Abstract Solar energy maintains life on the earth and it is an developed a novel model of PV module using Matlab/Simulink
infinite source of clean energy. There is an increasing trend for and this model was verified for an experiment structure. Author
the use of solar cells in industry and domestic appliances because also underlined the effect of solar irradiation on cell
solar energy is expected to play significant role in future smart temperature, which made the output characteristics more
grids as a distributed renewable source. Optimal and largescale practical [4]. Altas et al. developed Matlab/Simulink PV model
integration of renewable sources into smart grid is possible by the using basic circuit equations of the PV solar cells including the
aid of computer simulations and hence there is a growing effects of solar irradiation and temperature changes. They
demand for computer modeling and simulation of renewable tested the model response in a DC load and an inverter
sources. This study presents a generalized photovoltaic (PV)
simulation [5].
system simulation model for Matlab/Simulink simulation
environment. The proposed model is based on a behavioral cell There is an increasing trend for domestic use of hybrid
model for modeling solar radiance to electricity conversion and renewable sources, preferably wind and solar combination.
an electrical driver interface for implementing electrical Hence there is need for simulation models of the wind turbine
characteristic of power limited systems in power simulations. The and PV modules to efficiently design and integrate these
model is efficient in computational complexity and it is easy to sources to power systems. Nowadays, smart grid researchers
configure for representing widerange of PV installations. demand wind turbines and PV panel models to deploy in their
power system simulations as distributed generators and explore
Keywordssolar energy; photovoltaic cell; photovoltaic module;
impacts of distributed generation on power distribution. These
simulink; smart grid
models should also represent the transient responses of
renewable energy sources for stability and reliability analyses.
I. INTRODUCTION
Matlab/Simulink provides a userfriendly, modular and
Among several renewable energy resources, energy visual simulation environment for the transient analysis of
harvesting from the photovoltaic (PV) effect is the most power electronics. This environment facilitates design and
essential and sustainable way because of abundance and easy simulation of the power systems and it is very convenient to
accessibility of solar radiant energy around the earth. In spite of perform transient analyses for the academic and industrial
the intermittency of sunlight, solar energy is widely available proposes. Although there are wind turbine models in
during daylight and it is free to use. Recently, photovoltaic SimPowerSystems library of Simulink, a general purpose PV
system is recognized to be in the forefront in renewable electric module component working in conjunction with power
power generation because it can generate direct current electronic circuit are still needed [1]. The PV modules used for
electricity without heavy environmental impacts and transient simulations of largescale renewable source
contamination [1]. integration should not only be reconfigurable for widerange of
PV modules are the fundamental power conversion unit of panel models but also present lowcomputational complexity in
a PV generator system. The output characteristics of PV grid simulations due to the memory and calculation time
modules depend on the solar insolation, the cell temperature limitation of computers. Recent PV models have low
and the output voltage of the PV module [2]. Since PV computational complexity [5] or electrical characteristics well
modules exhibit nonlinear electrical characteristics, designing suiting for PV modules [1].
and simulation of this system require reliable PV modeling. This study aims to developed a general propose Simulink
Moreover, mathematical modeling of PV module is PV module. This module can be easily reconfigurable for the
continuously updated to enable researcher to have a better electrical response of PV panels in a wide spectrum. For this
understanding of its working [3]. propose, a modified sigmoid function was used to approximate
Many researchers have been proposed several models for electrical characteristics of PV panels, empirically. This gains
Matlab/Simulink in the literature. Tsai et al. proposed a model the module considerable degree of freedom to represent diverse
taking sunlight irradiance and cell temperature as input PV systems. The proposed PV model is composed of a
parameters [1]. Salmi et al. proposed a model of PV cell based behavioral PV block, based on electrophysics of the PV cell,
on the fundamental circuit for a solar PV cell considering the and a powerlimited electrical driver module, characterized by
effects of physical and environmental parameters [2]. Tsai the modified sigmoid function. The behavioral PV block
II. METHODOLOGY
G G
I cell = I r + (Tc Tcr ) + 1 I sc (2)
Figure 1. Block diagram of PV simulation model. Gr Gr
The parameter Isc represents short circuit current of the
A. Behavioral PV Modeling module and is the temperature coefficient of short circuit
The physics of the PV cell is very similar to that of the current. The voltage of PV cell was formulated by Equation (3)
classical diode with a pn junction [6]. When the junction and Equation (4) [11], where are temperature coefficient of
absorbs light, the energy of absorbed photons is transferred to open circuit voltage.
the electronproton system of the material, creating charge
carriers that are separated at the junction [7]. An ideal PV cell Vcell = (Tc Tcr ) Rs I + Vr (3)
is assumed to have no series loss and no leakage to ground.
