed as if you already
have the password. If factory passwords are Reason Code
needed, the electronic service tool will request
From Interlock(1)
the factory passwords and the electronic service
tool will display the information that is required To Interlock(1)
to obtain the passwords. For the worksheet that
is used for acquiring factory passwords, refer to Factory Passwords
Troubleshooting, Factory Passwords Worksheet. Factory Password (No. 1)
Factory Password (No. 2)
i02540503 (1) This parameter is required when the engine is being rerated.
Factory Passwords Worksheet
i02415238

Flash Programming
Note: A mistake in recording these parameters will
result in incorrect passwords.

Flash Programming A method of loading a flash


file into the Electronic Control Module (ECM)

The electronic service tool can be utilized to


flash program a flash file into the ECM. The flash
programming transfers the flash file from the PC to
the ECM.

Flash Programming a Flash File


1. Obtain the part number for the new flash file.

Note: If you do not have the part number for the flash
file, use PTMI on the Perkins Internet.
34 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Note: You must have the engine serial number in i02496863


order to search for the flash files part number.
Injector Trim File
2. Connect the electronic service tool to the service
tool connector.

3. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Do not start The electronic service tool is used to load the injector
the engine. trim files into the Electronic Control Module (ECM).

4. Select WinFlash from the Utilities menu on the The injector trim files must be loaded into the ECM if
electronic service tool. any of the following conditions occur:

Note: If WinFlash will not communicate with the An electronic unit injector is replaced.
ECM, refer to Troubleshooting, Electronic Service
Tool Will Not Communicate with ECM. The ECM is replaced.

5. Flash program the flash file into the ECM. Diagnostic code 0268-02 is active.

a. Select the engine ECM under the Detected Electronic unit injectors are exchanged between
ECMs. cylinders.

b. Press the Browse button in order to select Exchanging Electronic Unit Injectors
the part number of the flash file that will be
programmed into the ECM. Exchanging electronic unit injectors can help
determine if a combustion problem is in the electronic
c. When the correct flash file is selected, press unit injector or in the cylinder. If two electronic unit
the Open button. injectors that are currently installed in the engine
are exchanged between cylinders, the injector trim
d. Verify that the File Values match the files can also be exchanged. Press the Exchange
application. If the File Values do not match button at the bottom of the Injector Trim Calibration
the application, search for the correct flash file. screen on the electronic service tool. Select the two
electronic unit injectors that will be exchanged and
e. When the correct flash file is selected, press press the OK button. The tattletale for the electronic
the Begin Flash button. unit injectors that were exchanged will increase by
one.
f. The electronic service tool will indicate when
flash programming has been successfully Note: The serial number for the electronic unit
completed. injector and the confirmation code number for the
electronic unit injector are located on the electronic
6. Start the engine and check for proper operation. unit injector.

7. Access the Configuration screen under the 1. Record the serial number and the confirmation
Service menu in order to determine the code number for each electronic unit injector.
parameters that require programming. Look under
the Tattletale column. All of the parameters 2. Obtain the injector trim file by one of the following
should have a tattletale of 1 or more. If a parameter methods:
has a tattletale of 0, program that parameter.
Select Service Software Files on the Perkins
Internet.
WinFlash Error Messages
If you receive any error messages during flash Use the compact disc that is included with a
replacement electronic unit injector.
programming, click on the Cancel button in order
to stop the process. Access the information about 3. Enter the serial number for the electronic unit
the ECM Summary under the Information menu.
injector in the search field.
Ensure that you are programming the correct flash
file for your engine. 4. Download the injector trim file to the PC. Repeat
this procedure for each electronic unit injector, as
required.
SENR9982-01 35
Troubleshooting Section

5. Connect the electronic service tool to the Mode Selection Number


service tool connector. Refer to Troubleshooting,
Electronic Service Tools. This parameter is a non-programmable parameter
that represents the number of possible combinations
6. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. of switch positions. This parameter is based on the
value that is programmed into the Number of Switch
7. Select the following menu options on the electronic Inputs parameter.
service tool:

Service
Mode Selection Switch Input 2 and
Mode Selection Switch Input 1
Calibrations
The number of these non-programmable parameters
Injector Trim Calibration that are visible depends on the value that is
programmed into the Number of Switch Inputs
8. Select the appropriate cylinder. parameter. Open signifies that the switch is in the
OFF position. Ground signifies that the switch is
9. Click on the Change button. in the ON position.

10. Select the appropriate injector trim file from the Enabled
PC.
If Yes is selected on the drop-down menu, the
11. Click on the Open button. ECM is programmed to use the values that are
programmed into Rating Number, Throttle 1 Droop
12. If you are prompted by the electronic service Percentage, Throttle 2 Droop Percentage and
tool, enter the confirmation code number for the TSC1 Droop Percentage for the given combination
electronic unit injector into the field. of switch positions.
13. Click on the OK button. Table 10

The injector trim file is loaded into the ECM. Values Default Factory Password
Yes No Yes
14. Repeat the procedure for each cylinder, as No
required.

Rating Number
i02527579

Mode Switch Setup This parameter is the engine rating that is used by
the Electronic Control Module (ECM) for a given
combination of switch positions. There is a maximum
of four ratings in a flash file.
The Mode Switches can be used to change the Table 11
performance characteristics of the engine. The
electronic service tool is used to program the Range Default Factory Password
characteristics. Select the Service drop-down 1 to the 1 No
menu and then select Engine Operating Mode maximum
Configuration. A maximum of two switches can be number of
used. Switch 1 is connected to J1:39 Mode Switch ratings in
1. Switch 2 is connected to J1:46 Mode Switch 2. the currently
The other contact on both switches is connected to installed Flash
J1:35 Switch Return. File

Number of Switch Inputs Rated Speed (RPM)


This is the total number of switches that will be used. This parameter represents the engine speed that is
The switches can be individual switches or a multiple selected when the mode switch or the mode switches
rotary switch. are in a particular position.
Table 9
Range Default
0 to 2 0
36 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Table 12 Table 16
Range Default Factory Password Throttle 1 Throttle 2
Programmed 5.0% No PWM (Digital Throttle) Analog Throttle
Low Idle to
Programmed PWM (Digital Throttle) None
High Idle PWM (Digital Throttle) Multi-position Throttle
Switch

Throttle 1 Droop Percentage Analog Throttle Analog Throttle


Analog Throttle None
This parameter represents the amount of droop that
is applied to the Throttle 1 input. Analog Throttle Multi-position Throttle
Switch
Table 13
None Analog Throttle
Range Default Factory Password
None None
0 to 10 percent 5.0% No
None Multi-position Throttle
Switch
Throttle 2 Droop Percentage Multi-position Throttle Analog Throttle
Switch
This parameter represents the amount of droop that Multi-position Throttle None
is applied to the Throttle 2 input. Switch
Table 14
Range Factory Password
The throttle is set up using the electronic service tool.
Default
From the menu, select Services. On the Services
0 to 10 percent 5.0% No screen, select Throttle Configuration. Select the
type of throttle from the following list:

TSC1 Droop Percentage No throttle


This parameter represents the amount of droop that Analog throttle
is applied to the Torque Speed Control 1(TSC1)
input. PWM throttle
Table 15
Multi-position switch
Range Default Factory Password
0 to 10 percent 5.1% No

i02489086

Throttle Setup

The engine can have a digital throttle that uses


a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal, an
analog throttle or a multi-position switched throttle.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) must be
programmed for the type of throttle input that is being
used.
SENR9982-01 37
Troubleshooting Section

If the ECM detects a throttle percentage below this


value with the idle validation switch OFF (Open),
a fault code will be generated and the engine will
remain at idle.

Refer to Table 18 and Table 19.

g01264476
Illustration 19
Typical Range of Throttle
(1) Lower Diagnostic Limit (Default=5)
(2) Lower Position Limit (Default=10)
(3) Initial Lower Position (Default=20)
(4) Idle Validation Minimum Off Threshold (Default=21)
(5) Idle Validation Maximum On Threshold (Default=25)
(6) Lower Dead Zone % (Default=5)
(7) Upper Dead Zone % (Default=5)
(8) Initial Upper Position (Default=70)
(9) Upper Position Limit (Default=85)
(10) Upper Diagnostic Limit (Default=90)

PWM throttles require additional programming.


If a multi-position switch is selected, additional
parameters must be programmed. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide, Multiposition Switch Setup.
If an analog throttle is selected, the following
parameters must be programmed into the ECM.

Idle Validation
All analog throttles on mobile applications require an
idle validation switch. If this parameter is programmed
to Yes, the ECM will look for this switch input on pin
J1:P45 for Idle Validation Switch 1 (IVS1) and J1:P44
for Idle Validation Switch 2 (IVS2).

Table 17
Values Default
No
Yes
Yes

Idle Validation Minimum Off (Open)


Threshold
This is the minimum throttle percentage that will be
detected by the ECM when the IVS is ON (Closed).
38 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Table 18
Throttle Position Idle Validation Switch Throttle Demand Fault Status Comment
Sensor (TPS) (IVS) Output
TPS< IVS Min OFF OFF Minimum Position Raise missing idle Force throttle demand
to minimum
TPS< IVS Min OFF ON Throttle Position Clear missing idle Normal operation

Table 19
Range Default
0 to 100% 21%

Idle Validation Maximum On


(Closed) Threshold
This is the maximum throttle percentage that will be
detected by the ECM when the idle validation switch
(IVS) is OFF (Open) . When the idle validation switch
is OFF (Open) and the ECM detects a signal that is
higher than the programmed value for IVS Max ON,
the ECM will generate a fault code and the engine
will remain at idle.

Refer to Table 20 and Table 21.

Table 20
Throttle Position Idle Validation Switch Throttle Demand Fault Status Comment
Sensor (TPS) (IVS) Output
TPS> IVS Max ON OFF Throttle Position Clear unexpected Normal operation
idle
TPS< IVS Min Off ON Minimum Position Raise unexpected Force throttle demand
idle. to minimum

Table 21 Upper Diagnostic Limit


Range Default
This is the minimum throttle percentage that is
0 to 100% 25% detected by the ECM in normal operation when the
pedal is in the maximum position. A value above this
limit will generate an open circuit diagnostic code.
Lower Diagnostic Limit The range of this diagnostic detection area is from
the programmed value of the upper position limit to
This is the minimum throttle percentage that should 100 percent.
be detected by the ECM in normal operation when
the pedal is in the off position. A value below this Table 23
limit will generate a short circuit diagnostic code.
Range Default
The range of this diagnostic detection area is from
0 percent to the programmed value for the lower 0 to 100% 95%
position limit.

Table 22 Lower Position Limit


Range Default
This is the minimum throttle percentage that will
0 to 100% 5% be interpreted by the ECM as zero throttle. This
parameter is used with the value of initial lower
position limit to make an allowance for manufacturing
tolerances between different pedals.
SENR9982-01 39
Troubleshooting Section

Table 24 Table 29
Range Default Range Default
0 to 100% 10% 0 to 100% 5%

Upper Position Limit i02415246

This is the maximum throttle percentage that will be Multiposition Switch Setup
interpreted by the ECM as full throttle. This parameter
is used with the value of the initial upper position limit
to make an allowance for manufacturing tolerances
between different pedals. The multi-position throttle switch is an optional
throttle input. A maximum of four switches can be
Table 25 used. Four switches will allow a maximum of 16
Range Default speeds to be selected.

0 to 100% 85% When the multi-position switch is selected as the


Throttle Type on the Throttle Configuration Screen
of the electronic service tool, additional information
Initial Lower Position Limit is required.
This is the maximum throttle percentage that will
be interpreted by the ECM as zero throttle. This Number of Switch Inputs
parameter is used with the value of the lower
position limit to make an allowance for manufacturing This parameter is the total number of switches that
tolerances between different pedals. will be used. The switches may be individual switches
or a ganged rotary switch.
Table 26
Table 30
Range Default
Range Default
0 to 100% 20%
1 to 4 1

Initial Upper Position Limit


Physical Position
This is the minimum throttle percentage that will be
interpreted by the ECM as full throttle. This parameter This parameter is non-programmable. The parameter
is used with the value of the upper position limit to is used to signify the position of the rotary switch.
make an allowance for manufacturing tolerances
between different pedals. Input 4, Input 3, Input 2, Input 1
Table 27 The number of these non-programmable parameters
Range Default that are visible depends on the value that is
programmed into the Number of Switch Inputs
0 to 100% 70% parameter. Open signifies that the switch is in the
OFF position. Ground signifies that the switch is
in the ON position.
Lower Dead Zone
This is a throttle range above the initial lower position Physical Position Enabled
limit before the engine will increase in rpm.
If Yes is selected from the drop-down menu, the
Table 28 Electronic Control Module (ECM) sets the engine
Range Default rpm to the value that is programmed into the Engine
Speed for the configuration of the switches that is
0 to 100% 8% defined for that Physical Position.

Upper Dead Zone


This is a throttle range that is below the initial upper
position limit that does not allow the engine speed
to increase.
40 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Table 31
Value Default
No No
Yes

Logical Position
The Logical Position is the order that is required by
the user for a unique Physical Position.

Table 32
Range Default
1 to 16 1

Engine Speed (in RPM)


The Engine Speed is the programmed engine rpm
for a particular position of the multi-position throttle
switch.

If the ECM detects a switch combination that


has been configured as No, a fault code will be
generated. In this situation, the ECM will ignore the
multi-position switch until the keyswitch is cycled
through OFF and ON.

Table 33
Range Default
Programmed Low Idle to 0
Programmed High Idle
SENR9982-01 41
Troubleshooting Section

Customer Specified Table 36


Minimum Maximum Default
Parameters
1900 rpm 2900 rpm 2650 rpm

i02517248
ECM Identification Parameter
Customer Specified
Parameters Equipment ID
Equipment ID is the identification of the equipment
that is assigned by the customer. The Equipment
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to ID is only for reference only by the customer. The
be configured to the exact needs of the application. Equipment ID is not required by the Electronic
Control Module (ECM).
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
a customers operation changes. Table 37

Value Default
The following information is a brief description of
the customer specified parameters. The following 17 digits
parameter values are included with the descriptions: The available characters
are dependent on the Not programmed
service tool that is
Minimum being used.
Maximum
PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters
Default
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
Engine Rating Parameter
The Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status is
Rating Number used to turn on the throttle lock features. When
this parameter is changed to Installed, the PTO
The rating number is the selected rating within a engine Speed Setting, the Throttle Lock Increment
power rating family. The flash file defines the power Speed Ramp Rate and the Throttle Lock Engine
rating family. The flash file can contain one to four Set Speed Increment parameters are active and the
ratings. The rating number defines the power rating parameters can be programmed.
that is used within the power rating family.
Table 38
Table 34
Value Default
Minimum Maximum Default
Not Installed
Not Installed
1 4 1 Installed

Low/High Idle Parameters PTO Engine Speed Setting


The PTO Engine Speed Setting is the engine speed
Low Idle Speed that is attained when the PTO switch is moved to
the ON position. If the PTO Engine Speed Setting
The Low Idle Speed is the minimum engine rpm. parameter is programmed, the feature is turned off.
Table 35
If the PTO Engine Speed Setting parameter is set
to a value that is between 1 and the low idle speed,
Minimum Maximum Default the parameter is set to the low idle speed value. If
700 rpm 1200 rpm 750 rpm the PTO Engine Speed Setting parameter is set to
a value that is higher than the high idle speed, the
parameter is set to the high idle speed value.
High Idle Speed
The High Idle Speed is the maximum engine rpm.
42 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Table 39 Table 43
Minimum Maximum Default Value Default
0 rpm 3000 rpm 0 rpm Disabled
Enabled
Enabled

Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp


Rate Limp Home Desired Engine Speed

The Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate The Limp Home Desired Engine Speed is the
is the rate of engine acceleration when the PTO maximum speed of the engine when the engine has
switch is held in the ACCELERATE position. If this been derated.
parameter is set to 0, the feature is turned off. Table 44
Table 40 Minimum Maximum Default
Minimum Maximum Default 700 rpm 1800 rpm 1200 rpm
0 rpm/sec 600 rpm/sec 400 rpm/sec
J1939 Continuous Fault Handling
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed
Increment Remote Torque Speed Control Enable
Status
The Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
controls the increase in engine speed when the The Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
PTO switch is briefly operated to ACCELERATE or parameter determines the way that faults will be
DECELERATE. If this parameter is set to 0, the handled by the ECM when the J1939 Torque Speed
feature is turned off. Control (TSC1) message is used as a speed request
input to the ECM. Programming the Remote Torque
Table 41 Speed Control Enable Status to Enabled will cause
Minimum Maximum Default the ECM to display a fault code if a valid TSC1
message is not received by the engine ECM within
0 rpm 200 rpm 10 rpm 30 seconds of the engine starting. If the Remote
Torque Speed Control Enable Status is programmed
to Disabled, the engine will display a 247-12 Data
Miscellaneous Link malfunction immediately after a loss of a TSC1
message. Program Remote Torque Speed Control
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns Enable Status to Enabled if the ECM will always be
receiving a TSC1 message.
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns controls the shutdown
feature that is associated with the engine monitoring Table 45
feature. When this feature is enabled and an event Value Default
code with a -3 suffix is detected, the engine will be
shut down. Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Table 42

Value Default
Configurable Inputs
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled Coolant Level Sensor

Monitoring Mode Derates A coolant level sensor is an optional switch input.


Programming the Coolant Level Sensor parameter
Monitoring Mode Derates controls the derate that is to Enabled notifies the ECM that a coolant level
associated with the engine monitoring feature. When sensor input is present on pin J1:38. If this parameter
this feature is enabled and an event code with a -2 is programmed to Enabled and the coolant level
is detected, the engine will be derated. falls below the measured level, a E2143-3 event
code will be displayed.
SENR9982-01 43
Troubleshooting Section

Table 46
Value Default
Installed
Not Installed
Not Installed

Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation


Status
An Air Filter Restriction Switch is an optional
switch input. Programming the Air Filter Restriction
Switch Installation Status parameter to Enabled
notifies the ECM that an input from the air filter
restriction switch is present on pin J1:47. When this
parameter is programmed to Enabled and the air
filter restriction switch closes, an E172-1 or J107-15
event code will be displayed.

