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Introduction

The Woodlands Cemetery was founded in 1840 with the goals that “the beautiful landscape and scenery of that situation [Hamilton’s estate] may be perpetually preserved.” Today, it contains more than 30,000 graves.Many famous and notable people are buried at the Woodlands.

Each year, the students of Julia R. Masterman’s eleventh grade Advanced Placement United States History course partners with the Woodlands Cemetery in West Philadelphia to work on an extensive research project.It is an in-depth, group research project on an individual who was put to rest at The Woodlands.The Woodlands has been described as “a garden of biographies” and the goal of this project is to make each and every biography known.

In early autumn, the students of both sections of the course visited The Woodlands. The students, broken up into their project groups, roamed the area searching of a headstone of their potential subject. However, students could not just select any headstone they desired. There, the students were given a more detailed parameter for which subject of the project must be confined to. They were given a list which listed all of the deceased who were too famous, that a entire research project done on them would be unnecessary, or who were already been researched for this cemetery project in prior years. In addition, the subject must be a white, male, born before the year 1850 and his tombstone must be below seven feet in height.

Students researched and recreated the life of a person who lived during the Victorian Age (1837-1901) in Philadelphia and was buried at the Woodlands Cemetery.Utilizing historic records gathered from various sources such as churches, historical societies, the Free Library, National and City archives, and university archives, they documented their person’s life in Philadelphia. Documents include census records, birth and death certificates, marriage licenses, wills, property records, obituaries, and city and ward directory records.

The subject of this project is Dr.Charles Shirley Carter who was born on July 12, 1818 in Richmond, Virginia to Williams Fitzhugh Carter and Charlotte Foushee Carter.He married Emily Blight in 1846 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania at the age of twenty eight.Their daughter, Maria Carter was born one year later.Blight died two years later and Carter married Ellen Newman in 1853.They had seven children together.Carter was a physician who provided his services for charity. He was an active member of St. Mark’s Church in Philadelphia.Carter also served as a surgeon during the Civil War for the Confederacy. Carter died on August 13, 1888 in Garrett County, Oakland, Maryland.

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Abstract

I.

Birth/death dates (cause and location)

A. July 12, 1818 (Richmond, VA)

B. August 13, 1888 (Garrett County, Oakland, Maryland); Cause unknown

II.

Profession/education

A. Physician

 

B. University of Pennsylvania

III.

Birth/death dates for parents and siblings

A. Williams Fitzhugh Carter (October 30, 1782 - August, 1864); Father

B. Charlotte Foushee Carter (1787- July 8, 1822); Mother

C. Charlotte Georgiana Carter Wickham (April 1822 - September 1863); Sister

D. Isabella Foushee Carter (1814 - unknown); Sister

E. Williams Carter (1815 - October 1879); Brother

IV.

Birth and death dates for wife and children; marriage dates for subject

A. Emily Blight (1815- February 29, 1848); Married January 15, 1846.

 

1.

Maria Carter Renshaw (October 26, 1847 - March 16 1880)

 

B. Ellen Newman (November 24, 1833 - August 27, 1901); Married September 18,

 

1853.

1.

Williams Carter (April 16, 1854 - December 28, 1914)

2.

Eugenia Carter Cassatt (October 2, 1856 - April 5, 1911)

3.

Charlotte Carter Buckley ( December 29, 1858 - February 10, 1943)

4.

Mildred Carter (1861 - unknown)

5.

James Newman Carter (May 16, 1864 - March 6, 1925)

6.

Ellen Newman Carter (1865 - unknown)

7.

Isabella Carter Randolph (March 31, 1872 - April 23 1966)

V.

Places of residence (addresses) with years at the residence

A.

1632 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA (1852 - 1877)

VI.

Places of employment with addresses and years employed

A.

489 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA

VII.

Profession of wife and children (if known)

A. William - Lawyer

B. Eugenia - Lawyer

C. James - Office Manager

VIII.

Major events and honors

A. Marries Emily Blight on January 15, 1846.

B. Marries Ellen Newman on September 18, 1853 at Saint James’ Church.

C. Promoted from assistant surgeon to surgeon in the Confederate Army on July 20,

 

1864

 

D. Elected to St. Mark’s Church vestry in 1869.

E. Testifies on behalf of St. Mark’s Church in the Bells Controversy case on January 5, 1877.

F. Requiem Mass held on his behalf at St. Mark’s on August 13, 1888

IX.

Connections with historical events

A. Civil War surgeon

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Cemetery Map and Monument

3 Cemetery Map and Monument

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Section I, Lot 182

4 Section I, Lot 182 The monument is large in size ​ . ​ The overall
4 Section I, Lot 182 The monument is large in size ​ . ​ The overall

The monument is large in size.The overall monument was cut with precision, with the name of the deceased and the date and location of his birth and death visibly engraved on the side.Shown from above, the tombstone was carved into the shape of a cross, which shows his devoutness to Christianity.The name of the deceased is followed by the title of M.D. indicating his occupation.

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Biography

Charles Shirley Carter was born on July 12, 1818 in Richmond, Virginia to Williams Fitzhugh Carter and Charlotte Foushee Carter.His father Williams Carter was the eighteenth of twenty-three children and his mother, Charlotte Carter, was the daughter of a French-American physician and the first mayor of Richmond, Williams Foushee. Carter’s roots can be traced back to Robert “King” Carter, who died as the wealthiest man in colonial America in 1732.Robert Carter, was the son of a self-made English immigrant.In his lifetime, he helped establish a prominent foundation in the early forms of Virginian government, the House of Burgesses.The House of Burgesses was the first form of government or an assembly of representatives in the thirteen colonies. His reputation, influence and wealth were so grand that it earned him the nickname “King”, which became attached to his name in the course of history.King Carter’s success in Virginia set the foundation for the Carter legacy.

King Carter spent his entire life amassing his fortunes and he was not going to let it go to waste. In an effort to secure the Carter family’s place in society and history and to ensure their success in the future, Robert Carter purposely arranged marriages for his children. He partnered with families of a comparable social status as the one he had acquired, with the same level of wealth and prestige.The most notable marriage was the one between his eldest son, John Carter, and Elizabeth Hill from the Shirley Plantation.Connected by this marriage, the history of the Carter Legacy and the Shirley Plantation was from there on intertwined.Charles Shirley Carter was one of many descendants of the Carter Family.From the wealth accumulated since the time of his great great grandfather nearly a century before, the Carter family was able to live their lives without the need to worry about financial difficulties.

