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COURSE SYNOPSISFLUID MECH(CH2030)

*reference Fluid Mechanics Frank M White

Introduction
The concept of a fluid
Static Deflection of the solid
Equilibrium and Mohrs circle
The Fluid as a Continuum
Dimensions and Units
Primary dimensions
Unit Systems
The Principle of Dimensional Homogeneity
p+V+gZ = constant
Properties of the Velocity Field
Eulerian and Lagrangian Descriptions
The Velocity Field
V(x,y,z,t) iu(x,y,z,t) + jv(x,y,z,t) + kw(x,y,z,t)
Thermodynamic Properties of a Fluid
Pressure p
Density
Temperature T
Internal energy u
Enthalpy h = u + p/
Entropy s
Specific heats cp and cv
Coefficient of viscosity
Thermal Conductivity k
Viscosity and Other Secondary Properties
Viscosity
= d/dt = du/dy
Reynolds number
RE= VL/
Kinematic Viscosity
=/

Pressure Distribution in Rigid-Body motion


Buoyancy and Stability
Uniform Linear acceleration
Pbms rel: Angle of tilt = taninv (a/a+g)
Rigid-Body Rotation
Pbms rel: Angular velocity () and position vectors are given.
Pressure measurement instrumentsmanometer, barometer.

Differential Relations for fluid flow


Mass conservation

Continuity Equation

Polar coordinates:

Spherical coordinates:

Incompressible flow:
is constant

Momentum Conservation
Assumptions
Navier stokes

Cylindrical and spherical coordinates


Boundary Conditions
The stream function

Vorticity

(Poissons Equation)

Stream function formulation of Navier-stokes equation


Frictionless irrotational flows
Non dimensionalisation of the basic equation

Head LossThe friction factor


Where:
hf = Friction head loss
f = Darcy resistance factor
L = Length of the pipe
D = Pipe diameter
V = Mean velocity
g = acceleration due to gravity
Laminar fully developed pipe flow
The Moody Chart
Haalands formula

Four Types of Pipe flow problems


Hydraulic diameter
Dh = 4A/ = 4xarea
------------------
Wetted perimeter
Flow
Between Parallel Plates
Through a Concentric Annulus

Minor Losses in Pipe Systems


Valves:
Gate, globe, angle...
Pipes in series,
Pipes in parallel
Three-Reservoir Junction
Fluid Meters
Pitot-static tube
Lasser-doppler anemometer (LDA)
Hot-Wire anemometer
Turbine meter
Vortex meter
Rotameter
Coriolis mass flow meter
The Boundary Layer Equations
Derivation for Two-Dimensional Flow
Approximations
The flat plate boundary layer
Boundary layers with pressure gradients
Creeping flow
Elementary Plane Flow Solutions:
Uniform stream in the x Direction
Line Source or Sink at the Origin
Line Irrotational Vortex
Superposition:
Source Plus an Equal Sink
Sink plus a Vortex at the Origin
Uniform Stream Plus a Sink at the Origin: The Rankine Half-Body
Uniform Stream at an Angle
Circulation
Flow Past a Circular Cylinder with Circulation
Axis symmetric Potential Flow
Spherical Polar coordinates
Uniform stream in the x direction
Point Source or Sink
Point Doublet
Uniform Stream plus a Point Source
Uniform Stream plus a Point Doublet

Classification of pumps
The Centrifugal Pump
Elementary Pump Theory

The concept of fluidized beds.