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Notes on 2 unit Mathematics for HSC Updated 2016

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You are on page 1of 17

22-26 September, 2014

c 2014 Sci SchoolTM . All rights reserved.

Overview

1. Sequences &

Series Applications 2. Probability

2. Probability

3. Quadratic Polynomials

3. Quadratic

Polynomials 4. Trigonometric Functions

4. Trigonometric 5. Logarithmic & Exponential Functions

Functions

5. Logarithmic & 6. Dierentiation

Exponential

Functions 7. Integration

6. Dierentiation 8. Areas Under Curves

7. Integration 9. Solids of Revolution

8. Areas Under 10. Geometrical Applications of Calculus

Curves

9. Solids of

11. Maxima & Minima Problems

Revolution 12. Physical Applications of Calculus

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

12. Physical

Applications of

Calculus

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

1.2 Geometric

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

1. Sequences & Series Applications

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

Functions

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

8. Areas Under

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.1 Arithmetic Sequences

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

In an arithmetic sequence, the dierence, d, between successive terms is

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

constant. If we call the rst term a, then we have

1.2 Geometric

Sequences {a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . , a + (n 1)d}

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest The nth term, Tn , is given by

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

Tn = a + (n 1)d

2. Probability

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

Functions n

Sn = (2a + (n 1)d)

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

2

Functions

6. Dierentiation For example, nd T8 and S20 for the arithmetic sequence {3, 7, 11, . . . }.

7. Integration

20

8. Areas Under a=3 = T8 = 3 + 7 4 and S20 = (2 3 + 19 4)

Curves 2

9. Solids of

Revolution d=73=4 = 31 = 820

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.2 Geometric Sequences

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

In a geometric sequence, the ratio, r, between successive terms is constant. If

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

we call the rst term a, then we have

{a, ar, ar2 , . . . , ar n1 }

1.2 Geometric

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest The nth term, Tn , is given by

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted Tn = ar n1

Questions

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

The sum of n terms, Sn , is found using

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

Functions

a(r n 1)

Sn =

5. Logarithmic & r1

Exponential

Functions

6. Dierentiation For example, nd T10 and S10 for the geometric sequence {2, 6, 18, . . . }.

7. Integration 10

2 3 1

8. Areas Under a=2 = T6 = 2 35 and S10 =

Curves

31

9. Solids of

Revolution r = 62 = 3 = 486 = 59, 048

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.3 Innite Series

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

If 1 < r < 1, then a limiting sum exists for the geometric series, i.e. the

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

series converges to a nite number as n . The limiting sum, S , is

1.2 Geometric found using

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

a(1 r n )

S = lim

Interest

1.5 Superannuation

n 1r

a a

1.6 Loan Repayments

S = lim r n

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions 1 r 1 r n

2. Probability a

S =

3. Quadratic

Polynomials

1r

4. Trigonometric

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Sn

Exponential

Functions

2 106

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration r = 0.5

6

8. Areas Under 10

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

n

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.4 Compound Interest

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

The future value, A, of an initial principal of money, P , when invested at r%

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

per period for a duration of n periods is found using

1.2 Geometric

Sequences r n

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

A=P 1+

Interest 100

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted For example, $7,000 is invested at 4.8% p.a. compounded quarterly. How

Questions

long until the balance is greater than $14,000?

2. Probability

4 % = 1.2% (per quarter), A > 14, 000.

Polynomials

1.2 n

4. Trigonometric

Functions

7, 000 1 + 100 > 14, 000

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

1.012n > 2

Functions

n ln (1.012) > ln 2

6. Dierentiation

ln(2)

7. Integration n> ln(1.012)

8. Areas Under

Curves

> 58.1 (quarters)

9. Solids of

Revolution > 4.8 (years)

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.5 Superannuation

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Superannuation problems combine geometric series with compound interest.

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

1.2 Geometric

For example, $900 is invested at the beginning of each year into an account

Sequences earning 4% p.a. compounded annually. How much is this investment worth at

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound the end of 5 years?

Interest

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

The rst $900 is invested for 5 years, i.e. A1 = 900 1.045 .