Life on the Shirley Plantation made up most of Charles Shirley Carter’s childhood.The Shirley Plantation, established in 1638 by Edward Hill I, is Virginia’s first plantation and North America’s oldest family-owned business to date.The plantation prospered from the cultivation of tobacco.The plantation was enormous, so the Carters owned a substantial amount of slaves; at one point the family owned more slaves and cattle than any other family in Virginia.The Carter descendants, for the most part, followed the footsteps of their forefathers and were seen as ideal examples of traditional, southern plantation owners, with acres and acres of land to cultivate and loads and loads of human labor to distribute the workload to.As an extremely prominent family in the South, specifically Virginia, the men of the family typically played a significant role in government affairs, along with their responsibilities of running a plantation

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On January 15, 1846, Charles Shirley Carter married Emily Blight in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.Together, they had one child, a daughter named Maria Carter, who was born on October 26, 1847.Unfortunately, Emily died soon after, on February 29, 1848.Their daughter married Robert Henry Renshaw on March 16, 1880.She adopted the surname ‘Renshaw’ after

1 See "The Carter Family." Virginia Commonwealth University Digital Archives, n.d. Web.

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the union, though she also retained her maiden name.Their marriage, however, was short-lived because Maria died that very day.Grief-stricken by the lost of his first and only child from his first marriage, Carter donated a stain-glassed window to St. Mark’s Church in Philadelphia, where she was married, in memory of his eldest child.The window is large, colorful, mainly reds and blues, and it is split into two sections.It depicts scenes from the New Testament such as circumcision as well as the “Flight Into Egypt.The window displays two infants, representing Maria’s children, Charles Carter and Emily Maria Carter Renshaw (Doc. N).Carter paid seven hundred dollars for the construction of the window. It is worth roughly seventeen thousand dollars today.

Charles Shirley Carter was different from the other members of the Carter family.He could not envision himself managing the plantation affairs or getting involved in the government like his ancestors that came before him.Deciding to leave behind the comfortable life he was living with his family in Virginia, Carter moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the early 1850s. At that time, Philadelphia was the center for the best medical education and services.Carter attended The University of Pennsylvania, where he pursued a career path to become a physician. Carter came from a long line of doctors.To name a few, his grandfather, his uncle, and his brother were all doctors.Alongside working his way into establishing a name for himself in the medical field, Carter formed a family with another marriage.He married Ellen Newman, a woman thirty years his junior, on September 18, 1853 (Doc. A).Ellen Newman was born on November 24, 1833.Despite the large age gap, Newman and Carter nourished seven children and proved to be inseparable even in death, their identical tombs placed only a few inches from the other at the Woodlands Cemetery.

Carter called the building on 1632 Walnut Street his home for twenty five years, from 1852 to 1877, where the growth of his family and the memories of the development of his. children will forever be retained, even if centuries later, the original building ceases to exist.His oldest son, William Carter , named after his father, was born on April 16, 1854.Two years later, little William became an older brother to Eugenia Carter, who was born on October 2, 1856.Due to an unknown reason, Eugenia was listed as a female on her death certificate, but was listed as a male on the 1880 census (Doc. S). This error was most likely due to the census taker who probably glanced over Eugenia’s name too quickly and assumed it was “Eugene.” Thus, listing down Eugenia as a male.The third child was a daughter, Carter’s third and Ellen’s second, Charlotte Carter Buckley was born on December 29, 1958 (Doc. T).Three years later, in 1961, the same year Carter graduated as the class of 1861 at the University of Pennsylvania, the fourth child, Mildred Carter, was welcomed into the world.The fifth, James Newman Carter, was born on May 16, 1864, followed by Ellen Newman Carter the next year (Doc. R).On March 31, 1872,

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2 See Howton, Erica. "Williams Carter." Geni Family Tree. N.p., n.d. Web.

3 See "Charlotte Carter Buckley (1858 - 1943)." Find A Grave Memorial. N.p., 27 Nov. 2014. Web.

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Newman brought to life their last child, Isabella Carter Randolph (Doc. O).A household of nine, with seven children to care for, Carter and Newman led a busy and well-balanced life. Brought up by well-educated parents, William and Eugenia would work as lawyers later on in their lives.Eugenia served as president of the national Woman’s Auxiliary at its branch at St. Mark’s.She also was part of a prayer group there that was involved with the League of Intercessions, which held daily prayer sessions in the middle of the day.Eugenia was described as “an exemplary Christian women .” Mildred would marry George McCall, who was involved in the iron business and a stock broker .

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In the year of 1861, Charles Shirley Carter graduated from the prestigious University of Pennsylvania with a degree in medicine.Then in April, the Civil War broke out between the Confederate States and the Union.Carter temporarily returned to Virginia to serve as an assistant surgeon for the Confederate Army. Though he was living in the Union, he was born a Virginian and chose to remain loyal to his home state, the land that witnessed how the Carter family began and flourished.

Charles Shirley Carter was one of the many Carters who served in the Civil War. Because of the Carter family’s involvement in the Virginian government for generations, their extensive participation in the Confederate Army when the nation was in dire condition was not too much of a surprise.Innumerous members of the Carter Family served in the Civil War and many made their way up to prominent roleseasily with the intertwining connections they had (Doc P). The most historically renowned member would have to be Robert E. Lee, who happens to be closely related to Carter. The two are first cousins.Robert E. Lee’s mother, Anne Hill Carter Lee, is the sister of William Fitzhugh Carter, Charles Shirley Carter’s father.Anne Hill Carter Lee’s great grandfather was Robert Carter and her father was Charles Carter. She was born in 1773 and was the tenth oldest of twenty three children, from Anne Butler Moore, Charles Carter’s second marriage. Growing up with so many siblings, Carter’s father, William Carter, being one of them, Anne Hill Carter Lee did not feel particularly unique. Although her father was the wealthest man in Virginia at the time and had many financial affairs to attend to, including the maintaing and running of the Shirley Plantation, he, nonetheless, displayed a lively interest in the welfare of each of his children. Similarly to Charles Shirley Carter, her nephew, she was a religious person with a strong belief in the existence of a just and benevolent God. She came from a distinguished family, the Carter Family, and knew personally to all seven Virginian signers of the Declaration of Independence, to all of whom, save one, she was related by ties of consanguinity or marriage. Ann Lee was not physically strong. She suffered from narcolepsy, a

4 See "Isabella Carter Randolph (1872 - 1966)." Find A Grave Memorial. N.p., 24 Sept. 2014. Web. 5 See Klever, Gerald. Saint Mark's Church, Philadelphia: From 1847. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris, 2015. 1969-970. Print. 6 See Chamberlain, Joshua Lawrence. "University of Pennsylvania: Its History, Influence, Equipment and Characteristics; with Biographical Sketches and Portraits of Founders, Benefactors, Officers and Alumni, Volume 2."Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web.

