You are on page 1of 17

# HSC Mathematics (2 Unit)

## HSC Exam Preparation Programs

22-26 September, 2014


Overview

## 1. Sequences & Series Applications

1. Sequences &
Series Applications 2. Probability
2. Probability
Polynomials 4. Trigonometric Functions
4. Trigonometric 5. Logarithmic & Exponential Functions
Functions
5. Logarithmic & 6. Dierentiation
Exponential
Functions 7. Integration
6. Dierentiation 8. Areas Under Curves
7. Integration 9. Solids of Revolution
8. Areas Under 10. Geometrical Applications of Calculus
Curves
9. Solids of
11. Maxima & Minima Problems
Revolution 12. Physical Applications of Calculus
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
12. Physical
Applications of
Calculus

## 2014 Sci School

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
1.2 Geometric
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
Questions
1. Sequences & Series Applications
2. Probability

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
Functions

6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

8. Areas Under
Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.1 Arithmetic Sequences

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
In an arithmetic sequence, the dierence, d, between successive terms is
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
constant. If we call the rst term a, then we have
1.2 Geometric
Sequences {a, a + d, a + 2d, . . . , a + (n 1)d}
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest The nth term, Tn , is given by
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
Questions
Tn = a + (n 1)d
2. Probability

## 3. Quadratic The sum of n terms, Sn , is found using

Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
Functions n
Sn = (2a + (n 1)d)
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
2
Functions

6. Dierentiation For example, nd T8 and S20 for the arithmetic sequence {3, 7, 11, . . . }.
7. Integration
20
8. Areas Under a=3 = T8 = 3 + 7 4 and S20 = (2 3 + 19 4)
Curves 2
9. Solids of
Revolution d=73=4 = 31 = 820
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.2 Geometric Sequences

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
In a geometric sequence, the ratio, r, between successive terms is constant. If
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
we call the rst term a, then we have
{a, ar, ar2 , . . . , ar n1 }
1.2 Geometric
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest The nth term, Tn , is given by
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
1.7 HSC-Adapted Tn = ar n1
Questions

2. Probability

The sum of n terms, Sn , is found using
Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
Functions
a(r n 1)
Sn =
5. Logarithmic & r1
Exponential
Functions

6. Dierentiation For example, nd T10 and S10 for the geometric sequence {2, 6, 18, . . . }.
7. Integration  10 
2 3 1
8. Areas Under a=2 = T6 = 2 35 and S10 =
Curves
31
9. Solids of
Revolution r = 62 = 3 = 486 = 59, 048
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.3 Innite Series

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
If 1 < r < 1, then a limiting sum exists for the geometric series, i.e. the
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
series converges to a nite number as n . The limiting sum, S , is
1.2 Geometric found using
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
a(1 r n )
S = lim
Interest
1.5 Superannuation
n 1r
a a
1.6 Loan Repayments
S = lim r n
Questions 1 r 1 r n
2. Probability a
S =
Polynomials
1r
4. Trigonometric
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Sn
Exponential
Functions
2 106
6. Dierentiation

7. Integration r = 0.5
6
8. Areas Under 10
Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
n
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.4 Compound Interest

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
The future value, A, of an initial principal of money, P , when invested at r%
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
per period for a duration of n periods is found using
1.2 Geometric
Sequences  r n
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
A=P 1+
Interest 100
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
1.7 HSC-Adapted For example, \$7,000 is invested at 4.8% p.a. compounded quarterly. How
Questions
long until the balance is greater than \$14,000?
2. Probability

## 3. Quadratic Data: P = 7, 000, r = 4.8

4 % = 1.2% (per quarter), A > 14, 000.
Polynomials
 
1.2 n
4. Trigonometric
Functions
7, 000 1 + 100 > 14, 000
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
1.012n > 2
Functions
n ln (1.012) > ln 2
6. Dierentiation
ln(2)
7. Integration n> ln(1.012)
8. Areas Under
Curves
> 58.1 (quarters)
9. Solids of
Revolution > 4.8 (years)
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.5 Superannuation

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Superannuation problems combine geometric series with compound interest.
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
1.2 Geometric
For example, \$900 is invested at the beginning of each year into an account
Sequences earning 4% p.a. compounded annually. How much is this investment worth at
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound the end of 5 years?
Interest
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
The rst \$900 is invested for 5 years, i.e. A1 = 900 1.045 .
Questions The second \$900 is invested for 4 years, i.e. A2 = 900 1.044 .
2. Probability ..
.
Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
The fth \$900 is invested for 1 year, i.e. A5 = 900 1.04.
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 = 900 1.045 + 900 1.044 + + 900 1.04
Functions  a r

