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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND

TECHNOLOGY

PAKISTAN NAVY ENGINEERING COLLEGE

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER


LAB MANUAL

ENGINEERING SCIENCES DEPARTMENT


DATE: _________________ HEAT &
MASS TRANSFER LAB MANUAL

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER


LAB MANUAL

PREPARED BY:
MS VIRDA ABID
LAB ENGINEER

ENGINEERING SCIENCES DEPARTMENT

LAB INSTRUCTIONS
1. No late submissions
2. If you miss the submission time, you will be marked zero in that lab
3. If cheating or plagiarism is observed in the lab report, zero will be marked in that lab.
4. Detailed calculations should be shown.
5. Neat work will earn good marks.
6. Graphs should be made by hands. MS excel graphs will not be accepted.

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LAB MARKS DISTRIBUTION


Lab Assessment rubric is attached

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO DATE OBJECTIVE PAGE SIGNATURE


NO
To show that the intensity of radiation on a
surface is inversely proportional to the
1.
square of the distance of the surface from
the source of radiation

2. To show the intensity of radiation various


as fourth power of source.

Determination of barrier temperature


3. gradient between two different metals in
end to end pressure contact.
To perform energy balance on air flowing
4.
throw a duct heated by cylindrical rod
To perform energy balance on air flowing
5. throw a duct heated by cylindrical rod
using DAQ
Determination of a mean surface heat
transfer coefficient for tubes in 1 to 16
6. rows of cross flow heat exchange

Measurement of heat flux and surface heat


7.
transfer coefficient during film wise and
drop wise condensation.
Identification of components of refrigeration
8. an
A/C equipments and determination of
refrigerating effect compressor work mass flow

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rate and COP

9. To operate absorption
refrigeration trainer by using
electric heater OR with gas
10. To calculate
(a) The coefficient of performance.
(b) The refrigeration effect per
kilogram of refrigerant.
(c) The circulation rate of
refrigerant for a refrigeration load
of 1kilowatt.

11. To measure the velocity and static pressure


of an air flow in a duct and perform
common air calculations [i.e. determination
of the air velocity & its CFM (cubic feet
per minute)].

12. To measure the friction loss in ducts and


compare results with tabulated values

LAB # 01

OBJECT:
To show that intensity of radiation on a surface is inversely proportional to the square
of the distance of the surface from the source of radiation.

APPARATUS:
Cussons Heat Transfer Service Unit H110C.
The Hilton Heat Transfer Service Unit H110C is a bench top unit designed for laws of radiant
heat transfer and radiant heat exchange.

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Two appropriate detectors, target plates of different Emissivity and aperture plates each
mounted on suitable carriages on a parallel graduated track, and allow simple and rapid
experimental procedures.

The electrically heated matt black radiant heat source has an effective diameter of 100mm.
and is fitted with an integral thermocouple to record its surface temperature. Heat input to the
radiant source is controlled and recorded by the H112 Heat Transfer Service Unit.

A radiometer detects the heat flux directly in W/m2 from either the source, a combination of
four plates of different Emissivity (two matt black, one grey and one polished) or between a
slot formed by two moveable cork faced plates. Each plate of different Emissivity
incorporates a surface thermocouple for temperature measurement.

All six thermocouples plug directly into the H110C Heat Transfer Service Unit. The heat
source intensity is controlled through the variable 240v ac supply.

THEORY:
Radiation:
Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through
a vacuum, or through matter-containing media that are not required for their propagation.

Black Body:

Black body is the ideal physical body that absorbs all incident radiations regardless of its
wavelength, frequency and angle of incident.
Inverse Square Law:

Inverse Square Law states that linear waves radiating from a point source (energy per unit
area perpendicular to the source) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from
the source.
Intensity 1/ Distance2

PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure that all switches are in off-position and radiation shield is in position in the
radiometer aperture. The radiometer is 900 mm from radiation-source.

2. Switch on the main; the two digital displays should illuminate.

3. Select the R position on the rotary switch and monitor the digital display. After
several minutes the display should reach minimum. Finally adjust the Zero Knob,
until display shows 000.