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disease which made her, along with many persons of her time, even those not so afflicted, fearful of being buried alive. There is even a legend that she was, indeed, thought dead and nearly so buried, that she was already in her tomb when she suddenly let out a scream. As a result of this revival of a sort, Anne Hill Carter Lee was able to bore her son Robert E. Lee. Anne Lee died on June 29,1829, after living a hard and fast-paced life . Lee’s father was the ninth governor of Virginia, Henry Lee also known as “Light Horse Harry”.The Carter family looked down on Lee; Charles Carter, Lee’s grandfather did not like him. Charles disapproved of Lee because he thought that Lee was too reckless.He also cited Lee’s consideration of an offer of a generalship in France's Revolutionary armies.However, when Lee rejected the offered French commission, Carter approved of the union.He ensured that Lee could not touch any of Ann's inheritance.Due to Lee’s extensively rich and powerful bloodline, it was much easier for him to serve an. important role in the war.Robert E. Lee’s son, Confederate Major General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee more commonly know by Rooney in the household, would later marry Charles Shirley Carter’s niece, Charlotte Georgiana Carter Wickham Lee .Not just the men of the contributed to the war effort. Charlotte Lee provided spiritual support to her husband when he was out on the battle field. She took care of the family at home, and gave birth to Robert Edward Lee, named after his grandfather, Robert E. Lee. The flattered grandfather wrote: “I wish I could offer him a more worthy name and a better example. He must elevate the first, and make use of the latter to avoid the errors I have committed. I also expressed the thought that under the circumstances you might like to name him after his great-grandfather, and wish you both, 'upon mature consideration,' to follow your inclinations and judgment. I should love him all the same, and nothing could make me love you two more than I do.” Robert E. Lee who lacked love from his grandfather, Charles Carter, as a child, wanted to give all his love to his grandson. Charlotte Wickham lived a life of wealth, yet her life was filled with trauma, from the untimely deaths of her parents, to the loss of both of her infant children, to finally her own death in her early twenties. Similarly, Ellen Carter took care of the family and all seven children, back in Pennsylvania, when Carter served in the Civil War for four years.

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When the Civil War broke out, Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia, commonly known as “Lee’s army”, serving as its general. The Northern Virginia army was one of the Confederacy’s main fighting force in the Civil war, thus it was regarded with utmost importance . Similar to his kinsmen Robert E. Lee and Williams Carter Wickham, though he would rather have Virginia remain with the Union, when Virginia seceded and joined the Confederacy, he too returned to his native state and joined its forces. Through connections, Charles Shirley Carter landed a role in the infantry led by his first cousin, serving as the assistant

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7 See "About Anne Hill Carter Lee, Mother of General Robert E. Lee." About Anne Hill Carter Lee, Mother of General Robert E. Lee. - Photos and Stories - FamilySearch.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 See "Charlotte Georgiana Carter Wickham (1822 - 1863)." Find A Grave Memorial. N.p., 19 Oct. 2000. Web. See MacLean, Maggie. "Charlotte Lee." Civil War Women. N.p., 26 June 2016. Web. 9 See Jordan, Ewing. "Full Text of "University of Pennsylvania Men Who Served in the Civil War, 1861-1865; Department of Medicine"." N.p., n.d. Web.

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surgeon in Richmond military hospitals at the beginning of May of 1861

graduated from the medical school at the University of Pennsylvania that same year, like the other 4,000 surgeons who fought for the Confederacy, they were not properly trained to treat the masses of soldiers injured during the war.As a result, the deadliest thing that faced a Civil War soldier, besides warfare, was disease.In fact, for every one soldier that died on the battlefield, two dies from disease.During the 1860s, doctors knew little of the concept of bacteria and were ignorant to the cause of disease, not to mention the prevention of the spread of disease.America, in general, was behind in the medical field, compared to Europe.Thus, naturally, in times of war when soldiers are injured, doctors and surgeons chose to amputate the injured body part, believing that getting rid of the entire body part will suppress the spread of disease and pain.The medical department within the military during the war was a mess in general.Even though it was understaffed, under-qualified, and under-supplied, civil war doctors, risking their lives for the sake of their citizens, did their best to keep as many patriotic soldiers alive.

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As an assistant surgeon, Carter’s role was to assist and relieve the surgeon in caring for the sick and wounded whether at the tent or on the battlefield (Doc. B).On the field of battle he was expected to be close up in the immediate rear of the center of his regiment, accompanied by the infirmary detail, and to give primary attention, first aid to the wounded-this consisting in temporary control of hemorrhage by ligature, tourniquet, or bandage and compression, adjusting and temporarily fixing fractured limbs, administering water, anodynes, or stimulants, if needed, and seeing that the wounded were promptly carried to the field-hospital in the rear by the infirmary detail or ambulance.The numbers killed and wounded during the Civil War was far greater than any other American war.As the numbers grew, the North and the South finally took to build “general” military hospitals, that were generally located in big cities.The ones in which Carter worked at included the largest of the “general” military hospitals, Chimborazo, situated in Richmond, Virginia.Carter’s work environment was a single-storied, wood constructed building that was surprisingly sufficient enough that it was well-ventilated and heated.

Three years later, a year before the end of the Civil War, on July 20, 1864, Carter was promoted to surgeon . The duties of the surgeons were slightly different from that of an assistant surgeon; in addition to caring for the sick in camp and on the march, they were responsible for establishing a field-hospital.As soon as they were notified that the command in which they were attached to was going under fire, a makeshift hospital needed to be formed at some convenient and, if possible, sheltered spot behind a bill or in a ravine, about one-half to one mile in rear of the line of battle.These were created under direction of a brigade or division surgeon, requiring the skill of quick-wittedness in their behalf.Here the combined medical staff of a brigade or division aided one another in the performance of such operations as were deemed necessary, as the wounded were brought from the front by the infirmary detail on stretchers or in the ambulance.Amputations, resections of bone, ligatures of arteries, removals of foreign bodies,

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10 See Chesnut, Mary Boykin Miller., and Comer Vann. Woodward. Mary Chesnut's Civil War. New Haven: Yale U, 1981. Print. 11 See Wyllie, Arthur. Confederate Officers. A. Wyllie, 2007. Print.

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adjusting and permanently fixing fractures, and all minor and major operations and dressings were made in conditions that were deemed best for the comfort and welfare of the wounded men. At their earliest convenience, the permanent dressings were made at the field-hospital and even in some instances, while the troops were still engaged in battle.The wounded were carried to the railroad and transported to the more permanent hospitals in the villages, towns, and cities, some miles distant.Carter proved to be a loyal Confederate who served and supported the Northern Virginia army from the beginning of the war until the war closed with the surrender of General Lee in 1865 .

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Upon Charles Shirley Carter’s return to Philadelphia after the war, he resumed his life as

a normal citizen.Although Carter lived in Philadelphia, he still had ongoing ties with his family back in Virginia.He frequently exchanged letters with his cousin’s son, Williams Carter Wickham (Doc. J).He and Wickham conversed with each other quite often.They wrote to each other about land, Carter’s health, and leases (Doc. L).They even conversed about fish and created other opportunities for small talk (Doc. G).They were very close to each other, despite their age gap (Doc. I).One of their frequent conversation topics was about Carter’s land. He owned six acres of land (Doc. M).To be able to own and manage that much land, Carter must have had a decent amount of money (Doc. E).He was also had the privilege to hire servants as

they were often addressed in his letters.They usually did smaller tasks that he could not focus on at the moment due to his busy life as a physician (Doc. K).He leased part of his estate, North Wales, to earn more money.Gathering from some of the letters he sent and received from his friends or family, it could be inferred that Carter was also trying to sell parts of his plantation too, after the Civil War (Doc. C).During his time in Philadelphia, Carter’s physician office was located at 489 Chestnut Street, not too far off from the Independence Hall where the Declaration of.Independence was birthed nearly a century before.As the ever so religiously devoted man he proved to be, Carter left Sundays free so he could attend gatherings at St. Mark’s Church, conveniently located approximately two blocks away from his house (Doc. F).St. Mark’s Church was founded by a group of young Philadelphians who wanted to create a new kind of church based off of the.Oxford Movement.It held its first service on October 21, 1849.Aside from being a regular visitor, Carter was also an active and prominent member of the church.In 1869, Charles Shirley Carter was offered a position in the St. Mark’s Church vestry (Doc. D).As

a member of the vestry, Carter was responsible for providing advice to the clergy and was

limited to a three year term, where another election of the members for the vestry would take place.Carter did a profound job in the vestry and as a result, was reelected multiples times.He

served in the vestry and the church until his death in 1888

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12 See Full Text of "University of Pennsylvania Men Who Served in the Civil War, 1861-1865; Department of Medicine "

Pennsylvania Men Who Served in the Civil War, 1861-1865; Department of Medicine

N.p., n.d. Web.

