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Welcome to Schwinn Cycling!

Schwinn Fitness has come a long way since building the first indoor cycling bike, and
we are still passionate and dedicated to indoor cycling and the impact it can make on
peoples health and fitness.

Today, there are many indoor cycling programs, and they each have something unique
to offer. However, Schwinn Cycling is the only program that combines the 100-year
heritage of the worlds most famous bike company with the best Master Instructors in
the world!

The Schwinn Cycling program is based upon 3 critical elements that set it apart from
all of the other programs. These elements ensure success for instructors and students
alike. We call it the A, B, Cs of Schwinn Cycling.

Authentic Cycling Principles


All elements of the program are rooted in the principles, approach and science of real
outdoor cycling.

Broad-Based Appeal
The program is simple, non-intimidating, user-friendly for both instructors and
participants, and enjoyable to a wide variety of exercisers.

Coaching-Style Instruction
Instructors are taught how to be great coaches who can engage, empower and interact
with their students.

The Schwinn Cycling program is written and designed to perfectly compliment the
features of the new Schwinn Authentic Cycling (A.C.) Series bikes. The Schwinn
A.C. bikes are the most technologically advanced indoor cycling bikes in the world, and
are designed to take Indoor Cycling classes to the next level!

While many of the techniques, skills and information provided in the Schwinn Cycling
program can be translated to and implemented on any Indoor Cycling bike, the
Schwinn Authentic Cycling Series bikes uniquely amplify the results of this training
program.

For other information please visit the SchwinnEducation website to learn more about
our wide variety of programs and training for fitness professionals.

Thank you for attending the Schwinn Cycling Instructor Certification Course!

StairMaster
8000 NE Parkway Drive | Suite 220 | Vancouver WA 98662
www.schwinneducation.com | www.facebook.com/SchwinnCyclingInternational

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Contents
Introduction 2

The Schwinn Cycling Education System 5

1. The Schwinn A.C. Bike 6

2. Bike Set Up 7
2.1 Quick Fit 7
2.2 Safety tips 9
2.3 High Performance Fit 9

3. The Coaching Pyramid 11


3.1 Content: Techniques 12
3.1.1 Hand positions
3.1.2 Techniques
3.2 Content: RPM 21
3.2.1 RPM in road-cycling
3.2.2 RPM range
3.2.3 Music & BPM
3.2.4 Music & Intensity
3.3 Content: Intensity 28
3.3.1 Heart Rate
3.3.2 RPE Borg Scale
3.3.3 Physiology
3.3.3.1 Harnessing energy
3.3.3.2 ATP-PC System
3.3.3.3 anaerobic Glycolysis
3.3.3.4 aerobic Glycolysis
3.3.3.5 Oxidative phosphorylation
3.4 Content: Time 34
3.5 Contact: Communication 35
3.5.1 nonverbal Communication
3.5.2 verbal communication
3.6 Contact : Motivation 41
3.6.1 intrinsic motivation
3.6.2 extrinsic motivation
3.6.3 Motivation and goal setting
3.6.4 Passion
3.6.5 Music

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3.7 Connection: Mind/Body 43
3.7.1 Mental training
3.7.2 Breathing
3.7.3 Relaxation
3.7.4 Focus
3.7.5 Self-awareness

4. Class Design 46
4.1 Preparing a class 46
4.2 General guidelines 46
4.3 Warm Up 47
4.4 Target Heart Rate Zones 49
4.5 Cool Down 54

5. Stretching 55

6. Periodization in Indoor Cycling 58


6.1 Hard/easy Principle 58
6.2 Theory of planning 59
6.3 Periodization in Schwinn Cycling 60

7. Anatomy 61
7.1 Bones & Joints 61
7.2 Muscles 63
7.3 Agonist, Antagonist, Synergist 64
7.4 Muscle Contraction 65
7.4.1 Concentric Contraction
7.4.2 Excentric Contraction
7.4.3 Isometric Contraction
7.5 Muscular imbalance 67

8. Biomechanics in Cycling 68
8.1 Pedal Stroke 68
8.2 The Push Point 69
8.3 The efficient pedal stroke 70

9. Overview of the Schwinn Cycling Continuing Education 72

10. Worksheets for class preparation 74

11. References 77

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The Schwinn Cycling Education System
The Schwinn Cycling Education System is a well structured process that enables the
Schwinn Cycling Coach to develop all necessary teaching skills step by step. You will
also receive tremendous knowledge about cycling in order to create interesting classes
and to provide your participants with the information that they will need. Besides that, it
is easy to stay motivated on your education journey because you are making your
personal development by attending different education modules, passing the Silver
Level test and joining Schwinn Conventions. The graphic below outlines the structure
of the education system and informs you about how you can progress in your role as a
Schwinn Cycling Instructor:

Instructor Necessary Compulsory Recommended


Level credits CEs CEs

Passing Silver Level Cycling and Nutrition (5)


Gold 40 Test Cycling and juniors (5)
Cycling and seniors (5)
Interval Workshop (2,5)
Stretching Workshops (2,5)
Schwinn Conventions (2)

Target Heart Rate (5) Preparation Course (5)


Silver 20 Silver Level Test (5) Class Design (5)
Cycling and Music (5)
Mind Body Training (5)

2 day
Bronze Certification
+ Test

To keep your Bronze level certification you need to visit one Continuing Education
within a 2 year period.

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1. The Schwinn IC & A.C. Bikes
Colour:
Silver (IC Pro)
Silver (A.C. Sport)
White (A.C. Performance)

Frame:
Steel (A.C. Sport & IC Pro)
Aluminium (A.C. Performance)

Direct Drive & Resistance:


Chain Drive
Smart Release System (A.C. Sport & Performance)
Magnetic Resistance (A.C. Sport & Performance)
Resistance Knob
Emergency Break

Saddle Height:
To change via PopPin
Distance 0.5inch (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Saddle Fore-and-Aft:
To change via PopPin
Three positions (- 0 +) (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Handlebar height:
To change via PopPin
Distance 0.5inch (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Handlebar Fore-and-Aft:
To change via PopPin (A.C. Sport & A.C. Performance)
Three positions (minus/neutral/plus) (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Pedals:
Bike pedals with cages (IC Pro)
Double link pedals with cage and spd-system (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Water Bottle Holders:


Left and right at the fork (IC Pro)
Integrated in the handle bar (A.C. Sport & Performance)

Levelling Pads / Feet:


Four levelling pads to adjust the stand of the bike

MPower Console (A.C. Sport & Performance):


Optional console to measure cadence, heart rate, time, watts,
speed and distance

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2. Bike Set Up
It is important for safety to have the bike set up in the right way.
The fixed gear helps the participants to improve their pedal stroke but also requires a
good technique. It allows them to stay out of the saddle and simulate an outdoor terrain.

On the Schwinn bike it is possible to change the saddle height, the fore and aft
position, the handlebar height and the handlebar fore and aft position (A.C. Sport & A.C.
Performance).
If working with beginners, always explain the fixed gear, the resistance knob and how
the bike can be stopped through pushing the emergency brake (resistance knob) before
they are set up.

2.1 Quick Fit Bike Set Up


Most students trying an indoor cycling class for the first time do not realize the time
needed for the instructor to properly set them up on the bike. They can arrive just
moments before class begins, or even during the warm-up, making it impossible for the
instructor to take them through a High Performance Fit. Some new students even
purposely arrive late, hoping to try the workout and avoid being fussed over by the
instructor or draw the attention of the other students.

Quick Fit is a way to set up students for a safe and comfortable ride in just a few
seconds! And it is a great first step toward taking them through a High Performance Fit
after the class, before their next ride or after they have experienced a few classes.
Although the new Schwinn Authentic Cycling Series bikes are designed to make a
Quick Fit highly accurate for 80% or more of the population, it is not designed to replace
a High Performance Fit, but it is a great place to start, especially if there is limited time.

Step 1:

Adjust the seat fore/aft position to the neutral (middle)


position of the 3-point adjustment range.

Adjust the handlebar fore/aft position to the neutral (middle)


position of the 3-point adjustment range.

You will have the opportunity to fine-tune this adjustment


during High Performance Fit.

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Step 2:

Adjust the seat height so that it is level with the top of the
hipbone.

Measure this by standing next to the bike seat, and estimate


by sight.

Alternatively, lift one knee until the thigh is parallel to the


floor and adjust the seat even with the thigh.

Step 3:

Adjust the handlebar level with the seat, or higher.

Adjust the handlebar higher than the seat if the student has
any back/shoulder pain and/or tightness to minimize
discomfort while riding.

This adjustment is based upon comfort only so be liberal in


offering adjustments that place the handlebars above the
seat height.

Step 4:

Sit on the bike and put the feet in the pedal clips or cages.
Adjust the center of the ball of the foot over the pedal axle
before tightening the cage straps.

Confirm a slight bend in the knee when the pedal is at the


bottom of the pedal stroke, and double-check handlebar
height, making sure the rider can reach several positions
comfortably with relaxed elbows and shoulders. (Again, you
will have the opportunity to fine-tune adjustments during
High Performance Fit, but do not hesitate to make
adjustments as necessary.)

Allow the rider to pedal for a few moments and sign-off on


the Quick Fit.

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2.2 Safety tips

When the positions are adjusted, make sure they are secured.
The straps of the shoe cage should be tightened around the shoe while the ball of the
foot is over the center of the pedal axel. Additionally, any shoelaces should be tucked
away

2.3 High Performance Fit


Ideally, instructors would take every student through High Performance Fit within the
first couple of classes.
High Performance Fit ensures the seat height is optimal for performance and pedaling
efficiency, and that each student is riding in a neutral knee position, which maximizes
safety.

High Performance Fit can take a couple of minutes, so set aside time before and/or
after your classes and invite students personally for a customized bike fit. It is a great
way to get to know your students and provide them with the personal attention that
keeps them coming back to class week after week.

Step 1: Begin with Quick Fit Steps 1 to 3


Have the rider sit on the bike and place their feet in the
Step 2: pedal clips or cages. Adjust the center of the ball of the foot
over the pedal axle before tightening the cage straps.

In a proper riding position, with hands on the handlebars,


have the rider place their leg at the bottom of the pedal
stroke. Kneel down beside the pedal, and make sure the
riders heel stays level with the floor.

Check that the knee extends as far as comfortably possible


while the rider is pedaling. Raise and lower the seat height
until the rider finds the highest comfortable adjustment. This
should not be determined simply by observing the leg
length, but rather by observing leg length AND through trial
and error.

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Step 3:
While sitting comfortably in the seat as if they were riding,
with hands on the handlebars, have the rider level their
pedals over the floor to 3 o clock and 9 o clock. Kneel down
beside the pedal that is at 3 o clock, and look closely to
make sure the crank arm is parallel to the floor. Tighten the
resistance slightly so the rider will not move the pedals
during the adjustment.

Drop the plumb line from the front of the kneecap and
observe where the end falls. Adjust the seat fore/aft position
until the plumb line falls centered over the ball of the foot
(neutral knee).

If you move the seat fore/aft position from the original neutral
position of the 3-point adjustment range, repeat Steps 2 & 3
until you achieve the best combination of seat height and
seat fore/aft position. The goal is to find the highest
comfortable seat height position while maintaining a neutral
knee.

Step 4:

Double check handlebar height and handlebar fore/aft


position, making sure the rider can reach several positions
comfortably with relaxed elbows and shoulders. Make
necessary adjustments.

