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Chapter 1

MACHINE FOUNDATION

DESIGN COMPUTATIONS

ENGINE SPECIFICATION:

Brand ABC DZC26 (ANGLO BELGIAN CORPORATION): Diesel Generator Set:

Model: 16V26DZC

Engine Power 5,440 KW

Generator Power 5,250 KWe

Speed 1000 rpm

Frequency 60 Hz

Bore 260 mm or 10.24 in

Stroke 320 mm or 12.60 in

DIMENSIONS:

(L) Overall length: 9,700 mm or 381.889 in.

(H) - Overall height: 3,970 mm or 156.30 in

(W) Overall Width: 2,408 mm or 94.80 in

Overall weight = 70,000 kg or 70 tons


DESIGN OF GENSET FOUNDATION

Solving for the weight of the machine foundation, W f ;

Wf = W fb x Pb (Morse, PPE pg. 109)

Where:

Wf = total weight of foundation

Pb = brake power

W fb = weight of foundation/brake(mHP)

Converting brake power/engine power to Metric Horsepower first, (mHP) Pb ;

Where:

1 mHP = 0.7355 KW

Engine Power = 5,440 kWm

1 mHP
Pb = 5,440 KW
0.7355 KW
Pb = 7,396.33 mHP

From:

Table 4-5. WEIGHT OF THE MACHINE FOUNDATION PER BRAKE METRIC

HORSEPOWER (PPE by MORSE pg. 108)

Prime mover Single cylinder Multi-cylinder


Gas engine 1135 kg 730 kg
Diesel engine 910 kg 570 kg
Steam engine 320 kg 230 kg
Steam turbine Not to exceed permissible deflection as stated by turbine

manufacturer

Therefore, for diesel engine and multiple cylinder, WFB = 570 kg/bmHP

Then:

570 kg
Wf = 7,396.33 mHP 1 mHP

W f =4,215,908.1 kg

` But this value is suitable to dampen vibration almost completely as stated from the

handbook of Morse page 108.

It is stated from the handbook of Morse that, the concrete foundations yielded by the

application of the table 4-5 data are sometimes grotesquely huge, obviously unnecessary for the

average installation. The data should be regarded as the extreme upper limit of necessary

foundation weight and be decreased appropriately when complete dampening is unnecessary.

In other words, the calculated weight of foundation is too much expensive and very large

amount of weight. For this reason the weight of foundation must be decreased to have an actual
dampening for machine foundation. In this design, the designers prefer to use the formula in the

PME code which states that the foundation mass should be 3 to 5 times the weight of the

machinery.

REDUCED WEIGHT OF FOUNDATION, WF

WF= 5(Weight of Gen. Set)

WF= 5(70,000 kg)

WF= 350,000 kg or 350 tons

LAY OUT OF MACHINE FOUNDATION

Solving for the volume of foundation, Vf

Reduced weight of foundation


Vf = weight per cu . meter ( table 4.1 by morse)

350,000 kg
Vf = t 1000 kg
2.66 3 x
m 1t

Vf = 131.58 m3
From PPE by MORSE pg. 90

The foundation should be concrete of 1 part cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts broken

stone or gravel (maximum of 50 mm); the entire foundation should be poured at one time with

no interruption than are required for spading and ramming. The top should be level and left

rough for grouts. After pouring, the top should be covered and wet down twice daily until the

forms are removed at the end of the third and fourth day.

Therefore use 1:3:5 concrete mixture for machine foundation.

From table 4-1 by Morse pg 90. Data on concrete mixes to yield 1 cu. Meter concrete.

mixture Cement Sand, Stone, application Weight, Safe comp.

sack m3 m3
t/m3 stress
1:3:5 6.2 0.52 0.86 Foundations and 2.66 218.73

footings
For 1:3:5 ratio, Weight per cu meter = 2.66 tons/m3

Converting the dimensions of the Gen. Set to meter;

39.37
Bedplate length = 381.889 in. 1m = 9.7 m

39.37
Bedplate width = 94.80 in 1m = 2.41 m

39.37
Over all height = 156.30 in 1m = 3.97 m

Solving for the length of foundation, Lf;

Lf = LB + C
Where:

Lf = length of foundation

LB = length of bedplate

C = clearance or 10% of the bedplate.