"" Full Text of "University of

13 See "History." Saint Mark's Church. N.p., n.d. Web.

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By the 1870s, large houses were built around the church. In 1877, St. Mark’s Church experienced a controversy regarding its church bells.The ringing of the bells bounced between the buildings, causing the sound to be intensified. People complained about the boisterous clashes of the bells and how they caused a disturbance in their lives.They complained that the bells would have a negative impact on the nervous systems of the young, the old, and the sick. They wanted to stop the ringing of the bells. The complaints became so prevalent that eventually a lawsuit was filed against the church in order to solve the problem. Specifically, the purpose of the residents who lived in close proximity with the Church was to acquire a bill to restrain the ringing of bells so as to cause a nuisance to the occupants of the dwellings in the immediate vicinity of the church. However, both sides were used to getting what they wanted; the rich lived near the church and St. Mark’s never really had any serious opposition. As a fervent member of St. Mark’s, Carter was more than willing to testify in favor of the church:

“I have never been disturbed or annoyed in any manner whatever by the ringing of St. Mark’s Church bells nor has any member of my family. We do not notice the ringing at all, unless attention is specially called to it. I think the immediate neighbors have not any reasonable cause of complaint, except in cases of serious illness. I do not believe that the value of property in the immediate neighborhood of St. Mark’s has been depreciated by the ringing of the bells. In fact the value of the property near the church has been greatly increased by the building of the church. I do not think the sound of the bells is either harsh, loud, high, sharp, clanging, or discordant, or that the noise produced by them is in any way a nuisance. On the contrary I like to hear them” (Doc. H). Ultimately, the ringing was restricted to Sundays and later on in 1878, was extended to holidays, weddings, and funerals.Today, St. Mark’s is well-known for its change-ringing

program.Change-ringing is ringing a set of bells in mathematical patterns, rather than ringing it

randomly. To do this, a church needs to have special bell towers

are only about forty churches with towers designed for change-ringing, St.Mark’s being one of them.St. Mark’s bells are truly unique and Carter was right for defending them.

14 .In all of North America, there

Charles Shirley Carter lived for a total of seventy years.He passed away on Monday August 17, 1888 of old age in Garrett County, Oakland, Maryland (Doc. Q).A requiem mass was held on his behalf at St. Mark’s on the day of his death and vestry minutes were dedicated to him.He was laid to rest at Woodlands Cemetery. Although Charles Shirley Carter was not born in nor did he die in Philadelphia, he is still buried here to this day.Philadelphia was a special place for him. Philadelphia was where he got his medical degree, where his children were born, where he raised them, and where he dedicated many years of his year serving the people as a doctor and an enthusiastic church-goer.It’s only fitting that he made Philadelphia his permanent home. In later years, he will be joined in his plot in the Woodlands Cemetery by his wife, his two sons, his daughter, and his two grandchildren.

14 "For Whom The Bells Toll: The People Vs. Saint Mark’s Episcopal." Hidden City Philadelphia RSS. N.p., n.d. Web.

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Map of Philadelphia:

12 Map of Philadelphia: The ​ blue ​ mark indicates Charles Shirley Carter’s house, located on

The bluemark indicates Charles Shirley Carter’s house, located on 1632 Walnut Street. He lived there from 1852 to 1877, approximately 25 years.

Theredmark indicates St. Mark’s Church, located on 1625 Locust St.

The greenmark indicates Charles Shirley Carter’s office, where he worked as a physician, located on 489 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA from when he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1861 to his death in 1888.

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Historical Perspectives History of the United States (1818-1888)

In the year 1818, the year of Charles Shirley Carter’s birth, the United States was nearing the end of the First Seminole War. The war was sparked by American authorities who were attempting to recapture runaway slaves who found refuge among Seminole bands. The U.S. military forces, led by General Andrew Jackson, invaded Black Seminole villages in Spanish Florida, scattering the villagers, burning their towns. The forces captured the Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks. In the following year, Spain was induced to cede its Florida territory. Later that year,Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby negotiate the purchase of land from the Chickasaw Nation in what is later called the Jackson Purchase.In four consecutive years, Illinois, Alabama, Maine and Missouri were admitted into statehood. The Panic of 1819, the first major financial crisis in the nation, begins and lasts for a duration of two years. On February 15, the House of Representatives agrees to barring slaves from the new state of Missouri. The following year, the Missouri Compromise was passed to allow the admission of the District of Maine as a free state and the Missouri territory without restriction on slavery. It also outlawed slavery north of the 36°60′ parallel within the areas obtained from the Louisiana Purchase. The largest remaining portion of the territory became free-soil. South of the parallel no slavery restrictions were imposed .

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In 1846, whenCarter married Emily Blight, due to open conflict over the border

disputes over the boundaries of Texas, the United States declared war on Mexico.​ ​That same

year, Iowa is admitted as the 29th U.S. state. California also seceded from Mexico

following year, several months before the birth of Maria Carter, the Treaty of Cahuenga ends the fighting of the Mexican-American War in California. Around the The War did not end until 1848, the same year Blight died.

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe was published, when Carter and his family moved to 1632 Walnut Street in 1853, stirring slavery sentiments in the North and

outrage in the South. Frederick Douglass also delivered “The Hypocrisy of American Slavery” in Rochester, New York on Independence Day. The same year Carter married his second wife Ellen Newman at St. James’ Churchin 1853 an outbreak of yellow fever killed 7,790 in New

Orleans. Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Edo Bay to request a trade treaty with Japan

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15 See "Missouri Compromise." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web.

16 See "1846 in History." BrainyHistory. N.p., n.d. Web.

17 See "America's Best History." U.S. Timeline, The 1850s. N.p., n.d. Web.

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Charles Shirley Carter’s first son Williams Carter was born in 1854, a year where many events concerning slavery were occurring. Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to form the Nebraska Territory which led to heated debates over issues pertaining to slavery. It eventually became the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Kansas–Nebraska Act was signed into law, creating two territories: Kansas and Nebraska. The act repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in the territories to vote to determine slavery should be legal within their parameters. In response Abraham Lincoln expressed his distaste for the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty, as well as slavery as a whole . In 1856, Carter’s second daughter Eugenia Carter was bornduring the Bleeding Kansas conflict. President Franklin Pierce did not recognize the new Free-State Topeka government in Kansas, but instead as a rebellion. Many people, from both pro-slavery and anti-slavery, were killed during Bleeding Kansas. James Henry Hammond presented a speech which promoted the idea of “King Cotton” to support slavery when Charlotte was born in 1858.