Allow the rider to pedal for a few moments and sign-off on


the High Performance Fit. It is important riders feel
comfortable with their adjustments. Allow them to make
changes in your adjustment suggestions if they insist on
doing so.

Remind riders to remember their High Performance


adjustment numbers.

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3. The Coaching Pyramid
Overview
Understanding the bike, bike set-up and cycling science is extremely important to
ensure a safe and effective workout for your students. However, these things are not
what will keep them coming back week after week. To do that, you have to provide your
students with a great workout experience.

The Schwinn Cycling Coaching Pyramid is designed to prioritize all the important
aspects of being a great coach in a way that is easy to understand and implement in
class, and ensure that you and your students get the most benefit. Used individually,
each element of the Coachs Pyramid would only provide you with a few great skills.
However, fusing all of the elements together in order of priority can change the way you
motivate, communicate and educate your students. And, it guarantees you get the most
out of the measurement technology that is built directly into the bike.

The Schwinn Cycling Coaching Pyramid takes into


account all the characteristics of the worlds greatest
coaches coaches who know how to bring out the
best in their athletes. These coaches do not rely CONNECTION
on random instructions, vague planning, generic
cueing or haphazard motivational techniques.
These great coaches all have a system for
doing what they do best, and that is what CONTACT
the Coaching Pyramid can be for you, a
system for coaching great classes
time after time!

CONTENT
The Schwinn Cycling Coaching
Pyramid is based on three topics. On the
basement you find the basic coaching techniques. You
mostly have to inform your student about the technique, the rpm,
the intensity and the time to keep the intensity. This is the content of information. On the
next level you will work with communication and motivation which can be called the
contact level. To end up the pyramid the mind/body-connection is the goal for every
athlete to improve skills and challenges. This is the level of connection.

Definition of a coach

A coach is someone who can influence and guide somebody to success. The coach is
someone who communicates a message to the student with inspiration and knowledge,
while giving individual alternatives. Unlike other group training classes where the
instructor usually needs to stay in front of the group (due to choreography or the nature
of the class), the Schwinn Cycling coach can leave the bike to give specific
alternatives. For example, one student can be using the standing climbing technique
while someone else is doing a seated flat. The coach has the possibility to give
individual guidance with intensity changes and personal feedback to each student.

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3.1 Content: Techniques
The Schwinn Cycling program advocates using
authentic outdoor riding techniques in class.
This simply means that we do not recommend
incorporating any riding technique on an
indoor bike that you would not do on an
outdoor bike. Not only does this ensure
that you will reduce your risk of injury
to yourself and your students, but it
also decreases the intimidation
that is often associated with
indoor cycling classes by
keeping the riding techniques
simple and familiar.
After all, outdoor bicycling is one of the most
popular activities in the world. It is not necessary to change
or alter the way a bike is already ridden simply for the sake of creativity or uniqueness.

On an outdoor bike, you will always be riding a flat road, a hill or some combination of
the two. And you have the option to sit or stand, depending on what feels most
comfortable, gives you the most power and conserves the most energy. Finally, you
have a wide variety of pedal speeds to choose from, depending on which gear you are
riding in.

For example, on an outdoor bike, you might be riding on a flat road, and lift yourself out
of the bike seat to a standing position when going over a bump, pothole or a stretch of
road that is slightly inclined. You might also stand up simply to give your buttocks a
break from the sitting position. Or you might be climbing a hill sitting down, and in an
effort to pass someone on another bike, you may choose to stand up and use a little
body weight to get the pedals moving faster. Or if you were finishing the last 3 miles of a
bike race, you might go from a strong, seated flat to a sprint, which might involve
switching gears, standing up, increasing your pedal speed, sitting down and the
standing again to cross the finish line.

There is an infinite combination of possibilities you might experience on the road with
regards to your terrain (flats or hills), whether you sit or stand while riding them, what
pedal speed you choose to use and what gear you are riding in.

Indoors, there is one major difference versus riding outdoors that limits some of the
possible options you will need to consider with regards to riding technique. Indoors,
there are no real hills OR flats! Since your bike is not actually moving in an indoor
cycling class, flat roads and hills are imaginary and primarily cued as such to help
simulate a real road ride.

Of course, even though there are no real hills or flats on an indoor bike, we encourage
you to refer to flats and hills when you teach your classes to enhance the experience
and make the experience more authentic. And we encourage you to teach your
simulated hills and flats in a way that resembles real outdoor cycling as closely as
possible, including pedaling at appropriate pedal speeds for the terrain simulations that
you are instructing.

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Read and study the riding techniques recommended on the Schwinn Authentic
Cycling bikes. Being proficient at modeling and teaching proper riding technique will be
an important part of teaching a great class and being a great coach.

3.1.1 Position of the hands

Narrow (1)

The Narrow position (1) is used only in Seated


Flat. Rest the hands in the middle of the
handlebar. The thumbs are next to each other
and there is an option of either placing the
outside of the hand or the ball of the hand on
the handlebar.

Wide (2)

The Wide position (2) is used in Seated flat, Standing Flat, Combo Flat, Seated
Climbing, in parts of the Combo Hill and in preparation of the Sprinting Flat. The hands
are placed broadly with a secure grip on the handlebar. Make sure that the wrists are in
line with the arms. The wide position is used for optimal safety, balance and it opens up
the chest for more efficient breathing. The alternate Wide position (2) sees the thumbs
around the handlebar.

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Standing (3)

The Standing position (3) is used in the Standing Climbing in parts of the Combo Hill as
well as in parts of the Sprinting Flat and the Sprinting Hill. The grip should be in
between the bent and the end of the handlebar with thumbs around the handlebar. Try
gripping the handlebar as if the arms were brought forward from a neutral position
without rotating the shoulders.

3.1.2 Description of Techniques

Seated Flat (SF)

Seated flat simulates the flat road. It is the base technique and it is used for example in
the warm up and cool down.
The upper body is relaxed with the arms slightly bent and the elbows dropped. Stabilize
the trunk to give support to the lower back, which should be in a slightly rounded
position. Sit deep in the saddle. Find the knees in a straight line with the thighs and the
ankles.

Position of the hands: Narrow (1), Wide (2). Connect the hands with the bike, directly
flat on the handlebar. Relax the hands and the fingers. In the wide hand positions have
a safe grip around the handlebar.
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Cadence and resistance: 80-110 rpm. Normally the resistance is low to medium. In
special cases (like in a competition class or in a time trial) it is possible to ride this
technique with medium to high resistance.

Standing Flat (StF)

When riding outdoors, sometimes there is terrain with small changes between flats and
hills. To be able to keep the same cadence during this terrain, the rider can give more
strength to the legs by coming out of the saddle. A standing flat is simulating this
movement.

Increase the resistance before leaving the saddle. The upper body is relaxed. Light
hands on the handlebar. Hips and body weight stay over the centre of the pedals. Try to
keep close to the tip of the saddle with the back of the thighs. Without putting any
weight on the handlebar, make sure that the shoulder line is slightly in front of the hip
line. The pedal stroke should be fluid.

Position of the hands: Wide (2), for the best stabilisation of the upper body and
because of safety. Keep a secure and safe grip around the handlebar.

Cadence and resistance: 80-100 rpm. Please note that for a beginner it is preferable
to learn this technique at the lower cadence. The resistance is low to medium.

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Combo Flat (CF)

Combo Flat is a combination between Seated and Standing Flat. The technique is
mostly found in mountain biking. This combination technique will work muscular co-
ordination.
Perform the Combo Flat in a small movement up and down. Stay close to the tip of the
saddle with the back of the thighs. To leave the saddle, use the strength of the legs.
Keep hands light on the handlebar. The upper part of the back has a slight forward
curve. Shoulders are relaxed. It is recommended that the Combo Flat is performed with
a minimum of 2 revolutions between changes.

Position of the hands: Wide (2), to have the best stabilisation of the upper body and
because of safety. Keep a secure and safe grip around the handlebar.

Cadence and resistance: 80-100 rpm. Please note that for a beginner it is preferable
to learn this technique at the lower cadence. The resistance is low to medium.

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Seated Climbing (SC)
Seated Climbing simulates a
hill. Because of the stationary
bike, the upper body can
move side to side. The back is
slightly rounded. The arms
are relaxed and the hands are
on top of the handlebar. Keep
the wrist in line with the arm to
aid the blood circulation.
Because of the lower cadence
and the seated position, this is
one of the best techniques in
which the pedal stroke can be
practised.

Position of the hands: Wide (2), for expansion of the airways.

Cadence and resistance: 6080 rpm. The resistance is medium to high. The lower the
cadence, the higher the resistance.

Standing Climbing (StC)

Also standing climbing simulates a hill. Because of the


stationary bike, the upper body could move side to side.
Back slightly rounded. The hips and weight stay over
the centre of the pedals, remain close to the tip of the
saddle with the back of the thighs. Work with a smooth
pedal stroke. Working with the fixed gear aids
hamstring work.

Position of the hands: Standing (3), because of the


position of the body.

Resistance and cadence: 60 80 rpm. The resistance


is high. The lower the cadence, the higher the
resistance.

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Combo Hill (CH)

This combination technique will work muscular co-ordination. It is a combination


between seated climbing and standing climbing. On the road this terrain would be
changing between easy and more challenging parts of a climb.
Make a smooth change, one hand after the other. Good leg strength is needed for this
technique. Keep a minimum of 2 revolutions between the position changes.

Position of the hands: Changing between the position Wide (2) and the Standing (3).
Always keep the contact with the handlebar.

Resistance and cadence: 60 80 rpm. The resistance is medium to high.

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Sprinting Flat (SpF)

Like in a race situation, the goal of the sprinting flat technique is to go as fast as
possible from one point to another, for example during the last stretch towards the finish
line.

From the seated flat position, move or keep the hands in the position Wide (2) and start
to increase the resistance until the cadence is decreased to 60 80 rpm. As soon as
the lower cadence is reached, get out of the saddle and bring the hands to Standing (3).
Increase the cadence to a maximum of 110 rpm. Always recover in seated flat.
Recovery time depends on in which class content the sprint is performed. Sprinting flat
requires a good technique and an aerobic base. Only for experienced students.

Position of the hands: Start in position Narrow (1) or Wide (2), then change to Wide
(2) and finally to Standing (3) for the sprint itself. Note that one hand is always in contact
with the handlebar during the changes.

Resistance and cadence: From seated flat (80-110 rpm) lower the cadence with
resistance to 60 80 rpm. With a high resistance, the rider will then increase the
cadence to a maximum of 110 rpm.

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Sprinting Hill (SpH)

The goal with the Sprinting Hill technique is to go as fast as possible from one point to
another in a climbing situation. An outdoor example would be attacking to break away
from the peleton during a long hill climb. Start either from the seated or the standing
climbing position. With a high resistance increase the cadence in position Standing (3)
to a maximum of 100 rpm. Always recover in seated position. Recovery time depends
on in which class content the sprint is performed. Sprinting Hill requires a good
technique and an aerobic base. Only for experienced students.

Position of the hands: From Wide (2) or Standing (3) to Standing (3).

Resistance and cadence: Maximum 100 rpm with very high resistance.

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3.2 Content: RPM
Pedal speed in cycling is measured in revolutions
per minute, or rpm. Rpm refers to how many
times one of the crank arms completes a full
360-degree turn. For example, if your right
foot passes through the push-point of the
pedal stroke 90 times during a minute,
then your cadence is 90 rpm.