Table 47
Value Default
Installed
Not Installed
Not Installed

Fuel/Water Separator Switch Installation


Status
A fuel/water separator switch is an optional switch
input. Programming the Fuel/Water Separator
Switch Installation Status parameter to Enabled
notifies the ECM that a fuel/water separator switch
input is present on pin J1:44. When this parameter
is programmed to Enabled and the fuel/water
separator switch closes, an E232-1 or J97-15 event
code will be displayed.

Table 48
Value Default
Installed
Not Installed
Not Installed

User Defined Switch Installation Status


A user defined shutdown switch is an optional
switch input. Programming the User Defined Switch
Installation Status parameter to Enabled notifies
the ECM that a user defined switch input is present
on pin J1:48. If this parameter is programmed to
Enabled and the user defined shutdown switch
closes, the engine will shut down.

Table 49
Value Default
Installed
Not Installed
Not Installed
44 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02527577

Customer Specified
Parameters Table

Table 50

Customer Specified Parameters


ECM Parameter Possible Values Default Value
Engine Rating Parameter
Rating Number 1 to 4 1
Low/High Idle Parameters
Low Idle Speed 700 to 1200 rpm 750 rpm
High Idle Speed 1900 to 2900 rpm 2650 rpm
ECM Identification Parameter
Equipment ID 17 Digits Not Programmed
Available characters are dependent on
the service tool that is used
PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Installed Not Installed
Status Not Installed
PTO Engine Speed Setting 0 to 3000 rpm 0 rpm
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp 0 to 600 rpm/sec 400 rpm/sec
Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed 0 to 200 rpm 10 rpm
Increment
Miscellaneous
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns Disabled Disabled
Enabled
Monitoring Mode Derates Disabled Enabled
Enabled
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed 700 to 1800 rpm 1200 rpm
J1939 Continuous Fault Handling
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Disabled Disabled
Status Enabled
Configurable Inputs
Coolant Level Sensor Not Installed Not Installed
Installed
Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Not Installed Not Installed
Status Installed
Fuel/Water Separator Switch Not Installed Not Installed
Installation Status Installed
User Defined Switch Installation Status Not Installed Not Installed
Installed
SENR9982-01 45
Troubleshooting Section

i02415254

Customer Specified
Parameters Worksheet

Table 51

Customer Specified Parameters Worksheet


Engine Rating Parameter
Rating Numbers
Low/High Idle Parameters
Low Idle Speed
High Idle Speed
ECM Identifications Parameters
Equipment ID
PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
PTO Engine Speed Setting
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
Miscellaneous
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
Monitoring Mode Derates
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed
J1939 Continuous Fault Handling
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
Configurable Inputs
Coolant Level Sensor
Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status
Fuel/Water Separator Switch Installation Status
User Defined Switch Installation Status
46 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

System Configuration Note: The flash programming of a new rating


interlock replaces the old rating interlock.
Parameters
This code does not need to be programmed when
the replacement ECM is for the same engine rating.
i02527574

If the ECM is for a different engine rating, then the


System Configuration following components may need to be changed:
Parameters pistons, fuel injectors, and other components.
The engine information ratings plate must also be
changed in order to reflect the new rating.

System configuration parameters affect the emissions Some systems such as the cooling system or the
of the engine or the power of the engine. System transmission may also require changes when the
configuration parameters are programmed at the engine is rerated. Please contact the local OEM
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters dealer for further information.
would never need to be changed through the life of
the engine. System configuration parameters must be Engine Serial Number
reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module (ECM)
is replaced. System configuration parameters do not When a new ECM is delivered, the engine serial
need to be reprogrammed if the ECM software is number in the ECM is not programmed. The engine
changed. Factory passwords are required to change serial number should be programmed to match the
these parameters. The following information is a engine serial number that is stamped on the engine
description of the system configuration parameters. information plate.

Full Load Setting ECM Software Release Date


The full load setting is a number that represents This parameter is defined by the rating interlock
the adjustment to the fuel system that was made and this parameter is not programmable. The ECM
at the factory in order to fine tune the fuel system. software release date is used to provide the version
If the ECM is replaced, the full load setting must of the software. The Customer parameters and the
be reprogrammed in order to prevent a 268-02 software change levels can be monitored by this
diagnostic code from becoming active. date. The date is provided in the month and the year
(NOV05). NOV is the month (November). 05 is the
Full Torque Setting year (2005).

Full torque setting is similar to full load setting. If


the ECM is replaced, the full torque setting must
be reprogrammed in order to prevent a 268-02
diagnostic code from becoming active.

Rating Interlock
The rating interlock is a code that prevents the use of
an incorrect power rating and/or emission rating for
a specific engine. Each horsepower rating and each
emission certification has a different code to all other
horsepower ratings and emission certifications.

When an ECM is replaced, this rating interlock code


must match the code that is stored in the ECM. If the
rating interlock code does not match the code that is
stored in the ECM, both of the following situations
will exist:

The engine will not run.


Diagnostic code 0253-02 Personality Module
mismatch will be active.
SENR9982-01 47
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting without a Alternator Bearings


Diagnostic Code Check for excessive play of the shaft in the alternator.
Check for wear in the alternator bearings. The
alternator is a nonserviceable item. The alternator
i02528126 must be replaced if the bearings are worn. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator - Remove
Alternator Noise and Disassembly and Assembly , Alternator - Install.

i02344740
Note: This is not an electronic system problem.
Alternator Will Not Charge
Refer to Testing and Adjusting for information on
possible electrical causes of this condition.
Note: This is not an electronic system problem.
Probable Causes
Alternator drive belt Probable Causes
Alternator mounting bracket Alternator drive belt

Automatic tensioner Automatic tensioner

Alternator drive pulley Charging circuit

Alternator bearings Alternator

Recommended Actions Recommended Actions


Alternator Drive Belt Alternator Drive Belt

Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt. If Inspect the condition of the alternator drive belt. If
the alternator drive belt is worn or damaged, check the alternator drive belt is worn or damaged, check
that the drive belt for the alternator and the pulley are that the drive belt for the alternator and the pulley are
correctly aligned. If the alignment is correct, replace correctly aligned. If the alignment is correct, replace
the drive belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, the drive belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Alternator Belt - Remove and Install. Alternator Belt - Remove and Install.

Alternator Mounting Bracket Automatic Tensioner

Inspect the alternator mounting bracket for cracks Check the tension on the alternator drive belt. If
and wear. Repair the mounting bracket or replace necessary, replace the automatic tensioner. Refer to
the mounting bracket in order to ensure that the Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator - Remove
alternator drive belt and the alternator drive pulley and Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator - Install.
are in alignment.
Charging Circuit
Automatic Tensioner
Inspect the battery cables, wiring, and connections in
Check the tension on the alternator drive belts. If the charging circuit. Clean all connections and tighten
necessary, replace the automatic tensioner. Refer to all connections. Replace any faulty parts.
Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator - Remove
and Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator - Install. Alternator

Alternator Drive Pulley Verify that the alternator is operating correctly. Refer
to Testing and Adjusting, Alternator - Test. The
Remove the nut for the alternator drive pulley and alternator is not a serviceable item. The alternator
then inspect the nut and the drive shaft. If no damage must be replaced if the alternator is not operating
is found, install the nut and tighten the nut to the correctly. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
correct torque. Refer to Specifications, Alternator Alternator - Remove and Disassembly and
and Regulator for the correct torque. Assembly , Alternator - Install.
48 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02344743 Throttle signal from the throttle position sensor


Battery Air intake and exhaust system
Fuel supply
Note: This is not an electronic system problem. Individual malfunctioning cylinders
Probable Causes Electronic unit injectors

Charging circuit Recommended Actions


Battery Diagnostic Codes
Auxiliary device Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
Recommended Actions continuing with this procedure.

Charging Circuit ECM Parameters


If a fault in the battery charging circuit is suspected, 1. Ensure that the problem is not a programmed
refer to Troubleshooting, Alternator Will Not Charge. parameter.

Faulty Battery 2. Ensure that the correct mode was selected by


using the electronic service tool.
1. Check that the battery is able to maintain a charge.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Battery - Test. 3. Use the electronic service tool to verify the correct
engine rating for the engine.
2. If the battery does not maintain a charge,
replace the battery. Refer to the Operation and 4. Use the electronic service tool to verify the
Maintenance Manual, Battery - Replace. maximum engine speed limit.

5. Use the electronic service tool to verify the


Auxiliary Device
following parameters at maximum speed: the
boost pressure, the smoke limit, the torque limit,
1. Check that an auxiliary device has drained the
and the amount of fuel that is delivered.
battery by being left in the ON position.
6. Use the electronic service tool to reset the
2. Charge the battery.
parameters to the OEM specifications.
3. Verify that the battery is able to maintain a charge
7. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the
when all auxiliary devices are switched off.
performance problems.

i02528131 8. If the repairs have not eliminated the faults


proceed to Throttle Signal for the Throttle Position
Can Not Reach Top Engine Sensor.
RPM
Throttle Signal for the Throttle Position
Sensor
Note: If this fault occurs only under load, refer to 1. Use the electronic service tool and observe the
Troubleshooting, Low Power/Poor or No Response signal for the throttle position sensor. Make sure
to Throttle. that the throttle reaches the 100% raw position
and the calibrated position.
Probable Causes
2. If the signal is erratic, refer to Troubleshooting,
Diagnostic codes Analog Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test or
refer to Troubleshooting, Digital Throttle Position
ECM parameters Sensor Circuit - Test.
SENR9982-01 49
Troubleshooting Section

3. If the engine has a throttle switch refer to 9. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
Troubleshooting, Throttle Switch Circuit - Test. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
Prime.
4. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to
Air Intake and Exhaust System. 10. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure - Test.
Air Intake and Exhaust System
1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable. penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fu-
el spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to fol-
3. Check the air intake and the exhaust system for low these inspection, maintenance and service in-
the following defects: structions may cause personal injury or death.
Blockages
NOTICE
Restrictions Contact with high pressure fuel may cause personal
injury or death. Wait 60 seconds after the engine has
Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and stopped to allow fuel pressure to purge before any
hoses service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.

4. Make all necessary repairs to the engine.


11. If the high pressure fuel lines have a leak, the
5. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the fault. high pressure fuel lines must be replaced. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel injection lines -
6. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install.
Fuel Supply.
12. If the repairs do not eliminate the fault, proceed to
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders.
Fuel Supply
1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders
gauge may be faulty.
1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve is in the full electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
OPEN position. a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check the isolated cylinder is not operating under normal
for solidified fuel (wax). conditions. If the isolation of a particular cylinder
results in a reduction of engine speed that is less
4. Visually inspect the fuel supply lines for than normal, this may indicate that the cylinder is
restrictions. operating below normal performance. Investigate
the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
5. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault
and secured properly. on any cylinder that is operating below normal
performance.
6. Remove the fuel filters. Inspect the fuel filters for
contamination. Install new fuel filters. Refer to the 2. If all cylinders have been checked and no
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fuel System faults were detected proceed to Electronic Unit
Filter- Replace and Fuel System Primary Filter Injectors.
(Water Separator) Element - Replace. Determine
the cause of the contamination.

7. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Fuel
Quality - Test.

8. Check for air in the low pressure fuel system. Refer


to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Air
in Fuel - Test.
50 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Electronic Unit Injectors Cylinder Head Gasket


1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the 1. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly
electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Remove for the
a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine correct procedure.
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating 2. Inspect the cylinder head gasket for faults and any
under normal conditions. If the isolation of a signs of leakage.
particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
speed that is less than normal, this may indicate 3. To fit a new cylinder head gasket, refer to
that the electronic unit injector is operating below Disassembly and Assembly, Cylinder Head -
normal performance. Install for the correct procedure.

2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the 4. If there was no obvious signs of a faulty head
suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and gasket proceed to Cylinder Head.
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.
Cylinder Head
3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit 1. Check the cylinder head for flatness. Refer to
Injector - Install. Testing and Adjusting, Cylinder Head - Inspect
for the correct procedure.
4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent,
remove the replacement electronic unit injector 2. Check the mating face of the cylinder head for
and install the original electronic unit injector. faults and signs of leakage. If a fault is found,
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic replace the cylinder head. If signs of leakage are
Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and found, determine the cause of the leakage. Refer
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install. to Testing and Adjusting, Cylinder Head - Inspect
for the correct procedure.
i02528174
3. Check the internal core plugs in the cylinder head
Coolant in Engine Oil for signs of leakage.

4. If the cylinder head is flat and if the cylinder head


does not have any faults, refer to Cylinder Block.
Note: This is not an electronic system problem.
Cylinder Block
Probable Causes
Inspect the top face of the cylinder block for faults
Engine oil cooler and signs of leakage. If a fault is found, replace
the cylinder block. If signs of leakage are found,
Cylinder head gasket determine the cause of the leakage. Refer to Testing
and Adjusting, Cylinder Block - Inspect for the
Cylinder head correct procedure.

Cylinder block Assembly after Repair


1. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly
Recommended Actions and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Install.
Engine Oil Cooler 2. Remove the oil filter element. Install a new engine
oil filter element. Fill the engine with clean engine
1. Drain the engine lubricating oil from the engine. oil to the correct level. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil and Filter
2. Check for leaks in the oil cooler assembly. Refer - Change for more information.
to Testing and Adjusting, Cooling System for the
correct procedure. If a leak is found, install a new
oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
Engine Oil Cooler - Remove and Disassembly
and Assembly, Engine Oil Cooler - Install for the
correct procedure.
SENR9982-01 51
Troubleshooting Section

i02528229 Coolant Temperature Gauge


Coolant Temperature Is Too Compare the reading for the coolant temperature
High from the electronic service tool to the reading for the
coolant temperature from a calibrated test gauge.

Restriction in the Coolant System


Note: This is not an electronic system problem.
1. Visually inspect the cooling system for collapsed
hoses and/or other restrictions.
Probable Causes
2. Clean the radiator and flush the radiator. Refer to
Radiator fins Testing and Adjusting, Cooling System.
Coolant level
Water Temperature Regulator
Radiator cap and/or pressure relief valve
Check the water temperature regulator for correct
Coolant temperature gauge operation. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Cooling
System for the proper procedure. If necessary,
Restriction in the coolant system replace the water temperature regulator. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Water Temperature
Water temperature regulator Regulator - Remove and Install for more information.

Engine cooling fan Engine Cooling Fan


Coolant pump 1. Make sure that the engine cooling fan is correctly
installed.
Cylinder head gasket
2. Make sure that the engine cooling fan is being
Recommended Actions driven correctly by the drive belt. If necessary,
tighten the drive belt or replace the drive belt.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Alternator
Radiator Fins Belt - Remove and Install.
Check the radiator fins for dirt, debris, and/or damage. 3. Check the engine cooling fan for damage. If
Remove any dirt and/or debris and straighten any necessary, replace the fan. Refer to Disassembly
bent fins. and Assembly, Fan - Remove and Install.

Coolant Level Coolant Pump


1. Inspect the coolant level. If necessary, add 1. Inspect the impeller of the coolant pump for
coolant. damage and/or erosion.
2. Check the cooling system for leaks. Repair any 2. Make sure that the drive gear is not loose on the
leaks immediately. drive shaft of the coolant pump.

Radiator Cap and/or Pressure Relief 3. If necessary, replace the coolant pump. Refer
Valve to Disassembly and Assembly, Water Pump -
Remove and Disassembly and Assembly, Water
1. Pressure test the cooling system. Refer to Testing Pump - Install.
and Adjusting, Cooling System for the correct
procedure.

2. Check that the seating surfaces of the pressure


relief valve and the radiator cap are clean and
undamaged.

3. Check operation of the pressure relief valve


and/or the radiator cap. If necessary, clean the
components and/or replace the components.
52 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Cylinder Head Gasket i02413820

Switch off the engine and allow the engine to cool ECM Will Not Communicate
to below normal working temperature. Remove with Other Systems or Display
the pressure cap for the coolant system. Start the
engine and inspect the coolant for the presence Modules
of bubbles. If bubbles are present in the coolant,
combustion gases may be entering the cooling
system. Check the cylinder head gasket. Refer to the
recommended action for the cylinder head gasket Probable Causes
within Troubleshooting, Coolant in Engine Oil.
Check the cylinder head for flatness. Refer to the Electrical connectors
recommended action for checking flatness of the
cylinder head within Systems Operations, Cylinder Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Head - Inspect. Fit the pressure cap if there are no
bubbles in the coolant.
Recommended Actions
i02413819 1. Connect the electronic service tool to the
service tool connector. If the ECM does not
ECM Will Not Accept Factory communicate with the electronic service tool, refer
Passwords to Troubleshooting, Electronic Service Tool Will
Not Communicate with ECM.

2. Ensure that the following items are


correctly installed and undamaged. Refer
Probable Causes to Troubleshooting, Electrical Connectors -
Inspect.
One of the following items may not be recorded
correctly on the electronic service tool:
P1/J1 and P2/J2 connectors on the ECM
Passwords Wiring to display modules
Serial numbers Wiring to other control modules
Total tattletale 3. Troubleshoot the Perkins Data Link for possible
problems. Refer to Troubleshooting, Data Link
Reason code Circuit - Test.

Recommended Actions i02535551

1. Verify that the correct passwords were entered. Electronic Service Tool Will
Check every character in each password. Remove
the electrical power from the engine for 30 Not Communicate with ECM
seconds and then retry.