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions The second $900 is invested for 4 years, i.e. A2 = 900 1.044 .

2. Probability ..

3. Quadratic

.

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

The fth $900 is invested for 1 year, i.e. A5 = 900 1.04.

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 = 900 1.045 + 900 1.044 + + 900 1.04

Functions a r

7. Integration

= 900 1.04 1 + 1.04 + + 1.044

8. Areas Under

Curves

1.045 1

9. Solids of = 936 = $5, 069.68

Revolution 1.04 1

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Loan problems are similar to superannuation, except that regular payments,

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

M , are made to reduce the initial owed amount, P . The amount owing after

1.2 Geometric n repayments is denoted An .

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest

Step 1: Construct a formula for P , M and An .

1.5 Superannuation a(r n 1)

1.6 Loan Repayments Step 2: Simply the geometric series using Sn = r1 .

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

Step 3: To nd M , equate An to zero and solve.

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

Polynomials For a loan of $P taken out over n time periods at a reducible interest rate of

4. Trigonometric

Functions r% per period, the formula for the regular repayment, $M , is given by

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

Functions

r n r

100

M =P 1+ r n

6. Dierentiation

100 (1 + 100 ) 1

7. Integration

8. Areas Under

Curves The syllabus requires you to be able to derive this, rather than memorise it.

9. Solids of

Revolution Fortunately, constructing the formula almost always follows the same 3 steps.

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

For example, $6,000 is borrowed at the reducible interest rate of

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

24% p.a. (2% per month). What should be the monthly repayment, $M , to

1.2 Geometric pay the loan o in 3 years?

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest

At the end of the 1st month, the $6,000 will have grown by 2% and had

1.5 Superannuation a repayment subtracted from it, i.e. A1 = 6, 000 1.02 M .

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions After 2 months,

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

A2 = (6, 000 1.02 M ) 1.02 M

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

= 6, 000 1.022 M (1 + 1.02)

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

After 24 months,

S where a=1 & r=1.015

Functions

24

6. Dierentiation

A24 = 2, 000 1.015 M (1 + 1.015 + . . . 1.015 )

24 23

7. Integration

24

Curves

= 2, 000 1.015 M

24

9. Solids of 1.015 1

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Equate A24 to zero, i.e. we aim to pay the loan o after 24 months,

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

1.2 Geometric

Sequences 1.015 1

24

1.3 Innite Series 0 = 2, 000 1.01524 M

1.4 Compound

0.015

Interest

1.5 Superannuation 1.01524 1

1.6 Loan Repayments M = 2, 000 1.01524

1.7 HSC-Adapted 0.015

Questions

0.015 2, 000 1.01524

2. Probability M=

3. Quadratic

1.01524 1

Polynomials

M = 99.85

4. Trigonometric

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

Functions

Hence, to pay o the $2,000 loan after 2 years, our monthly repayments, $M ,

6. Dierentiation

are $99.85.

7. Integration

8. Areas Under

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Question 1 (6 Marks)

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences Alice and Bob work at two dierent companies. At the end of this year, Alice

1.2 Geometric

Sequences will have earned $40,000. Each year she stays on is accompanied by a 3%

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound pay-rise. Bobs salary is $43,000 but enjoys a $2,200 pay-rise every other

Interest

1.5 Superannuation

year, starting in the third year.

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted (i) Who earns a higher salary at the end of the 8th year? (3 Marks)

Questions

2. Probability (ii) What is the dierence in their total earnings after 8 years? (3 Marks)

3. Quadratic

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric Solution

Functions

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

(i) Alices salary follows a geometry sequence, with a = $40, 000 and

Functions r = 1.03. Her salary in the 8th year is

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

Curves

9. Solids of = $50, 671

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Bobs salary follows an arithmetic sequence, with a = $43, 000 and

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

d = $2, 200, but the time period is every 2 years. Therefore, his salary in the

1.2 Geometric 8th year is the 4th term in the arithmetic sequence, which is given by

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest

T4 = $43, 000 + (4 1) $2, 200

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

= $49, 600

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

2. Probability

Hence, in the eighth year Alice earns $1,071 more than Bob.