In the sport of cycling, there is


perhaps no subject more
open to discussion and
debate than pedal speed.
What pedal speeds are most efficient?
What pedals speeds produce the greatest bike
speeds? What pedal speeds are naturally the most
comfortable for most riders?
When you watch professional cyclists riding outdoors they are used to pedal at different
cadences. Some are using a lower, some a higher cadence. Still there is a range of
cadences that every rider sticks to.
Our Authentic Cycling is related to outdoor riding. This is the reason why we
recommend pedaling at similar cadences.

3.2.1 RPM in Cycling

Some years ago cyclists used to pedal on flat roads at a cadence between 80rpm and
90rpm. Nowadays nearly everybody changed their cadence and accelerated up to
90rpm to 105rpm.

The picture on the left shows data of


Andre Greipel (Team Columbia)
during a flat stage at the Tour of
Avg. cadence: Germany. He won that stage!
90.8rpm
His pedal speed (C) during the whole
stage was 90.8rpm.

http://www.srm.de/index.php/us/srm-blog

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The second example below shows Adam Hansen (Team Columbia) during the World
Championchips 2008 in Varese. His average cadence is 102.6rpm.

Avg. cadence:
102.6rpm

http://www.srm.de/index.php/us/srm-blog

In opposite to the flat roads professional


cyclists pedal at a lower cadence in the
mountains. Although the cadence has
changed over the years it still is mainly
in between 70rpm and 85rpm. The first
example is Sebastian Lang (Team
Col DAspin:
Gerolsteiner) at the Tour de France 74.1rpm
2008. The second example shows Brian
Vandborg (Team Liquigas) during a
mountain stage at the Tour de France
2009 again during a mountain stage.

Col
DTourmalet:
77.2rpm

Col
DAspin:
83rpm

http://www.srm.de/index.php/us/srm-blog/tour-de-france

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3.2.2 RPM ranges in cycling

Range: 73rpm to 106rpm

http://www.srm.de/index.php/us/srm-blog/tour-de-france

Uphill: 60 65 70 75 80 85

Flat: 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110

In Schwinn Cycling we work with authentic techniques and cadences. Thus we


recommend for flat techniques a pedal speed between 80rpm and 110rpm, whereas in
the climbing techniques we recommend 60rpm to 80rpm.

Uphill: 60 65 70 75 80

Flat: 80 85 90 95 100 105 110

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Below you find a summary of our recommended cadences for the different techniques.

Summary

Technique Hand Position Cadence

SF 1/2 80 - 110
StF 2 80 - 100
CF 2 80 - 100
SC 2 60 - 80
StC 3 60 - 80
CH 2+3 60 - 80
SpF 1 / 2 to 2 to 3 max. 110
SpH 2 to 3 max. 100

As you can see, the cadence for the techniques on a flat road is up to 110
RPM. Only very advanced riders are able to pedal so fast with a good
controlled technique. It is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED to stay under 110
RPM, especially for safety reasons.

3.2.3 Music and BPM

Having talked about the cadence in Schwinn Cycling we now have to figure out, how
we know if we are pedaling the correct rpm during classes.
Music is the key to nearly everything in a Schwinn Cycling class, especially when we
talk about cadence. It is possible to ride without music, but one of the most powerful
ways of motivating the participants is through it. Nearly all different kinds of music can
be used in Schwinn Cycling classes. To be able to figure out which music works with
which technique, learn how to count beats per minute bpm, and revolutions per
minute rpm (cadence).
To check the bpm, count every beat of the music (usually the bass line) for 15 seconds
and multiply it by four. The ability of counting music is one of the basic skills a
Schwinn Cycling coach has to do when preparing a class. Our recommendation is, to
learn and practice counting bpm.

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To make it easier for you there are some programs on the
market helping you counting. One of the best ones is the
WebmBPM (http://www.webm.dk/programs/webmbpm).
After you opened this small program just tap a key in
rhythm with the music, after e.g. 15 taps click on Calculate
BPM and you get the result automatically.
It is obligatory to count the bpm of every song youd like to
use! You always have to know how fast this song is, and
therefore you can use this program instead of counting the
beats and looking at a watch.

To check the cadence, do a cadence control. While pedaling, put one hand above your
thigh and count the number of times the thigh hits the hand. Do this for 15 seconds,
then multiply it by four = revolutions per minute (rpm).
Is there a connection between bpm and rpm? Yes, if the student pedal exactly to the
beat of the music. Then for example a song at 90 bpm would correspond with 90 rpm.
Or, working with the half tempo in the music a song at 140 bpm would give 70 rpm.

On and off the beat

When choosing the music, especially for novice riders, remember that some songs are
more easy to work with (usually with a steady beat and clear rhythm) than others. The
students should be able to follow the rhythm of the music; on the other hand, they
should also be able to pedal off beat sometimes. For example, if a participant would like
to stay at 65% of MHR and the music is too fast, the participant should find a slower
rhythm to suit the heart rate and pedal off beat.
Feel for the music and make it your own.

Beginners, warm up and cool down

For beginners, warm up and cool down, it is recommended to use music which
encourages an rpm of maximum 100 in the seated flat. This is a tempo that beginners
will master and they will feel secure on the bike. During the warm up and cool down, it is
easier for the students to gradually progress the heart rate by starting at a lower
cadence.

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3.2.4 Music and intensity

Depending on what kind of class you would like to teach your music will support you.
This means that you have think about your choice of music. When you listen to music it
can be vocal or instrumental if vocal it can be a male or female voice, relaxing or
powerful, easy or heavy. powerful
For this reason you should
classify the music you want to
use with regards to just
mentioned properties. An easy
tool to help you can be our heavy neutral easy / light
Music Quadrant.
Listen to your song selection
and judge each song into the
four different fields. At the end
there should be a number in
every field. relaxing
If you are planning a low intensity class and your music selection is only in the top half
of the Music Quadrant your participants will have difficulties in keeping the goal
intensity. On the other hand, when you plan a high intensity class and your choice of
music is mainly in the area below neutral your students will have problems to reach
the given intensity.
If you have the right relation between relaxing and powerful songs you should think
about the order or your music. Warm Up and Cool Down should be close to relaxing
whereas the Warm Up should be less relaxing than the Cool Down. The first song in the
main part of the class should be powerful and not too heavy, the last song of the main
part should be the most powerful song of your selection. In between these two songs
there should be a variation in all four quadrants.

Types of music

Chart music works, but there is a need to change these songs often as they date the
terrains. With instrumental music there is the advantage of being able to coach
undisturbed by lyrics.
Use different kinds of music to vary the classes. Try a category of music that you have
never explored before for one song or a full class. Also try theme classes like cycling
around the world with music from different countries, -80s revivals, classical, etc.

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Type of music General bpm
Pop, Alternative, Heavy Metal free
Ambient 80 - 120
Chill out 80 - 120
Classical 50 - 200
Disco 118 - 125
DrumnBass 150 - 180
Euro Pop 100 - 170
House 120 - 140
Irish 120 - 140
New Age 80 - 110
Rock 80 - 130
Reggae 60 - 90
RnB 80 - 110
Trance, Techno 130 - 160

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3.3 Content: Intensity
While students can always ride at an intensity that is
appropriate and comfortable for them, clearly
communicating intensity goals throughout
class is an important aspect of being a
great indoor cycling coach. It helps
create synergy and motivation, and
better enables riders to push
themselves to get fitter.
Pedal speed (rpm) should be
coached and considered in-
dependently from overall
intensity, even though
they are of course intrinsically
linked. In other words, since it is possible
for a student to work harder or easier at 60rpm
OR 90rpm, you should not coach or imply that slower or faster
pedals speeds are automatically physically easier or harder without consideration of the
actual amount of resistance on the flywheel.

There are many different methods for helping students monitor their intensity. Some
programs encourage the active use of heart rate monitors. Other programs prefer using
a Rate of Perceived Exertion scale (i.e. push yourself to a 7 out of 10.), or an intensity
percentage scale (i.e. push to approximately 70% of your maximum effort.).

On the following pages you will find an overview of both, heart rate and Rate of
Perceived Exertion.

3.3.1 Heart Rate Training

Without a heart rate monitor, I do my easy trainings sessions too hard, and my hard
sessions not hard enough. This statement from a professional triathlete really explains
the need for heart rate training. Elite athletes also need to have an external control of
their intensity. Even they cannot relay only on their internal body feeling. So how can
this be expected from the participants in cycling classes?
To get the best results from training, intensity control is crucial. The busier a persons
everyday life is, the harder it is to find the time to train. Would it not be nice then to know
that the hours spent on the bike are quality training? Through heart rate training this can
be achieved.

28
Age related formulas

Since training with a heart rate monitor started, scientists and coaches in endurance
training tried to find a simple way to find the correct training intensity for their athletes.
Of course, lactic acid level tests, Vo2max tests and other difficult laboratory testings are
accurate, but it is not possible to work with these tests on a daily basis. However,
thousands of these measurements were done and some statistic formulas were
developed. While it was well known that the aging process has some influence on the
maximum heart rate and the resting heart rate through endurance training, scientists
took these two parameters into the age related formulas. You can see the most
common formulas listed below:

MHR = 220 age (male)


MHR = 226 age (female)

This formula is the most common, but it is also one of the oldest. It is based on studies
and it has deviations from +/- 10 12 beats.

Edwards formula:
MHR = 214 0.5 x age 0.11 x KG
MHR = 210 0.5 x age 0.11 x KG

Tanaka formula:
MHR = 208 (0.7 x age)

Dr Hirofumi Tanaka and co-workers from the University of Colorado, BO, analyzed date
from 351 studies that included nearly 19,000 subjects. They came up with a new
method of predicting maximum heart rate: 208-0.7 x age. Using this equation, a 20 year
old person has a predicted maximum heart rate of 194 rather than 200 using the old
method. However, for a 60 year old person, the predicted maximum heart rate is 166
rather 160. The authors stated that the original equation overestimates max heart rate in
young people but underestimates it in older people. The new equation is likely to be
accepted by professional organizations such as the American Heart Association and the
American College of Sports Medicine.

Karvonen formula:
training intensity = (MHR RHR) x % training intensity + RHR

This formula uses the HR Reserve (MHR RHR). It is still necessary to measure MHR
to still calculate it.

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3.3.2 RPE / Borg Scale

RPE means Rate of Perceived Exertion. It is your gauge to how intense your effort is
during cycling classes. Obviously it can be used for any kind of cardio workout - biking,
running, swimming, etc.
There are times when you may be training by yourself or in a class where the instructor
or coach changes your effort level. How do you measure this? There are a number of
ways to do this. First and best way is to measure the power you are using. This takes
a special device attached to you bike and can be expensive. The next is a heart rate
monitor and this is a lot less expensive.

There is another way. Learn how to use Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE). As I said
before it can be used in many different exercise programs. It is easy method of
monitoring how much effort you are using or how much effort you want to use.

Gunnar Borg developed the Borg RPE Scale and the Borg CR10 Scale as a means to
produce estimates of exertion that would be comparable across people and across
tasks,
These scales are now commonly used in exercise testing, training, rehabilitation and
ergonomics
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
On the right you can see the original scale
developed by Borg. It is an ordinal scale with 6 no exertion at all
values from 6 to 20. Verbal anchors are provided 7 extremely light
8
to standardize for comparisons across
9 very
individuals and tasks. The greater the exertion
10 light
felt the greater the number reported by the 11 light
individual being tested. 12
13 somewhat hard
If you multiply the scale by 10, you may get an 14
approximate working rate. However, correlation 15 hard (heavy)
to your real heart rate is probably not very good, 16
17 very hard
18
So many of us now use a revised simpler scale 19 extremely hard
of 0-10 developed by the American College of 20 maximal exertion
Sports Medicine. See down for the comparison
of the two scales.

