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The main function of a footing is
to disperse the load of the
structure in a wider space so
that the soil reacts to it and a
minimal settlement will be
achieved.
qvmbp=lc=cllqfkdp
elt=cllqfkdp=c^fi

q_max>q_allowable
(i.e. soil failure)
compression failure.
(See ACI 10.15.1)
Footing fails in flexure:

elt=cllqfkdp=c^fi

## Footing fails in one

way shear.

d
Vc_1way := 2 f'c ( 1ksi) B
1000
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## Footing fails in two

way (punching) shear.
Vc_1 := 2 +
4 d
f'c ( 1ksi) 0
c 1000

s d d
Vc_2 := + 2 f'c ( 1 ksi) 0
0 1000
d
Vc_3 := ( 4) f'c ( 1ksi) 0
1000

bu^jmib
pnr^ob=cllqfkd=bpfdk The Use of yellow background
is applied for recycled process
Problem Statement:
Design a square footing to support a square base 16"x16" (c1 x c2) column that will exert a Dead Load
of 490,000 lbs and Live Load of 160,000 lbs with negligible moment. Assume 150 psf overburden on
the footing. The Allowable Soil Pressure is 3 Tons/ft^2. Use Grade 60 reinforcement and f'c of 3000
psi. Concrete weighs approximately 150 pcf

lbf k'
Processing Data: kip := 1000lbf ksi := 1000 k' := 1000lbf ft k'' :=
2 12
in
Dead load is multiplied by a factor of 1.2 and Live load by a factor of 1.6:
lbf
DLini := 490000lbf DL := DLini1.2 DL = 588 kip lbf Overburden := 150
ASP := 6000 2
2
ft
LLini := 160000lbf LL := LLini1.6 LL = 256 kip ft

## f'c := 3ksi fy := 60ksi c1 := 16in c2 := c1 lbf

_concrete := 150
3
Solution: ft
Estimating required area
Assuming footing thickness 1.5 times the column width, an approximate initial depth is 2':
D_ini := 24in D_rec := 31in
bu^jmib
With a depth of 2' and a " " value of 150 pcf, the applied distributed load due to the footing shall be:
lbf
q footing := _concrete D_ini q footing = 300
2
ft
lbf
q ftng_recycled := _concrete D_rec q ftng_recycled = 387.5
2
ft
Now let's determine the Net Bearing Pressure which is the total of the ASP minus the applied
q_n := ASP q footing Overburden q_n = 0.03854 ksi
q n_rec := ASP qftng_recycled Overburden qn_rec = 0.03793 ksi
This allows us to determine an average required area:
( DLini + LLini) 2
Areq := Areq = 117.117 ft B := Areq B = 129.86 in
q_n
Thus, for a square footing...
( DLini + LLini) 2
Areq := Areq = 118.993 ft B := Areq B = 130.9 in
q n_rec
B := 131in
Length := B (since this is a square footing) Rounding & override

bu^jmib
And now we can have the factored net soil pressure:
( DL + LL) 3 lbf
qnet := qnet = 7.0821 10 OR qnet = 0.04918 ksi
2 2
B ft

The next step is to compute the depth of the footing (d) for Two way shear and the Critical Shear
Perimeter (beta zero) (0). We assume a 3" cover and approximate 1" for rebar diameter:
cover := 3in bar_diam_ini := 1in d := ( c1 1.5) cover bar_diam_ini d = 20 in
Iterate and change value of approximate factor to readjust footing height accordingly. Try for a good rounding number.
Use the actual dimension of the depth of footing rather than approximate value of 1.5 factor

## d := D_rec cover bar_diam_ini d = 27 in

0 := 2( 2d + c1 + c2 ) 0 = 172 in OR 0 = 14.33333 ft

Establishing the ultimate value of Shear - First the gross area of the footing and the area of the column:

2 2 2
Ag := B Length Ag = 119.174 ft A_ext_col := ( c1 + d) A_ext_col = 12.84 ft

## Vu2way := qnet ( Ag A_ext_col) Vu2way = 753.06 kip

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Vu2way := qnet ( Ag A_ext_col) Vu2way = 753.06 kip
There are three applicable factored formulas for two way shear. The smallest result governs:
c2 s has a value of 40 for columns in
:= 0.75 c := c = 1 s := 40 center of footing, 30 if at edge, 20 if at
c1
corner.

Vc1 := 2 +
4

f'c
( 1ksi) 0
d
Vc1 = 1144.631 kip
Note: The use of 1ksi is
to facilitate with the
c psi 1000
application of the
s d f'c d sq.root function.
Vc2 := +2 ( 1 ksi) 0 Vc2 = 1579.413 kip
0 psi 1000
Smallest governs:
f'c d This process shall be
Vc3 := ( 4) ( 1ksi) 0 Vc3 = 763.08707 kip iterated with new footing
psi 1000
height until Vc>Vu.

(
Vc2way := min Vc1 , Vc2 , Vc3 )
Vc2way = 763.09 kip

(
Punch_Shearcondition := if Vu2way < Vc2way , "Approved" , "Not Approved" )
Punch_Shearcondition = "Approved"

bu^jmib
Checking for One way shear:

( Length c1 ) d
Vu1way := q net B Vu1way = 196.504 kip
2
f'c d
Vc1way := 2 ( 1ksi) B Vc1way = 290.594 kip
psi 1000
(
OneWayShearcondition := if Vu1way < Vc1way , "Approved" , "Not Approved" ) If higher than Vu,
it is approved.
OneWayShearcondition = "Approved"
Determining the Reinforcement for ultimate moment (Mu) and Area of steel (As):
2 Length
M u := q net ( B c2 ) M u = 887.556 k'
8
Mu 2
As := As = 8.218 in
d 48 ksi
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