3. Quadratic

Polynomials

(ii) The sum of Alices rst 8 salaries is,

4. Trigonometric

Functions $40, 000(1.038 1)

5. Logarithmic & S8 =

Exponential 1.03 1

Functions

$40, 600

6. Dierentiation = (1.038 1)

7. Integration 0.03

8. Areas Under = $361, 029

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

For Bob, the year following a pay-rise is a repeated salary. Hence, after 8

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

years, Bob has 4 unique salaries dened by the arithmetic sequence with

1.2 Geometric a = $43, 000 and d = $2, 200. The sum of Bobs rst 8 salaries is therefore,

Sequences

1.3 Innite Series

3

1.4 Compound

Interest

2 S4 = 2 (2 $43, 000 + 3 $2, 200)

1.5 Superannuation

2

1.6 Loan Repayments = 3 $92, 600

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

= $277, 800

2. Probability

3. Quadratic Hence, after eight years Alice earns $83,229 more than Bob.

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric

Functions

Question 2 (6 Marks)

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

Functions A $400,000 loan is to be repaid in equal monthly repayments, $M , over 35

6. Dierentiation years. The reducible interest rate of 7.5% is calculated monthly.

7. Integration

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

(ii) After how long will the amount owing be less than $100,000? (3 Marks)

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

Solution

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences (i) Let $An be the amount owing after the nth repayment. The monthly

1.2 Geometric

Sequences interest rate is 7.5

12 % = 0.625%. After 1 month,

1.3 Innite Series

1.4 Compound

Interest

1.5 Superannuation

A1 = 400, 000 1.00625 M

1.6 Loan Repayments

1.7 HSC-Adapted

After 2 months,

Questions

3. Quadratic

Polynomials = 400, 000 1.006252 M 1.00625 M

4. Trigonometric

Functions = 400, 000 1.006252 M (1 + 1.00625)

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

Functions After 35 12 = 420 months,

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

A420 = 400, 000 1.00625420 M (1 + 1.00625 + 1.00625 + + 1.00625419 )

8. Areas Under

Curves 1.00625 1

420

9. Solids of = 400, 000 1.00625420 M

Revolution 1.00625 1

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

To nd $M , substitute $A420 = $0, i.e. no amount owing after 420 months.

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

1.00625 1

420

1.2 Geometric

Sequences 0 = 400, 000 1.00625420 M

1.3 Innite Series 0.00625

1.4 Compound

Interest 0.00625 400, 000 1.00625420

1.5 Superannuation M=

1.6 Loan Repayments 1.00625420 1

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions = 2, 696.97

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

Polynomials (ii) Now that $M is known, it can be substituted into an expression for $An .

4. Trigonometric

n

Functions

1.00625 1

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

400, 000 1.00625n 2, 696.97 < 100, 000

Functions

0.00625

6. Dierentiation 400, 000 1.00625n 431, 515.20(1.00625n 1) < 100, 000

400, 000 1.00625n 431, 515.20 1.00625n + 431, 515.20 < 100, 000

7. Integration

8. Areas Under

Curves

1.00625n (400, 000 431, 515.20) < 331, 515.20

9. Solids of

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

1.7 HSC-Adapted Questions

1. Sequences &

Series Applications

When we rearrange the expression, the inequality needs to be ipped because

1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences

we are dividing by a negative quantity.

1.2 Geometric

Sequences 331, 515.20

1.3 Innite Series 1.00625n >

1.4 Compound

Interest

31, 515.20

1.5 Superannuation

1.6 Loan Repayments

> 10.5192

1.7 HSC-Adapted

Questions

Taking logs of both sides, we have

2. Probability

3. Quadratic

Polynomials n ln(1.00625) > ln(10.5192)

4. Trigonometric

Functions

ln(10.5192)

n>

5. Logarithmic &

Exponential

ln(1.00625)

Functions

> 377.7

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

Hence, the balance will be less than $100,000 after 378 months (31.5 years).

8. Areas Under

Curves

9. Solids of

Revolution

10. Geometrical

Applications of

Calculus

2014 Sci School

11. Maxima &

Minima Problems

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