2. Verify that the electronic service tool is on the


Factory Password screen. Probable Causes
3. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the Configuration for the communications adapter
following information has been entered correctly:
Electrical connectors
Engine serial number
Communication adapter and/or cables
Serial number for the electronic control module
Electrical power supply to the service tool
Serial number for the electronic service tool connector

Total tattletale Electronic service tool and related hardware


Reason code
SENR9982-01 53
Troubleshooting Section

Electrical power supply to the Electronic Control 4. If the laptop computer is using a Windows
Module (ECM) operating system, restart the laptop computer in
order to eliminate the possibility of a conflict in
Perkins Data Link the software.

Recommended Actions Electrical Power Supply to the Service


Tool Connector
Start the engine. If the engine starts, but the ECM
will not communicate with the electronic service tool, Verify that battery voltage is present between
continue with this procedure. If the engine will not terminals A and B of the service tool connector. If
start, refer to Troubleshooting, Engine Cranks but the communication adapter is not receiving power,
Will Not Start. If the engine will not crank, refer to the LED display on the communication adapter will
Troubleshooting, Engine Will Not Crank. be blank.

Configuration for the Communications Electronic Service Tool and Related


Adapter Hardware
1. Access Preferences under the Utilities menu In order to eliminate the electronic service tool and
on the electronic service tool. the related hardware as the problem, connect the
electronic service tool to a different engine. If the
2. Verify that the correct Communications Interface same problem occurs on a different engine, check
Device is selected. the electronic service tool and the related hardware
in order to determine the cause of the fault.
3. Verify that the correct port is selected for use by
the communication adapter. Electrical Power Supply to the Electronic
Note: The most commonly used port is COM 1. Control Module (ECM)

4. Check for any hardware that is utilizing the Check power to the ECM. Refer to Testing and
same port as the communications adapter. If any Adjusting, Charging System - Test.
devices are configured to use the same port, exit
or close the software programs for that device. Note: If the ECM is not receiving battery voltage, the
ECM will not communicate.
Electrical Connectors
Perkins Data Link
Check for correct installation of the P1/J1 and P2/J2
ECM connectors and of the service tool connector. Troubleshoot the Perkins Data Link for possible
Refer to Troubleshooting, Electrical Connectors - faults. Refer to Troubleshooting, Data Link Circuit -
Inspect. Test.

Communication Adapter and/or Cables i02528112

1. Make sure that the firmware and driver files are Engine Cranks but Will Not
the most current files that are available for the Start
type of communication adapter that is being used.
If the firmware and driver files do not match, the
communication adapter will not communicate with
the electronic service tool.
Probable Causes
2. Disconnect the communication adapter and the
cables from the service tool connector. Reconnect Diagnostic codes
the communication adapter to the service tool
connector. Air intake and exhaust system

3. Verify that the correct cable is being used between Glow plugs
the communication adapter and the service tool
connector. Refer to Troubleshooting, Electronic Valve lash
Service Tools.
Fuel supply
Low compression (cylinder pressure)
54 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Electronic control system Improper timing of valves


High pressure fuel system 3. If the crankshaft rotates freely proceed to Air
Intake and Exhaust System.
Recommended Actions
Air Intake and Exhaust System
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than 1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped.
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again. 2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable.

3. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the


Diagnostic Codes following defects:

Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic Blockages


service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
continuing with this procedure. Restrictions

Visual Checks Damage to lines or hoses


4. Repair any defects before attempting to restart
1. Visually inspect the engine for the following faults: the engine.
Missing components 5. If the engine will not start proceed to Glow Plugs.
Damaged components
Glow Plugs
Damaged electrical cables or loose electrical
cables Note: Faulty glow plugs will only affect engine starting
when the ambient temperature is below 10 C (50 F).
Oil leaks
1. Check the operation of the glow plugs. Refer to
Fuel leaks Systems Operation, Glow Plugs - Test.

Hydraulic leaks 2. If necessary, replace faulty glow plugs. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Glow Plug - Remove
Check for the proper level of fuel, oil and coolant and Install.

If the ambient temperature is below 0 C (32 F), 3. If the repairs do not eliminate the fault, proceed to
make sure that the correct specification of Valve Lash.
engine oil and oil for the machine is used.
Valve Lash
Check that the battery voltage is correct.
1. Check the valve lash and reset the valve lash if
Use the electronic service tool to check the it is necessary. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
average cranking speed of the engine. If Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust.
the cranking speed is less than 150 RPM,
investigate the cause of the fault. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the active
diagnostic codes before attempting to restart the
Rectify any faults that are found during the visual engine.
checks.
Try to start the engine. If the engine does not start,
2. Use a suitable hand tool in order to rotate the verify that the crankshaft is rotating.
crankshaft. If the crankshaft does not rotate freely,
check the engine for the following problems: If the engine will not start proceed to Fuel Supply.

Seized piston Fuel Supply


Defects in the drive gears 1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
gauge may be faulty.
Fluid in the cylinder bores
SENR9982-01 55
Troubleshooting Section

2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is Electronic Control System
in the full OPEN position.
1. Use the electronic service tool to check that fuel
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check pressure is present in the fuel rail when the engine
for solidified fuel (wax). is cranking.

4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water 2. If the pressure demand for the fuel rail is greater
in the fuel. than 5 MPa (725 psi), refer to High Pressure Fuel
System.
5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.
3. If the pressure demand for the fuel rail is less
6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight than 5 MPa (725 psi), check the operation of the
and secured properly. primary speed/timing sensor and the secondary
speed/timing sensor. Refer to the Troubleshooting
7. Check the fuel filters. Guide, Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit -
Test. If necessary, replace any faulty sensor.
8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test. 4. Make sure that any repairs have eliminated the
fault.
9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test. High Pressure Fuel System
10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed. Use the electronic service tool to monitor a stable
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System - fuel rail pressure during engine cranking.
Prime.
If the fuel rail pressure is less than 5 MPa (725 psi),
11. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to perform the following procedure.
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure).
1. Check the current to the solenoid valve in the
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) fuel injection pump. If no current is detected,
investigate the cause of the fault.
1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Compression - Test . 2. Use the electronic service tool to perform
theInjector Solenoid Test. If an injector fails the
2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders, test, determine whether the fault is caused by the
investigate the cause and rectify the cause. wiring, the ECM or the injector.

Possible causes of low compression are shown 3. Install a test ECM in order to determine whether
in the following list: the ECM is the cause of the fault. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide, Replacing the ECM.
Loose glow plugs
4. Test the function of the fuel rail pressure sensor.
Faulty piston Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test. If
Faulty piston rings the pressure sensor is faulty, replace the pressure
sensor.
Worn cylinder bores
5. If the fault is still apparent, replace the fuel injection
Worn valves pump. [Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel
Injection Pump - Remove and Disassembly and
Faulty cylinder head gasket Assembly, Fuel Injection Pump - Install.

Damaged cylinder head If the fuel rail pressure is greater than 5 MPa
(725 psi), perform the following procedure.
3. Perform all necessary repairs.
1. Check for leakage from the pressure relief valve
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults. in the fuel rail. If there is any leakage, replace the
fuel rail.
5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Electronic Control System.
56 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

2. Crank the engine and measure the leakage from Dirt in Engine Oil
the return line for the electronic unit injectors. If the
leakage at an minimum engine cranking speed of 1. Drain the oil from the crankcase and refill the
150 RPM is greater than 0.1 L/min (0.2 Pints/min), crankcase with clean engine oil. Install new engine
replace all of the electronic unit injectors. oil filters. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual for more information.
3. Use the electronic service tool to perform the
Injector Solenoid Test. If the test is satisfactory, Incorrect Oil
replace the fuel injection pump.
1. Check that the engine is filled with oil of the
i02413823
correct specification. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities and
Engine Has Early Wear Recommendations.

2. If necessary, drain the engine oil system and


refill the engine oil system. Refer to Operation
Note: This is not an electronic system problem. and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil and Filter
- Change.
Probable Causes
Contaminated Oil
Multiple starts or cold operation
Check an oil sample for contamination with fuel. If
Incorrect maintenance intervals contamination is found, investigate the cause.

Dirt in engine oil Leaks in Air Intake System


Incorrect oil A leak in the air intake system may allow unfiltered
air into the engine. Inspect the air intake system for
Contaminated oil streaks which may indicate a leakage of unfiltered
air. Inspect all of the gaskets and the connections.
Leaks in air intake system Repair any leaks. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Air
Intake System for more information.
Dirt in fuel
Dirt in Fuel
Low oil pressure
1. Remove the fuel filters. Inspect the fuel filters
Recommended Actions for contamination. Install new fuel filters. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fuel
System Filter- Replace and Operation and
Multiple Starts or Cold Operation Maintenance Manual, Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element - Replace. Determine
Frequent starting and stopping of the engine can
the cause of the contamination.
cause early wear. Also, operation of the engine for
short periods of time in cold conditions can cause
2. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
early wear.
Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
Incorrect Maintenance Intervals Low Oil Pressure
If the engine is not correctly maintained, early wear
Refer to Troubleshooting, Low Engine Oil Pressure
will occur.
for the testing procedure. Repair any identified faults.
Make sure that the engine is maintained at the
correct maintenance intervals. Refer to the Operation i02489087
and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Engine Misfires, Runs Rough
or Is Unstable

The probable root causes are listed in order below:


SENR9982-01 57
Troubleshooting Section

Note: If the fault is intermittent and the problem 3. Check the air intake and exhaust systems for the
cannot be duplicated, refer to Troubleshooting, following defects:
Intermittent Low Power or Power Cutout.
Blockages
Note: If the fault only occurs under certain conditions,
test the engine under those conditions. Examples Restrictions
of certain conditions are high rpm, full load and
engine operating temperature. Troubleshooting Damage to lines or hoses
the symptoms under other conditions can give
misleading results. 4. If the repairs do not eliminate the fault proceed to
Fuel Supply.
Probable Causes
Fuel Supply
Diagnostic codes
1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
Throttle position sensor gauge may be faulty.

Air intake and exhaust system 2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is
in the full OPEN position.
Fuel supply
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check
Fuel rail pump for solidified fuel (wax).

Low compression (cylinder pressure) 4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water
in the fuel.
Individual malfunctioning cylinder
5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.
Electronic unit injectors
6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight
and secured properly.
Recommended Actions
7. Check the fuel filters.
Diagnostic Codes
8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
continuing with this procedure. 9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test.
Throttle Position Sensor
10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
1. Use the electronic service tool and observe the Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
signal for the throttle position sensor. Make sure Prime.
that the throttle reaches the 100% raw position
and the calibrated position. 11. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure - Test.
2. If the signal is erratic, refer to Troubleshooting,
Analog Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test or 12. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Troubleshooting, Digital Throttle Position Sensor Fuel Rail Pump.
Circuit - Test.
Fuel Rail Pump
3. If the engine has a 10 position throttle switch refer
to Troubleshooting, Throttle Switch Circuit - Test. Note: The fuel rail pump that is installed by the
factory is a nonserviceable item. If any mechanical
4. If the repairs do not eliminate the fault proceed to fault or any electrical fault occurs within the fuel rail
Air Intake and Exhaust System. pump then the fuel rail pump must be replaced.

Air Intake and Exhaust System 1. Use the electronic service tool to select the
correct screen display. Refer to Troubleshooting,
1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Troubleshooting with a Diagnostic Code.

2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable. 2. If the fault is not eliminated, refer to Low
Compression (Cylinder Pressure).
58 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Electronic Unit Injectors


1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
Adjusting, Compression - Test . electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders, speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
investigate the cause and rectify the cause. the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating
under normal conditions. If the isolation of a
Possible causes of low compression are shown particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
in the following list: speed that is less than normal, this may indicate
that the electronic unit injector is operating below
Loose glow plugs normal performance.

Faulty piston 2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the


suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and
Faulty piston rings Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.

Worn cylinder bores 3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Worn valves Injector - Install.

Faulty cylinder head gasket 4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent,
remove the replacement electronic unit injector
Damaged cylinder head and install the original electronic unit injector.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
3. Perform all necessary repairs. Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults.
5. If the fault is not eliminated, check for active
5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to diagnostic fault codes.
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders.
i02413836
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders
Engine Oil in Cooling System
1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted, Note: This is not an electronic system problem.
the isolated cylinder is not operating under normal
conditions. If the isolation of a particular cylinder
results in a reduction of engine speed that is less Probable Causes
than normal, this may indicate that the cylinder is
operating below normal performance. Investigate Engine oil cooler
the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault Cylinder head gasket
on any cylinder that is operating below normal
performance. Cylinder head

2. Rectify any faults. Cylinder block

3. If all cylinders have been checked and no Recommended Actions


problems were detected proceed to Electronic
Unit Injectors. Engine Oil Cooler
1. Drain the coolant from the engine and the radiator.
Drain the lubricating oil from the engine oil cooler.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual
for more information.
SENR9982-01 59
Troubleshooting Section

2. Check for leaks in the oil cooler assembly. Refer i02534845


to Testing and Adjusting, Cooling System for the
correct procedure. If a leak is found, install a new Engine Speed Does Not
oil cooler. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Change
Engine Oil Cooler - Remove and Disassembly
and Assembly, Engine Oil Cooler - Install for the
correct procedure.
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine speed
Cylinder Head Gasket does not change. This fault will not occur in a
generator set application.
1. Remove the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Remove for the
correct procedure.
Probable Causes

2. Inspect the cylinder head gasket for faults and any Diagnostic codes
signs of leakage.
Multi-position throttle switch
3. To fit a new cylinder head gasket, refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Throttle position sensor
Install for the correct procedure.
Recommended Repairs
4. If there was no obvious signs of a faulty head
gasket proceed to Cylinder Head. Diagnostic Codes
Cylinder Head Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
1. Check the cylinder head for flatness. Refer to continuing with this procedure.
Testing and Adjusting, Cylinder Head - Inspect
for the correct procedure. Use the electronic service tool to check the setup of
the throttle.
2. Check the mating face of the cylinder head for
faults and signs of leakage. If a fault is found, Multi-position Throttle Switch
replace the cylinder head. If signs of leakage are
found, determine the cause of the leakage. Refer Note: When the engine is operating and the fault
to Testing and Adjusting, Cylinder Head - Inspect occurs, the configuration of the throttle will not
for the correct procedure. change. The configuration of the throttle only needs
to be checked if the engine has never run.
3. If the cylinder head is flat and if the cylinder head
does not have any faults, refer to Cylinder Block. If a fault with the multi-position throttle switch is
suspected, refer to Troubleshooting, Throttle Switch
Cylinder Block Circuit - Test.

Inspect the top face of the cylinder block for faults Throttle Position Sensor
and signs of leakage. If a fault is found, replace
the cylinder block. If signs of leakage are found, Refer to Troubleshooting, Analog Throttle Position
determine the cause of the leakage. Refer to Testing Sensor Circuit - Test or Troubleshooting, Digital
and Adjusting, Cylinder Block - Inspect for the Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test if any of the
correct procedure. following diagnostic codes are active:

Assembly after Repair 0041-03 8 Volt DC Supply voltage above normal


1. Install the cylinder head. Refer to Disassembly 0041-04 8 Volt DC Supply voltage below normal
and Assembly, Cylinder Head - Install.
0091-08 Throttle Position Sensor abnormal
2. Replenish the engine with clean engine oil to frequency, pulse width or period
the correct level. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil and Filter - 0774-08 Sec Throttle Position Sensor abnormal
Change for more information. frequency, pulse width or period

3. Fill the cooling system. Refer to the Operation and


Maintenance Manual, Cooling System Coolant
(ELC) - Change.
60 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02534896 4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water


in the fuel.
Engine Stalls at Low RPM
5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight


Probable Causes and secured properly.

Diagnostic codes 7. Check the fuel filters.

Accessory equipment 8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to


Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
Power mode control (if equipped)
9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
Fuel supply and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test.

Electronic unit injectors 10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
Prime.
Recommended Actions
11. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Testing and
Diagnostic Codes Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure - Test.

Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic 12. If necessary, repair any faults.
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
continuing with this procedure. 13. If there are no apparent faults, refer to Electronic
Unit Injectors.
Accessory Equipment
Electronic Unit Injectors
Check all accessory equipment for problems that
may create excessive load on the engine. Repair 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
any damaged components or replace any damaged electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
components. a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
If there are no faults with the accessory equipment, the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating
refer to Power Mode Control (If Equipped). under normal conditions. If the isolation of a
particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
Power Mode Control (If Equipped) speed that is less than normal, this may indicate
that the electronic unit injector is operating below
1. Check the data link. Refer to Troubleshooting, normal performance.
Data Link Circuit - Test.
2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the
2. Check the engine wiring harness for defects. suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and
Refer to Troubleshooting, Electricial Connectors Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.
- Inspect.
3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to
3. If there are no apparent faults, refer to Fuel Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Supply. Injector - Install.

Fuel Supply 4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent,


remove the replacement electronic unit injector
and install the original electronic unit injector.
1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
gauge may be faulty. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is
in the full OPEN position.
5. If the fault is not eliminated, check for active
diagnostic fault codes.
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check
for solidified fuel (wax).
SENR9982-01 61
Troubleshooting Section

i02414532 2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders,


investigate the cause and rectify the cause.
Engine Vibration
Possible causes of low compression are shown
in the following list:
Note: This is not an electronic system fault. Loose glow plugs
Refer to Testing and Adjusting for information on Faulty piston
determining the cause of this condition.
Faulty piston rings
Probable Causes
Worn cylinder bores
Vibration damper
Worn valves
Engine supports
Faulty cylinder head gasket
Low compression (cylinder pressure)
Damaged cylinder head
Individual malfunctioning cylinder
3. Perform all necessary repairs.
Electronic unit injectors
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults.
Recommended Actions 5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Malfunctioning Individual Cylinder.
Vibration Damper
Malfunctioning Individual Cylinder
Check the vibration damper for damage. Install a
new vibration damper, if necessary. Inspect the 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
mounting bolts for damage and/or for wear. Replace electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
any damaged bolts. Refer to Disassembly and a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
Assembly, Vibration Damper and Pulley - Remove speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
and Disassembly and Assembly, Vibration Damper the isolated cylinder is not operating under normal
and Pulley - Install. conditions. If the isolation of a particular cylinder
results in a reduction of engine speed that is less
Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the problem. than normal, this may indicate that the cylinder is
If the vibration is still present proceed to Engine operating below normal performance. Investigate
Supports. the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault
Engine Supports on any cylinder that is operating below normal
performance.
1. Check for any of the following conditions:
2. If all cylinders have been checked and no
Loose engine supports faults were detected proceed to Electronic Unit
Injectors.
Loose mounting brackets or broken mounting
brackets Electronic Unit Injectors
Loose bolts 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
Omitted bolts a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
2. Make all necessary repairs. Ensure that the the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating
repairs have eliminated the fault. If the vibration under normal conditions. If the isolation of a
is still present proceed to Low Compression particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
(Cylinder Pressure). speed that is less than normal, this may indicate
that the electronic unit injector is operating below
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) normal performance.