4. Rotate the voltage control potentiometer clockwise to increase the voltage to 20 V.


Select the V position on rotary switch to view the voltage being supplied to the heater.

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Select T10 position on the temperature selector switch and monitor the T10
temperature.

5. When T10 has reached maximum condition, select R position on the rotary switch.
Remove the radiation shield. Monitor the digital display until the displayed value
reaches a maximum then record the distance and radiometer reading. Reduce distance
by 100 mm and keep recording.

OBSERVATION:
Calculate the value of C at 500mm
Rc=R X C
C=
Distanc Voltage Surrounding Hot plate Radiatio Corrected
e (x) Temperature temperature(T10) n Radiation
(T9) (R) (Rc)
mm Volts(V) C C W/m2 W/m2
900 20
800 20
700 20
600 20
500 20
400 20
300 20

CALCULATIONS:

Distance Distance 1/ x2 Radiation


(x) (x) (RC)
mm m m-2 W/m2
900
800
700
600
500
400
300

GRAPH TREND:

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GRAPH:
1. Corrected Radiation v/s Distance
2. Corrected Radiation v/s Reciprocal of distance squared

RESULT:

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DISCUSSION:
Analyze your result.

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LAB # 02

OBJECT:
To show that the intensity of radiation varies as fourth power of source temperature (To
demonstrate the Stefan-Boltzmann Law)

APPARATUS:
Hilton Heat Transfer Service Unit H110C.
The Hilton Heat Transfer Service Unit H110C is a bench top unit designed for laws of radiant
heat transfer and radiant heat exchange.

Two appropriate detectors, target plates of different Emissivity and aperture plates each
mounted on suitable carriages on a parallel graduated track, and allow simple and rapid
experimental procedures.

The electrically heated matt black radiant heat source has an effective diameter of 100mm.
and is fitted with an integral thermocouple to record its surface temperature. Heat input to the
radiant source is controlled and recorded by the H112 Heat Transfer Service Unit.

A radiometer detects the heat flux directly in W/m2 from either the source, a combination of
four plates of different Emissivity (two matt black, one grey and one polished) or between a
slots formed by two moveable cork faced plates. Each plate of different Emissivity
incorporates a surface thermocouple for temperature measurement.

All six thermocouples plug directly into the H110C Heat Transfer Service Unit. The heat
source intensity is controlled through the variable 240v ac supply.

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THEORY:
Radiation:
Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through
a vacuum, or through matter-containing media that are not required for their propagation.
Black Body:
Black body is the ideal physical body that absorbs all incident radiations regardless of its
wavelength, frequency and angle of incident.
Stefan-Boltzmann Law:
Stefan-Boltzmann Law states that for a black body
Eb = (Ts4- Ta4)

Where
Eb = The energy emitted per unit area of a black body radiator (W/m2)
Ts = The absolute temperature of the black body (K)
Ta = The absolute temperature of the surroundings (K)
= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant (5.67 X 10-8 W/m2 K4)

This is the energy emitted from the surface.

At a distance x from the energy received (and indicated) by a detector R will be related to the
Stefan-Boltzmann constant by a factor F such that.

R = F x (Ts4- Ta4)

F= R / (Ts4- Ta4)

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F= R / Eb

PROCEDURE:

1. Ensure that all switches are in off-position and radiation shield is in position in the
radiometer aperture. The radiometer is 900 mm from radiation-source.

2. Switch on the main; the two digital displays should illuminate.

3. Select the R position on the rotary switch and monitor the digital display. After
several minutes the display should reach minimum. Finally adjust the Zero Knob,
until display shows 000.

4. Rotate the voltage control potentiometer clockwise to increase the voltage to 4 V.


Select the V position on rotary switch to view the voltage being supplied to the heater.
Select T10 position on the temperature selector switch and monitor the T10
temperature.

5. When T10 has reached maximum condition, select R position on the rotary switch.
Remove the radiation shield and move the radiometer to a position 300 mm from
heated plate. Monitor the digital display until the displayed value reaches a maximum
then record the hot plate temperature (T10), surrounding temperature (T9) and
radiometer reading.