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When Mildred Carter, Carter’s fifth child, was born, the United States was at the beginnings of the Civil War. Carter graduated from the University of Pennsylvania before joining the Confederacy as an assistant surgeon. Since 1860, eleven states seceded from the Union. The Civil War began with the Battle of Fort Sumter.Robert E. Leeresigned his commission in the United States Army and commanded the forces of the state of his native state Virginia . President Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in the United States. And the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution was passed by Congress. It stated that the war was being fought not to end slavery, but rather to preserve the Union. In order to help pay for the war effort, the government issues the first income tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861. The war comes to a close in 1865 when Ellen Carter was born.During the Reconstruction era, Isabella Carter was born in 1872.That same year, President Ulysses S. Grant signed the Amnesty Act into law. The act restored full civil rights to all except around five hundred Confederate sympathizers.

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Two months after Carter testified on behalf of St. Mark’s Church during the Bells Controversy in 1877, Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president as a result of the Compromise of 1877, the U.S. presidential election. With the presidency of Hayes, the Reconstruction period ended. A series of conflicts between white Americans and Native Americans persisted the same year. That same year railroad workers of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad led riots in Baltimore, Maryland, which led to sympathy strikes and rioting in Pittsburgh. A rebellion was staged in St. Louis and it briefly established a communist government. The Knights of Reliance met for the

18 See "Timeline 1850-1854." Online Directory of Historical Timelines. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 See "U.S. Civil War 1861-1865." The History Place. N.p., n.d. Web.

15

first time in Lampasas County, Texas. It was then morphed into the Farmers’ Alliance and eventually the Populist Party.

When Maria got married and died, Carter donated a stained glass window to St. Mark’s Church in 1880. That same year, James Garfield won the presidential election. Five months before Charles Shirley Carter dies, the "Great Blizzard of 1888" began along the East Coast of the United States. It shut down commerce and killed more than four hundred people.

History of Philadelphia (1818-1888)

In November 1815, the county Commissioners proposed a plan regarding the education of children to the City Councils. A committee was appointed to consult with the commissioners of Southwark and of the Northern Liberties in the next two months. However, it was not until 1818, the year of Charles Shirley Carter’s birth, that the details were sanctioned by the Legislature. The Act passed provided for the education of poor children at the public expense in the city and county of Philadelphia, forming the "first School District of Pennsylvania." Two schools in Southwark, two in Moyamensing, two in Northern Liberties and two in Penn Township were erected. Another Act was passed, dividing the Northern Liberties into seven wards 20 .

In 1832, the spread of Cholera commenced on July 5th. However, it wasn’t until October 4 did it end with a final death toll of 935 people. On August 10-12, 1832 and July 12, 1835, race riots between whites and blacks were prevalent. Three hundred police officers were sworn in to quell the nightly riots. Houses in African-American neighborhoods were ransacked as well. Shortly after, soon to be the nation’s largest municipally owned natural gas utility, Philadelphia Gas Works, went into operation. In 1838, Pennsylvania Hall was attacked by a mob and burned down. The very next day, a shelter for colored orphans was also burned down by a mob. This was common as throughout the years in Philadelphia, many riots and mobs were formed with some casualties. These usually resulted in the burning of buildings such as houses or churches. Other fires were created due to the simple mishandlings of equipment in factories or homes.

On May 7, 1847, the American Medical Association (AMA) was founded in

Philadelphia. Its mission was to “deliver result-focused strategies that enable physicians to

enhance the delivery of care and improve the health of the nation

Carter’s his first child, Maria, with Emily Blight was born on October. Within the first few months of the next year, 1848, the district of Richmond was quickly incorporated into the county

21 .” Soon after, Charles

20 See "Philadelphia History: Chronology of Significant Events." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2017 for the majority of the events listed below. 21 See "What We Do | AMA." American Medical Association. N.p., n.d. Web.

16

of Philadelphia on February 27. Two days after the expansion of the county, Emily Blight unfortunately died on the 29th of February. On March 25, the boundaries of the city continued to expand as they were starting to extend to the beginning of the Delaware River.

The start of 1849 was horrific for the citizens living in the city. On May 30, another development of Cholera commenced and began to spread like wildfire amongst the dense population. It took several months before it ended on September 8. However, unlike the one in

1832, there were more deaths, 1012 to be exact. On a brighter note, St. Mark’s first service was celebrated later that year on October 21 as parishioners were able to walk down the aisles. The building of the church took the commitment and dedication of George Zantzinger and his friends

who were adamant on created an environment for those who followed the Oxford Movement

22

.

A few years later in 1854, the Consolidation Act was finally passed on February 2nd, the

same year of the birth of Carter’s son, Williams and the year after his marriage with his second wife, Ellen Neumann.The Act was intended to extended Philadelphia’s territory from the original two-square-miles since its founding by William Penn to nearly 130 square miles. The drastic change would make the municipal borders coterminous with Philadelphia County

and thus turning the metropolis into the largest in extent in the nation at the time. The reason for this was because the people of Philadelphia were looking for solutions to quell the riots and

disease that persisted in the city

the North Pennsylvania Railroad was leaving the Cohocksink depot on July 17. The train contained about six hundred passengers of St. Michael's R. C. Church and upon reaching Camp Hill, near Ambler, it collided head-on with a train going southward. The accident was bigger than it seemed as it left fifty dead and one hundred injured. Later on in the year on September 21, many banks were suspended for reasons unspecified.

23 . In the year of Eugenia’s birth in 1856, an excursion train on

Continuing his loving marriage with Ellen, Charles Carter added another family member in 1858 with the birth of Charlotte.Along with the great news of a new daughter, the city’s passenger cars run for the first time in Philadelphia and steam fire engines were introduced. Another great event that occurred was the Atlantic Telegraph celebration which commemorated the success of the a cable that was able to send messages across the body of water.

In the year of 1861, the country went to war with itself. Before that happened, on January

3, there was a meeting of citizens at the Board of Trade rooms. They discussed whether or not to

22 See "History." Saint Mark's Church. N.p., n.d. Web.

23 See Heath, Andrew. "Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia." Consolidation Act of 1854. N.p., 2013. Web.

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take action concerning the obvious peril of the Union as the north and south carried differing views. It was acknowledged that there was a problem. It was only in April did the war begin and there was a sort of excitement throughout the city. With the war beginning, the First Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers march South. On July 4, there was a grand parade was held for the sendoff of Gray Reserves and Home Guards. In the fast paced year, Carter was able to graduate from the University of Pennsylvania and welcome into the world, his fourth daughter, Mildred.

A year before the end of the Civil War, little James was born in 1864 and became an older brother to his sister, Ellen in 1865. The end of the war was nearing. In a last effort, drafts commences in several of the city’s Wards. On April 3, great news arrived to Philadelphia of the north’s capture of Richmond, Virginia. The Carter family in Philadelphia were probably not in the same celebratory mood as their father wasn’t with them and there was the constant thought that Charles Carter could be dead. In the city, there was a parade of firemen and an illumination event in the evening. Good news continued to arrive to the north with the surrender of Lee's army a few days later. Illumination, blowing of steam whistles, ringing of fire bells and the firing of cannon continued as their hardships were ending. However, good news did not continue to follow as on April 15, devastation was brought upon the people of the country as news of the assassination of President Lincoln at Ford's Theatre was known to the public. The next day, there was a general mourning throughout the city and in the following week or so, President Lincoln's body was escorted to Independence Hall by a large military and civic precession.