## 6. Dierentiation  

7. Integration
= 900 1.04 1 + 1.04 + + 1.044
8. Areas Under

Curves
1.045 1
9. Solids of = 936 = \$5, 069.68
Revolution 1.04 1
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Loan problems are similar to superannuation, except that regular payments,
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
M , are made to reduce the initial owed amount, P . The amount owing after
1.2 Geometric n repayments is denoted An .
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest
Step 1: Construct a formula for P , M and An .
1.5 Superannuation a(r n 1)
1.6 Loan Repayments Step 2: Simply the geometric series using Sn = r1 .
Questions
Step 3: To nd M , equate An to zero and solve.
2. Probability

Polynomials For a loan of \$P taken out over n time periods at a reducible interest rate of
4. Trigonometric
Functions r% per period, the formula for the regular repayment, \$M , is given by

5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
Functions
 r n r
100
M =P 1+ r n
6. Dierentiation
100 (1 + 100 ) 1
7. Integration

8. Areas Under
Curves The syllabus requires you to be able to derive this, rather than memorise it.
9. Solids of
Revolution Fortunately, constructing the formula almost always follows the same 3 steps.
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
For example, \$6,000 is borrowed at the reducible interest rate of
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
24% p.a. (2% per month). What should be the monthly repayment, \$M , to
1.2 Geometric pay the loan o in 3 years?
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest
At the end of the 1st month, the \$6,000 will have grown by 2% and had
1.5 Superannuation a repayment subtracted from it, i.e. A1 = 6, 000 1.02 M .
1.6 Loan Repayments
Questions After 2 months,
2. Probability

A2 = (6, 000 1.02 M ) 1.02 M
Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
= 6, 000 1.022 M (1 + 1.02)
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
After 24 months,
S where a=1 & r=1.015
Functions
 24 
6. Dierentiation
A24 = 2, 000 1.015 M (1 + 1.015 + . . . 1.015 )
24 23
7. Integration
  

## 8. Areas Under 1 1.015 1

24
Curves
= 2, 000 1.015 M
24
9. Solids of 1.015 1
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems
1.6 Loan Repayments

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Equate A24 to zero, i.e. we aim to pay the loan o after 24 months,
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
 
1.2 Geometric
Sequences 1.015 1
24
1.3 Innite Series 0 = 2, 000 1.01524 M
1.4 Compound
  0.015
Interest
1.5 Superannuation 1.01524 1
1.6 Loan Repayments M = 2, 000 1.01524
Questions
0.015 2, 000 1.01524
2. Probability M=
1.01524 1
Polynomials
M = 99.85
4. Trigonometric
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
Functions
Hence, to pay o the \$2,000 loan after 2 years, our monthly repayments, \$M ,
6. Dierentiation
are \$99.85.
7. Integration

8. Areas Under
Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Question 1 (6 Marks)
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences Alice and Bob work at two dierent companies. At the end of this year, Alice
1.2 Geometric
Sequences will have earned \$40,000. Each year she stays on is accompanied by a 3%
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound pay-rise. Bobs salary is \$43,000 but enjoys a \$2,200 pay-rise every other
Interest
1.5 Superannuation
year, starting in the third year.
1.6 Loan Repayments
1.7 HSC-Adapted (i) Who earns a higher salary at the end of the 8th year? (3 Marks)
Questions

2. Probability (ii) What is the dierence in their total earnings after 8 years? (3 Marks)
Polynomials

4. Trigonometric Solution
Functions
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
(i) Alices salary follows a geometry sequence, with a = \$40, 000 and
Functions r = 1.03. Her salary in the 8th year is
6. Dierentiation

7. Integration

## 8. Areas Under T8 = \$40, 000(1.03)8

Curves
9. Solids of = \$50, 671
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Bobs salary follows an arithmetic sequence, with a = \$43, 000 and
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
d = \$2, 200, but the time period is every 2 years. Therefore, his salary in the
1.2 Geometric 8th year is the 4th term in the arithmetic sequence, which is given by
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest
T4 = \$43, 000 + (4 1) \$2, 200
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
= \$49, 600
Questions