30
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)
* 0-1 No exertion. The only
1 6 No exertion at all
movement you're getting is pushing
7 Extremely light buttons on the remote.
8 * 2-3 Light exertion. This is how you
2 9-10 Very light should feel when you're warming up,
3 11 Light cooling down, and stretching.
4 12 * 4-5 Medium exertion. You're
5 13 Somewhat hard breathing a little faster. Your heart is
6 14 pumping a little faster. You're feeling
7 15 Hard (heavy) a little warmer.
8 16-17 Very hard * 6-7 Hard exertion. You're breathing
9 18-19 Extremely hard
pretty hard now, you're probably
10 20 Maximum exertion
sweating. You can talk, but it's
getting tougher.
* 8-9 Very hard exertion. You're breathing really hard and you can only say a few words
at a time. You're wondering how long you can go on like this.
* 10 Hardest exertion. You cannot keep this pace for more than a minute. Speaking is
impossible. This is your limit

3.3.3 Physiology of Cycling

3.3.3.1 Harnessing energy


Have you ever wondered how the muscles produce the energy needed to exercise? On
the surface it seems simple; breathe in oxygen and transport it to the muscles, where it
combines with food (fuel). The muscle then contracts to produce movement and force.
Although this is a very simplistic view, it is a representation of production of energy for
movement.

When muscles contract, they use large amounts of energy. However, the amount of
energy stored in muscles is limited, so working muscle relay on blood flow for delivery of
adequate amounts of fuel.

All cells depend on a chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), for their
immediate energy source. When ATP is broken down by chemical action into adenosine
diphosphate (ADP), energy is released. The body creates ATP in two ways:

Aerobic metabolism (with oxygen)


Anaerobic metabolism (without oxygen)

3.3.3.2 The ATP-PC system


The creatine phosphate or ATP-PC system is unrivalled in our bodies for instant
production of energy; it works by reforming ATP by breaking down a chemical
compound called creatine phosphate which creates and provides sufficient energy for
some ADP to reform into ATP. This is the first energy pathway that is used by our
bodies to resynthesise ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) without the use of oxygen. As it
does not use oxygen it is therefore an anaerobic energy system, although this system
does not produce lactic acid (lactate 2C3H6O3). Instead of oxygen it uses another
chemical known as CreatinePhosphate found in the muscle cells. This is not used for
muscle contraction, but is mainly used for resynthesising ATP and to maintain a

31
constant supply of energy. These Reactions Occur very rapidly and only last up to ten
seconds, which means it is used in activities of high intensity (this only lasts for a short
period of time).

3.3.3.3 Anaerobic Glycolysis


As the ATP-PCr system begins to fade after around ten seconds, a process known as
Anaerobic Glycolysis begins to occur. Anaerobic Glycolysis is the primary energy
source in activities lasting between 20 seconds and two minutes. Anaerobic Glycolysis
continues to supply energy during exercise lasting up to ten minutes. This system
breaks down muscle and liver glycogen stores without the use of oxygen. The
byproduct of this system is lactic acid.

3.3.3.4 Aerobic Glycolysis


After about two to five minutes of exercise, Aerobic Glycolysis is the dominant energy
system. Aerobic Glycolysis produces energy by breaking down muscle and liver
glycogen stores with oxygen present. Because oxygen is present when this system is
in use, there is no build up of lactic acid. This system does not produce energy as fast
as the ATP-PCr system or Anaerobic Glycolysis thus the intensity of exercise cannot be
as high. This system has the capacity to produce energy for an hour or more.

3.3.3.5 Oxidative Phosphorylation


Oxidative Phosphorylation provides the body with energy during exercise of long
duration and moderate to low intensity. This system breaks down the bodies fat stores
to supply energy to working muscles. As the intensity of exercise decreases, the body
relies more on this energy system. This energy system can supply virtually unlimited
supplies of energy. Endurance sports such as cross-country running, swimming, soccer
and lacrosse all rely heavily on this system. However, speed and power can often be
the determining factor in winning and losing. Therefore careful attention must be paid to
developing both energy systems to achieve top performance.
As the graph below shows, all three energy systems are active at any given time, but
depending on the intensity and duration of the activity, different systems will be primarily
stressed. High intensity, short duration activities stress the ATP-PCr system. As the
intensity slightly decreases and the time increases Glycolysis kicks in. Then as the
intensity is further reduced and the time increased, the Aerobic System is primarily
used.

Phosphate

Glycolysis | anaerobic Glycogen | aerobic

Fat | aerobic
Kj -min

Exercise | time

32
Different energy systems indicating how the energy systems operate, their storage and
release rate.

highest release rate


PC
Adenosinphosphate
Smallest storage (ATP)
anaerobic te
ra
se
lea
h
re r ate
hig ase
rele
m
diu
me
intensity

Glucose
Medium storage aerobic

Fat

Smallest release rate


Biggest storage

time

33
3.4 Content: Time
With any exercise activity, knowing the time and/or
distance required to complete a portion of the
workout (or the whole workout) is extremely
helpful and motivating. Indoor cycling
classes are no exception.

When a rider knows how long and/or


how far they will be asked to climb
up a hill, pedal through a flat or
push through an interval, it is
easier for that rider to stay
focused, work hard and
understand the Coachs
expectations.
On the other hand, not knowing how long
and/or how far a particular portion of the workout
is (or being given arbitrary or inaccurate information about
time and/or distance from the Coach) makes it extremely challenging to stay motivated
and focused.

Although it is obvious that the intensity you can keep over one minute will not be the
same as the intensity for 60 minutes we often forget about giving the information how
long the next stage will be.

Maximum power output

Johannes Fr hlinger Chris A. Soerensen Brian Vandborg

1 sec 983 W 15,9 W/kg 933 W 14,6 W/kg 1.172 W 16,3 W/kg
10 sec 774 W 12,5 W/kg 738 W 11,5 W/kg 816 W 11,3 W/kg
20 sec 613 W 9,9 W/kg 573 W 9,0 W/kg 713 W 9,9 W/kg
1 min 472 W 7,6 W/kg 501 W 7,8 W/kg 578 W 8,0W/kg
4 min 408 W 6,6 W/kg 431 W 6,7 W/kg 468 W 6,5 W/kg
20 min 313 W 5,0 W/kg 354 W 5,5 W/kg 394 W 5,5 W/kg
60 min 262 W 4,2 W/kg 292 W 4,6 W/kg 338 W 4,7 W/kg
http://www.srm.de/index.php/us/srm-blog

As you can see there is a huge difference in power output with regards to time in
professional cyclists, too. The power somebody can keep for one minute is more than
50% higher as to keep for 60 minutes.

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3.5 Contact: Communication
Any act by which one person gives to or receives from
another person information about that person's needs,
desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states.
Communication may be intentional or unintentional,
may involve conventional or unconventional
signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic
forms, and may occur through spoken or
other modes

Communication is a process of
transferring information from
one entity to another.
Communication processes
are sign-mediated interactions
between at least two agents which
share a repertoire of signs and semiotic rules.
Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting
or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech,
writing, or signs". Communication can be perceived as a two-way process in which
there is an exchange and progression of thoughts, feelings or ideas towards a mutually
accepted goal or direction.

Encode Message Decode

Noise

Decode Feedback Encode

Sender Receiver
Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is
discreeted and imparted by sender to a receiver via a channel/medium. The receiver
then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. Communication requires
that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means,
such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal means, such as
body language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, by using writing.
Communication is thus a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an
attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skills
in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking,
questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. It is through communication that collaboration
and cooperation occur.
There are also many common barriers to successful communication, e.g. message
overload (when a person receives too many messages at the same time).
35
Research has shown that during conversation words are only accountable for 7% of
how the other person perceives the message. 55% of the communication comes from
body language, making gestures much more powerful than words. Voice tonality is
responsible for the last 38%. This means that it is the non-verbal part that the listener
pays attention to, so it is all about giving life to our words.

Being the second level of the


Schwinn Cycling Coaching Words
Pyramid communication plays 7%
an important role in every class.
In Schwinn Cycling classes
we work with different part
of verbal and nonverbal Voice tonality
Body language
communication. 38%
55%

3.5.1 Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication


through sending and receiving wordless messages.
Nonverbal communication can be communicated through gesture, by body posture, by
facial expression and eye contact.

Body Posture
Posture can be used to determine a
participants degree of attention or
involvement, the difference in status between
communicators, and the level of fondness a
person has for the other communicator.
Posture and movement can also convey a
great deal on information. Posture is
understood through such indicators as
direction of lean, body orientation, arm
position, and body openness.
The body posture means, how we stand or
sit. Different postures have different results. If
standing, be balanced evenly on both legs,
body facing forward with an open posture
since this signifies interest and self
confidence

36
Gesture
A gesture is a non-vocal bodily
movement intended to express Positive area
meaning. They may be articulated with
the hands, arms or body and also Neutral area
include waving, pointing, and using
Negative area
fingers to indicate number amounts.

Facial Expressions
Facial expression is the changing of the facial muscles.
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion
of nonverbal communication. Consider how much
information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown.
While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures,
the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are similar throughout
the world.
Many of the muscles in the face can be ruled consciously, but not all of them.
Sometimes it is easy to distinguish between a fake smile and a real smile, so when
smiling to the students make sure it comes from the heart.

Eye Contact
Looking, staring, and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people
encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate.
Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest,
and attraction.
Gaze comprises the actions of looking while talking, looking while listening, amount of
gaze, and frequency of glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate.

3.5.2 Verbal Communication

Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the
key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language.
Words alone have no meaning. Only people can put meaning into words. As meaning
is assigned to words, language develops, which leads to the development of speaking.
Through speaking we try to eliminate misunderstanding, but sometimes this is a very
hard thing to do. Just as we assume that our messages are clearly received, so we
assume that because something is important to us, it is important to others. As time has
proven this is not at all true. Many problems can arise is speaking and the only way to
solve these problems is through experience.

37
The four sides model
The four sides model (also known as communicationssquare or four ears model) is a
communication model by Friedemann Schulz von Thun. According to this model every
news has four messages. The four sides of the news are fact, self-revealing,
relationship and appeal.

The four sides of communication


The matter layer contains statements which are matter of fact like data and facts,
which are part of the news.
In the self-revealing the speaker - conscious or not intended - tells something
about himself, his motives, values, emotions etc.
In the Relationship-layer is expressed resp. received, how the sender gets along
with the receiver and what he thinks of him.
The Appeal contains a wish or a command to act.

Four sides model of communication


according to Friedemann Schulz von Thun

The sender is sending four messages simultaneously; he speaks quasi with four beaks.
The receiver receives simultaneous four messages, he hears with four ears. The
receiver often hears and understands something different as the sender meant and
said. This leads to misunderstandings and conflicts as a consequence. This makes
interpersonal communication be vulnerable to malfunctions.
Every layer can be misunderstood individually. The classic example of Schulz von Thun
is the front-seat passenger which tells the driver: "You, the traffic lights are green". The
driver will understand something different regarding to the ear with which he will hear
and will react differently. (on the matter layer he will understand the fact "the traffic lights
are green" , he could also understand it as "Come on, drive! I am in a hurry."-command,
or on the relationship could hear critic like "You do not look at at the traffic lights again.")
The emphasis on the four layers can be meant differently and also be understood
differently. So the sender can stress the appeal of the statement and the receiver can
mainly receive the relationship part of the message. This is one of the main reasons for
misunderstandings.

