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Theories of Learning (Reviewer) I.

II. Retention
Learning III. Reproduction
i) Acquisition that leads to change IV. Motivation
Preferences Meaningful Learning (David Ausubel)-
Knowledge refers to the concept that the learned
Behavior knowledge is fully understood by the
Skills individual and that the individual
Values knows how that specific fact relates to
Cognitive Behavior other stored facts
1.1.Cognitive- acquisition of knowledge a) Derivative
1.2.Behavior- modification of behavior b) Correlative
Principles of Learning c) Super Ordinate
i) Learning by doing is more effective d) Combinational
than sitting and listening Jerome Bruner (Discovery Approach)
ii) Learning is aided by formulating I. Enactive representation (action)
and asking questions II. Iconic representation (image)
iii) Effort is put forth when tasks are III. Symbolic representation
challenging (language)
iv) Concepts should be presented in IV. Discovery- Pure and Guided
different ways Information Process
v) Readiness is necessary for learning Sensory
Ivan Pavlov- Classical Conditioning Short term Memory
1.1.1. Food- unconditional stimulus Long term Memory
1.1.2. Salivation- unconditional Person Variables, Task Variables,
response Strategy Variables
1.1.3. Bell- neutral stimulus Attending, encoding, storing,
1.1.4. Conditioned stimulus and
conditions response
1.1.5. Generalization, Discrimination
1.1.2. Meta- beyond
and Extinction
1.1.3. Cogni- thinking
Edward Thorndike- Connectionism
Instructional Strategies
1.1.1. Law of Readiness, Law of
1. Motivation
Exercise/Practice and Law of 2. Acquisition
Effect 3. Retention
B.F. Skinner- Operant Conditioning 4. Performance/Evaluation of
i) Operant Performance
ii) Operant Conditioning Stimulu -----> Sensory memory ----->
iii) Reinforcer
attention -----> perception ----->
iv) Reinforcement
Working memory (rehearsal/
Classification of reinforcers
a) Verbal repetition) -----> long term memory
b) Non-Verbal STEPS
c) Consumables 1) Awareness of what you know
d) Token and what you dont know
e) Activity 2) Identify the strategies
f) Physical 3) Focus on how those strategies
Albert Bandura- Social learning are ???
i) Positive reinforcement
ii) Negative reinforcement
iii) Punishment
A. Four mediational process