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ME 630 Intermediate Fluid Mechanics Final Examination, December 16, 2009

2 hours. Closed book. No calculators. 5 questions. Use supplied paper and attach exam
as cover sheet. Point value is shown for each question.

1. (25 points) The speed of a periodic train of very short waves, or ripples, moving on
the surface of deep liquid can be assumed to depend only on the liquid density, the surface
tension, and the wavelength. For a certain oil, the density is 1.0 gm/cm3 and the surface
tension is measured as 35 dynes/cm. Ripples with a wavelength of 5 mm are observed to
move at a speed of 21 cm/sec.
(a) Water has a surface tension of 70 dynes/cm and the same density as the oil. How fast
will a train of 5 mm ripples move?
(b) For the oil, suppose the wavelength had been 1.0 cm. What would the speed of the waves
be then?
(c) For very long waves in deep water, the speed of a periodic wavetrain depends only on
the wavelength and the acceleration of gravity. Suppose there are two long wavetrains and
one has a wavelength that is twice that of the other. Which wavetrain moves faster, and by
how much?
(d) Considering water wavetrains of all wavelengths, so that both gravity and surface tension
can be important, prove that there is a minimum wave speed. That is, no wavetrain can
move more slowly than this critical speed.
Hint: Plot, qualitatively, wave speed versus wavelength.

2. (20 points) (a) Write down the governing equations (2 momentum & continuity) in
Cartesian coordinates for two-dimensional incompressible, steady slow viscous motion, i.e.
for so-called creeping motion. The viscosity is constant.
(b) For the situation in part (a) show that curves of constant pressure are perpendicular to
curves of constant vorticity vx uy .

3. (15 points) For isentropic compressible flow, the static pressure p, stagnation pressure p0
and Mach number M are related according to

p0 1 2
= 1+ M
p 2

where is the ratio of specific heats. Show that, if M << 1, the incompressible Bernoulli
equation is recovered.
Hints: a2 = p/, (1 + )k 1 + k + k(k1)
2 + ...


4. (20 points) Given a vertical tube of (small) inside diameter D. The contact angle that a
liquid of density makes with the tube wall is c < 90o as shown. The surface tension is .
(a) Find an expression for the rise height H in terms of the given quantities.
(b) What assumptions did you make in the above analysis?

5. (20 points) Consider plane potential flow of an incompressible fluid in a 120o sector of the
plane, as shown. A source of strength 2 is placed at a distance R = 1 m from the origin as

120 o

(a) Sketch the resulting streamline pattern. (Note that a sketch only needs to be qualitatively
(b) Find an analytical expression for the speed distribution on the wall u(x),
for y = 0, 0 x < . Locate any stagnation points on the wall.
(c) Sketch u(x, 0), 0 x < . Again, your sketch only needs to be qualitatively correct.