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Voice tonality
A lot can be said about a persons personality from the way they use their voice. If
speaking indistinctly, people can get the impression of carelessness. If speaking very
softly, it could give an impression of low self-esteem. The tonality of the voice creates
the energy and life of the spoken words, the impact of the words come from playing with
the voice. Changing the tone, the rhythm, the depth, the range and the speed will
change the whole meaning of the sentence. Be clear, effective and avoid sounding
monotone.

Words
Despite words having the lowest response percentage when communicating, it is
fundamental that the choice of vocabulary is picked carefully. Use a wide range of
words, avoiding jargon and over technical words. Keep it simple and use the words to
support what is being done. Avoid speaking for the sake of it, have a reason and
meaning behind the words.

Dimensional Cueing
When listening to someone speak, individuals respond best to hearing information
delivered in a variety of ways. This is the basis for Dimensional Cueing. Some people
really enjoy descriptive words that create pictures in their mind. Some people dont
listen well unless you involve them in the conversation. And other people simply like to
hear things delivered straight to the point.

Dimensional Cueing encourages you to mix up the way you communicate with your
students so that your cues remain fresh and effective. All three types of cues can be
used to communicate the same information, but in a different way and at different times.
You do not need to follow a specific progression or use all 3 types of cues each and
every time you speak. Instead start with cues that feel natural and most clear (or
motivating) to you to communicate your information. After you have given your cue,
access your students reaction. If the result was what you had intended, there is no
need to cue that information again. But, if you see that your cue did not produce the
intended response, (or it produced no response at all!) choose to cue the same
information again using a different type of cue. Remember, regardless of which
dimension you use, the more specific and concise you can be with your wording, the
easier it will be for your students to absorb the information.
As you get familiar with the riders in your class, it will become clearer what type of cues
the majority of them respond to best. You may also find you are most comfortable using
one or two dimensions of cueing, while the other(s) take more planning and effort.

One Dimensional Cueing: Words or phrases that provide facts and information.
Two Dimensional Cueing: Words or phrases that include an extra sensory
dimension or component beyond basic facts and information. These might
include comparisons, contrasts, analogies, touch and visual images.
Three Dimensional Cueing: Words or phrases that ask questions.

39
Ability to listen
If everybody had this important ability, there would be less arguments and
misunderstandings. It is necessary to listen to the students carefully and out of genuine
interest. This passive part of the communication is helpful to build a relation with the
class. To have the ability to listen will encourage the students to tell the coach their real
needs.

Avoid negatives
The brain can only work with pictures. Every experience made since the day of birth is
saved as a picture. But there is no pictures for the words no, not or dont. Do not think
about the green mouse with red ears eating a big, yellow lemon! What happened? The
brain sends out a picture of a mouse in red and green, eating a big, yellow lemon. There
is no picture for the word not. Please do not think about your nose! What message
comes from your brain? Your nose!

Positive Correction Positive


This is a good way of giving the students feedback. Imagine somebody in the class,
riding with a tensed upper body.
Try to do the following:
positive Great work
correction Remember to stay relaxed in the upper body
positive Good, stay strong

Direct, indirect and general feedback


With the direct feedback the coach talks to somebody directly, using his name or
speaking to somebody face to face (teaching off the bike). This is an effective way of
giving feedback, but use it carefully when still on the bike, because not everybody likes
to be pointed out.
Indirect feedback means, that the coach searches for eye contact with the student and
shows him with body language (for example relaxing the shoulders) what should be
altered.
General feedback is the most common way of giving corrections. General feedback is
talking to the whole group. Everybody, please relax the shoulders.

40
3.6 Contact: Motivation
Motivation is the activation or energisation of
goal-oriented behavior. Motivation may be
internal or external. According to various
theories, motivation may be rooted in
the basic need to minimize physical
pain and maximize pleasure, or it
may include specific needs such
as eating and resting, or a
desired object, hobby,
goal, state of being.

3.6.1 Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards


inherent to a task or activity itself - the enjoyment
of a puzzle or the love of playing. This form of motivation has
been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research
has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment
by students. Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider's attribution theory,
Bandura's work on self-efficacy, and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory.
Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the
amount of effort they put in),
believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are
not determined by luck),
are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good
grades.

3.6.2 Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious
example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations.
In sports, the crowd may cheer on the performer, which may motivate him or her to do
well. Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is in general extrinsic because
it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of
the activity.
Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to
overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic incentives sometimes can weaken the motivation as well. In one classic study
done by Green & Lepper, children who were lavishly rewarded for drawing with felt-tip
pens later showed little interest in playing with the pens again.

41
Are the students riding a class because of their primary/intrinsic motivation, or is their
motivation only on a secondary/extrinsic level?
It is the job as good coach to bring the students from a secondary to a primary level.

Motive

Primary Secondary
Motivation Motivation

3.6.3 Motivation and goal setting

A good coach is also a good motivator. But this is a very general statement. When
talking about motivation it does not only mean teaching a single class in an inspiring
way. It is also important to have the ability to look at the short and long term goals of the
students. Goal setting is one of the most powerful motivation tools, but maybe the
participants are not used to set goals. Regular students do not prepare for peak
performance for one special day, but they can still benefit from taking the time to figure
out what they want to achieve with their training. The coach needs to be able to support
the students in their goal setting. The target heart rate zones and training principles will
only make sense, when the students have a fixed goal. Goal setting will lead to a
selective perception. It will be easier to motivate the students to change their way of
training, eating, resting etc. since it will help them to achieve their goal.

3.6.4 Passion

Passion is an emotion applied to a very strong feeling about a person or thing. Passion
is an intense emotion compelling feeling, enthusiasm, or desire for something. The term
is also often applied to a lively or eager interest in or admiration for a proposal, cause,
or activity or love.

Doing something with passion means that you walk the walk as well as talk the talk.
If it is a part of you, it is your way and your lifestyle.

3.6.5 Music

Music is not just there to have a correct cadence and express feelings. In addition it is
one of the most effective motivational tools. Music should always be used to support the
coachs communication and to help participants reaching their goals.

42
3.7 Connection: Mind/Body
3.7.1 Mental training

Through individual training programs it is possible


to grow strong physically, achieving physical
goals. However, many have forgotten the
positive effects of training their mental
state. It is possible to increase physic-
cal levels through a training program
and the same needs to be formu-
lated for increasing mental
performance. Enable the
students to have an
effective balance of
physical and mental
strength by introducing mental training.

Mental training (M.T.) has been defined as: The systematically repetition of a conscious
imagination of the developing movement (E. Ulich 1973). This means that M.T. is
originally based on the development of certain techniques and abilities from a thought
perspective. The terms imagination training or training through inner realization are also
recognized as other ways to define (M.T).

The difference between physical and mental activity:


- A person who is moving physically through a motion illustrates a physical activity.
- Mental activity can be illustrated by a person moving thoughts (day dreaming) or
thinking.

43
The upper part of the tree defines strength and beauty. It is visible to the eye, with-
standing differences in weather and climate. It is similar to looking at a person with a
well toned body and defines that person as someone who is embodied with power. The
lower part defines stability, balance and inner strength. This is invisible to the eye but it
is the core strength of the tree.

The roots bring the stability and balance keeping the tree upright against changes in the
weather. If the roots are short then the tree is more susceptible to harsh conditions. If
someone does not have the inner strength then they are also susceptible to outside
negative emotional influences. The stronger you are within, the stronger you are as
person physically and emotionally.

3.7.2 Breathing

No function is more essential to life than breathing. The ability to calm down and relax is
through breathing correctly. This will enable the body to relax physiologically and
psychologically. There are two basic types of breathing. Shallow breathing (chest) and
Diaphragmatic breathing (deep). Many people today are under enormous psychological
pressure. This pressure manifests itself in shallow breathing; therefore the body does
not take in sufficient amounts of oxygen. Breaths that are consistently too short and
rushed are ineffective and reduces ones mental and physical ability. Diaphragmatic
breathing pulls air into the lower lobes of the lungs first, where there is far more blood
available for oxygen exchange than the upper lungs. This is because the blood supply is
gravity dependent in the lungs.

1. Inner intercostal muscles

2. Outer intercostal muscles

3. Diaphragm

Breathing rate in a healthy adult at rest is approximately 13-16 breaths/min, the volume
(the air quantity exhaled is a single breath) is about 350-500 ml, and pulmonary
ventilation (the quantity of air inhaled and exhaled in a minute) is between 6 - 8 l/m. The
same individual uses about 200 ml of oxygen a minute and produces the same quantity
of carbon dioxide. When physical activity is involved, these figures change significantly
in relation to the intensity of the activity. Breathing rate may exceed 30 breaths/min, with
volume increasing 3 - 4l and the pulmonary ventilation reaching 100 - 120 l/m.

44
Two steps to improve respiratory efficiency:

1) Basic diaphragmatic breathing activates parasympathetic nervous system. (The10th


cranial nerve is responsible for calming and relaxation). Breathing deeply and slowly
(into the stomach) will initiate diaphragmatic breathing. Inhale through the nose for a
count of three seconds. Exhale through the mouth for a count of three seconds.

2) Breath control prolonged exhalation follows basic diaphragmatic breathing. Inhale


through the nose for a count of three seconds. Exhale through the mouth for a count of
five seconds.

3.7.3 Relaxation

Relaxation is the best single indicator of well being. Optimal performance occurs with
physical, mental and emotional relaxation. It will increase blood flow, making muscles
more flexible.
By reducing the resistance to perform naturally, the ability to reach optimal performance
will increase.

Using the above breathing exercises would be recommended for bringing the students
into a state of relaxation during the warm up and/or cool down. Encourage them to
breathe diaphragmatic throughout the class.

3.7.4 Focus

There is tremendous power in narrowing thoughts down to one specific task. This
eliminates distraction and enables the students to achieve their goals more easily.
Through cycling classes, help develop the students focusing skills by imagination,
visualisation and goal setting.
A recommended exercise is having the students focusing on maintaining a constant
heart rate, resistance and/or cadence during a long climb.

3.7.5 Self-awareness

Cycling is a wonderful medium for improving self awareness through breathing,


relaxation and focus. The outcome of having an increased self-awareness is the ability
of ones mental and physical capability being improved.
Help the students to find better self-awareness. Have them thinking about how they are
breathing, concentrating on the inhalation and exhalation. Make them aware of their
movements on the bike.
It makes sense to practice these new ideas on a regular basis, not just collecting
theoretical information. By training the students mental state they can become more
effective, positive and responsive.

In the Continuing Education Mind/Body, we will lead you deeper into the aspects of
mental training in cycling.

45
4. Class Design
4.1 Preparing a class

A coach has always a goal for the class. There could be long term goals like loosing
weight, improve VO2max, improve mental abilities etc. There are also goals like
preparation for an event like a Cycling marathon or an outdoor race. To reach the
chosen goals the coach needs to select the correct SC Training Zones. The Training
Zones are linked to the Heart Rate zones. There are also sub goals for each class, e.g
working on the pedal stroke, improving techniques or working with breathing and focus.
Taking these considerations in mind, there is an order which the SC Coach needs to
follow when he is planning his classes:

1. What is the overall goal?


2. Which SC Training Zones fit to this particular goal, and whats the correct Heart
Rate Zone?
3. What should the heart rate profile look like in detail?
4. Which techniques are the best for this class?
5. What type of music would be good for the suggested techniques and the heart
rate profile?
6. What are the sub goals/or advice that the students should work with
throughout the class?