As Carter’s life after the war continued, he devoted much of his time to religion and became part of St. Mark’s vestry in 1869 and faithfully served until the end of his life.On January 1, 1872, William S. Stokley was inaugurated as Mayor of the Philadelphia and later in the month, water was pumped for the first time into the new reservoir of the Delaware Water Works. Following the events was the meeting of the surviving soldiers of the War of 1812 in February. In the next month the last immediate family member was born, it wasthe birth of Charles Carter’s last child, Isabella, on March 31, making it a total of 7 children from his two wives. As Carter began raising all of his children in the city, Philadelphia maintained its steady growth as a city as well. On August 15, the first vessel of the American Steamship Company of Philadelphia was launched. The ship was 355 feet in length, with a beam of 45 feet, a depth of 43 feet and a capacity of 3016 tons. The Ohio, the second iron steamship of the American Steamship Company, was also launched later in the year. With the advancements came another disease, but this time it did not directly harm humans. "Epizooty," or horse disease, continued on for about a month and in that span of time, almost every horse in the city was affected. Due to the disease, the transportation of goods and other articles almost ceased for some days, and wagons and carts were drawn through the streets by men as desperate times

18

called for desperate measures.

In the year that Carter testified in bells controversy, 1877, trials of the transmission of sound through Edison's vocal telephone at the Permanent Exhibition Building were conducted. To test it out, vocal music at the Central Station telegraph office was transmitted over the wires; it was a success. The Jefferson Medical College Hospital was also formally opened and in a few days, the 101st Anniversary of the adoption of the old Constitution of Pennsylvania was celebrated at the Hotel La Fayette.

1880 was a depressing year as Maria died the same day she got married at St. Mark’s. The events in the year that reflected the dismal mood included the closing of Philadelphia’s Library building on the N. E. corner and the return of epizooty, or horse disease epidemic in the city. Similarly, a large number of horses were infected, but the disease was much milder than the case in 1872.

On the year of Charles Shirley Carter’s death in 1888,the year began with a heavy blizzard that negatively affected the city, a bad omen. The winds were heavy as the weather changed from rain to snow throughout the duration of the storm. As a result of Mother Nature, the streets and roads became impassable, all railroad trains were blocked, telegraphic communication was cut off, and a great amount of damage was done by the blowing down of trees and telegraph poles. Of course houses were impacted as well; chimneys, roofs and other portions of buildings were also damaged in many parts of the city. For several days, high winds continued. It was also difficult to enter the city as roads and railway-cuttings were full of snow, making it inconvenient for carriages and trains. Many trains were snowed in and either abandoned or lost in the drifts. Businesses was also almost entirely suspended; the schools, courts and many places of amusement were closed. On the Delaware River and on the coast, the injury to shipping was very great as over thirty vessels being sunk or stranded, and several drowned. As the blizzard ended, the snow still laid in sheltered places for several weeks.

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Document A

Documents

19 Document A Documents This document shows a log of marriages, containing the marriage of Charles

This document shows a log of marriages, containing the marriage of Charles Shirley Carter and his second wife, Ellen Neumann. It depicts the exact day, month, and year the two were married along with those who were also married along a similar timeframe.

It proves that it was the same Charles Carter as our topic of research as both of their names matched the graves found at Woodlands. The paper stands as proof for their marriage as well as the births of their children since it is known that the two parents were officially married.

Document B

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Document B 20 The document was from the archives at the University of Pennsylvania. It states

The document was from the archives at the University of Pennsylvania. It states that Charles Shirley Carter was an assistant surgeon for the Confederate States Army in 1861, the same year he earned his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania and that he was later promoted to a surgeon and served with the Army of Northern Virginia until the war ended in 1865.

The information provided in this document that he was a surgeon for the Confederacy helped lead us to the conclusion that he was in the Confederate side even though he lived in

Philadelphia, which was in a Union state, because generations of his family lived in Virginia and so he was still loyal to his roots no matter where he chose to live. This was further proven with the fact that he was promoted to surgeon and served with the Army of Northern Virginia because we found with another source that General Robert E. Lee the leader of the Northern Virginia Army was Carter’s distant relative, specifically his cousin. This led us to infer that Carter was able to secure a position in the Army and was able to be promoted to surgeon was in some degree due to having family connections with General Lee. From the document we were able to confirm that Charles Shirley Carter was an alumni of the University of Pennsylvania’s class of

1861.

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Document C

21 Document C This document is a letter sent to Carter concerning his estate, North Wales,

This document is a letter sent to Carter concerning his estate, North Wales, namely selling it off because “there is no money [t]here”. The letter was dated July 9, 1865, a month after the Civil War ended. The letter refers to North Wales as a plantation and states that because of the Emancipation Proclamation, former slave owners will be given privileges and advantages under the law. It also mentions President Andrew Johnson potentially treating the rebel South very leniently post-war.

From this document we can infer that North Wales is a plantation, though Carter is not a definite slave owner since the sender does not imply that Carter is the owner of the slaves laboring on his estate. We can also imply that he may have visited his estate in Caroline County before or during the months of September or October.

Document D

22

​ Document D 22 This document was found inside of the ​ Annual Reports of the

This document was found inside of the Annual Reports of the Various Departments of the Parish Work of St. Mark’s Church, Philadelphia. The document recorded the officers of the Parish of the year of 1873. Listed among the vestrymen, included the name along with the professional title of the subject of our research project, Charles Carter, M.D.

The document provides physical proof that Charles Carter did serve in the vestry at St. Mark’s Church during his lifetime.The information gathered from this document, helped us conclude his role in the church and how he contributed to the church. From Carter being elected as one of the vestrymen, we inferred that he was not just a regular churchgoer, but rather a man who cared for important affairs of the Church. From there, we inferred that Charles Shirley Carter was a religious man.

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Document E

23 Document E This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical

This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical Society. Charles Carter seems to live comfortably, as he is able to afford quality ice for his ice house and is able to discuss smaller aspects in his life. He has a servant as well which is noted when he mentioned Charles Solomon.

From this document, it can be inferred that Charles Carter was not poor. He could spend his money freely on things like ice and fish. He also appeared to have hired a servant. Because he came from a wealthy family, this is not surprising.

24

Document F

24 Document F The document was found among several books in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
24 Document F The document was found among several books in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

The document was found among several books in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The document records the residents of Philadelphia in 1877, organized alphabetically by last name, including their profession and home address. From the document, we discovered that Charles Shirley Carter is a physician and at the time, in Philadelphia he lived on 1632 Walnut St.

The document confirms that Charles Shirley Carter worked as a physician and that he lived on 1632 Walnut St. With that information, we inferred that he was able to be such an active member of the St. Mark’s Church and serve in its vestry until his death because it was close in proximity to his house, specifically one block away. In addition, we were able to infer that because Carter lived so close to the church, he was able to give an accurate testimony on the church bell controversy at St. Mark’s.