1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and


Adjusting, Compression - Test .
62 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the 6. If there are no active diagnostic codes refer to
suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and the Troubleshooting Manual for your machine
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove. application.

3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to Battery Cables and/or Batteries
Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Injector - Install. 1. Inspect the main power switch, battery posts,
and battery cables for loose connections and
4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent, corrosion. If the battery cables are corroded,
remove the replacement electronic unit injector remove the battery cables and clean the battery
and install the original electronic unit injector. cables. Clean the battery posts. Replace the
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic cables. Tighten any loose connections.
Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install. 2. Inspect the batteries.

i02414534
a. Charge the batteries.

Engine Will Not Crank b. Load test the batteries. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Battery - Test.

Starting Motor Solenoid or Starting


Probable Causes Circuit
Machine security system 1. Test the operation of the starting motor solenoid.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Electric Starting
Battery cables and/or batteries System - Test.

Starting motor solenoid or starting circuit 2. Check the wiring to the starting motor solenoid.

Starting motor and/or flywheel ring gear Starting Motor and/or Flywheel Ring Gear
Electrical power supply 1. Test the operation of the starting motor. Check the
wiring for the starting motor. Refer to Testing and
Internal engine fault Adjusting, Electric Starting System - Test.

Recommended Repairs 2. Inspect the pinion on the starting motor and the
flywheel ring gear for damage.
Machine Security System
Electrical Power Supply
1. Verify that the correct keyswitch is being used.
Turn the keyswitch to the ON position. Check the electrical power supply. Refer to
Troubleshooting, Electrical Power Supply Circuit -
2. Use the electronic service tool in order to check if Test.
the 1639-09 Machine Security System is active.
Verify that the lamp for the machine security Internal Engine Fault
system is on.
1. Remove the glow plugs. Refer to Disassembly
3. If the 1639-09 diagnostic code is active the and Assembly, Glow Plugs - Remove and Install.
machine security system is armed. Deactivate
the machine security system and try to start the 2. Attempt to rotate the crankshaft through 360
engine. degrees in both direction. If the crankshaft rotates
correctly but fluid is expelled from the hole for the
4. If the engine will not start use the electronic glow plug, investigate the cause of the fluid in the
service tool to check for logged diagnostic codes. cylinder.

5. Make repairs for all diagnostic codes. Ensure that 3. If the crankshaft rotates correctly and no fluid
the repair has eliminated the problem. is expelled, install the glow plugs. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Glow Plugs -
Remove and Install.
SENR9982-01 63
Troubleshooting Section

4. If the engine does not rotate in Step 2, disassemble 3. If diagnostic codes are present, the Electronic
the engine. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly. Control Module (ECM) must be programmed with
the correct information.
5. Inspect the internal components for the following
conditions: 4. If the repairs have not eliminated the fault proceed
to Air Intake System or Exhaust System.
Seizure
Air Intake System or Exhaust System
Broken components
1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped.
Bent components
2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable.
i02414535
3. Check the air intake and the exhaust system for
Excessive Black Smoke the following defects:

Blockages

Probable Causes Restrictions


Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and
Diagnostic codes hoses
ECM software 4. Make all necessary repairs to the engine.
Air intake system or exhaust system 5. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to
Valve Lash.
Valve lash
Turbocharger Valve Lash

Low compression (cylinder pressure) Ensure that the valve lash is correct. Reset the valve
lash if it is not correct. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
Individual malfunctioning cylinder Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust.

Electronic unit injectors If the repair does not eliminate the fault proceed to
Turbocharger.
Recommended Actions Turbocharger
Diagnostic Codes Note: The turbocharger that is installed on this
engine is a nonserviceable item. If any mechanical
Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic fault exists, except for the wastegate actuator, then
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before the turbocharger must be replaced. The wastegate
continuing with this procedure. actuator can be replaced.

ECM Software 1. Ensure that the mounting bolts for the turbocharger
are tight.
1. Connect the electronic service tool to the
diagnostic connector and check for the following 2. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not
conditions: blocked or restricted.

Check for the correct engine serial number 3. Check that the compressor housing for the
turbocharger is free of dirt, debris and damage.
Check for the correct arrangement number
4. Check that the turbine housing for the turbocharger
Check for the correct software is free of dirt, debris and damage.

2. Use the electronic service tool to verify any active 5. Check that the turbine blades rotate freely in the
diagnostic codes. turbocharger.
64 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

6. Ensure that the wastegate on the turbocharger is Individual Malfunctioning Cylinder


adjusted correctly. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
Wastegate - Inspect. If the wastegate actuator 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
is faulty, replace the wastegate actuator. Refer electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
to Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger - a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
Disassemble and Disassembly and Assembly, speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
Turbocharger - Assemble. the isolated cylinder is not operating under normal
conditions. If the isolation of a particular cylinder
7. If necessary, replace the turbocharger. Refer results in a reduction of engine speed that is less
to Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger than normal, this may indicate that the cylinder is
- Remove and Disassembly and Assembly, operating below normal performance. Investigate
Turbocharger - Install. the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault
8. Check that the repairs have eliminated the faults. on any cylinder that is operating below normal
performance.
9. If the repairs have not eliminated the fault proceed
to Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure). 2. If all cylinders have been checked and no
problems were detected proceed to Electronic
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Unit Injectors.

1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and Electronic Unit Injectors


Adjusting, Compression - Test .
1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders, electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
investigate the cause and rectify the cause. a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
Possible causes of low compression are shown the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating
in the following list: under normal conditions. If the isolation of a
particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
Loose glow plugs speed that is less than normal, this may indicate
that the electronic unit injector is operating below
Faulty piston normal performance.

Faulty piston rings 2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the
suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and
Worn cylinder bores Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.

Worn valves 3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Faulty cylinder head gasket Injector - Install.

Damaged cylinder head 4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent,
remove the replacement electronic unit injector
3. Perform all necessary repairs. and install the original electronic unit injector.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults. Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinder. 5. If the fault is not eliminated, refer to the
Troubleshooting Manual for your engine
application.
SENR9982-01 65
Troubleshooting Section

i02528860 Oil Level


Excessive Engine Oil 1. Check the oil level in the engine.
Consumption
2. If the oil level is high, check for contamination
of the oil with coolant. Refer to Troubleshooting,
Coolant in Engine Oil.
Probable Causes 3. If no contamination is identified, remove any
excess oil.
Misreading oil level
4. If the oil level is satisfactory, refer to Air Intake
Oil leaks and Exhaust System.

Engine crankcase breather Air Intake and Exhaust System


Oil level 1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped.
Air intake and exhaust system 2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable.
Turbocharger 3. Check the air intake and the exhaust system for
the following defects:
Low compression (cylinder pressure)
Blockages
Recommended Actions
Restrictions
Misreading Oil Level
Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and
1. Accurately measure the consumption of oil and hoses
fuel over a period of 50 engine hours.
4. Make all necessary repairs to the engine.
2. If the oil consumption is greater than 0.2% of the
fuel consumption, use the following procedure 5. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the
in order to investigate the cause of the high oil diagnostic code.
consumption.
6. If no faults are found, refer to Turbocharger.
Oil Leaks
Turbocharger
1. Check for evidence of oil leaks on the engine.
Note: The turbocharger that is installed on this
2. Rectify any oil leaks from the engine. engine is a nonserviceable item. If any mechanical
fault exists, except for the wastegate actuator, then
3. Check for evidence of oil in the coolant. the turbocharger must be replaced.

4. If no oil leaks are identified, refer to Engine 1. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not
Crankcase Breather. blocked or restricted.

2. Check the turbocharger for evidence of internal


Engine Crankcase Breather
oil leaks.
1. Check the engine crankcase breather for blockage
3. If necessary, replace the turbocharger. Refer
or restrictions.
to Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger
2. Check for excessive oil from the outlet of the - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
Turbocharger - Install.
breather.

3. Repair all defects. Verify that the repair has 4. Check that the repairs have eliminated the faults.
eliminated the fault.
5. If the repairs have not eliminated the fault proceed
4. If no faults are found, refer to Oil Level. to Low Compression (cylinder pressure).
66 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Low Compression (cylinder pressure) Failure of the primary speed/timing sensor


1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Compression - Test .
Recommended Actions

2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders, Diagnostic Codes


investigate the cause and rectify the cause.
1. Use the electronic service tool to check for any
Possible causes of low compression are shown diagnostic codes that may be related to high fuel
in the following list: consumption.

Loose glow plugs Misreading of Fuel Level


Faulty piston 1. Monitor the fuel consumption over a period of 50
engine hours. If the fuel consumption is excessive,
Worn piston rings perform the following procedure.

Worn cylinder bores Fuel Quality


Worn valves 1. The quality of the fuel that is used in the engine
will affect the rate of fuel consumption. Refer to
Faulty cylinder head gasket General Fuel Information in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities.
Damaged cylinder head
2. If the fuel is not of an acceptable quality, drain
3. Perform all necessary repairs. the fuel system and replace the fuel filters. Refill
the fuel system with fuel of an acceptable quality.
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults. Refer to the applicable sections in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
5. If the fault is not eliminated, refer to the
Troubleshooting Manual for your engine 3. If the fuel is of an acceptable quality, refer to
application. Quality of Oil.

i02528865 Quality of Oil


Excessive Fuel Consumption 1. The nominal viscosity of the lubricating oil that
is used in the engine will affect the rate of fuel
consumption. The viscosity of lubricating oil is
defined by the SAE grade of the lubricating oil.
Probable Causes The grade of the lubricating oil must be correct
for the ambient conditions. Lubricating oil that is
Diagnostic codes intended for use in high ambient temperatures
will have a negative effect upon the rate of fuel
Misreading of fuel level consumption in cold ambient temperatures. Refer
to Engine Oil in the Operation and Maintenance
Fuel quality Manual, Refill Capacities.

Quality of oil 2. The actual viscosity of the lubricating oil that is


used in the engine will change throughout the
Low engine temperature service life of the oil. Lubricating oil that is heavily
contaminated will have a negative effect upon the
Prolonged operation at idle speed rate of fuel consumption.

Engine operating speed 3. If the oil is not of an acceptable quality or if the


oil has exceeded the service life, drain the oil
Air intake and exhaust system system and replace the oil filters. Refill the oil
system with oil of an acceptable quality. Refer
Reduced pressure of intake air to the applicable sections in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
Excessive valve lash
SENR9982-01 67
Troubleshooting Section

4. If the oil is of an acceptable quality, refer to 1. Check the air intake system for leakage or
Operation in Cold Conditions. restrictions. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Air
Inlet and Exhaust System.
Low Engine Temperature
2. Check the exhaust system for leakage or
1. The operating temperature of the engine will affect restrictions. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Air
the rate of fuel consumption. Operation of the Inlet and Exhaust System.
engine below the correct temperature will increase
fuel consumption. Failure of the water temperature 3. Repair all defects. Verify that the repair has
regulator can prevent the engine from operating at eliminated the fault.
the correct temperature.
Reduced Pressure of Intake Air
2. If the engine operating temperature is low, check
the operation of the water temperature regulator. If 1. If the pressure of the intake air at the intake
the water temperature regulator does not operate manifold is lower than normal, either the speed
correctly, a new water temperature regulator must of the engine will need to be higher or more fuel
be installed. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, must be injected in order to produce the same
Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and power. Either of these conditions will increase the
Install. fuel consumption.

Prolonged Operation at Idle Speed Note: If the engine is equipped with a wastegate
regulator, low pressure in the air intake will create a
Prolonged operation of the engine at idle speed 526-07 diagnostic code.
increases fuel consumption.
2. Check the pipe from the outlet of the turbocharger
When the engine is operated at idle speed, the fuel compressor to the intake manifold for leaks. If
that is consumed provides no useful work. Prolonged necessary, repair any leaks.
operation at idle speed will cause a measurable
deterioration in the overall fuel consumption of the 3. Check for the correct operation of the wastegate in
engine. the turbocharger. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
Turbocharger Wastegate - Test.
Operation of the engine for long periods at idle
speed will cause a deterioration of the internal 4. If the turbocharger is suspected as being faulty,
components of the engine. A deterioration of the replace the turbocharger. Refer to Disassembly
internal components of the engine will increase fuel and Assembly, Turbocharger - Remove and
consumption. Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger -
Install.
Engine Operating Speed
Excessive Valve Lash
The operating speed of the engine will affect the rate
of fuel consumption. Excessive valve lash will cause a change in the
timing of the opening and closing of the inlet and
High engine speed will increase fuel consumption. exhaust valves. Excessive valve lash can cause
At high engine speeds, internal power losses in a reduction of the flow of combustion air into the
the engine increase and more power is required to engine. Reduced flow of combustion air will increase
drive the alternator and the fan. These power losses the fuel consumption rate.
increase fuel consumption.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, Excessive Valve
Lugging down the engine to a low engine speed will Lash.
increase fuel consumption. At low engine speeds, the
combustion efficiency of the engine is reduced. This Failure of the Primary Speed/Timing
will require more fuel to be used. Sensor
Air Inlet and Exhaust System If the primary speed/timing sensor fails, the engine
will continue to operate using the signal from the
Leakage of gas or an increased restriction in either secondary speed/timing sensor on the fuel rail
the air intake or the exhaust system can reduce pump. The secondary speed/timing sensor is less
the flow of combustion gas through the engine. A precise than the primary speed/timing sensor. Timing
change in the flow of combustion air into the engine differences between the secondary speed/timing
adversely affects combustion efficiency and the rate sensor and the primary speed/timing sensor may
of fuel consumption. cause an increase in fuel consumption.
68 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

1. Use the electronic service tool to check for 2. Check the components for the following
active diagnostic codes that relate to the primary conditions: abnormal wear, excessive wear,
speed/timing sensor. straightness, and cleanliness. If necessary, use
new parts for replacement.
2. If necessary, replace the primary speed/timing
sensor. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Note: If the camshaft is replaced, new valve lifters
Speed/Timing Sensor - Remove and Install. must also be used.

i02528868
Valve Lash
Excessive Valve Lash Adjust the valve lash of the engine. Refer to Testing
and Adjusting, Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust
for the correct procedure.

Note: This is not an electronic system fault.


i02414539

Probable Causes Excessive White Smoke


Lubrication
Valve train components Note: Some white smoke may be present during
cold start-up conditions when the engine is operating
Valve lash normally. If the white smoke persists, there may be a
fault.
Recommended Actions
Probable Causes
Lubrication
Coolant temperature sensor circuit
1. Remove the valve mechanism covers. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Valve Mechanism Low coolant temperature
Cover - Remove and Install for the correct
procedure. Glow plugs

2. Crank the engine and check the lubrication in the Fuel quality
valve compartment. Ensure that there is adequate
engine oil flow in the valve compartment. The Valve lash
passages for the engine oil must be clean.
Low compression (cylinder pressure)
Note: Do not run the engine without the valve
mechanism cover. Individual malfunctioning cylinder

Valve Train Components Recommended Actions


1. Inspect the following components of the valve Coolant Temperature Sensor Circuit
train:
1. Connect the electronic service tool to the
Rocker arms diagnostic connector.

Valve bridges 2. Monitor the display screen on the electronic


service tool in order to verify the presence of active
Pushrods diagnostic codes for the coolant temperature.
Refer to Troubleshooting, Engine Temperature
Valve lifters Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test.

Camshaft 3. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to


Low Coolant Temperature.
Valve stems
Rocker shafts
SENR9982-01 69
Troubleshooting Section

Low Coolant Temperature 3. Perform all necessary repairs.

Check that the water temperature regulator is 4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults.
operating correctly. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
Water Temperature Regulator - Test. 5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinder.
If the water temperature regulator is operating
correctly, refer to Glow Plugs. Individual Malfunctioning Cylinder
Glow Plugs 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
1. Check for proper operation of the glow plugs. a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Glow Plugs - speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
Test. the isolated cylinder is not operating under normal
conditions. If the isolation of a particular cylinder
2. If the repairs do not eliminate the fault refer to results in a reduction of engine speed that is less
Fuel Quality. than normal, this may indicate that the cylinder is
operating below normal performance. Investigate
Fuel Quality the cause of the fault on any cylinder that is
not operating. Investigate the cause of the fault
1. Check the diesel fuel for quality. Refer to Testing on any cylinder that is operating below normal
and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test. performance.