You will find work sheets for this class preparation on the following pages. We highly
recommend that you use them, especially for your first classes. You will always have a
red line in your teaching through the detailed work you have spent in planning before.
But remember that a chosen profile is never written in stone. You need a lot of flexibility
during the class to react on changing situations that occur during a ride.

4.2 General Guidelines

Before a class can begin the coach needs to check several things. Here is a check list
to use for the first 10 to 15 minutes before the ride starts:
1. Create an atmosphere in the room (lights, bike position in the room, pre class
music)
2. Check the music system and microphone
3. Take care of new students:
- ask participants for any medical issues - you should be aware of these
- perform the bike set up
- safety points: smart release system, emergency knob, shoe laces
- explain hand positions and techniques
- ask participants for their experience of using a heart rate monitor
- encourage the students to pedal at a cadence/ resistance they feel confident
and comfortable with
- remind them that they are training with each other and not against each other.
Of course, new students need a lot of information when they are participating for the
first time. The most important thing is that they feel comfortable and have a successful
ride.

46
4. Ask the other students to start pedalling easily, while you are working with the new
participants.
5. Then you should start with the introduction of the class.
- Welcome everyone
- Introduce yourself (e.g. if you are in a new club)
- Describe the profile of the class (which SC training zone, the benefits of the
training etc. Advise them if there are some special parts in the class and
explain them.)
6. Begin the warm up.

4.3 Warm up

There are many positive reasons for warming up before the main part of the class.
Following correct bike set up the students should be advised to begin riding slowly with
light resistance for the following reasons:

Muscle temperature increases


A warmed muscle contracts more forcefully and releases quicker than a cold one.
This enhances the muscle action in both speed and strength.
Blood temperature increases
As it travels through the muscle, the temperature of the blood increases. As blood
warms, the amount of oxygen that is held in the blood stream is reduced and it is
passed into the muscles more readily. This means that there is a slightly greater
volume of oxygen made available to the working muscles, enhancing endurance and
performance.
Range of motion improves
The range of motion of joints increases due to:
- active dynamic movement
- increased fluidity of the synovial fluid inside the joint created by increased
blood temperature
- increased pliability of the connective tissue
Hormone production increases
More hormones responsible for regulating energy production are produced. They
then begin making more carbohydrates and fatty acids available for energy.
Metabolism
The bodys ability to acquire energy improves. With only one degree rise of body
temperature, the metabolism within the muscle cells increase approximately 13 %.
This results in an improved oxygen exchange to the blood.
Mental preparation
Improved oxygen supply to the brain improves the mental alertness and prepares
the mind for the training ahead.

The optimal length of warm up depends on the individuals current fitness level,
however a recommended guide is to warm up for about 10 minutes prior to the main
part of the class.

47
Class Design Sheet

48
4.4 Heart rate zones and Schwinn Cycling training zones

Heart Rate Zones describe the different training intensities. Through a certain heart
rate, it is possible to draw a conclusion about the energetic situation in a training
session. All the SC Training Zones are related to these Heart Rate Zones but the
intention of the SC Training zones include more then only the improvement of the
cardiovascular and energetic abilities of the human body. They can also improve cycling
specific strength, cycling techniques or mental abilities.

HR ZONE Schwinn Cycling Training Zones

A
N 100 -
A 85%
E
R
O
B
I
C Competition
Intensive
85 High end Hill Fartlek Ext.
Endurance Class Interval
Class Interval
75% Class Class
Class

A 75 Low end
E Endurance
65% Class
R
O
B
I 65 Recovery
C Class
50%

49
Recovery class
Description Active recovery after hard sessions,
and benefits easy beginning after an injury or illness

Heart Rate 50 65%

Metabolism Aerobic
Lactic acid level: 1 1,5 mmol/l

Techniques SF

Terrain Flat

Tips Good to use in combination with other


SC Training zones (e.g. Hill + Recovery)

Low End Endurance class


Description Long steady ride for 30 min to several
and benefts hours
Improve the fat metabolism, immune
system and Cardiovascular system
Heart Rate 65 75%

Metabolism The longer the duration of the class the


more energy comes from the fat
metabolism ( enzymes, mitochondrias)
Lactic acid level: 1,5 2 mmol/l
Techniques Mainly SF, sometimes StF, SC if the rider
is able to stay in the HR zone

Terrain Flat or sometimes wavy road

Tips Good to improve mental abilities

50
Fartlek class
Description A fartlek class can be used in the lower
and higher aerobic zones. It is a variable
class which is not planned like an
unknown road outside, when you ride for
the first time. Nevertheless, it improves the
aerobic capacity
Heart Rate 65 85%

Metabolism Fat and carbohydrates


Lactic acid level 1,5 4 mmol/l

Techniques All but no sprints

Terrain Variable profile not exactly structured

Tips There must be the surprising effect for


the students

High End Endurance class


Description This is called the development zone of
and benefits the cardiovascular system. Longer ride in
the higher aerobic zone

Heart Rate 75 85%

Metabolism More carbohydrates than fats, especially


when the riders are staying at 85% HR
max for a longer time.
Lactic acid level: 2 4 mmol/l
Techniques All, but no sprints; more flats than hills.

Terrain Could be flat or a mixture between flats


and hills.

Tips Riders need a good aerobic base from the


Low end endurance rides.

51
Hill class
Description This is a longer ride in the mountains.
and benefits Improvement of local muscular endurance
and specific strength.
Same cardiovascular stimulus than HEE

Heart Rate 75 85%

Metabolism More carbohydrates than fats, especially


when the riders are staying at 85% HR
max, for a longer time.
Lactic acid level: 2 4 mmol/l

Techniques Only mountain techniques without SpH.


Flat in warm up and cool down

Terrain hills

Tips Its a mental challenge, keep resistance


throughout the whole climb.

Extensive Interval class


Description Planned changes between work and rest
and benefits with a ratio of 2:1. Peaks are going to the
aerobic/anaerobic threshold but not above.
Improvement of performance at the
threshold.
Heart Rate 65 85%

Metabolism Mainly carbohydrates


Lactic acid level 2 - 4 mmol/l

Techniques All, but no sprints

Terrain Variable profile

Tips There are a lot of possible variations in


interval training. You will learn more about
them in the workshop Interval training.

52
Intensive Interval class
Description Planned changes between work and rest
and benefits with a ratio of 1:2. Peaks are going over
the aerobic/anaerobic threshold.
Improvement of anaerobic capacity.
Heart Rate 65 90%

Metabolism Anaerobic metabolism provides the rider


with fast energy but develops also a high
lactic acid level: higher than 4 during the
peaks.
Techniques all

Terrain Variable profile

Tips There are a lot of possible variations in


interval training. You will learn more about
them in the workshop Interval training.

Competition class
Description Simulates a race where the rider tries to
and benefits compete and gives all he can at the
threshold or slightly above for a longer
period of time (up to 60 min)
Heart Rate Higher than 80% sometimes over 90%

Metabolism Aerobic and anaerobic

Techniques SF, SC, StC, SpF,SpH.

Terrain Mainly flat some hills are possible

Tips Use a long warm up and cool down

53
4.5 The cool down

After the class it is essential to bring the circulation and metabolism back to resting
levels gradually. The cool down consists of easy pedalling with light resistance for the
following reasons:

Lactic acid dissipates


Active recovery training increases the speed at which lactic acid is removed from the
blood and muscle. This allows for oxygen debt recovery and an overall improved
efficiency.
Prevention of blood pooling
If a student stops exercising rapidly, blood accumulates in the dilated blood vessels and
prevents effective venous return. This can lead to an increased heart rate as the heart
works harder to get the blood back to the heart and the oxygen to the working muscles.
Dizziness or light-headedness can occur. This feeling can be increased if the body is
elevated. The cool down aids venous return and allows the vessels to return to their
normal pre-exercise state. Blood flow returns to normal. Recommendation is, after more
strenuous training to return back to cycling a flat road.
Reduces the possibility of muscular stiffness and soreness
Preventing the pooling of blood also reduces the risk of heavy legs the days after the
training session.

The cool down should last between 5-10 minutes. Active recovery training could be
done following a class or on its own, and can range from 10 - 40 minutes.

54
5. Stretching and mobility

Based on the position that the body is riding in, it is necessary to understand the
requirements for mobility and stretching in the class. As the body is riding in a laid back
position of a road bike, there can be a shortening of the pectoral muscles. Simply rolling
the shoulders backwards before and after the class and stretching through the chest,
upper trapezius and triceps can alleviate upper body tension. This is also important for
novice riders as their core stability will not yet be strong enough to support and stabilise
their frame in this position. It is necessary to allow and promote regular posture breaks
during the first weeks of training on the bike.

Whilst pedalling, the muscle contraction is actively dynamic and therefore the muscles
and joints on the lower body move through their full range of movement. This reduces
the need for pre-class stretching as the warm up is sports specific. However, there is a
need for post-class stretching as listed below. These stretches aid in maintaining and in
some cases increasing the flexibility.

Static stretching is used to stretch muscles while the body is at rest. It is composed of
various techniques that gradually lengthen a muscle to an elongated position (to the
point of discomfort) and hold that position for 30 seconds to two minutes. 30 seconds is
the minimum duration to get the benefits of stretching, whereas two minutes is the
maximum (if a position can be held for more than two minutes, a farther stretch should
be performed). During this holding period or directly afterwards, participants may feel a
mild discomfort or warm sensation in the muscles. Static stretching exercises involve
specialized tension receptors in our muscles. When done properly, static stretching
slightly lessens the sensitivity of tension receptors, which allows the muscle to relax and
to be stretched to greater length.

Dynamic stretching is a form of stretching beneficial in sports utilizing momentum from


form, static-active stretching strength and the momentum from static-active stretching
strength, in an effort to propel the muscle into an extended range of motion not
exceeding one's static-passive stretching ability. Anything beyond this range of motion
becomes ballistic stretching. It is a type of stretching whilst moving, appossed to static
stretching where you stand still.

55
Recommendations

Neck Upper Back & Chest

Neck Upper Back & Chest

Calves Calves

56
Calves (dynamic) Hamstrings

Hamstrings (dynamic) Quad & Hip Flexors

Hip Flexors (dynamic) Gluteus Lower Back & Trunk

57
6. Periodization
6.1 Hard/Easy principle
A training principle which works for many athletes is the Hard/Easy principle. This is a
general all-purpose training schedule that many agree with, but few people follow.

Despite the fact that coaches from all kind of sports have been talking about hard/easy
for many years, there is a good reason why hardly few has been able to follow it up until
recently: it is nearly impossible to do without a heart rate monitor.
The foundation of this training principle is very simple. Most students could improve
their training efficiency by cycling easier on their easy days and harder on their hard
days.

There is more information to be had about heart rate training from Polar in the appendix.
More Schwinn Cycling specific knowledge can be found in the continuing education
target heart rate, which is compulsory for the Silver level.

As a Schwinn Cycling coach there is a duty to care for the students by using
knowledge to help them to reach their overall training goal. It is important to understand
training effects, energy systems and training principles, not only in theory, but also in
practice. A coach should be able to structure an annual, monthly, weekly and daily goal
for the members who attend the classes. Not only will this aid retention of class
numbers but it will also provide inspiration for the students.

To improve ones ability to perform a certain task involves working specific muscles or
organ systems at increased resistance.