2. Probability
Hence, in the eighth year Alice earns \$1,071 more than Bob.
Polynomials
(ii) The sum of Alices rst 8 salaries is,
4. Trigonometric
Functions \$40, 000(1.038 1)
5. Logarithmic & S8 =
Exponential 1.03 1
Functions
\$40, 600
6. Dierentiation = (1.038 1)
7. Integration 0.03
8. Areas Under = \$361, 029
Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
For Bob, the year following a pay-rise is a repeated salary. Hence, after 8
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
years, Bob has 4 unique salaries dened by the arithmetic sequence with
1.2 Geometric a = \$43, 000 and d = \$2, 200. The sum of Bobs rst 8 salaries is therefore,
Sequences
1.3 Innite Series
3
1.4 Compound
Interest
2 S4 = 2 (2 \$43, 000 + 3 \$2, 200)
1.5 Superannuation
2
1.6 Loan Repayments = 3 \$92, 600
Questions
= \$277, 800
2. Probability

3. Quadratic Hence, after eight years Alice earns \$83,229 more than Bob.
Polynomials

4. Trigonometric
Functions
Question 2 (6 Marks)
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
Functions A \$400,000 loan is to be repaid in equal monthly repayments, \$M , over 35
6. Dierentiation years. The reducible interest rate of 7.5% is calculated monthly.
7. Integration

## 8. Areas Under (i) Calculate the monthly repayment, \$M . (3 Marks)

Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
(ii) After how long will the amount owing be less than \$100,000? (3 Marks)
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
Solution
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences (i) Let \$An be the amount owing after the nth repayment. The monthly
1.2 Geometric
Sequences interest rate is 7.5
12 % = 0.625%. After 1 month,
1.3 Innite Series
1.4 Compound
Interest
1.5 Superannuation
A1 = 400, 000 1.00625 M
1.6 Loan Repayments
After 2 months,
Questions

## 2. Probability A2 = (400, 00 1.00625 M ) 1.00625 M

Polynomials = 400, 000 1.006252 M 1.00625 M
4. Trigonometric
Functions = 400, 000 1.006252 M (1 + 1.00625)
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
Functions After 35 12 = 420 months,
6. Dierentiation

7. Integration
A420 = 400, 000 1.00625420 M (1 + 1.00625 + 1.00625 + + 1.00625419 )
8. Areas Under
Curves 1.00625 1
420
9. Solids of = 400, 000 1.00625420 M
Revolution 1.00625 1
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
To nd \$M , substitute \$A420 = \$0, i.e. no amount owing after 420 months.
1.1 Arithmetic

Sequences
1.00625 1
420
1.2 Geometric
Sequences 0 = 400, 000 1.00625420 M
1.3 Innite Series 0.00625
1.4 Compound
Interest 0.00625 400, 000 1.00625420
1.5 Superannuation M=
1.6 Loan Repayments 1.00625420 1
Questions = 2, 696.97
2. Probability

Polynomials (ii) Now that \$M is known, it can be substituted into an expression for \$An .
4. Trigonometric
n

Functions
1.00625 1
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
400, 000 1.00625n 2, 696.97 < 100, 000
Functions
0.00625
6. Dierentiation 400, 000 1.00625n 431, 515.20(1.00625n 1) < 100, 000
400, 000 1.00625n 431, 515.20 1.00625n + 431, 515.20 < 100, 000
7. Integration

8. Areas Under
Curves
1.00625n (400, 000 431, 515.20) < 331, 515.20
9. Solids of
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems

1. Sequences &
Series Applications
When we rearrange the expression, the inequality needs to be ipped because
1.1 Arithmetic
Sequences
we are dividing by a negative quantity.
1.2 Geometric
Sequences 331, 515.20
1.3 Innite Series 1.00625n >
1.4 Compound
Interest
31, 515.20
1.5 Superannuation
1.6 Loan Repayments
> 10.5192
Questions
Taking logs of both sides, we have
2. Probability

Polynomials n ln(1.00625) > ln(10.5192)
4. Trigonometric
Functions
ln(10.5192)
n>
5. Logarithmic &
Exponential
ln(1.00625)
Functions
> 377.7
6. Dierentiation

7. Integration
Hence, the balance will be less than \$100,000 after 378 months (31.5 years).
8. Areas Under
Curves
9. Solids of
Revolution
10. Geometrical
Applications of
Calculus
2014 Sci School
11. Maxima &
Minima Problems