Note: Diesel fuel with a low cetane value is likely to 2. Rectify any faults.
cause white smoke.
i02414540
2. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
Valve Lash. Intake Air Temperature Is Too
Valve Lash
High
1. Ensure that the valve lash is correct. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, Engine Valve Lash -
Inspect/Adjust. Probable Causes
2. If the repair does not eliminate the fault proceed to High ambient air temperature
Low Compression (cylinder pressure).
Intake air restriction and/or high altitude
Low Compression (cylinder pressure)
Intake air from a heated area
1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Compression - Test . Intake manifold air temperature sensor and/or
circuit
2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders,
investigate the cause and rectify the cause. Insufficient ambient air flow over the engine

Possible causes of low compression are shown Reduced ambient air flow through the air charge
in the following list: cooler

Loose glow plugs Reduced flow of intake air through the air charge
cooler
Faulty piston
Recommended Actions
Faulty piston rings
High Ambient Air Temperature
Worn cylinder bores
1. Determine if the ambient air temperature is within
Worn valves the design specifications for the cooling system
and the air charge cooler.
Faulty cylinder head gasket
Damaged cylinder head
70 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

2. When the ambient temperature exceeds the 3. If the reading is not correct, replace the sensor
capability of the cooling system or the air charge with a sensor that is known to be good. Verify that
cooler, operate the engine at a reduced load or the fault is rectified.
operate the engine at a reduced speed.
Insufficient Ambient Air Flow over the
3. When possible, modify the cooling system and
the air charge cooler in order to make the system
Engine
suitable for local conditions.
1. If equipped, check the condition of the cooling fan
and the drive belt.
Intake Air Restriction and/or High Altitude
2. If equipped, check that the cooling fan is operating
Low air pressure at the air intake for the turbocharger correctly.
can be caused by a restriction in the air intake or a
high altitude. When the pressure of the intake air
is low, the turbocharger (if equipped) works harder Reduced Ambient Air Flow through the
in order to achieve the desired intake manifold Air Charge Cooler
pressure. This increases intake air temperature.
1. Check that the ambient air flow through the air
Measure the intake manifold pressure while the charge cooler is not obstructed.
engine is operating under load. For specific data,
refer to the Perkins Technical Marketing Information 2. Inspect the air charge cooler for contamination
for the engine. and/or bent fins or damaged fins.

Intake Air Restriction 3. If necessary, clean the air charge cooler.

1. Check for blocked air filters. Check for obstructions 4. If necessary, carefully straighten any bent fins on
in the air intake. the air charge cooler.

2. Replace the air filters or remove the obstruction Reduced Flow of Intake Air through the
from the air intake. Air Charge Cooler
High Altitude 1. Check for contamination in the air pipe that
connects the turbocharger to the air charge cooler.
Make sure that the settings for the engine are correct
for the altitude. a. If dirt is found in the air pipe from the
turbocharger to the air charge cooler, check
Intake Air from a Heated Area all of the air inlet pipes upstream of the
turbocharger for leaks.
1. Ensure that the air inlet system is not receiving
air from a heated area. b. Clean all contaminated air inlet pipes or replace
all contaminated air inlet pipes.
2. If necessary, relocate the air supply to the intake
manifold to the outside of the engine enclosure. c. Service the air cleaner and replace the air
cleaner element.
3. Check for air leaks in the pipe between the air inlet
and the inlet to the turbocharger compressor. 2. If a thick oil film is found in the air pipe, inspect the
turbocharger compressor housing. Examine both
Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor the inlet to the turbocharger compressor housing
and the outlet from the turbocharger compressor
and/or the Circuit
for oil.
1. Allow the intake manifold air temperature sensor
a. If oil is found in the inlet to the turbocharger
to cool and remove the sensor. Check the reading
compressor housing, the oil originates from the
for the intake air temperature. If the sensor is
operating correctly, the reading and the ambient engine crankcase breather.
temperature are approximately equal.
b. If oil is found in the outlet from the turbocharger
2. If the readings are approximately equal, reinstall compressor housing but oil is not found in
the inlet to the compressor housing, the oil
the sensor.
originates from the seals for the turbocharger
bearings.
SENR9982-01 71
Troubleshooting Section

i02518234 4. Inspect the battery wires from the ECM to the


battery compartment. Refer to the Schematic
Intermittent Engine Shutdown Diagram. Inspect the wires and the power relay.
Check the power and ground connections to the
ECM. Refer to the schematic diagram for more
information.
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine shuts
down completely and the engine must be restarted. 5. Select the Wiggle Test from the diagnostic tests
on the electronic service tool.
Probable Causes
6. Choose the appropriate group of parameters to
Diagnostic codes monitor.

Air Intake 7. Press the Start button. Wiggle the wiring harness
in order to reproduce intermittent faults.
Electrical connectors
Note: If an intermittent fault exists, the status will be
Fuel supply highlighted and an audible beep will be heard.

8. Repair any faults and ensure that the symptom


Recommended Actions has been cleared. If the symptom is still present,
refer to Fuel Supply.
Diagnostic Codes
Fuel Supply
Check for any event and active diagnostic codes on
the electronic service tool. Troubleshoot any active
codes or recently logged diagnostic codes before NOTICE
continuing with this procedure. Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
Air Intake
1. Check the air filter for blockage or restriction. 1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
gauge may be faulty.
2. Check the air intake duct for blockages or
restrictions. 2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is
in the full OPEN position.
Electrical Connectors
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check
1. Check for correct installation of ECM connectors for solidified fuel (wax).
at the following locations:
4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water
P1 ECM connector in the fuel.

P2 ECM connector 5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

P532 Fuel rail pump solenoid connector 6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight
and secured properly.
2. Refer to Troubleshooting, Electrical Connectors
- Inspect. 7. Check the fuel filters.

3. Inspect the battery wires from the ECM to the 8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
battery compartment. Refer to the Engine Wiring Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
Diagram. Inspect the wires and the power relay.
Check the power and ground connections to the 9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
ECM. Refer to Troubleshooting, Fuel Injection and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test.
Pump Circuit - Test for more information.
10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
Prime.

11. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Testing and


Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure - Test.
72 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02535522 3. If a fault is suspected with the ECM power and


ground connections refer to Troubleshooting,
Intermittent Low Power or Electrical Power Supply Circuit - Test.
Power Cutout
4. Verify that the ECM connections for the power and
ground connections at the fuel pump are correctly
connected.
Note: Use this procedure only if the engine does not
shut down completely. 5. Repair any faults and ensure that the faults have
been eliminated.
Probable Causes 6. If the repairs do not eliminate the faults, proceed
to Fuel Supply.
Diagnostic codes
Fuel Supply
Electrical connectors
1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
ECM connection gauge may be faulty.
Fuel supply 2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is
in the full OPEN position.
Intake manifold pressure
3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check
Recommended Actions for solidified fuel (wax).

NOTICE 4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water


Do not crank the engine continuously for more than in the fuel.
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again. 5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.

6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight


Diagnostic Codes and secured properly.

Check for active diagnostic codes and event codes 7. Check the fuel filters.
on the electronic service tool. Troubleshoot any
active codes before continuing with this procedure. 8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
Electrical Connectors
9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
1. Refer to Troubleshooting, Electrical Connectors and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test.
- Inspect.
10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
2. Repair the electrical connectors or replace the Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
electrical connectors. Prime.

3. Ensure that all the connector seals are in place 11. Check the fuel pressure. Start the engine and
and that the connectors have been correctly then use the electronic service tool to check
installed. that the pressure in the fuel rail is more than
18000 kPa (2610 psi).
4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the fault.
If the fault has not been eliminated proceed to 12. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to
ECM Connection. Intake Manifold Pressure.

ECM Connection Intake Manifold Pressure

1. Check that the P2/J2 connector is correctly 1. Use the electronic service tool to verify the intake
connected. manifold pressure.

2. Check that the P1/J1 connector is correctly 2. Turn the start switch to the ON position.
connected.
SENR9982-01 73
Troubleshooting Section

3. The intake manifold pressure should read Oil Specification


0 0.5 kPa (0 0.07 psi). If the intake manifold
pressure is not within the limits, perform the 1. Make sure that engine oil of the correct
following steps. specification is used. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Refill Capacities and
4. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. Recommendations.

5. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable. 2. If necessary, drain the oil system and refill the oil
system with engine oil of the correct specification.
6. Check the air intake and the exhaust system for Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
the following defects: Engine Oil and Filter - Change.

Blockages 3. If the fault is still apparent, refer to Engine Oil


Pressure Gauge.
Restrictions
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and
hoses 1. Check the actual engine oil pressure with a
calibrated test gauge. Compare the oil pressure
i02528979
reading from the electronic service tool to the
pressure on the test gauge.
Low Engine Oil Pressure
2. If no difference is noted between the indicated oil
pressures, refer to Engine Oil Filter.

NOTICE Engine Oil Filter


Do not operate the engine with low oil pressure.
Engine damage will result. If measured oil pressure is 1. Remove the engine oil filter. Refer to the Operation
low, discontinue engine operation until the problem is and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil and Filter
corrected. - Change.

2. Inspect the engine oil filter for evidence of


Probable Causes blockage.

Engine oil level 3. Install a new engine oil filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil
Oil specification and Filter - Change.

Engine oil pressure gauge 4. If the fault is still apparent, refer to Engine Oil
Cooler.
Engine oil filter
Engine Oil Cooler
Engine oil cooler
1. If oil flow or coolant flow through the oil cooler
Piston cooling jets is suspected of being low, replace the oil cooler.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Engine
Engine oil suction tube Oil Cooler - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Engine Oil Cooler - Install.
Engine oil pump
2. If the fault is still apparent, refer to Piston Cooling
Bearing clearance Jets.

Recommended Actions Piston Cooling Jets


Engine Oil Level 1. Inspect the piston cooling jets for damage.
Replace any piston cooling jet that appears to be
1. Inspect the engine oil level. If necessary, add oil. cracked, broken or missing. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Piston Cooling Jets - Remove
2. If the fault is still apparent, refer to Oil and Install.
Specification.
2. If no damage is found, refer to Engine Oil Suction
Tube.
74 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Engine Oil Suction Tube Turbocharger


1. Check the inlet screen on the oil suction tube Fuel supply
and remove any material that may be restricting
oil flow. Low compression (cylinder pressure)
2. Check the joints of the oil suction tube for cracks Individual malfunctioning cylinder
or a damaged joint that may allow air leakage into
the supply to the oil pump. Electronic unit injectors
3. If no faults are found, refer to Engine Oil Pump. Recommended Actions
Engine Oil Pump NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
1. Inspect the components of the engine oil pump for 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
excessive wear. Repair the oil pump or replace minutes before cranking the engine again.
the oil pump, if necessary. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Remove,
Disassembly and Assembly, Engine Oil Pump - Diagnostic Codes
Install and Disassembly and Assembly, Engine
Oil Relief Valve - Remove and Install. Check for active diagnostic codes on the electronic
service tool. Troubleshoot any active codes before
2. If no faults are found, refer to Bearing Clearance. continuing with this procedure.

Bearing Clearance ECM Parameters


Inspect the engine components for excessive bearing 1. Use the electronic service tool to make sure that
clearance or damaged bearings. If necessary, the FLS and FTS parameters have been correctly
replace the bearings and/or the components. Inspect entered.
the following components for excessive bearing
clearance: 2. Use the electronic service tool to ensure that the
correct mode was selected.
Crankshaft main bearings
3. Use the electronic service tool to verify that the
Connecting rod bearings correct engine rating has been provided.

Camshaft front bearing 4. Use the electronic service tool to verify the
maximum engine speed limit.
Idler gear bearing
5. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the
i02535524
performance problems.

Low Power/Poor or No 6. If the repairs have not eliminated the faults


proceed to Electrical Connectors.
Response to Throttle
Electrical Connectors
1. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position.
Probable Causes
2. Use the electronic service tool to verify that
Diagnostic codes the intake manifold pressure is 0 0.5 kPa
(00 0.070 psi). Check the 5 V sensor supply
ECM parameters for the intake manifold pressure. Refer to
Troubleshooting, 5 Volt Engine Pressure Sensor
Electrical connectors Supply Circuit - Test.

Air intake and exhaust system 3. Use the electronic service tool to verify the throttle
position status.
Valve lash
SENR9982-01 75
Troubleshooting Section

4. Run the engine until the speed is equal to the 2. Check that the oil drain for the turbocharger is not
maximum no-load speed. blocked or restricted.

5. Use the electronic service tool to make sure that 3. Check that the compressor housing for the
the throttle is set to reach the maximum no-load turbocharger is free of dirt and debris.
speed.
4. Check that the turbine housing for the turbocharger
6. If the maximum no-load speed can not be obtained is free of dirt and debris.
refer to Troubleshooting, Throttle Switch Circuit
- Test and Troubleshooting, Mode Selection 5. Check that the turbine blades rotate freely in the
Circuit - Test. turbocharger.

7. If the engine speed is erratic refer to 6. Ensure that the wastegate on the turbocharger is
Troubleshooting, Analog Throttle Position Sensor adjusted correctly. Refer to Testing and Adjusting,
Circuit - Test or Troubleshooting, Digital Throttle Wastegate - Inspect. If the wastegate actuator
Position Sensor Circuit - Test. is faulty, replace the wastegate actuator. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger -
8. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to Disassemble and Disassembly and Assembly,
Air Intake and Exhaust System. Turbocharger - Assemble.

Air Intake and Exhaust System 7. If necessary, replace the turbocharger. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, Turbocharger
1. Check the air filter restriction indicator, if equipped. - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
Turbocharger - Install.
2. Ensure that the air filter is clean and serviceable.
8. Check that the repairs have eliminated the faults.
3. Check the air intake and the exhaust system for
the following defects: 9. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to
Fuel Supply.
Blockages
Fuel Supply
Restrictions
1. Visually check the fuel tank for fuel. The fuel
Damage to the air intake and exhaust lines and gauge may be faulty.
hoses
2. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is
4. Make all necessary repairs to the engine. in the full OPEN position.

5. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to 3. If the temperature is below 0 C (32 F), check
Valve Lash. for solidified fuel (wax).

Valve Lash 4. Check the primary filter/water separator for water


in the fuel.
1. Check the valve lash and reset the valve lash, if
necessary. Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Engine 5. Check for fuel supply lines that are restricted.
Valve lash - Inspect and Adjust.
6. Check that the low pressure fuel lines are tight
2. If the repair does not eliminate the fault proceed and secured properly.
to Turbocharger.
7. Check the fuel filters.
Turbocharger 8. Check the diesel fuel for contamination. Refer to
Testing and Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test.
Note: The turbocharger that is installed on this
engine is a nonserviceable item. If any mechanical
9. Check for air in the fuel system. Refer to Testing
fault exists, except for the wastegate actuator, then
and Adjusting, Air in Fuel - Test.
the turbocharger must be replaced. The wastegate
actuator can be replaced.
10. Ensure that the fuel system has been primed.
Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Fuel System -
1. Ensure that the mounting bolts for the turbocharger Prime.
are tight.
11. Check the fuel pressure. Refer to Testing and
Adjusting, Fuel System Pressure - Test.
76 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

12. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to Electronic Unit Injectors
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure).
1. Use the electronic service tool to perform the
Low Compression (Cylinder Pressure) Cylinder Cut-out Test. Note if there is any
reduction in engine speed. If a reduction in engine
1. Perform a compression test. Refer to Testing and speed is not noted, the isolated electronic unit
Adjusting, Compression - Test . injector is not operating under normal conditions.
If the isolation of a particular cylinder results in a
2. If low compression is noted on any cylinders, reduction of engine speed that is less than normal,
investigate the cause and rectify any faults. this may indicate that the electronic unit injector is
operating below normal performance.
Possible causes of low compression are shown
in the following list: 2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the
suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and
Loose glow plugs Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.

Faulty piston 3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Faulty piston rings Injector - Install.

Worn cylinder bores 4. Repeat the test in 1. If the fault is still apparent,
remove the replacement electronic unit injector
Worn valves and install the original electronic unit injector.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
Faulty cylinder head gasket Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
Damaged cylinder head
5. If the fault is not eliminated, check for active
3. Perform all necessary repairs. diagnostic fault codes.

4. Ensure that the repairs have eliminated the faults. i02529009

5. If the repair does not eliminate the fault refer to Mechanical Noise (Knock) in
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders.
Engine
Individual Malfunctioning Cylinders
1. Use the electronic service tool to perform the
Cylinder Cut-out Test. Note if there is any Probable Causes
reduction in engine speed. If a reduction in engine
speed is not noted, the isolated cylinder is not Accessory equipment
operating under normal conditions. If the isolation
of a particular cylinder results in a reduction of Valve train components
engine speed that is less than normal, this may
indicate that the cylinder is operating below normal Pistons
performance. Investigate the cause of the fault on
any cylinder that is not operating. Investigate the Connecting rod and main bearings
cause of the fault on any cylinder that is operating
below normal performance. Recommended Actions
2. If all cylinders have been checked and no
faults were detected proceed to Electronic Unit Accessory Equipment
Injectors.
1. Isolate the source of the noise. Remove the
suspect engine accessory. Inspect the suspect
engine accessory. Repair the engine accessory
and/or replace the engine accessory if any defects
are found.

2. If the mechanical noise is still apparent, refer to


Valve Train Components.
SENR9982-01 77
Troubleshooting Section

Valve Train Components c. Fill the fuel system with fuel that meets the
standard in Operation and Maintenance
1. Remove the valve mechanism cover. Check the Manual, Fluid Recommendations.
following items for damage: camshaft, valve
springs, lifters, pushrods, and bridges. Thoroughly d. Prime the fuel system. Refer to Operation and
clean the valve train components. If the camshaft Maintenance Manual, Fuel System - Prime.
is being replaced, also replace the valve lifters.
Ensure that all of the valves move freely. Replace 3. If the fault is not eliminated, refer to Pistons.
any damaged parts.
Pistons
2. If the mechanical noise is still apparent, refer to
Pistons. 1. Inspect the pistons for damage and wear. Replace
any damaged parts.
Pistons
2. If the noise is still apparent, refer to Valve Lash.
1. Inspect the pistons for damage and wear. Replace
any damaged parts. Valve Lash
2. If the mechanical noise is still apparent, refer to 1. Refer to Troubleshooting, Excessive Valve Lash.
Connecting Rod and Main Bearings.
2. If the fault has not been eliminated, proceed to
Connecting Rod and Main Bearings Electronic Unit Injectors.