If a stress is placed on the body then a training response will occur to the bodys
systems. If the stress is too high there will be a negative training effect and if it is too low
there will be little or no training effect. However, if the stress is applied in correct
amounts (by effective overload training) then the body will get stronger with maximal
efficiency, and therefore a positive training effect occurs.

There are some basic principles for setting up a structured training schedule
Periodization. These training principles apply, in varying degrees, to both aerobic and
anaerobic activities. There is a pre-conceived thought that a periodized training
schedule over a specific time frame is only for the elite athlete. However this is a false
assumption. Periodization can be effectively applied to all fitness levels from the de-
conditioned enthusiast to the trained individual who exercises for enjoyment.

58
6.2 Theory of planning
Periodic training systems typically divide time up into three types of cycles: microcycle,
mesocycle, and macrocycle. The microcycle is generally up to 7 days. The mesocycle
may be anywhere from 2 weeks to a few months, but is typically a month. A macrocycle
refers to the overall training period, usually representing a year or two. There are longer
cycles as well for the Olympian, being 4 or 8 years, and the career plan which is usually
only considered for Olympians and professional athletes.
Training should be organized and planned in advance of a competition or performance.
It should consider the students potential, his/her performance in tests or competition,
and calendar of competition. It has to be simple, suggestive, and above all flexible as its
content can be modified to meet the students rate of progress

A macrocycle refers to an annual plan that works towards peaking for the goal
competition of the year. There are three phases in the macrocycle: preparation,
competitive, and transition.

A mesocycle represents a phase of training with duration of about four weeks or


microcycles. During the preparatory phase, a mesocycle commonly consists of 4 6
micro-cycles, while during the competitive phase it will usually consist of 2 4 micro-
cycles depending on the competitions calendar.

A microcycle is typically a week because of the difficulty in developing a training plan


that does not align itself with the weekly calendar. Each microcycle is planned based on
where it is in the overall macrocycle.

During the microcycle and mesocycle people usually plan their training on a 3:1 or 2:1
base. Three training-days or weeks are followed by a resting-day or week. Whereas
professional athletes still use the resting-day for their training (recovery) your students
should take a day of. The resting-weeks should be filled with low end endurance training
and/or recovery training. The three training-days and weeks should have an increase
of intensity and/or volume. A 3:1-cycle could look like the picture below.

Total time

Mesocycle
5 hrs

4 hr 30 min

4 hrs

3 hr 30 min

3 hrs

2 hr 30 min

2 hrs

1-4 5-8 9-12 Weeks

59
6.3 Periodization in Schwinn Cycling
Members in fitness clubs usually are not competing in races. They are not planning their
training based on a structure. But even if they do not plan their training you can do this
for them. To work with microcycles is nearly impossible due to the reason that your
students join your class at the same days every week but every fitness club member at
different days.
What you can do is to work with mesocycles three weeks increasing intensity followed
by one week low intensity. Below you find an example how this system could look like.

Easy example:

Advanced example:

60
7. Anatomy
7.1 The bones and the joints of the lower extremities
To understand the mechanical functions of the leg, imagine a picture where the human
leg is pictured as a two dimension image. Consider the leg made up from a three-link
system (see figure 1).

Fig 1. Bones of the leg and the 2D image, representing the leg of a cyclist (Edmund
Burke 1986)

The rigidity of the human leg is maintained by the thigh bone (femur), the biggest bone
in the body. The upper end of this bone connects to the hip joint, while at the lower end,
the knee joint is allowing the lower part of the leg (the shank) to pivot around the thigh.
The structural strength of the shank is maintained by a pair of parallel bones, the tibia
and fibula. The foot connects around the shank at the ankle joint. The human leg
becomes a system of three rigid links. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons.
These are extremely strong so that powerful muscular forces can be sent to precise
points around the leg, moving the joints to generate movement.

61
Joints can be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties.
According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and
compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and
combination joints:

1. Simple Joint: 2 articulation surfaces


(e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint #1 &#2)
2. Compound Joint: 3 or more articulation
surfaces (e.g. radio carpal joint)
3. Complex Joint: 2 or more articulation
surfaces and an articular disc or
meniscus (e.g. knee joint #4+5)

Individual muscle fibers are formed during development from the fusion of several
undifferentiated immature cells known as myoblasts into long, cylindrical, multi-
nucleated cells. Differentiation into this state is primarily completed before birth with the
cells continuing to grow in size thereafter. Skeletal muscle exhibits a distinctive banding
pattern when viewed under the microscope due to the arrangement of cytoskeletal
elements in the cytoplasm of the muscle fibres. The principal cytoplasmic proteins are
myosin and actin (also known as "thick" and "thin" filaments, respectively) which are
arranged in a repeating unit called a sarcomere. The interaction of myosin and actin is
responsible for muscle contraction.

There are two principal ways to categorize muscle fibres; the type of myosin (fast or
slow) present and the degree of oxidative phosphorylation that the fibre undergoes.
Skeletal muscle can thus be broken down into two broad categories: Type I and Type II.
Type I fibres appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin.
These fibres are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use
oxidative metabolism to generate ATP. Type II fibres are white due to the absence of
myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibres are efficient for short
bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic
metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibres are quicker to fatigue.

Skeletal muscle is further divided into several subtypes:


Type I, slow oxidative, slow twitch, or "red" muscle is dense with capillaries and is
rich in mitochondria and myoglobin, giving the muscle tissue its characteristic red
colour. It can carry more oxygen and sustain aerobic activity.
Type II, fast twitch muscle, has three major kinds that are, in order of increasing
contractile speed:
o Type IIa, which, like slow muscle, is aerobic, rich in mitochondria and
capillaries and appears red.
o Type IIx (also known as type IId), which is less dense in mitochondria and
myoglobin. This is the fastest muscle type in humans. It can contract more
quickly and with a greater amount of force than oxidative muscle, but can
sustain only short, anaerobic bursts of activity before muscle contraction
becomes painful (often incorrectly attributed to a build-up of lactic acid). Note:
in some books and articles this muscle in humans was, confusingly, called
type IIb.

62
o Type IIb, which is anaerobic, glycolytic, "white" muscle that is even less
dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. In small animals like rodents this is the
major fast muscle type, explaining the pale colour of their flesh.

7.2 The muscles of the lower extremities


The muscles chiefly concerned in producing movements of the joints of the lower limb
are as follows:
Hip
Flexion: iliacus, psoas, pectineus
Extension: gluteus maximus and medius.
Abduction: upper part of gluteus maximus, medius, and minimus.
Adduction: adductors magnus longus and brevis, pectineus, lower part of gluteus
maximus, obturator externus.
Rotation inward: anterior part of gluteus medius, anterior part of gluteus minimus, tensor
fascia femoris, ilio-psoas.
Rotation outward: obturators, gemelli, pyriformis, gluteus maximus.
Knee.
Flexion: biceps, popliteus, sartorius, gracilis, semitendinosus, semimembranosus.
Extension: quadriceps.
Ankle.
Flexion: tibialis anticus, peroneus tertius.
Extension: gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posticus, peroneus longus and brevis,
plantaris.

The Quadriceps are series of muscles that are responsible for extension of the knee
and hip flexion.
The Hamstrings bring movement in the opposite direction, bringing the heel towards the
buttocks - knee flexion. The Hamstrings can also assist the buttocks, gluteus maximus
to aid hip extension.

IIiacus and Psoas (also known as the


Iliopsoas) create the movement of bringing
the front part of the thigh up towards the
chest - hip flexion.

The Tibialis anterior primarily brings the foot


up and towards the shin dorsiflexion.
The Gastrocnemius and the Soleus make up
the calf. These muscles point the toes in the
opposite direction to dorsiflexion plantar-
flexion. The calf muscles can also assist in
knee flexion.
The major muscles of the legs (Edmund Burke 1986)

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7.3 Agonist, Antagonist, Synergist
Agonist is a classification used to describe a muscle that
causes specific movement or possibly several
movements to occur through the process of its own
contraction. This is typically a term designated for
skeletal muscles. Agonists are also referred to,
interchangeably, as "prime movers" since they are the
muscles being considered that are primarily responsible
for generating a specific movement.
For an agonist to be effective as a mover in the skeletal system it must actually cross
one or more structure(s) that can move. This is typically where the muscle crosses a
joint by way of a connecting tendon. As the myofibrils of a muscle are excited into action
and then contract, they will create tension and pull through the tendon and pulling the
lever arm of bone on the opposite side of the joint closer to the muscles origin.
Antagonistic muscles are found in pairs called antagonistic pairs. These consist of an
extensor muscle, which "opens" the joint (i.e. increasing the angle between the two
bones), flexor muscle, which does the opposite to an extensor muscle.
Antagonistic pairs are needed in the body because muscles can only exert a pulling
force, and can't push themselves back into their original positions. An example of this
kind of muscle pairing is the biceps brachii and triceps brachii.
When the biceps is contracting, the triceps is relaxed, and stretches back to its original
position. The opposite happens when the triceps contracts.
Synergist is a kind of muscle which perform, or assist in performing, the same set of
joint motion as the agonists. Synergists are muscles that act on movable joints.
Synergists are sometimes referred to as "neutralizers" because they help cancel out, or
neutralize, extra motion from the agonists to make sure that the force generated works
within the desired plane of motion.

64
7.4 Muscle Contraction
7.4.1 Concentric contraction

A concentric contraction is a type of muscle contraction in which the muscles shorten


while generating force.
During a concentric contraction, a muscle is stimulated to contract according to the
sliding filament mechanism. This occurs throughout the length of the muscle, generating
force at the muscle-tendinous junction, causing the muscle to shorten and changing the
angle of the joint. In relation to the elbow, a concentric contraction of the biceps would
cause the arm to bend at the elbow and hand to move from near to the leg, to close to
the shoulder (a biceps curl). A concentric contraction of the triceps would change the
angle of the joint in the opposite direction, straightening the arm and moving the hand
towards the leg.

7.4.2 Eccentric contraction

During an eccentric contraction, the muscle elongates while under tension due to an
opposing force being greater than the force generated by the muscle. Rather than
working to pull a joint in the direction of the muscle contraction, the muscle acts to
decelerate the joint at the end of a movement or otherwise control the repositioning of a
load. This can occur involuntarily (when attempting to move a weight too heavy for the
muscle to lift) or voluntarily (when the muscle is 'smoothing out' a movement). Over the
short-term, strength training involving both eccentric and concentric contractions appear
to increase muscular strength more than training with concentric contractions alone.
During an eccentric contraction of the biceps muscle, the elbow starts the movement
while bent and then straightens as the hand moves away from the shoulder. During an
eccentric contraction of the triceps muscle, the elbow starts the movement straight and
then bends as the hand moves towards the shoulder. Desmin, titin, and other z-line
proteins are involved in eccentric contractions, but their mechanism is poorly
understood in comparison to cross-bridge cycling in concentric contractions.
Muscles undergoing heavy eccentric loading suffer greater damage when overloaded
(such as during muscle building or strength training exercise) as compared to concentric
loading. When eccentric contractions are used in weight training they are normally
called "negatives". During a concentric contraction muscle fibers slide across each other
pulling the Z-lines together. During an eccentric contraction, the filaments slide past
each other the opposite way, though the actual movement of the myosin heads during
an eccentric contraction is not known. Exercise featuring a heavy eccentric load can
actually support a greater weight (muscles are approximately 10% stronger during
eccentric contractions than during concentric contractions) and also results in greater
muscular damage and delayed onset muscle soreness one to two days after training.
Exercise that incorporates both eccentric and concentric muscular contractions (i.e.
involving a strong contraction and a controlled lowering of the weight) can produce
greater gains in strength than concentric contractions alone. While unaccustomed
heavy eccentric contractions can easily lead to overtraining, moderate training may
confer protection against injury.