6. Move the carriage to a point 900 mm from the heated plate and replace the radiation
shield.

7. Increase the heater voltage by 4 volts and repeat the above procedure.

8. Keep repeating the above procedure until heater voltage is set to 20 volts.

OBSERVATION:
Rc=R X C
C=
Voltage Surrounding Hot plate Distance Radiation Corrected
Temperature (T9) temperature(T10) (x) (R) Radiation (Rc)
Volts(V) C C mm W/m2 W/m2
4
8
12
16

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20

CALCULATIONS:

Voltage Surrounding Hot Plate Energy Radiation Ratio


Temperature (Ta) Temperature (Ts) emitted (Eb) (Rc) F = Rc/ Eb
o
Volts(V) C K = oC o
C K = oC W/m2 W/m2
+273 +273
4
8
12
16
20

RESULT:

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DISCUSSION: Analyze your result.

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LAB # 03

OBJECT:

Determination of barrier temperature gradient between various metal to metal


pressure contacts.

APPARATUS:

Thermal conduction system:

The thermal conduction system is an arrangement of components to perform experiments


on heat transfer by conduction. The major components include a tube furnace centrally
mounted with two integral heat paths, a variable area conductor, each mounted on an
individual heat source, an electrically timed switch, and four modified.Thermos type
flask with stand; two control switches with indicator lights and potentiometer.

THEORY:

Conduction is the transfer of heat from one part of the body at a higher temperature to
another part of a body at lower temperature.
When two similar and dissimilar materials are in physical contact by pressure there is a
resistance to heat flow due to imperfect contact. Contacts are enhanced by increasing the
pressure with which the two materials are held together. Heat transfer through
interference takes place by combine mechanism of conduction across true contact points,
conduction across entrapped interstitial fluid and radiation across interstitial gap,
resulting overall conductance of the joint is therefore a function of the materials in
contact conductivity, surface finish, flatness and hardness, the contact pressure, the mean
temperature and heat fuse across the joint, the nature of the interstitial
fluid(liquid,gas,vaccum) and the presence of oxide films of interface shim materials. In
the case of steady conduction across a rough contact between dissimilar materials there is
an apparent temperature discontinuity in the immediate vicinity of the contact. The three
most important effects in practical joints are interface flatness, joint pressure and mean
interface temperature.
Fouriers Law of Heat Conduction is most easily verified (or tested) in the one
dimensional
configuration of this experiment. In equation form, Fouriers Law is

q = kA T
x

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PROCEDURE:

1. The tube furnace is switched on several hours ahead of time with coolant circulating
through both heat sinks.
2. The furnace preferably is regulated at full power.
3. At equilibrium for heat input and output the temperature readings are taken at
1200C.

OBSERVATION:

UNIT # 1
S.NO THERMOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE POTENTIOMETER
READING
(C)
1 Stainless steel
2 Stainless steel
3 Copper
4 Copper
5 Copper
6 Copper
7 Steel
8 Steel
9 Steel
10 Steel

UNIT # 2

S.NO THERMOCOUPE TEMPERATURE POTENTIOMETER


READING
(C)
1 Stainless steel
2 Stainless steel
3 Aluminum
4 Aluminum
5 Aluminum
6 Aluminum
7 Magnesium
8 Magnesium
9 Magnesium
Magnesium

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RESULTS:
The barrier temperature gradients of various metals are
t between stainless steel and copper :___________

t between copper and steel :___________

t between stainless steel and aluminum :___________


t between aluminum and magnesium :___________

GRAPH:
1. Temperature vs. length of element
2. E.m.f vs. Temperature

QUESTIONS:

1. What are the factors on which barrier temperature gradient depends for metals?

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2. Define Thermocouple.

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3. Write briefly the working the components of Tube furnace and heat sinks in Thermal
Conduction System?

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LAB # 04

OBJECT:

To perform energy balance on air flowing through a duct heated by a cylindrical rod.

APPARATUS:

Cussons Cross Flow Heat Exchanger Unit 351

In order to transfer heat between two fluids many forms of heat exchanger have been devised.
In one of the most common arrangements, heat is transferred between a fluid flowing through
a bundle of tubes and another fluid flowing transversely over outside of the tubes.
This configuration is known as a Cross Flow Heat Exchanger and is shown schematically
below

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THEORY: (should be written by students)

Should include:

a. Principle of conservation of mass and energy (statement and mathematical


equation form)

b. Energy balance equation for air in duct in the experiment. Start with fundamental
equation including all forms of energy and energy interactions; reduce the
equation by neglecting the forms of energy that are not significant, assuming flow
to steady.