The designer decided to have a 10% clearance in both sides of the Gen. Set to make

service and maintenance easier.

Lf = LB + 0.10 LB

Lf = 9.7 m + 2(0.10 x: 9.7m)

Lf = 11.64 m

Bearing stress is the stress cause by the force which is perpendicular to the resisting area

(Ab). The formula above can be used in solving the lower width of the machine foundation

because the total weight of unit and its foundation is projected vertically downward and it is

perpendicular to the resisting area of the soil as shown in the figure.


From table 4-4. (PPE by Morse pg.105)

Table 4-4. SAFE BEARING POWER OF SOILS


Type of soils Tonnes/m2
Native rock 1950 up
Ashlar masonry 245-290
Best brick masonry 145-195
Common brick masonry 50-98
Clay, compact 50-78
Clay, soft 9.5-19.5
Gravel and sand 78-98
Sand 19.5-58.5
Quicksand, loam, etc. 5-9.5

If the type of soil in a resisting area is assumed to be Common brick masonry, then safe

bearing power of soil will be in the range of 145-195 tons per square meter. Say use the average

value which is 170 tons/m2

Then, Sb = 170 tons/m2

Solving for the lower width of the machine foundation, b

Fb WT
Sb = Ab = Ab

Where: Sb = safe bearing power of soil

WT = total weight of unit and foundation

Fb = WT = perpendicular force to the resisting area

Ab = resisting area = bxLf

b = lower width of foundation

Lf = length of foundation

From PPE by Morse pg. 108


It is stated that, safe bearing power of soils for machine foundation are from quarter to

half of those in table 4-4, depending on the machine.

In this design, the designers decided to use half of those in table 4-4.

Then,

tonnes 1 1000 kg
Sb = 170 m2 x 2 x 1 tonnes

kg
Sb = 85,000 m2

Solving for lower width of foundation, b

WT
Sb = bx Lf

W +W f '
b= S b x Lf

70,000 kg +350,000 kg
b= kg
85,000 2 x 11.64 m
m

b = 0.4245 m

Solving for the upper width of the foundation, a;

a=W+C

Where:

a = upper width of the foundation

C = clearance or 10% of the bedplate

W = width of bedplate
But since W is not given use engine width.

a = 2.408 m + 2(0.10 x 2.408 m)

a = 2.8896 m

Since the lower width b comes out to be less than the upper width a, therefore it is
customary to make b equal to a, and so the foundation has a rectangular cross-section.

NOTE:

If b>a, then the foundation is a trapezoidal cross section,

If b<a, then; let: b=a, which means that the foundation is a rectangular cross section.

Therefore, b=a=3.7188 m.

Fig.

Height of Rectangular Foundation, h


VF = [ ]
a+ b
2
xhxL where: V f = volume of foundation

But a = b L = length of foundation

Vf
h=
( a+b2 ) L
Vf
h=
( a+a2 ) L
Vf
h=
( 22a ) L
Vf
h= ( a) L

Substituting values:

3
131.58 m
h= ( 2.8896 ) (11.64) m2

h = 3.91 m

Area of Rectangular Foundation, AF


AF = LF x a

AF = 11.64m (2.8896m)

2
AF = 33.64 m

Net Weight Imposed by the Machine and Foundations on Soil, Wnet

Wnet = WT + WF

Wnet = (70 + 350) tons

Wnet = 420 tons or 420,000 kg

Stress Imposed by the Machine and Foundation on Soil, Si

W net
Si = AF

420tons
Si = 33.64 m
2

2
Si = 12.50 tons/ m
Foundation Factor of Safety, Fs

Sb
Fs = Si

85 tons /m2
Fs = 12.50 tons/m 2

Fs = 6.8

Based on the foregoing computation the foundation is calculated to be safe since its

factor of safety exceeds the allowable factor of safety discussed in Philippine Mechanical

Code, 2008 Edition, Chapter 2, Sec. 4, Art. 4.1 c, which is 5.