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7.4.3 Isometric contraction

An isometric contraction of a muscle generates force without changing length. An


example can be found when the muscles of the hand and forearm grip an object; the
joints of the hand do not move but muscles generate sufficient force to prevent the
object from being dropped.

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7.5 Muscular imbalance through cycling
As in all the other kind of sports where a similar movement is done over and over again
some muscles gets stronger and other get weaker and shorter. You can see these
muscles in the picture below.

For all riders who are not doing any other kind of sports we highly recommend a
strength and flexibility training program to avoid these imbalance. Otherwise, it could
result in an imbalanced muscular system which will lead to bad or even injury.

Pectorals (s) Trapecius/Rhomboids (-)

Biceps (s) Lower back (-/s)

Triceps (-) Abdominals (- /s)

Iliopsoas (s)
Gluteus (s)

Quadriceps (+/s)
Hamstrings (s)

Tibialis (-/s)

Gastrocnemius (+/s)

(-) = too weak; (+) = too strong; (s) = too short

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8. Biomechanics of Cycling
Understanding basic cycling biomechanics involved in the movement of the wheel will
enable the students to pedal more efficiently and reduce any potential risk of injury. This
topic has been condensed as it is a complex subject, dependant on both physical and
mechanical bike set up variables.

8.1 The pedal stroke


The pattern of the crank arm through the pedal stroke is a constant; this means that the
circular pattern created by the pedal stroke is unchanging. However, the force exerted
through the pedal varies throughout the pedal stroke. (Fig 1)
The pattern of force applied though the pedal starts at Top Dead Centre (TDC). The
crank arm is travelling clockwise, moves through one complete pedal revolution of 360
degrees. This is divided into 20 segments, each of approximately 18 degrees. The short
bold line indicates the angle of the pedal at that point in the pedal stroke. The arrow that
is present on most of the pedal angles represents the force, or amount of power, placed
through the pedal at that point in the pedal stroke. If there is no adequate resistance
(force) acting against the push of the pedal clockwise, that is, there is not enough
resistance placed on the flywheel, then this could result in a negative training effect.

Fig 1

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As can be seen in this diagram, there are specific points at which the force through the
pedal is greater. This is indicated by the size of the arrow. The majority of the force
going into the pedal is during the early stages of the pedal stroke. This indicates that
most cyclists attain peak force at about 90 degrees.

8.2 The push point


The area which represents the most overall
force to gain maximum power output from
that pedal is called the Push Point. To 2
simplify this we have developed an easy
clock-face diagram.

TDC is represented as 12 oclock. The


Push Point can therefore be represented as
between 2 oclock and 4 oclock. However,
significant downward force is still being
applied at 1 oclock and down to 6 oclock.
This to cyclists is known as stretching the 4
crank arm.

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8.3 The efficient pedal stroke
The mechanics of bicycle pedalling involve the transfer of force from the muscles of the
legs through the feet and onto the pedal surfaces.
The pedal forces that apply examined by many researchers. In many articles it can be
read that a round pedal stroke is the best a rider can achieve. To improve the pedal
stroke the rider has to concentrate on each phase of it. The pushing phase the bottom
dead centre, the pulling phase and the top dead centre. To reach this perfect pedal
stroke, many ways have been examined. One way is to pedal only with one leg, another
way is using so called smart cranks that work independently from each other.
Unfortunately most cyclist were not able to achieve a perfect pedal stroke not matter,
what was tried to improve it.

Researches made by Sanderson et al. are


showing that the pulling phase if it appears
only can be measure at low cadences. These
studies show that there is still a load on the
pedal when it actually is in the pulling phase Fig. 1
(Fig. 1). You can see that at cadences of
80rpm or 100rpm the negative force appears in
crank angles between ~200 and ~300.
During this phase of the pedal stroke instead of
pulling up the riders are pushing down the
pedal. Only at a low cadence of 60rpm a
slightly positive force can be seen.

Another research, the same result: In Fig. 2


you can see the difference of pulling when Fig. 2
cycling at 100W, 200W, 300W and 400W. No
big difference can be seen during the pulling
phase. And no positive force at all was
achieved by the tested riders. These
researches were done with professional
cyclists this explains the reached power of
400W.

Here is a research that was


Effective force (N) done with track cyclists of the
German National Team. They
were told to pedal at 90rpm, the
Fig. 3 given power was 300W. These
300W all of the tested person
could pedal with intensity
around the anaerobic threshold.
The result is about the same as
in other studies. Only one rider
was able to have a pulling
phase during the pedal stroke
(Fig 3).
Crank angle ()

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Sanderson et al. tried to find out the difference between normal cyclists and
professionals. Again, the result is about the same as shown in the researches before.
During the pulling phase of the pedal stroke the was still a load on the pedal. The
picture below (Fig. 4) shows the relevant torque-time curves for each pedalling rate:
60rpm (solid line), 80rpm (long dashed line) and 100rpm (short dashed line) for 100W
and 235W output.

Fig. 4: difference between recreational and competition cyclists at 100 Watts and 235
Watts.

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9. Overview of the Schwinn Cycling Continuing Educations

Schwinn Cycling is continually creating new Continuing Education Courses to keep


you up to date, increase your knowledge of Indoor Cycling and coaching, and broaden
your understanding of a variety of related topics. Moreover, the Continuing Education
topics will enable you to offer new and exciting classes that will help retain club regulars
while attracting new members.

Topics include:

Target Heart Rate (THR)


Implementing target heart rate into classes for beginners as well as for elite
athletes
Planning terrains in different target heart rate zones
Acquire a deeper knowledge of physiology, especially about energy &
metabolism
How to successfully introduce the periodization of the classes within your club

Class Design (CD)


Taking ideas from outdoor cycling and implementing them into your classes
Fresh ideas for keeping the variety and motivation of your classes
Complete approach to class planning
Improve coaching abilities

Cycling & Music (MUS)


Music is one of the most important components of any Indoor Cycling class
This course increases the instructors awareness of music by learning how to
listen and analyze different music styles
Learn how to make appropriate music choices for particular class situations and
different varieties of class participants. Discover how music can affect you and
your class participants

Mind/Body (MB)
Link of the mental aspects of training to performance
Optimized training through breathing control and focus
Discover the Flow
Acquire ideas to implement the mental part of endurance training in the classes

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Cycling & Juniors (JUN)
With gym hours disappearing from the school curriculum, keep the youths active
by offering a class targeted to their needs and aspirations
Learn the differences between training and coaching adults and adolescents
Learn new ideas and games to make your classes fun

Cycling & Seniors (SEN)


Attract older clientele to your health club
Guidance on how to prepare and coach a class adapted to seniors
How to train clients with the most common ailments

Lactic Acid (LAC)


Learn all about lactic acid in combination with your heart rate measurements by
implementing an effective training plan
Learn how to take blood samples and measure your personal lactic acid curve

Nutrition (NUT)
This course is an absolute "must" to understand Schwinn Cycling as a
complete training concept by showing that sports training, especially endurance
training, and nutrition belong together.
The most important basic elements of nutrition are demonstrated
Climb one step further as a trainer! You will be able to provide your clients with
answers about the most common questions asked about nutrition

Interval Workshop (WS Interval)


Gain the knowledge about aerobic and anaerobic work though interval training
Distinguish between the different types of training and use them in your club
Receive structured ideas that can be used in interval training

Stretching Workshop (WS Stretching)


Stretching is a basic component of training. Learn how to stretch and when to
stretch
Learn the different types of stretching
Discover the benefits of stretching
Physiology of stretching

73
10. Work Sheets for class preparation

74
75
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11. REFERENCES

Burke, Edmund: Serious cycling. Human Kinetics 2002 (ISBN 978-0736041294)

Burke, Edmund: High Tech Cycling. Human Kinetics 1995 (ISBN 0873225335x)

Burke, Edmund: Cycling health and physiology. Vitesse Press 1998 (ISBN 0-941950-34-
4)

Burke, Edmund: Science of cycling. Human Kinetics Books 1986 (ISBN 0-87322181-8)

Burke, Edmund: The Complete Book of Long-Distance Cycling. Rodale Books


2000 (ISBN 978-1579541996)
Edwards, Sally: The heart rate monitor book. Fleet Feet Press 1994 (ISBN 0-963433-0-
6)

Friel, Joe: Die Trainingsbibel fr Triathleten. Covadonga Verlag 2009 (ISBN 978-3-
936973-51-8

Friel, Joe: The Cyclist's Training Bible. Velo Press 2009 (ISBN 978-1934030202)

Foss, Merle L.: Foxs Physiological basis for exercise and sport. McGraw-Hill Book 2001
(ISBN 978-0072505986)

Garrett, William E. Jr., Kirkendall, Donald T.: Exercise and Sport Science. Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins 2000

Hollmann/Hettinger: Sportmedizin, Arbeits- und Trainingsgrundlagen, Schattauer Verlag


2000 (ISBN 978-3794516728)

Janssen, Peter G.J.M.: Training lactate pulse-rate. Polar Electro Oy 1995 (ISBN 952-
90066-8-3)

John L. and Parker J.: Heart monitor training, Cedarwinds Publishing Company 1998

Leitzmann D.: Bioaktive Substanzen. Georg Thieme Verlag 1996

Millman, Dan: The inner Athlete. Stillpoint 1994 (ISBN 0-913299-97-9)

Morris, David: Performance Cycling. International Marine/Ragged Mountain Press 2003


(ISBN 978-0071410915

O Conner, Joseph and Seymour, John: Training with NLP. Thorsons 1994 (ISBN 0-
7225-28531)

Neumann, Georg: Optimiertes Ausdauertraining. Meyer & Meyer 2007 (ISBN 3-89124-
580-7)

Neumann, Georg: Alles unter Kontrolle: Ausdauertraining. Meyer & Meyer 2000 (ISBN
3891245815)
77
Lower
Back &
Trunk

Schmidt Achmin: Handbuch Radsport. Meyer & Meyer Verlag 1998

Schmidt, Achim: Das groe Buch vom Radsport. Meyer & Meyer Verlag 2007 (ISBN
978-3898992374)

Weineck, Jrgen: Sportbiologie. Spitta 2009 (ISBN 3-934211-05-4)

Wirhed, Rolf: Sport-Anatomie und Bewegungslehre. Schattauer 1988 (ISBN 3-7945-


1255-3)

Wirth P. In 7 Tagen zum Spitzenverkufer, Smart Books Publishing Verlag 2000

Zintl, Fritz: Ausdauertraining. BLV 1997 (ISBN 3405160510)

Hillebrecht, Martin et al.: Tritttechnik im Radsport - Der Runde Tritt


http://spt0010a.sport.uni-oldenburg.de/PDF/DERRUNDETRITT.PDF

Petzke, Wolfgang: Muskelleistung und Wirkungsgrad beim Rafahren. Leistungssport


03/2006, 47-54

Sanderson, David et al.: The inuence of cadence and power output on force application
and in-shoe pressure distribution during cycling by competitive and recreational cyclists.
Journal of Sports Sciences 2000, 18, 173- 181

Sanderson, David: The influence of cadence and power output in the biomechanics of
force application during steady-rate cycling in competive and recreational cyclists.
Journal of Sports Sciences 1991, 9, 191- 203

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