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The right limb of a simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is

open to the atmosphere while the left limb is connected to a pipe in


which a fluid of Sp. gr. 0.9 is flowing. The center of the pipe is 12 cm
below the level of mercury in the right limb. Find the pressure of fluid
in the pipe If the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 20 cm.

A single column manometer is connected to a pipe containing a liquid


of sp. gr. 0.9 as shown in Fig. Find the pressure in the pipe if the area
of the reservoir is 100 times the area of the tube for the manometer
reading shown in Fig. The specific gravity of mercury is 13.6.

A pipe contains an oil of sp. gr. 0.9. A differential manometer


connected at the two points A and B shows a difference in mercury
level as 15 cm. Find the difference of pressure at the two points.

An open tank contains water upto a depth of 2m and above it an oil


of sp. gr. 0.9 for a depth of 1 m. Find the pressure intensity (i) at the
interface of the two liquids, and (ii) at the bottom of the tank.
Example

If K = 2.2 GPa is the bulk modulus of elasticity of


water, what pressure is required to reduce a volume by
0.6 percent ?

(ANS: 13.2 MPa)


Example

A plate 0.025 mm distant from a fixed plate, moves at 60


cm/s and requires a force of 2 N/m2 to maintain this
speed. Determine the fluid viscosity between the plates.

Ans: 8.3310-5 Ns/m2


Example

Ans: 11.7 poise


Example
A 25 mm diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as
shown in fig. The lubricant that fills the 0.3 mm gap between the
shaft and the bearing is an oil having a kinetic viscosity of 810-4
m2/s and a specific gravity of 0.91. Determine the force P required
to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3 m/s. Assume the velocity
distribution in the gap is linear.

Ans: 286 N
Example

What is the pressure within a 1 mm diameter spherical


droplet of water relative to the atmospheric pressure
outside? Assume surface tension s for water to be 0.073
N/m.

(ANS: 292 N/m2)


Example

The water strider bug shown in fig is supported on the surface of


a pond by a surface tension acting along the interface between
the water and bugs legs. Determine minimum length of this
interface needed to support the bug. Assume surface tension of
water is 0.0725 N/m and bugs weighs 10 -4 N.
Example

The surface tension of water in contact with air at 20C is


0.0725 N/m. The pressure inside a droplet of water is to
be 0.02 N/cm2 greater than the outside pressure.
Calculate the the diameter of the droplet of the water

Ans 1.45 mm
Example 8
Example 10

The inverted u-tube manometer of contains oil (SG =0.9) and water
as shown in Fig.3. The pressure differential between pipes A and B
(pA- pB) is -5 kPa . Determine the differential height h.
Example 11

For the inclined-tube manometer the pressure in pipe A is


0.6 psi. The fluid in both pipes A and B is water, and the
gage fluid in the manometer has a specific gravity of 2.6.
What is the pressure in pipe B corresponding to the
differential reading shown?
A lake has a maximum depth of 40m. The barometric pressure is
598mm Hg. Determine the absolute pressure in the deepest part
of the lake.
Determine the pressure at E, if the pressure at A is
0.4 bar (gauge)
(absolute)
Determine the pressure difference pB - pA .

ANS : 27.7 kPa


Find thee volume of water displaced and position of buoyancy for
a wooden block of width 2.5 m and of depth 1.5 m, when it floats
horizontally in water. The density of wooden block is 650 kg/m3
and its length 6m.
A body of dimensions 1.5m x 1m x 2 m weighs 1962 N in water.
Find its weight in air. What will be its sp.gravity?
Find the density of a metallic body which floats as the interface
of mercury of sp.gravity 13.6 and water such that 40% of its
volume is submerged in mercury and 60% in water?