FOUNDATION MATERIAL CALCULATION

Design Data and Information from PPE by Morse, Table 4-1, Pg. 90

Application Foundation and Footing

Mixture 1:3:5

Cements, Sacks 6.2

3
Sand, m 0.52

3
Stone, m 0.86

t
Weight, m3 2.66
Safe comp. stress 218.73

Computed Dimensions of Rectangular Foundation

Length, L 11.64 m

Width, a 2.8896 m

Height, h 3.91 m

2
Area, AF 33.64 m

3
Volume, VF 131.58 m

Number of Sacks of Cements to be used

3
No. of sacks = VF x 6.2 sacks/ m

3
No. of sacks = 131.58 (6.2) sacks/ m

No. of sacks = 815.796 sacks

No. of sacks 816 sacks

Volume of Sand to be used

3
Vol. of sand = VF (0.52 m )

Vol. of sand = 131.58 (0.52)

3
Vol. of sand = 68.4216 m
3
Vol. of sand 68 m

Volume of Stone to be used

3
Vol. of stone = VF (0.86 m )

Vol. of stone = 131.58 (0.86)

3
Vol. of stone = 113.1588 m

3
Vol. of stone 113 m

Quantity of Anchor bolts:

Assuming that it takes 3 pcs of bolt for every meter of bedplate.

Quantity of bolts = 2(W + L) x 3pcs/m

Where:

W = width of bedplate

L = length of bedplate

Substituting:

Quantity of Bolts = 2(2.8896m + 11.64m) x 3 pcs/m


Quantity of Bolts = 87.1776 pcs.

Say use: 87 pcs

For Anchor Bolts Distance:

From PME Code,

Quantity of bolts/2
Da =
length of the bedplate

87/2
Da = = 3.74 m
11.64 m

Diameter of pipe sleeve:

For the dimension of pipe sleeve, say 80 mm nominal diameter, 610 mm long, and 3.2

mm thick steel pipe as pipe sleeves (From PMC, Appendix I, Table I4, page 392). Assuming that,

it takes 3pcs of bolts every meter of bedplate, such that,

Knowing the number of bolts used solved for the total length of pipe sleeve,

Total Length of Pipe Sleeve = 610 mm x 87 pcs

Total Length of Pipe Sleeve = 53,070 mm. pcs = 174.1138ft

Divided by the standard length of steel pipe which is 20 ft. per piece, the quantity of steel

Pipe or sleeve will be,


174.1138 ft
Quantity of Steel Pipe = 20 ft / pcs

Quantity of Steel Pipe = 9 pcs

The total length of square plate stopper as assumed 130 mm wide,

Total Length of Square Plate Stopper = 130 mm/pcs x 87 pcs

Total Length of Plate Stopper = 11,310 mm or 37.11ft

Divided by the standard length available in the market which is 20ft. per piece, so that,

37.11 ft
Quantity of Square Plate Stopper = 20 ft / pcs

Quantity of Square Plate Stopper = 2 pcs


MATERIAL AND COST ESTIMATE

UNIT COST TOTAL COST


QUANTITY UNIT DESCRIPTION
(Php) (Php)
816 sacks Portland Cement 250.00 204,000.00
68 m3 Sand 553.00 37,604.00
113 m3 Stone 855.00 96,615.00
40 pcs plywood 458.00 18,320.00
122 pcs 2x3x12 lumber 38.00 4,636.00
2.2 kg 2 common nail 45:00 99.00
12 kg 4common nail 67.00 804.00
281 pcs 16 mm steel bar 138.00 38,778.00
10 kg G.I wire 83.00 830.00
87 pcs 3 anchor bolt 1027.00 89,349.00
9 pcs 7x20 pipe sleeve 2153.00 19,377.00
2 pcs 113x20sq. plate stopper 1895.00 3,790.00
Total Price P 514,202.00
Total Cost of Foundation,

Total Cost of Foundation = Total Price per Foundation x No. of Foundation

Total Cost of Foundation = P 514,202.00 x 2 (units)


Total Cost of Foundation = P 1,028,404.00