Inspect the connecting rod and main bearings. Electronic Unit Injectors
Also, inspect the bearing surfaces (journals) on the
crankshaft. Replace any damaged parts. 1. With the engine speed at a fast idle, use the
electronic service tool to isolate one cylinder at
i02529391
a time. Note if there is any reduction in engine
speed. If a reduction in engine speed is not noted,
Noise Coming from Cylinder the isolated electronic unit injector is not operating
under normal conditions. If the isolation of a
particular cylinder results in a reduction of engine
speed that is less than normal, this may indicate
that the electronic unit injector is operating below
Probable Causes normal performance.
Fuel quality 2. Remove the electronic unit injector from the
suspect cylinder. Refer to Disassembly and
Valve lash Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Remove.
Pistons 3. Install a new electronic unit injector. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Electronic unit injectors Injector - Install.

Recommended Actions 4. Repeat the test in 1. If the noise is still apparent,


remove the replacement electronic unit injector
Fuel Quality and install the original electronic unit injector.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic
1. Check the fuel quality. Refer to Testing and Unit Injector - Remove and Disassembly and
Adjusting, Fuel Quality - Test. Assembly, Electronic Unit Injector - Install.

2. If unsatisfactory fuel is found, perform the following


procedure.

a. Drain the fuel system.

b. Replace the fuel filters. Refer to the Operation


and Maintenance Manual, Fuel System
Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element -
Replace and Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fuel System Filter - Replace.
78 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting with a
Diagnostic Code
i02489089

Diagnostic Code Cross


Reference

Table 52
3rd Party
Device Flash
CDL Code Description
J1939 Code
Code
N/A No Diagnostic Code Detected N/A 551
0001-02 Cylinder #1 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 651-2 111
0001-05 Cylinder #1 Injector current below normal 651-5 111
0001-06 Cylinder #1 Injector current above normal 651-6 111
0001-07 Cylinder #1 Injector not responding properly 651-7 111
0002-02 Cylinder #2 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 652-2 112
0002-05 Cylinder #2 Injector current below normal 652-5 112
0002-06 Cylinder #2 Injector current above normal 652-6 112
0002-07 Cylinder #2 Injector not responding properly 652-27 112
0003-02 Cylinder #3 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 653-2 113
0003-05 Cylinder #3 Injector current below normal 653-5 113
0003-06 Cylinder #3 Injector current above normal 653-6 113
0003-07 Cylinder #3 Injector Not Responding 653-7 113
0004-02 Cylinder #4 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 654-2 114
0004-05 Cylinder #4 Injector current below normal 654-5 114
0004-06 Cylinder #4 Injector current above normal 654-6 114
0004-07 Cylinder #4 Injector not responding properly 654-7 114
0005-02 Cylinder #5 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect (C6.6 engine only) 655-2 115
0005-05 Cylinder #5 Injector current below normal (C6.6 engine only) 655-5 115
0005-06 Cylinder #5 Injector current above normal (C6.6 engine only) 655-6 115
0005-07 Cylinder #5 Injector not responding properly (C6.6 engine only) 655-7 115
0006-02 Cylinder #6 Injector erratic, intermittent, or incorrect (C6.6 engine only) 656-2 116
0006-05 Cylinder #6 Injector current below normal (C6.6 engine only) 656-5 116
0006-06 Cylinder #6 Injector current above normal (C6.6 engine only) 656-6 116
0006-07 Cylinder #6 Injector not responding properly (C6.6 engine only) 656-7 116
0041-03 8 Volt DC Supply voltage above normal 678-03 517
0041-04 8 Volt DC Supply voltage below normal 678-04 517
0091-02 Throttle Position Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 91-02 154
(continued)
SENR9982-01 79
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 52, contd)


3rd Party
Device Flash
CDL Code Description
J1939 Code
Code
0091-03 Throttle Position Sensor voltage above normal 91-03 154
0091-04 Throttle Position Sensor voltage below normal 91-04 154
0091-08 Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period 91-08 154
0100-03 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage above normal 100-03 157
0100-04 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor voltage below normal 100-04 157
0100-10 Engine Oil Pressure Sensor abnormal rate of change 100-10 157
0110-03 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage above normal 110-03 168
0110-04 Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor voltage below normal 110-04 168
0168-00 Electrical System Voltage high 168-00 422
0168-01 Electrical System Voltage low 168-01 422
0168-02 Electrical System Voltage erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 168-02 422
0172-03 Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage above normal 105-03 133
0172-04 Intake Manifold Air Temperature Sensor voltage below normal 105-04 133
0190-08 Engine Speed Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period 190-08 141
0247-09 SAE J1939 Data Link abnormal update rate - 514
0247-12 SAE J1939 Data Link failure - 514
0253-02 Personality Module erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 631-02 415
0261-11 Engine Timing Offset fault 637-11 143
0262-03 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage above normal 1079-03 516
0262-04 5 Volt Sensor DC Power Supply voltage below normal 1079-04 516
0268-02 Programmed Parameter Fault erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 630-02 527
0342-08 Secondary Engine Speed Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period 723-08 142
0526-05 Turbo Wastegate Drive current below normal 1188-05 177
0526-06 Turbo Wastegate Drive current above normal 1188-06 177
0526-07 Turbo Wastegate Drive not responding properly 1188-07 177
0774-02 Secondary Throttle Position Sensor erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 29-02 155
0774-03 Secondary Throttle Position Sensor voltage above normal 29-03 155
0774-04 Secondary Throttle Position Sensor voltage below normal 29-04 155
0774-08 Secondary Throttle Position Sensor abnormal frequency, pulse width, or period 29-08 155
1639-09 Machine Security System Module abnormal update rate 1196-09 426
1743-02 Engine Operation Mode Selector Switch erratic, intermittent, or incorrect 2882-02 144
1779-05 Fuel Rail #1 Pressure Valve Solenoid current below normal 1347-05 162
1779-06 Fuel Rail #1 Pressure Valve Solenoid current above normal 1347-06 162
1785-03 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor voltage above normal 102-03 197
1785-04 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor voltage below normal 102-04 197
1785-10 Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor abnormal rate of change 102-10 197
1797-03 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor voltage above normal 157-03 159
(continued)
80 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

(Table 52, contd)


3rd Party
Device Flash
CDL Code Description
J1939 Code
Code
1797-04 Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor voltage below normal 157-04 159
1834-02 Ignition Key Switch loss of signal 158-02 439
2246-06 Glow Plug Start Aid Relay current above normal 676-06 199
Event Codes
E172-1 High Air Filter Restriction 107-15 151
E194-1 High Exhaust Temperature 173-15 185
E232-1 High Fuel/Water Separator Water Level 97-15 -
E360-1 Low Oil Pressure - Warning 100-17 157
E360-3 Low Oil Pressure - Shutdown 100-01 157
E361-1 High Engine Coolant Temperature - Warning 110-15 168
E361-2 High Engine Coolant Temperature - Derate 110-16 168
E361-3 High Engine Coolant Temperature - Shutdown 110-00 168
E362-1 Engine Overspeed 190-15 141
E396-1 High Fuel Rail Pressure 157-00 159
E398-1 Low Fuel Rail Pressure 157-01 159
E539-1 High Intake Manifold Air Temperature - Warning 105-15 133
E539-2 High Intake Manifold Air Temperature - Derate 105-16 133
E2143-3 Low Engine Coolant Level 111-01 169

i02412499 i02493340

No Diagnostic Codes Detected CID 0001 FMI 02

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

A flash code 0551 indicates that there are no detected The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
faults in the system since the previous powering up. following condition:

System Response: Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 1
cylinder is out of limits.
This code will not appear on the electronic service
tool. The indicator lamps will flash the diagnostic Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
code. For more information on flash codes, refer to
Troubleshooting, Indicator Lamps. Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not
active.
Possible Performance Effect:
No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
None
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
There are no faults that require troubleshooting.
Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active.
Results:
No 0110 diagnostic codes are active.
OK STOP.
SENR9982-01 81
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit


injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring
If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active that is unique to the electronic unit injector will
diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot. operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
Possible Performance Effect: two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an
The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
is active. prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
that common wiring from operating.
Troubleshooting:
The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has
Data Incorrect - Test been logged but an open circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector.
Results:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
OK STOP. Solenoid Circuit - Test

Results:
i02493331

CID 0001 FMI 05 OK STOP.

i02498241

Conditions Which Generate This Code: CID 0001 FMI 06


This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open
circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring
for the electronic unit injector for No. 1 cylinder. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short
following condition: circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the
wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 1 cylinder.
A low current condition (open circuit) for each of
five consecutive attempts to operate The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions:
Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds.
A high current condition (short circuit) for each of
System Response: five consecutive attempts to operate

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds
will log the diagnostic code.
System Response:
Possible Performance Effect:
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
The engine will have low power and/or rough running. will log the diagnostic code.

Troubleshooting: Possible Performance Effect:

When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty The engine will have low power and/or rough running.
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. Troubleshooting:

When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty


electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.
82 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel
injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or system verification test.
the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector
will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None
operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the Results:
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a OK STOP.
short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
i02493341
that common wiring from operating.

The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the


CID 0002 FMI 02
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector. Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
Solenoid Circuit - Test following condition:
Results:
Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 2
cylinder is out of limits.
OK STOP.
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
i02518294
Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not
CID 0001 FMI 07 active.

No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.


Conditions Which Generate This Code: No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active.
delivering the correct amount of fuel.
No 0110 diagnostic codes are active.
System Response:
System Response:
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active
diagnostic code. diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log
the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot.
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the
electronic service tool. Possible Performance Effect:

Possible Performance Effect: The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code
is active.
The engine will be derated.
Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel Data Incorrect - Test
System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still
active, do the following procedure. Results:

Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer OK STOP.


to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
SENR9982-01 83
Troubleshooting Section

i02493335 i02498244

CID 0002 FMI 05 CID 0002 FMI 06

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short
circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the
for the electronic unit injector for No. 2 cylinder. wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 2 cylinder.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following condition: following conditions:

A low current condition (open circuit) for each of A high current condition (short circuit) for each of
five consecutive attempts to operate five consecutive attempts to operate

Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds. Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds
System Response: System Response:

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
will log the diagnostic code. will log the diagnostic code.

Possible Performance Effect: Possible Performance Effect:

The engine will have low power and/or rough running. The engine will have low power and/or rough running.

Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting:

When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.

An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit
injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or
that is unique to the electronic unit injector will the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector
prevent that individual electronic unit injector from will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a
open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
that common wiring from operating. that common wiring from operating.

The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
been logged but an open circuit will prevent the has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector. operation of the electronic unit injector.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test Solenoid Circuit - Test

Results: Results:

OK STOP. OK STOP.
84 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02518295 Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not


active.
CID 0002 FMI 07
No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active.
The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of
delivering the correct amount of fuel. No 0110 diagnostic codes are active.
System Response: System Response:
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log
diagnostic code. the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot.
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the Possible Performance Effect:
electronic service tool.
The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code
Possible Performance Effect: is active.
The engine will be derated. Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting: Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Data Incorrect - Test
Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel
System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still Results:
active, do the following procedure.
OK STOP.
Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer
to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly, i02493336
Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
CID 0003 FMI 05
Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel
system verification test.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Results: This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open


circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring
for the electronic unit injector for No. 3 cylinder.
OK STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
i02498318 following condition:
CID 0003 FMI 02 A low current condition (open circuit) for each of
five consecutive attempts to operate

Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds.


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
System Response:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following condition: If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
will log the diagnostic code.
Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 3
cylinder is out of limits. Possible Performance Effect:

Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active. The engine will have low power and/or rough running.
SENR9982-01 85
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting:

When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.

An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit
injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or
that is unique to the electronic unit injector will the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector
prevent that individual electronic unit injector from will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a
open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
that common wiring from operating. that common wiring from operating.

The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
been logged but an open circuit will prevent the has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector. operation of the electronic unit injector.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test Solenoid Circuit - Test

Results: Results:

OK STOP. OK STOP.

i02498247 i02518296

CID 0003 FMI 06 CID 0003 FMI 07

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of
circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the delivering the correct amount of fuel.
wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 3 cylinder.
System Response:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: If equipped, the warning light will come on. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
A high current condition (short circuit) for each of diagnostic code.
five consecutive attempts to operate
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the
Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds electronic service tool.

System Response: Possible Performance Effect:

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM The engine will be derated.
will log the diagnostic code.
Troubleshooting:
Possible Performance Effect:
Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel
The engine will have low power and/or rough running. System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still
active, do the following procedure.
86 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer i02493337


to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly, CID 0004 FMI 05
Electronic Unit Injector - Install.

Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel


system verification test. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open
circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring
Results: for the electronic unit injector for No. 4 cylinder.

OK STOP. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


following condition:

i02498354 A low current condition (open circuit) for each of


five consecutive attempts to operate
CID 0004 FMI 02
Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds.
System Response:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the will log the diagnostic code.
following condition:
Possible Performance Effect:
Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 4
cylinder is out of limits. The engine will have low power and/or rough running.
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active. Troubleshooting:
Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty
active. electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.
No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active. injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring
that is unique to the electronic unit injector will
Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active. prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit
No 0110 diagnostic codes are active. in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
System Response: wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an
open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log that common wiring from operating.
the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot.
The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the
Possible Performance Effect: electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has
been logged but an open circuit will prevent the
The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code operation of the electronic unit injector.
is active.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Troubleshooting: Solenoid Circuit - Test
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector Results:
Data Incorrect - Test

Results:
OK STOP.

OK STOP.
SENR9982-01 87
Troubleshooting Section

i02498249 i02518297

CID 0004 FMI 06 CID 0004 FMI 07

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of
circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the delivering the correct amount of fuel.
wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 4 cylinder.
System Response:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: If equipped, the warning light will come on. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the
A high current condition (short circuit) for each of diagnostic code.
five consecutive attempts to operate
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the
Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds electronic service tool.

System Response: Possible Performance Effect:

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM The engine will be derated.
will log the diagnostic code.
Troubleshooting:
Possible Performance Effect:
Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel
The engine will have low power and/or rough running. System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still
active, do the following procedure.
Troubleshooting:
Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer
When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. Electronic Unit Injector - Install.

An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel
injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or system verification test.
the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector
will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None
operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the Results:
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a OK STOP.
short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
i02489300
that common wiring from operating.

The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the


CID 0005 FMI 02
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector. Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
Solenoid Circuit - Test engines only.
Results: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following condition:
OK STOP.
Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 5
cylinder is out of limits.

Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.


88 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not Possible Performance Effect:
active.
The engine will have low power and/or rough running.
No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
Troubleshooting:
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty
Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active. electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.
No 0110 diagnostic codes are active.
An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit
System Response: injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring
that is unique to the electronic unit injector will
If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit
the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot. in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
Possible Performance Effect: wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an
open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
is active. that common wiring from operating.

Troubleshooting: The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the


electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector been logged but an open circuit will prevent the
Data Incorrect - Test operation of the electronic unit injector.

Results: Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector


Solenoid Circuit - Test
OK STOP.
Results:
i02489284
OK STOP.
CID 0005 FMI 05
i02489293

CID 0005 FMI 06


Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder


engines only. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring engines only.
for the electronic unit injector for No. 5 cylinder.
This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the
following condition: wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 5 cylinder.

A low current condition (open circuit) for each of The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
five consecutive attempts to operate following conditions:

Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds. A high current condition (short circuit) for each of
five consecutive attempts to operate
System Response:
Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
will log the diagnostic code.
SENR9982-01 89
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: Possible Performance Effect:

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM The engine will be derated.
will log the diagnostic code.
Troubleshooting:
Possible Performance Effect:
Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel
The engine will have low power and/or rough running. System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still
active, do the following procedure.
Troubleshooting:
Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer
When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. Electronic Unit Injector - Install.

An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel
injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or system verification test.
the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector
will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None
operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the Results:
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a OK STOP.
short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
i02489577
that common wiring from operating.

The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the


CID 0006 FMI 02
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the
operation of the electronic unit injector. Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
Solenoid Circuit - Test engines only.
Results: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following condition:
OK STOP.
Data from the electronic unit injector for the No. 6
i02489576 cylinder is out of limits.

CID 0005 FMI 07 Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.


Diagnostic codes 0001-05 and 0001-06 are not
active.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
engines only. No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active.
delivering the correct amount of fuel.
No 0110 diagnostic codes are active.
System Response:
System Response:
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active
diagnostic code. diagnostic code will be generated. The ECM will log
the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a snapshot.
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the
electronic service tool.
90 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit
injector from operating. An open circuit in the wiring
The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code that is unique to the electronic unit injector will
is active. prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
operating. On four cylinder engines, an open circuit
Troubleshooting: in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, an
Data Incorrect - Test open circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
Results: that common wiring from operating.

OK STOP. The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the


electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code has
been logged but an open circuit will prevent the
i02489582
operation of the electronic unit injector.
CID 0006 FMI 05 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector
Solenoid Circuit - Test

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Results:

This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder OK STOP.


engines only.
i02489584
This diagnostic code is designed to indicate an open
circuit (low current) in either the solenoid or the wiring CID 0006 FMI 06
for the electronic unit injector for No. 6 cylinder.

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


following condition: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

A low current condition (open circuit) for each of This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
five consecutive attempts to operate engines only.

Battery voltage is higher than 9 volts for 2 seconds. This diagnostic code is designed to indicate a short
circuit (high current) in either the solenoid or the
System Response: wiring for the electronic unit injector for No. 6 cylinder.

If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
will log the diagnostic code. following conditions:

Possible Performance Effect: A high current condition (short circuit) for each of
five consecutive attempts to operate
The engine will have low power and/or rough running.
Battery voltage above 9 volts for 2 seconds
Troubleshooting:
System Response:
When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors. will log the diagnostic code.

Possible Performance Effect:

The engine will have low power and/or rough running.