25

Document G

25 Document G This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical

This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical Society. Charles Carter and WC Wickham communicate with each other a lot as seen by other sources and the way the letter was ended. In this document, Carter seems to have received fish from Wickham, but finds some fault with it.

It can be inferred that after the Civil War, Carter returned to his home in Philadelphia. He continued to keep in contact with his cousin’s son, WC Wickham.

Document H

26

​ Document H 26 This document was found in the ​ Report of Harrison et al.
​ Document H 26 This document was found in the ​ Report of Harrison et al.
​ Document H 26 This document was found in the ​ Report of Harrison et al.

This document was found in the Report of Harrison et al. vs. St. Mark’s Church, Philadelphia provided by St. Mark’s Church. The book documents the testimonies people gave in regarding to the church bells controversy, a case between the residents who lived in close proximity with the Church and St. Mark’s Church in regards to the negative impact of the church bells on the residents’ daily lives. On page 170 and 171 of the book, records Charles Shirley Carter’s account on the controversy, precisely his testimony in defense of the church.

The fact drawn from this document that Charles Shirley Carter spoke in defense of the Church shows that he was indeed a devoted member to the St. Mark’s Church. Carter was able to give a valid testimony on behalf of the church because the church was conveniently located a block away from his residence so he was considered among the immediate neighbors of the church. In contrast of the neighbors who complained of the church bells and went so far as to file a lawsuit against the church, Carter stated that he enjoyed the noise. As a doctor, he was able to give a professional opinion that the neighbors did not have a reason to complain unless it was due to concern of an illness.

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Document I

27 Document I This letter addressed to Williams Carter Wickham speaks of barrels of herring Carter

This letter addressed to Williams Carter Wickham speaks of barrels of herring Carter wishes Wickham would send to him. He talked about a man who had sent him a sample some herring he had received from Baltimore. Carter also writes of his daughter, Maria. She was feeling sick, but was getting well very quickly. Carter will send Wickham a copy of the Pennsylvania R. R. Gov. Report if he can get one.

From this document, we can infer that Carter and Wickham have a rather close relationship despite being from different generations. We can also infer from the mention of Jenneiffe(?) that she might be a servant of the Carter family, thus adding more support to the fact that Carter was rather well off. Carter also mentions Robert Renshaw, who we link to Robert H. Renshaw, Maria’s future husband.

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Document J

28 Document J This document is a correspondence between WC Wickham and Charles Shirley Carter. Mr.

This document is a correspondence between WC Wickham and Charles Shirley Carter. Mr. Carter was attempting to sell his property, North Wales, to many potential buyers and Wickham was one of them. From the letter, it is known that Carter was planning on selling the land for $1000 annually for five years consecutively.

With the mention of Papa at the end of the letter, it can be assumed that the two are related as it was also thrown in randomly without much context; in fact, Wickham was indeed related as he was Carter’s cousin’s son. There was also a paragraph beforehand that focuses on Carter’s health, so it can also be inferred that the two were close and most likely exchanged letters frequently in order to discuss their everyday lives together.

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Document K

29 Document K This letter is a correspondent between a person interested in Charles Carter’s property

This letter is a correspondent between a person interested in Charles Carter’s property of North Wales and a person writing a response in the place of Carter. From the letter, it is known that the potential buyer has already exchanged letters with Dr. Carter as it says that the letter of “27th has been received by him.” Carter has also accepted this person’s offer for a lease of his property for the yearly payment of $1000 for five years.

It can be inferred that Charles Carter was busy with work at the time as he wasn’t able to write the respondence himself and gave the task to someone else as it said that he was “not able to invite himself today” and he will “himself write in a few days.” It can also be inferred that the someone else was probably his servant as the letter started off with, “at the request of Dr. Carter…”

30

Document L

30 Document L This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical

This document is from a series of letters found at the Virginia Historical Society as it is known that they’ve exchanged letters previously as the correspondence started with “I received your letter of 22nd Sept.” Charles Carter wrote to William C. Wickham with an inquiry about renting out or selling his land.

Charles Carter had about six acres of land under his name. He had plenty of land to spare, so he decided to lease out some of it with his cousin’s son, Wm C. Wickham.

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Document M

31 Document M The map of Charles Shirley Carter’s estate, North Wales and New Design, in

The map of Charles Shirley Carter’s estate, North Wales and New Design, in Caroline County, Virginia. shows a general view of the land he owns. It also shows that Williams Carter Wickham (W. C. Wickham) rented property on Carter’s estate. The estate is nine hundred forty three poles or six acres. The Pamunkey River and the Mill Creek run through the estate. On the side, the different types of fields such as the Sandy Belt, the House Field, the Pine Neck, the Mill Field, the Old Quarters Field, the New Grounds, the Smithers’ Cut, the Knappers and the Barn Cut are listed along with how many poles each one is.

From this document, we can infer that Carter must be wealthy to own such a large about of land. He is also earning money from renting parts of it to his first cousin once removed, W. C. Wickham. We may also speculate that his estate is a plantation from how the fields are described, such a Old Quarters Field and House Field.

speculate that his estate is a plantation from how the fields are described, such a Old

32

Document N

32 Document N This document is a photograph we took of the stained glass window that

This document is a photograph we took of the stained glass window that Charles Shirley Carter donated to the St. Mark’s Church in memory of his daughter, Maria Carter Renshaw, who was birthed by his first wife, Emily Blight. At the very bottom of stained glass window, the name of Maria Carter Renshaw is written, indicating that the window was dedicated to her. In addition, the date is written in roman numerals next to Renshaw’s name and translates to the year of 1880, Renshaw’s death date.

From the substantial size of the stained glass window, we were able to add to the inference that Charles Shirley Carter did not have to worry about money, even in Philadelphia, away from his home state of Virginia. We also inferred that Maria Carter Renshaw’s death left a significant scar on Carter as she was his first child to die and he was still alive to witness the loss. The fact that Renshaw died the same year she was married, we inferred must have added onto the grievance of her death. In addition the window being donated as a gift to the St. Mark’s Church further solidifies the importance of religion in the Carter household.

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Document O

33 Document O The documents records that Charles Shirley Carter was white, male, and sixty one

The documents records that Charles Shirley Carter was white, male, and sixty one years old at the time of the census. His birthplace was in Virginia and he lived on 1632, specifically on the south side of Walnut St. His wife, Ellen Carter, was forty six at the time and her birthplace was in Pennsylvania. His eldest son Williams Carter was twenty six. His second child was Eugenia Carter, however we found out that she was incorrectly listed as a male, Eugene, in this census record. She was twenty at the time. His daughter Charlotte Carter was twenty at the time and his daughter Mildred Carter was eighteen. His son James Newman Carter was sixteen years old. The names of his next two daughters were again messed up. Correctly, Ellen Newman Carter was thirteen and Isabella Carter was eight. The birthplace of all seven of Charles Shirley Carter’s children was in Pennsylvania.