PROCEDURE:

1. Ensure all connection (electrical, instrumentation and others) are in place and all
switches (fan, instrumentation console, and computer) are in off position. Single-tube
plate with active element is properly secured at its position.

2. Switch on the main; adjust the fan speed to achieve air-velocity of approximately 4
mm water depression.

3. Switch on the voltage switch to 70 V and adjust heater control to give an indicated
active element temperature of 90oC.

4. When system become steady make observations.

OBSERVATION:

Symbol / Values
Quantities
Units

Atmospheric Temperature Ta / C

Atmospheric Pressure Pa /
Active Element Surface Temperature T1 / C

Outlet Duct Air Temperature T2 / C

Intake Air Depression H / mmH2O


Active Element Heater Voltage V / Volts

Active Element Heater Resistance R / Ohms

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CALCULATIONS:

Cross sectional area of duct = A= 9.75 X 10 -3 m2


Energy supplied to heater = V2/R
Energy gained by air as it flows through duct = m Cp (T2 Ta) = ( A V) m Cp (T2 Ta)
Energy lost /unaccounted = [(Pa/(RTa)) {74.294 (H Ta/ Pa) }] Cp (T2 Ta)

RESULT:

The energy supplied to heater . = ________


The energy gained by air as it flows steadily through the duct = ________ .
The energy lost to surrounding (or unaccounted) = ________ .

DISCUSSION:

Analyze your result. Do they make sense? How energy transfer can be improved between
cylinder and air.

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LAB # 05
OBJECT:
To perform energy balance on air flowing through a duct heated by a cylindrical rod
using DAQ

OBSERVATION:

Symbol / Values DAQ Values


Quantities
Units

Atmospheric Temperature Ta / C

Atmospheric Pressure Pa /
Active Element Surface Temperature T1 / C

Outlet Duct Air Temperature T2 / C

Intake Air Depression H / mmH2O


Active Element Heater Voltage V / Volts

Active Element Heater Resistance R / Ohms

CALCULATIONS:
Cross sectional area of duct = A= 9.75 X 10 -3 m2
Energy supplied to heater = V2/R
Energy gained by air as it flows through duct = m Cp (T2 Ta) = ( A V) m Cp (T2 Ta)
Energy lost /unaccounted = [(Pa/(RTa)) {74.294 (H Ta/ Pa) }] Cp (T2 Ta)

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RESULT:
The energy supplied to heater . = ________
The energy gained by air as it flows steadily through the duct = ________ .
The energy lost to surrounding (or unaccounted) = ________
The difference between the energy gained by air as calculated from instrument and DAQ
=_________

LAB # 06

OBJECT:
Determinations of the mean surface heat transfer coefficient for cross Flow heat
exchanger with one to six rows.

APPARATUS:

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Cussons Cross Flow Heat Exchanger Unit 351


In order to transfer heat between two fluids many forms of heat exchanger have been devised.
In one of the most common arrangements, heat is transferred between a fluid flowing through
a bundle of tubes and another fluid flowing transversely over outside of the tubes.
This configuration is known as a Cross Flow Heat Exchanger and is shown schematically
below

THEORY:
The heat transfer coefficient is used in calculating the heat transfer, typically by convection
or phase transition between a fluid and a solid

Where
Q = heat flow rate or heat transfer rate, J/s = W
h = heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K)
A = heat transfer surface area, m2
T = difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid area

From the above equation, the heat transfer coefficient is the proportionality coefficient
between the heat flux, i.e., heat flow rate per unit area, q = Q/A, and the thermodynamic
driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, T).

PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure that instrument main switch is in off position and multi-tube plate is in
position.
2. Insert the active element in the top open hole in the tube plate .Ensure that the five
dummy tubes are in position in the lower hole.
3. Check the manometer connection.
4. Switch on the main switch and adjust the fan speed to obtain medium velocity airflow
through the duct (a depression H of approximately 5.5mm H2O).