SENR9982-01 91
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting: Replace the suspect electronic unit injector. Refer


to Disassembly and Assembly, Electronic Unit
When an injector cutout test is performed, a faulty Injector - Remove and Disassembly and Assembly,
electronic unit injector will indicate a low reading in Electronic Unit Injector - Install.
comparison with the other electronic unit injectors.
Use the electronic service tool to perform the fuel
An electrical fault can prevent the electronic unit system verification test.
injector from operating. A short circuit in the wiring or
the ECM that is unique to one electronic unit injector Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None
will prevent that individual electronic unit injector from
operating. On four cylinder engines, a short circuit Results:
in common wiring within the ECM can prevent the
two electronic unit injectors that share that common OK STOP.
wiring from operating. On six cylinder engines, a
short circuit in common wiring within the ECM can
i02526589
prevent the three electronic unit injectors that share
that common wiring from operating. CID 0041 FMI 03
The ECM will continue to attempt to operate the
electronic unit injector after the diagnostic code
has been logged but a short circuit will prevent the Conditions Which Generate This Code:
operation of the electronic unit injector.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Injector following conditions:
Solenoid Circuit - Test

Results:
The 8 volt supply is more than 8.8 VDC for more
than one second.
OK STOP. The ECM has been powered for more than three
seconds.
i02489586
System Response:
CID 0006 FMI 07
The ECM will log the diagnostic code and the check
engine lamp will illuminate while this diagnostic code
is active.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Possible Performance Effect:
This diagnostic code is applicable to six cylinder
engines only. The engine may be limited to low idle.

The electronic unit injector is no longer capable of Note: The 8 volt supply may provide power to the
delivering the correct amount of fuel. digital throttle position sensor.

System Response: Note: The 8 volt supply provides power to the two
speed/timing sensors.
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) will log the Troubleshooting:
diagnostic code.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Note: The diagnostic code can be viewed on the Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
electronic service tool.
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:
OK STOP.
The engine will be derated.

Troubleshooting:

Use the electronic service tool to perform the Fuel


System Verification Test. If the diagnostic code is still
active, do the following procedure.
92 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02526590 System Response:


CID 0041 FMI 04 The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
code may be viewed on the electronic service tool.

Possible Performance Effect:


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The engine speed defaults to low idle or a
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the predetermined safe speed.
following conditions:
The engine will remain at this speed while the
The 8 volt supply is less than 7.2 VDC for more diagnostic code remains active.
than one second.
The reduction of speed is determined by the current
The ECM has been powered for more than three speed of the engine.
seconds.
When a fault is detected and the engine is above the
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active. predetermined safe speed, the engine will reduce
speed to the safe speed.
System Response:
When a fault is detected and the engine is below the
The ECM will log the diagnostic code and the check predetermined safe speed, the engine will match the
engine lamp will illuminate while this diagnostic code correct speed.
is active. An active diagnostic code may not cause
any noticeable effect on engine response unless the All throttle switch inputs are ignored by the ECM until
voltage drops below 6.5 VDC. the fault is repaired.
Possible Performance Effect: All throttle switch inputs will also be ignored by the
ECM until the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF
The engine may be limited to low idle. position and then back to the ON position.
Note: The 8 volt supply may provide power to the The engine will default to the limp home mode.
digital throttle position sensor.
If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the
Note: The 8 volt supply provides power to the two second throttle until the fault is repaired.
speed/timing sensors.
Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting:
Proceed to Test Step 1 if the engine is equipped
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital with a throttle switch.
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
Proceed to Test Step 2 if the engine is equipped
Results: with an analog throttle position sensor.

OK STOP. Test Step 1.


i02526591 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Throttle
Switch Circuit - Test
CID 0091 FMI 02
Results:

OK STOP.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Test Step 2.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has
detected an invalid combination of positions for the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog
multi-position switches. Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle
position sensor then the signal from the throttle idle
validation switch is invalid.
SENR9982-01 93
Troubleshooting Section

Results: Results:

OK STOP. OK STOP.

i02493481
Test Step 2.
CID 0091 FMI 03 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test

Results:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
OK STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions:
i02493487

ECM has been powered for at least 3 seconds. CID 0091 FMI 04
A signal voltage for the throttle position is above the
diagnostic upper limit that is set for the application.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The power supply for the throttle sensor is within
the expected range. The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects all of
the following conditions:
System Response:
The ECM has been powered for at least 3 seconds.
If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
logs the diagnostic code if the engine is running. The A signal voltage for the throttle position is below the
diagnostic codes can be viewed on the electronic diagnostic lower limit that is set for the application.
service tool. The ECM will return the engine to low
idle. The power supply for the throttle sensor is within
the expected range.
Possible Performance Effect:
System Response:
Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
is repaired. If equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM
logs the diagnostic code if the engine is running. The
Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until diagnostic codes can be viewed on the electronic
the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position service tool. The ECM will return the engine to low
and then back to the ON position. idle.
The engine will default to the limp home mode. Possible Performance Effect:
If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
second throttle until the fault is repaired. is repaired.
Troubleshooting: Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until
the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position
Monitor the configuration screen on the electronic and then back to the ON position.
service tool in order to determine the type of throttle
position sensor that is used on the engine. The engine will default to the limp home mode.
If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the
position sensor, proceed to Test Step 1. second throttle until the fault is repaired.
If the engine is equipped with a digital throttle position Troubleshooting:
sensor, proceed to Test Step 2.
Monitor the configuration screen on the electronic
Test Step 1. service tool in order to determine the type of throttle
position sensor that is used on the engine.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle
position sensor, proceed to Test Step 1.
94 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

If the engine is equipped with a digital throttle position Possible Performance Effect:
sensor, proceed to Test Step 2.
The engine will remain at low idle while the diagnostic
Test Step 1. code is active.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test is repaired.

Results: Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until


the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position
OK STOP. and then back to the ON position.

If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the


Test Step 2. second throttle until the fault is repaired.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Troubleshooting:
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
This diagnostic code indicates that the frequency of a
Results:
digital throttle signal is out of the normal range.
OK STOP. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
i02526592
Results:
CID 0091 FMI 08
OK STOP.

Conditions Which Generate This Code: i02526593

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


CID 0100 FMI 03
following conditions:

The signal frequency from the accelerator pedal Conditions Which Generate This Code:
position sensor is less than 150 Hz or the signal
frequency is greater than 1050 Hz for more than
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
two seconds. following conditions:
The ECM has been powered for at least three The signal voltage from the engine oil pressure
seconds. sensor is greater than 4.95 VDC for more than
eight seconds.
Diagnostic code 0091-03 is not active.
The ECM has been powered for at least two
Diagnostic code 0091-04 is not active. seconds.
Diagnostic codes for the 8 volt sensor supplies are The engine is not running or the engine coolant
not active.
temperature is greater than 38 C (100 F).
System Response: System Response:
Limp home mode is activated.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. If equipped,
the warning lamp will come on. The ECM will set data
The ECM sets the Throttle Position to 0%. DIAG
for engine oil pressure to the default value.
will be displayed next to the status for Throttle
Position on the electronic service tool. Note: The engine oil pressure that is displayed on
the electronic service tool is the default value for
If equipped, the warning light will be on. The
engine oil pressure. The default engine oil pressure
diagnostic code will be logged if the engine is is 600 kPa (87 psi). The electronic service tool
running. The diagnostic code will not be logged if the
will display Voltage Above Normal on the status
engine is cranking.
screens.
SENR9982-01 95
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: i02526595

None CID 0100 FMI 10


Troubleshooting:

This diagnostic code can be caused by an open Conditions Which Generate This Code:
circuit or a short to another power source.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine following conditions:
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
No other codes for the oil pressure sensor are
Results: active.

OK STOP. No 0262 diagnostic codes are active for the 5 volt


supply.

i02526594 The engine speed is greater than 600 rpm.


CID 0100 FMI 04 The engine oil pressure signal is within the limits of
410 kPa (59 psi) to 520 kPa (75 psi) with a pressure
variation of less than 1.68 kPa (0.25 psi)for more
than 30 seconds.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


The engine oil pressure signal remains constant
for 30 seconds.
following conditions:
System Response:
The signal voltage from the engine oil pressure
sensor is less than 0.1 VDC for more than eight If equipped, the warning lamp will be on.
seconds.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
The ECM has been powered for at least two code can be viewed on the electronic service tool.
seconds.
The ECM will flag the engine oil pressure as invalid
The engine is running. data.
System Response: The data for engine oil pressure is set to a default
value of 500 kPa (72 psi).
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. If equipped,
the warning lamp will come on. The ECM will set The electronic service tool will display Conditions
data for engine oil pressure to the default value. The Not Met on the status screen.
electronic service tool will display Voltage Below
Normal on the status screens. Possible Performance Effect:
Possible Performance Effect: None
None Troubleshooting:
Troubleshooting: This diagnostic code is designed to detect the loss
of the 5 volt supply to the sensor.
This code can be caused by a short to ground or a
shorted sensor. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test Results:
Results:
OK STOP.
OK STOP.
96 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02526596 The ECM has been powered for at least two


seconds.
CID 0110 FMI 03
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
System Response:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The ECM will default to 90 C (194 F) for engine
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the coolant temperature. Voltage Below Normal will
following conditions: be displayed next to the status for Engine Coolant
Temperature on the electronic service tool.
The signal voltage from the engine coolant
temperature sensor is greater than 4.95 VDC for If equipped, the warning light will come on. An active
more than eight seconds. diagnostic code will be generated after 8 seconds.
The diagnostic code will be logged if the engine has
The ECM has been powered for at least two been operating for more than 7 minutes. When the
seconds. diagnostic code is logged, the ECM will trigger a
snapshot.
System Response:
Possible Performance Effect:
If equipped, the warning light will be on. An active
diagnostic code will be generated after 8 seconds. Poor stability
The diagnostic code will be logged if the engine has
been operating for more than 7 minutes. Poor cold running
The ECM will default to 90 C (194 F) for engine White smoke
coolant temperature. Voltage Above Normal will
be displayed next to the status for Engine Coolant Troubleshooting:
Temperature on the electronic service tool.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Possible Performance Effect: Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test

Poor stability Results:

Poor cold running OK STOP.


White smoke
i02526598
Troubleshooting:
CID 0168 FMI 00
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

This condition indicates that the battery circuit to


OK STOP. the Electronic Control Module (ECM) has excessive
voltage while the engine is running.
i02526597
The ECM detects the following conditions:
CID 0110 FMI 04
For 24 VDC systems, the battery voltage to the
ECM exceeds 32 V for more than 0.5 seconds.
Conditions Which Generate This Code: For 12 VDC systems, the battery voltage to the
ECM exceeds 16 V for more than 0.5 seconds.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: The keyswitch is in the ON mode.
The signal voltage from the engine coolant The engine is not cranking.
temperature sensor is less than 0.2 VDC for more
than eight seconds.
SENR9982-01 97
Troubleshooting Section

The engine is running for more than 30 seconds. Troubleshooting:

System Response: Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Ignition


Keyswitch Circuit and Battery Supply Circuit - Test
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. If equipped,
the warning lamp may come on. Results:

Possible Performance Effect: OK STOP.


None
i02526600

Troubleshooting: CID 0168 FMI 02


Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Ignition
Keyswitch Circuit and Battery Supply Circuit - Test
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Results:
This condition indicates that the battery circuit for
OK STOP. the Electronic Control Module (ECM) is intermittent
while the engine is running. If the battery voltage
i02526599 disappears without returning, the ECM will not log
this diagnostic code and the engine will shut down.
CID 0168 FMI 01
The ECM detects the following conditions:

Three voltage readings that are below 6 VDC in a


Conditions Which Generate This Code: period of 7 seconds will be detected by the ECM.
The voltage must subsequently increase to more
This code indicates that the battery circuit for the than 9 VDC.
Electronic Control Module (ECM) has low voltage
while the engine is running. If battery voltage The keyswitch is in the ON position.
disappears without returning, the ECM will not log
this diagnostic code and the engine will shut down. The engine is running.
The ECM detects the following conditions: The engine is not cranking.
The keyswitch is in the ON mode. System Response:

The engine is not cranking. The ECM may stop injecting fuel. This may be
dependent on the length of time of the occurrence
The engine is running for more than three seconds. of the fault.

For 24 VDC systems, the battery voltage to the The check engine lamp and the warning lamp may
ECM is below 18 V for more than 0.5 seconds. come on as if the keyswitch was just turned on and
the engine started.
For 12 VDC systems, the battery voltage to the
ECM is below 9 V for more than 0.5 seconds. Possible Performance Effect:

System Response: The engine may experience changes in the engine


rpm, and intermittent engine shutdowns or complete
The ECM will log the diagnostic code and the ECM engine shutdowns while the conditions that cause
will trigger a snapshot. this diagnostic code are present.

The engine will derate 100 percent. Troubleshooting:

If equipped, the warning lamp may come on. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Ignition
Keyswitch Circuit and Battery Supply Circuit - Test
Possible Performance Effect:
Results:
The engine may experience changes in the engine
rpm, and intermittent engine shutdowns or complete OK STOP.
engine shutdowns while the conditions that cause
this diagnostic code are present.
98 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02526601 i02526602

CID 0172 FMI 03 CID 0172 FMI 04

Conditions Which Generate This Code: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: following conditions:

The signal voltage from the intake manifold air The signal voltage from the intake manifold air
temperature sensor is greater than 4.95 VDC for temperature sensor is less than 0.2 VDC for more
more than eight seconds. than eight seconds.

Engine coolant temperature is above 10 C The ECM has been powered for at least two
(15.0 F). seconds.

The ECM has been powered for at least two Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
seconds.
System Response:
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
The ECM will use the default value of 70 C (158 F)
System Response: for the intake manifold air temperature. Voltage
Low will be displayed next to the status for Intake
The ECM will use the default value of 70 C (158 F) Manifold Air Temperature on the electronic service
for the intake manifold air temperature. Voltage tool.
High will be displayed next to the status for Intake
Manifold Air Temperature on the electronic service If equipped, the warning light will be on. The ECM will
tool. log the diagnostic code.

If equipped, the warning light will be on. The ECM will Possible Performance Effect:
log the diagnostic code.
Poor stability
Possible Performance Effect:
Poor cold running
Poor stability
White smoke
Poor cold running
Black smoke
White smoke
Poor acceleration under load
Black smoke
Troubleshooting:
Poor acceleration under load
This fault can be caused by a sensor that is shorted
Troubleshooting: to ground or a sensor that is internally shorted.

This fault can be caused by an open circuit or a short Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
to a power source. Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine Results:


Temperature Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
OK STOP.
Results:

OK STOP.
SENR9982-01 99
Troubleshooting Section

i02493342 Troubleshooting:
CID 0190 FMI 08 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: CAN
Data Link Circuit - Test

Results:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
OK STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions:
i02527036
The ECM detected an intermittent loss of signal CID 0247 FMI 12
or a complete loss of signal from the primary
speed/timing sensor for 2 seconds.

The engine has been running for more than three Conditions Which Generate This Code:
seconds.

System Response: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


following conditions:
If equipped, the warning light will come on and the
diagnostic code will be logged. There is an unexpected loss of a continuous
J1939 Torque Speed Controller (TSC1) signal on
The ECM will use the signal from the secondary the J1939 data link.
speed/timing sensor.
The expected continuous TSC1 signal has never
Possible Performance Effect: been received on the J1939 data link.

The engine will be derated. If the signal from the System Response:
secondary speed/timing sensor is also lost, the
engine will shut down. Engine speed functions that are controlled through
TSC1 will be disabled until the fault is rectified and
Troubleshooting: the keyswitch is cycled through the OFF position and
the ON position.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test The engine speed will be reduced to a low idle. If
the engine is equipped with a secondary throttle,
Results: the engine speed will change to the speed that is
demanded by the secondary throttle.
OK STOP. The diagnostic code will be active and the diagnostic
code will be logged.
i02527035
Troubleshooting:
CID 0247 FMI 09
Check the configuration of the ECM. If the ECM for
the engine has been incorrectly configured to expect
a continuous TSC1 signal, remove Continuous for
Conditions Which Generate This Code: the TSC1 signal on the main J1939 screen on the
electronic service tool.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following condition: Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Use
the OEM information to determine the machine ECM
Another controller has stopped transmitting a that provides the continuous speed signal. Refer to
J1939 speed request (TSC1) incorrectly or another the troubleshooting procedures from the OEM to
controller has started transmitting a J1939 speed diagnose the faulty speed signal.
request incorrectly.
Results:
System Response:
OK STOP.
Some system functions may not operate correctly.
100 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

i02527037 System Response:


CID 0253 FMI 02 This code will not be logged. If equipped, the warning
light will be on when this code is active.

Possible Performance Effect:


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The pressure in the fuel rail may be unstable and the
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects engine may not run smoothly.
incorrect engine software.
Troubleshooting:
System Response:
Check the timing of the fuel rail pump. Refer to
If equipped, the warning light will come on. Disassembly and Assembly, Fuel Injection Pump
- Install.
This diagnostic code is not logged.
Results:
Factory passwords are required to clear this
diagnostic code. OK STOP.
Possible Performance Effect:
i02527039
The engine will not start.
CID 0262 FMI 03
Troubleshooting:

The flash file in the ECM is from the wrong engine


family. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Use the electronic service tool to install the correct The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
flash file into the ECM. Refer to the Troubleshooting following conditions:
Guide, Flash Programming.
The 5 volt supply is greater than 5.16 VDC for
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: None more than one second.

Results: The ECM has been powered for at least three


seconds.
OK STOP.
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
i02527038 System Response:
CID 0261 FMI 11 The ECM sets all of the pressure sensors and
temperature sensors to the default values.

The ECM will derate the engine.


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Possible Performance Effect:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: The engine will be derated.

The primary speed/timing sensor and the Troubleshooting:


secondary speed/timing sensor are off by more
than 8 crankshaft degrees. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: 5 Volt
Sensor Supply Circuit - Test
The engine has been running for more than five
seconds. Results:

Diagnostic code 0190-08 is not active. OK STOP.