From the information provided by this Pennsylvania Census of 1880, we initially assumed that Charles Shirley Carter’s second child was a son, however from other sources we confirmed that Eugene was an error and should been written as Eugenia, a daughter instead of a son. Additionally we found other faults in the census, the names of his latter two daughters were again misspelled. From the census we inferred that Carter had three sons, but later found out that he only had two and five daughters instead of four. We can also infer that the census was conducted after

34

Document P

The document is from the Virginia Chronicle, June 25, 1888 issue. One portion of the article noted several households that stemmed from the Carter Family of Virginia. Among the households mentioned, included Charles Shirley Carter’s, more precisely of his father’s, William Carter.

The document exemplifies that the Carter Family of Virginia was of such prominence and produced such an impact that it was notable enough to be listed out in the Virginia Chronicle. The subtitle of the article states “an extended genealogy of its numerous connections-continued,” denoting that the Carter family has yet to reach its end and will continue to grow and prosper like its forefather, King Carter. In addition it mentions “numerous connections”, which we infer as that the Carter Family’s wealth and influence is known many and at that we reasoned how Charles Shirley Carter secured a role in the Civil War and was promoted to a surgeon from an assistant surgeon.

how Charles Shirley Carter secured a role in the Civil War and was promoted to a

35

Document Q

35 Document Q This document is an obituary from The Philadelphia Weekly Times. It says that

This document is an obituary from The Philadelphia Weekly Times. It says that Charles Carter died on August 13, 1888 at Oakland, Maryland.

Although Charles Carter was born in Virginia and died in Maryland, he was buried in Pennsylvania at the Woodlands Cemetery. It is most likely due to the fact that he lived in Philadelphia for such a long time and raised his children there.

36

Document R

36 Document R Shown above is the death certificate of James N. Carter, the son of

Shown above is the death certificate of James N. Carter, the son of Charles Carter. It shows his personal statistics and medical records of his death. From the paper, it is known that he was a white male that worked as an office manager and died from heart disease. He was also directly related to Charles Carter as Dr. Carter was written down as his father and Ellen Newman as his mother.

It proves that Charles Carter did have a son named James Carter with his second wife, Ellen. It also proves that James Carter was a real person as the general information on his death certificate matched the information found from secondary sources.

37

Document S

37 Document S Eugenia Carter Cassatt's death certificate provides the birth and death date, place of

Eugenia Carter Cassatt's death certificate provides the birth and death date, place of death, cause of death, parents’ name, gender, race, marital status as well as final resting place. Cassatt is listed as a female born on October 2, 1856 to Charles Carter, born in Virginia, and Ellen Newman of Philadelphia.

From this document, we can confirm that Eugenia Carter is the daughter of Charles Shirley Carter. The 1880 census, there was no mention of Eugenia Carter, but rather ‘Eugene’ who was the same age as her. This caused confusion of if Eugenia was incorrectly logged into a genealogic lThough the 1880 census listed Eugenia Carter as ‘Eugene’ and the son of Carter, the document corrects this fault. We can infer that perhaps the census taker glanced too quickly at the name ‘Eugenia’ as well as her occupation as a lawyer and mistakenly listed her as ‘Eugene’.

38

Document T

38 Document T This document is the death certificate of Charles Shirley Carter’s daughter, Charlotte C.

This document is the death certificate of Charles Shirley Carter’s daughter, Charlotte C. Buckley. It specifies exact details of her death, including her place of death (4045 Pine Street Philadelphia, PA), the exact time of death (3:15 PM), exact age at death (84 years, 1 month and 13 days), the cause of death (Broncho-pneumonia), burial (St. James the Lesser), and many more. Dr. Charles Carter and Ellen Newman are also listed on the birth certificate.

Seeing the piece of paper that has all this information proves that Charlotte was indeed a real person that lived her life as someone from Carter’s bloodline. In a way, it immortalizes her existence as long as a record of her death exists. It could bring insight on someone looking at her death certificate in the future by showing a small snippet of how her life was like as she lived for quite a long time for someone in the 1800s.

39

Rebecca Chen

Task List

Initial Research

Cover Page

Table of Contents

Emailed Virginia Historical Society (VHS)

Emailed Church of the Epiphany

Emailed Manager of Genealogy

Visited Central Free Library on January 6, 2017

Visited St. Stephen’s Church on January 24, 2017

Visited Woodlands Cemetery on January 26, 2017

Introduction

Transcribed Documents

Abstract

Historical Perspective (United States)

Document Analysis (4)

Total time spent: 60 hours Tina Chen

Initial Research

Visited Central Free Library on January 6, 2017

Visited Northeast Regional Library on January 7, 2016

Visited Woodlands Cemetery on January 26, 2017

Ordered/Paid for Documents from VHS

Called St. Stephen’s Church

Transcribed Documents

Biography

Document Analysis (4)

Total time spent: 50 hours Vivienne Chen

Initial Research

Cover Page

Task List

Emailed St. Mark’s Church

Emailed St. James Church

Emailed Skinner Auctioneers and Appraisers

Visited Central Free Library on January 6, 2017

Visited St. Stephen’s Church on January 24, 2017

Visited Woodlands Cemetery on January 26, 2017

Called St. James Church

Transcribed Documents

Historical Perspective (Philadelphia)

Works Cited

Document Analysis (5)

Total time spent: 55 hours

40

Joey Zhao

Initial Research

Emailed University of Pennsylvania Archives

Visited St. Stephen’s Church on January 24, 2017

Monument Description

Biography

Document Analysis (7)

Map for Biography

Total time spent: 55 hours

As a group:

Visited St. Mark's Church on December 8, 2016 and January 5, 2017

Visited Philadelphia City Archives on December 16, 2016

Visited Historical Society of Pennsylvania on December 22, 2016

Worked on each category a bit, but the person who worked on it the most will have it under their name

Revisions + additional information

Signatures:

Name

Date

Name

Date

Name

Date

Name

Date

Works Cited

41

"About Anne Hill Carter Lee, Mother of General Robert E. Lee." About Anne Hill Carter Lee, Mother of General Robert E. Lee. - Photos and Stories - FamilySearch.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2017. <https://familysearch.org/photos/artifacts/18517383>.

"America's Best History." U.S. Timeline, The 1850s. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2017.

<http://americasbesthistory.com/abhtimeline1850.html>.

"American School, 19th Century Portrait of Dr. Charles Shirley Carter. | Sale Number 2706M, Lot Number 599 | Skinner Auctioneers." Skinner. American School, 19th Century Portrait of Dr. Charles Shirley Carter. | Sale Number 2706M, Lot Number 599 | Skinner Auctioneers, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2017.

<https://www.skinnerinc.com/auctions/2706M/lots/599>.

"Biographical Catalogue of the Matriculates of the College Together with Lists of the Members of the College Faculty and the Trustees, Officers and Recipients of Honorary Degrees, 1749-1893." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2017.

<https://books.google.com/books?id=GNe6AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA413&lpg=PA413&dq=

Ellen%2BNewman%2BCarter&source=bl&ots=PUicb_lELS&sig=2KGU0_tTStDn-fLhy

ecUL8Iv11c&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHoYDOpcDRAhXs7IMKHQCuCD8Q6AE

ILzAF#v=onepage&q=Ellen%20Newman%20Carter&f=false>.

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