However, due to its nonideal structure in nature, there are G G
I = (Tc Tcr ) + 1 I sc (4)
some losses occurred in real PV cells. Therefore, these losses Gr Gr
are expressed by using resistances in equivalent circuits. Fig. 2
shows an equivalent electrical circuit modeling the complex Herein, Rs is used to represent the voltage drop at the output
physics of the PV cells [810]. The behavioral model of the of the PV cell. The parameters Ir and Vr are reference values
proposed PV model is based on this equivalent electrical circuit taken from IV curve [12, 13].
model. Current source, Iph, which is a current produced by the
photons, is constant at a fixed value of radiation and PV module is formed by connecting PV cell in series and
temperature. The shunt resistance, Rsh, is used to represent the parallel to each other. In this case, the output current and
shuntleakage current, Ish. The series resistance, Rs, is used to voltage of PV module is expressed in Equation (5) and
represent the voltage drop at the output. PV power conversion Equation (6), respectively.
efficiency (PPCE) is sensitive to small changes at Rs, but the Vm = N scVcell (5)
PPCE is not sensitive to changes at Rsh. The small increase in
Rs significantly reduces the output of the PV module [8]. In the I m = N pc I cell (6)
equivalent circuit, the current, Icell, delivered to the external
load equals the current IL and voltage over the load equals the Herein, Vm is the output voltage, and Im is the output
voltage of PV cell, Vcell [2,9]. Current and voltage of PV panel current. Nsc and Npc are expressed numbers of series and
depends on load value and presents nonlinear, power limited parallel connected PV cells, respectively [11]. Simulink
electrical characteristics. schema of behavioral PV model, using the Equation (2) and
Equation (3), is demonstrated in Fig. 3.
Vr u[1]*Nsc 1
Peak point (MMP) of powerlimited IV characteristic is
u[1]*beta
Vm apparent in Fig. 4(b). The parameter is used to adjust
beta*(Tc Tcr)
decline of panel voltage Vg against the increase of load current
25 Rs
IL.
Ref. temperature
1
temperature
u[1]*Npc 2 Fig. 5 shows simulink model of the power limited
Deltai Im
electrical driver. Equation (7) governs the voltage controlled
2 u[1]/1000 u[1]*alfa Ir voltage source that is connect to load via an internal resistor,
Ri. Here, the internal resistor Ri resistance between metal
radiation
G/Gr alfa*G/Gr
of PV panels.
1 temperature Vm
temperature 1
Ci
Powerlimited Working Region of Short circuit current temperature coefficient () 3.103 mA/oC
0.2
Electrical Driver Open circuit voltage temperature coefficient () 73.103 mW/oC
0 Short circuit current (Isc) 3.8
Serial resistance (Rs) 0.47 Ohm
0.5 1 1.5 Internal resistor (Ri) 1 Ohm
V Internal capacitance (Ci) 1.102 F
(b)
0.8
(a)
adjusted by Ci and Ri. Adjustment of transient response of PV
MMP
module is, particularly, useful for voltage and power stability
40
analyses of power systems supplied by PV panels. Power
injected the load by PV module was reached to its steady state 30
operating conditions after development of transient regime.
L
This allows more realistic analysis of PV panels in power
P
20
system simulation.
Discrete, 10
Ts = 5e005 s.
pow ergui
+
i

0
1 temperature V+
Current 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
temperature
+
v
RL

Load
Voltage
(b)
2 radiation V
radiation MMP
Simulink PV Model 40
PL
3 20
2 10
IL
5 10 15
1 VL
Figure 8. (a) Power injection versus load resistance characteristics.
0 Maxsimum power point is tracked at 4.5 Ohm load resistance. (b) Power
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 injection versus of load voltage characteristics. Maxsimum power point is
Second tracked at 14 Volt load voltage.
(b)
14 B. Solar Power For Three Phase AC Power Distribution
12 Simulation
10 Simulink simulation of a PV array supplying three phase
8 AC distribution system is shown in Fig. 9. The DC/AC
L
6
inverter causes DC instability due to periodical switching of
4
PV module current. In order to reduce negative impacts of
2 possible reverse current of DC/AC converter on PV module, a
diode is used. Output of PV module is connected to DC/AC
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Second converter to supply 1000 Watt resistive loads per phase. In
(c) order to draw adequate power from PV module, 10 numbers of
50
series and 5 numbers of parallel cells structure (Nsc =10 and
Npc =5) were configured for the PV module.
40
Discrete,
Cur
Ts = 5e005 s. Va+
30 powergui
V+
PL
Va
i V
+ 
20 Current Measurement
25 T V+
A
T DC V +
10 B Ra
Diod
1000 G V DC V  C
0 G
DC/AC Converter
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 PV Model Rb
Second
Figure 7. Current [A] in (a), Voltage [V] in (b) and Power [W] in (c) of PV
module for a load resistance of 4.5 Ohm. Rc
from PV module. Fig. 10(c) shows line to neutral AC voltages estimates voltage and current potential of PV panel for a given
measured from resistive loads. After a transient regime solar radiation (G) and module temperature (Tc) conditions.
continuing 0.1 second, average power drawn from PV module The powerlimited electrical driver implements a relevant
goes into steady regime and settles roughly at 3000 Watt. electrical response on the load. The proposed PV module can
(a) be employed in transient analysis of power system supplied
4000 with PV panels. It is also useful for testing MPP tracking
methods.
3000 Nowadays, solar energy integration in microgrids [14, 15]
is becoming primary concern of power system industry.
Modeling renewable energy sources for a largescale power
2000 Transient system integration simulation is more important today,
L
Regime
because these simulation tools will be a part of optimal design
and intelligent management process.
1000
REFERENCES
0 [1] H.L. Tsai, C.S. Tu, and Y.J. Su, Development of generalized
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 photovoltaic model using Matlab/Simulink, Proceedings of the World
Second Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008, WCECS08, San
(b) Francisco, USA.
150
[2] T. Salmi, M. Bouzguenda,A. Gastli, and A. Masmoudi,
Matlab/Simulink based modelling of solar photovoltaic cell, Int J of
Renewable Energy Research 2012, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 213218.
100 [3] N. Pandiarajan, and R. Muthu, Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic
module with simulink, 1st International Conference on Electrical
Energy Systems ICEES11, 2011; pp. 258263.
p
V