No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
SENR9982-01 101
Troubleshooting Section

i02527040 System Response:


CID 0262 FMI 04 Note: The fault is not logged.

The electronic service tool will display a list of the


condition(s) on the Active Diagnostics screen that
Conditions Which Generate This Code: must be resolved. If equipped, the warning light will
come on.
The Engine Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: Possible Performance Effect:

The 5 volt supply is less than 4.84 VDC for more The ECM may limit the engine to low idle and/or the
than one second. ECM may derate the power. Engine performance and
emissions are affected.
The ECM has been powered for at least three
seconds. Troubleshooting:

Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active. Use the electronic service tool to correct parameters
that have not been programmed or parameters that
System Response: have been incorrectly programmed.
The ECM sets all of the pressure sensors and Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Flash
temperature sensors to the default values. Programming
The ECM will derate the engine. Results:
Possible Performance Effect: OK STOP.
The engine will be derated.
i02527042
Troubleshooting:
CID 0342 FMI 08
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: 5 Volt
Sensor Supply Circuit - Test

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


OK STOP. following conditions:

i02527041 The signal from the secondary speed/timing sensor


is lost and/or intermittent.
CID 0268 FMI 02
The signal from the secondary speed/timing sensor
was lost for at least 2 seconds while the signal
from the primary speed/timing sensor remained
Conditions Which Generate This Code: valid and the engine was running.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one or Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
more of the following conditions:
The engine has been running for more than 3
One or more of the following configuration seconds.
parameters are not programmed. The effect on the
ECM depends on the parameter. No 0041 diagnostic codes are active.
FLS or FTS System Response:

Injector trim codes The ECM will illuminate the warning lamp and the
code is logged.
Engine serial number
All of the injector trim files are not loaded into the
ECM. Engine performance and emissions are
affected.
102 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: i02527044

The performance will not be affected unless both CID 0526 FMI 06
speed signals are lost. The loss of the signals from
both speed/timing sensors will cause the ECM to shut
down the engine. The engine will not restart if the
signal from the secondary speed/timing sensor is lost. Conditions Which Generate This Code:

Troubleshooting: The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the


following conditions:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Speed/Timing Sensor Circuit - Test A high current condition in the output from the ECM
to the solenoid in the wastegate regulator
Results:
No 0168 diagnostic codes are active.
OK STOP.
System Response:

i02527043 The ECM will log the diagnostic code. If equipped,


the warning lamp will turn on once the diagnostic
CID 0526 FMI 05 code has been active for 30 seconds. After the derate
has been activated, the electronic service tool will
indicate Turbo Protection Derate Active.
Conditions Which Generate This Code: Possible Performance Effect:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code
following conditions: is active.
A low current condition in the output from the ECM Troubleshooting:
to the solenoid for the wastegate regulator
This diagnostic code indicates a fault in the circuit for
No 0168 diagnostic codes are active. the solenoid in the wastegate regulator. This problem
is most likely to be caused by a high side short to
System Response: ground or a low side short to power.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. If equipped, Perform the following diagnostic procedure:
the warning lamp will turn on once the diagnostic Wastegate Solenoid - Test
code has been active for 30 seconds. After the derate
has been activated, the electronic service tool will Results:
indicate Turbo Protection Derate Active.

Possible Performance Effect:


OK STOP.

The engine will be derated while this diagnostic code i02489717


is active.
CID 0526 FMI 07
Troubleshooting:

This diagnostic code indicates a fault in the circuit for


the solenoid in the wastegate regulator that is most Conditions Which Generate This Code:
likely to be an open circuit.
This diagnostic code indicates that the intake
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: manifold pressure is not being controlled correctly.
Wastegate Solenoid - Test
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) will detect the
Results: following conditions:

OK STOP. The ECM has been powered for more than 4


seconds.

Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.


SENR9982-01 103
Troubleshooting Section

No 1785 diagnostic codes are active. The engine will remain at this speed while the
diagnostic code remains active.
Diagnostic codes 0526-05 and 0526-06 are not
active. The reduction of speed is determined by the current
speed of the engine.
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
When a fault is detected and the engine is above the
Note: This diagnostic code will only appear if an predetermined safe speed, the engine will reduce
electronically controlled wastegate is installed. speed to the safe speed.

System Response: When a fault is detected and the engine is below the
predetermined safe speed, the engine will match the
If equipped, the warning lamp will come on and the correct speed.
ECM will log the diagnostic code.
Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
Possible Performance Effect: is repaired.

The engine may not reach top RPM. Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until
the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position
The engine produces excessive black smoke. and then back to the ON position.

The engine has low power. The engine will default to the limp home mode.

Troubleshooting: The engine will use the primary throttle only until the
fault is repaired.
When this diagnostic code is registered, the code
indicates that a mechanical problem exists in the Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Throttle
intake air system. The electronic part of the control Switch Circuit - Test
system will be operating correctly.
Results:
Perform the following diagnostic procedure:
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting Manual, OK STOP.
Turbocharger - Inspect
i02527049
Results:
CID 0774 FMI 03
OK STOP.

i02527048
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
CID 0774 FMI 02
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of
the following conditions:

Conditions Which Generate This Code: The ECM has been powered for 3 seconds.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
position for the throttle switch that has not been
defined. No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
System Response: The setting for the upper diagnostic limit has been
exceeded for 1 second.
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
code may be viewed on the electronic service tool. System Response:

The ECM will return the engine to low idle or to a safe The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
speed while the diagnostic code is active. code may be viewed on the electronic service tool.

Possible Performance Effect: The ECM will return the engine to low idle or to a safe
speed while the diagnostic code is active.
The engine speed defaults to low idle or a
predetermined safe speed.
104 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: The setting for the lower diagnostic limit has been
exceeded for 1 second.
Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
is repaired. System Response:

Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position code may be viewed on the electronic service tool.
and then back to the ON position.
The ECM will return the engine to low idle or to a safe
The engine will default to the limp home mode. speed while the diagnostic code is active.

If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the Possible Performance Effect:
second throttle until the fault is repaired.
Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
Troubleshooting: is repaired.

Monitor the configuration screen on the electronic Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until
service tool in order to determine the type of throttle the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position
position sensor that is used on the engine. and then back to the ON position.

If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle The engine will default to the limp home mode.
position sensor, proceed to Test Step 1.
If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the
If the engine is equipped with a digital throttle position second throttle until the fault is repaired.
sensor, proceed to Test Step 2.
Troubleshooting:
Test Step 1.
Monitor the configuration screen on the electronic
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog service tool in order to determine the type of throttle
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test position sensor that is used on the engine.

Results: If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle


position sensor, proceed to Test Step 1.
OK STOP.
If the engine is equipped with a digital throttle position
sensor, proceed to Test Step 2.
Test Step 2.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital Test Step 1.
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog
Results: Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test

OK STOP. Results:

OK STOP.
i02527050

CID 0774 FMI 04 Test Step 2.


Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Results:
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of
the following conditions: OK STOP.

The ECM has been powered for 3 seconds.


Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
No 0262 diagnostic codes are active.
SENR9982-01 105
Troubleshooting Section

i02527051 Test Step 1.


CID 0774 FMI 08 Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Analog
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test

Results:
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
OK STOP.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects one of
the following conditions:
Test Step 2.
The ECM has been powered for 3 seconds. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Digital
Throttle Position Sensor Circuit - Test
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
Results:
No 0262 codes are active for the analog sensors.
No 0041 codes are active for the digital (PWM) OK STOP.
sensors.
i02489777
Diagnostic codes 0774-03 and 0774-04 are not
active. CID 1639 FMI 09
The frequency of the signal from the digital (PWM)
sensor is less than 150 Hz for more than 1 second.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The frequency of the signal from the digital (PWM)
sensor is greater than 1050 Hz for more than 1 The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
second. following condition:

System Response: The ECM detects a loss of communications with


the Machine Security System (MSS).
The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
code may be viewed on the electronic service tool. System Response:

The ECM will return the engine to low idle or to a safe The ECM will log the diagnostic code. The diagnostic
speed while the diagnostic code is active. code can be viewed on a display module or the
electronic service tool.
Possible Performance Effect:
Possible Performance Effect:
Throttle inputs are ignored by the ECM until the fault
is repaired. The engine will not start.

Throttle inputs will also be ignored by the ECM until Troubleshooting:


the keyswitch has been turned to the OFF position
and then back to the ON position. Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Data
Link Circuit - Test
The engine will default to the limp home mode.
Results:
If a second throttle is installed, the engine will use the
second throttle until the fault is repaired. OK STOP.
Troubleshooting:
i02527056

Monitor the configuration screen on the electronic CID 1743 FMI 02


service tool in order to determine the type of throttle
position sensor that is used on the engine.

If the engine is equipped with an analog throttle Conditions Which Generate This Code:
position sensor, proceed to Test Step 1.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a
If the engine is equipped with a digital throttle position combination of switch positions for the mode switches
sensor, proceed to Test Step 2. that has not been defined.
106 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: i02527058

The ECM will return the engine to the last good mode CID 1779 FMI 06
selection or setting.

Possible Performance Effect:


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
The engine will start and the engine will default to the
previous mode selection. The engine may operate at This diagnostic code indicates that the Electronic
reduced speed or reduced power. This will depend Control Module (ECM) has detected a short circuit or
on the mode that is selected. high current condition in the solenoid for the fuel rail.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Mode System Response:


Selection Circuit - Test
If equipped, the warning light will come on and the
Results: ECM will log the diagnostic code.

OK STOP. Possible Performance Effect:

An electrical fault may prevent the provision of


i02527057 pressure to the fuel rail. This may result in the loss
of fuel injection. If the solenoid for the fuel rail pump
CID 1779 FMI 05 fails, it is likely that fuel will not be pumped into the
fuel rail. The engine will stop or the engine will not
start.
Conditions Which Generate This Code: Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Fuel
Rail Pump Solenoid - Test
This diagnostic code indicates that the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) has detected an open circuit Results:
or low current condition in the solenoid for the fuel rail.

System Response:
OK STOP.

If equipped, the warning light will come on and the i02527059


ECM will log the diagnostic code.
CID 1785 FMI 03
Possible Performance Effect:

An electrical fault may prevent the provision of


pressure to the fuel rail. This may result in the loss Conditions Which Generate This Code:
of fuel injection. If the solenoid for the fuel rail pump
fails, it is likely that fuel will not be pumped into the The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
fuel rail. The engine will stop or the engine will not following conditions:
start.
The ECM has been powered for two seconds.
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Fuel
Rail Pump Solenoid - Test The signal voltage from the intake manifold
pressure sensor is above 4.95 VDC for at least
Results: two seconds.

OK STOP. This diagnostic code can be caused by an open


circuit or a short to another power source.
SENR9982-01 107
Troubleshooting Section

System Response: For engines with an electronically controlled


wastegate, the current for the wastegate solenoid
If equipped, the warning light will be on. The ECM will be set to a default value while this code is active.
will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a This will cause the engine to have poor acceleration
snapshot. The data for the intake manifold pressure but the default setting will prevent any overpressure
will be set to a maximum valid pressure for two in the intake manifold which could be caused by an
seconds. The ECM will then flag the intake manifold overspeed of the turbocharger.
pressure as being invalid. A default value is then
used for the intake manifold pressure. Possible Performance Effect:

For engines with an electronically controlled None


wastegate, the current for the wastegate solenoid
will be set to a default value while this code is active. Troubleshooting:
This will cause the engine to have poor acceleration
but the default setting will prevent any overpressure Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
in the intake manifold which could be caused by an Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
overspeed of the turbocharger.
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:
OK STOP.
None
i02527061
Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine


CID 1785 FMI 10
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test

Results: Conditions Which Generate This Code:


OK STOP. This diagnostic code is designed to detect the loss of
the 5 volt supply at the sensor connector.
i02527060
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
CID 1785 FMI 04 following conditions:

The engine speed is more than 1000 rpm.


Conditions Which Generate This Code: The intake manifold pressure is within the
acceptable range.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: No 0262 codes for the 5 volt supply are active.
The signal voltage from the intake manifold Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
pressure sensor is less then 0.2 VDC for at least
two seconds. System Response:

The ECM has been powered for two seconds. If equipped, the warning light will be on. The ECM
will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger
This code can be caused by a short to ground or a snapshot. The ECM will flag the intake manifold
a shorted sensor. pressure as being invalid. A default value is used for
the intake manifold pressure.
The keyswitch is in the ON position so that the
ECM is energized. For engines with an electronically controlled
wastegate, the current for the wastegate solenoid
System Response: will be set to a default value while this code is active.
This will cause the engine to have poor acceleration
If equipped, the warning light will be on. The ECM but the default setting will prevent any overpressure
will log the diagnostic code. The ECM will trigger a in the intake manifold which could be caused by an
snapshot. The data for the intake manifold pressure overspeed of the turbocharger.
will be set to a maximum valid pressure for two
seconds. The ECM will then flag the intake manifold Note: Any open circuits or short circuits in the signal
pressure as being invalid. A default value is then wire for the oil pressure may reset this diagnostic.
used for the intake manifold pressure.
108 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Possible Performance Effect: i02527063

The engine will be derated. CID 1797 FMI 04


Troubleshooting:

This diagnostic code is designed to detect the loss of Conditions Which Generate This Code:
the 5 V supply to the sensor.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine following conditions:
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
No 0262 codes for the 5 volt supply are active.
Results:
Diagnostic code 0168-01 is not active.
OK STOP.
The signal voltage for the pressure in the fuel rail is
less than 0.2 V for 0.6 seconds.
i02527062
System Response:
CID 1797 FMI 03
If equipped, the warning lamp will be on. The ECM
will log the diagnostic code. The electronic service
tool will display 70000 kPa next to Desired Fuel
Conditions Which Generate This Code: Rail Pressure and Actual Fuel Rail Pressure on
the status screens.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
following conditions: Possible Performance Effect:
The signal voltage for the pressure in the fuel rail is The engine will be derated.
more than 4.8 V for 0.6 seconds.
Troubleshooting:
System Response:
This diagnostic code can be caused by a loss of the
If equipped, the warning lamp will be on. The ECM 5 V supply or a short to ground on the signal wire.
will log the diagnostic code. The electronic service
tool will display 70000 kPa next to Desired Fuel Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine
Rail Pressure and Actual Fuel Rail Pressure on Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
the status screens.
Results:
Possible Performance Effect:

The engine will be derated.


OK STOP.

Troubleshooting: i02527064

This code can be caused by a loss of reference CID 1834 FMI 02


ground, an open signal wire or a short to a voltage
source.

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Engine Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Pressure Sensor Open or Short Circuit - Test
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects the
Results: following condition:

OK STOP. The signal from the keyswitch was erratic because


the keyswitch was cycled at least three times within
the last second.
SENR9982-01 109
Troubleshooting Section

Note: This code can be generated by rapidly Troubleshooting:


cycling the keyswitch. Some control modules on
the application may require this action in order to Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Starting
prompt flash codes. If this occurs, clear the logged Aid (Glow Plug) Relay Circuit - Test
diagnostic codes in order to prevent future confusion
or an incorrect diagnosis. Results:

System Response: OK STOP.


The ECM will log the diagnostic code and the warning
lamp will come on while this diagnostic code is active.
The ECM will stop energizing the injector solenoids
and the engine will shut down.

Possible Performance Effect:

Engine shutdown

Troubleshooting:

Perform the following diagnostic procedure: Ignition


Keyswitch Circuit and Battery Supply Circuit - Test

Results:

OK STOP.

i02527065

CID 2246 FMI 06

Conditions Which Generate This Code:

The Electronic Control Module (ECM) has detected a


high current condition (short circuit) after attempting
to activate the glow plug starting aid.

The ECM detects the following conditions:

The engine is not cranking.


The ECM has been powered for at least 1 second.
There is a high current condition (short circuit) for
more than 2 seconds.

System Response:

The ECM will log the code. An ECM that was


previously blank will require a total of 2 hours of
operation before the diagnostic code will be logged. If
equipped, the warning light will come on. The ECM is
unable to activate the relay for the glow plug starting
aid. The glow plugs will not operate or the glow plugs
will operate all the time.

Possible Performance Effect:

The engine may be difficult to start in cold


temperatures and the exhaust may emit white smoke.
110 SENR9982-01
Troubleshooting Section

Troubleshooting with an Troubleshooting:

Event Code The event code may represent a problem with


the electronic system. This event code normally
indicates high air filter restriction. Refer to Testing
i02411237 and Adjusting Manual, Air Inlet and Exhaust System
Event Codes - Inspect.

Results:

The ECM can log events. Events refer to engine OK STOP.


operating conditions such as low oil pressure or high
coolant temperature. Logged events usually indicate i02502980
a mechanical problem instead of an electronic
system problem. E194 High Exhaust
Note: If a diagnostic code has already been logged
Temperature
then any associated event code to that fault will not
be logged as well.
Conditions Which Generate This Code:
i02539780
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the
E172 High Air Filter Restriction following parameters in order to estimate the exhaust
temperature:

Intake manifold air temperature


Conditions Which Generate This Code:
Barometric pressure
This event code will only be generated if the switch for
the air filter restriction is installed and the customer Engine speed
programmable feature is enabled.
High intake manifold air temperature, high altitude
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) detects a operation, and high engine loads can cause the
problem with the air flow. If the air flow has been exhaust temperature to increase to a level that may
restricted for more than thirty seconds, the ECM will damage the components of the exhaust system.
generate this code. When this occurs, the ECM derates the engine
in order to reduce the exhaust temperature. This
Note: This code is generated only when the engine is protects the components of the exhaust system from
running. This event code will become inactive when damage.
the restriction decreases for more than 5 seconds.
System Response:
System Response:
The code is logged. Passwords are not required in
The event code will be logged. order to clear the logged code.

The optional warning lamp will be illuminated. Possible Performance Effect:

Possible Performance Effect: Engine power is reduced.

E172-1 Test Step 1. Determine the Operating