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5. Switch the voltage switch to suitable voltage (around 35V plus) and adjust the heater
control to give an indicated active element surface temperature (T1) of approximately
95C.
6. When stable conditions occur record T1, T2 (by depressing the biased switch), H, and
V.
7. Remove the element from first row position and place it in the second row. Place the
dummy tube in the first row hole.
8. Again adjust the voltage to get T195C.
9. When stable conditions occur record T1, T2, H and V.
10. Repeat the above procedure for the remaining row positions.

USEFUL DATA:
Diameter of Active Element d = 15.8mm
Length of Active Element Heated Surface L = 50mm
Heated surface Area of Active Element As= 2.482 X 10-3 m2
Duct Cross Sectional Area Ad= 9.750 X 10-3 m2
Minimum Flow Area through the plain tube bundle A t= 4.160 X 10-3 m2
Duct Air Velocity U = 74.294 (H T 2)/ P ms-1
Effective Air velocity U= U X Ad/At ms-1
Heater Element Resistance R= Ohms
Rate ofheat transfer from active element Q = V2 / R Watts
Heat Flux = Q / As KW m -2
Mean Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient h = / (T1- T2)
Reynolds Number Re = Ud/
Nusselt Number Nu= hl/d

OBSERVATION:

TUBE ROW 1 2 3 4 5 6

ACTIVE
ELEMENT T1 (C)
SURFACE
TEMPERATURE

DUCT AIR T2 (C)


TEMPERATURE

INTAKE AIR H
DEPRESSION (mmH2O)

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ACTIVE V
ELEMENT (VOLTS)
HEATER
VOLTAGE

CALCULATIONS:

TUBE ROW 1 2 3 4 5 6

HEAT T1
TRANSFER (watts)
RATE

HEAT FLUX
(wattm-2)

ACTIVE
ELEMENT
SURFACE TO T1-T2
(K)
AIR
TEMPERATURE
DIFFERENCE

MEAN H
SURFACE HEAT (W m-2
TRANSFER K-1)
COEFFICIENT

DUCT AIR U
VELOCITY (ms-1)

EFFECTIVE AIR U
VELOCITY (ms-1)

REYNOLDS Re
NUMBER

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NUSSELT Nu
NUMBER

GRAPHS:
1. Variation of mean surface heat transfer coefficient with Reynolds Number for Cross
Flow Heat Exchangers with one to six rows.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Study the unit and schematic diagram to identify all switches and controls.
2. Check all the connections are well fitted and tighten.
3. When active heated element is removed from the duct, it should always be held by the
insulated portion.

ANALYSIS:

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CONCLUSION:

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LAB # 07
OBJECT:
Measurement of heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient during filmwise and
dropwise condensation.
APPARATUS:
Filmwise and Dropwise Condensation Unit
The H910 is a self-contained bench top unit that allows the investigation of heat fluxes and
heat transfer coefficients during the condensation of steam.
The considerable difference between the appearance and heat transfer rates of dropwise and
filmwise condensation are clearly demonstrated. A vacuum pump is fitted to the unit so that
the effect of non-condensable gases in condensers may be investigated.
The following components are mounted:
1. Steam Chamber: Thick walled glass cylinder with flared ends seals to nickel plated
brass cylinder covers.

2. Condensers: Two - water cooled - mounted in upper cylinder cover. Dimensions:


12.7 mm external dia. X 90 mm effective length. Specially designed and fabricated
from copper and brass, incorporating a heat exchanger to minimise variation of
surface temperature.

Dropwise condenser gold plated.

Filmwise condenser natural finish.

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Each condenser shell is fitted with three thermocouples connected to measure the
mean metal temperature and two thermocouples to measure the inlet and outlet water
temperatures respectively.

3. Heating Element: Coiled 3 kW electric heating element with thermal protection.

4. Heater Control: To manually vary heat input from approximately 0 to 3.0 kW.

5. Air Extraction System: Air cooler, separator and water jet vacuum pump with the
necessary valves.
6. Temperature: Digital Temperature Indicator to indicate all important temperatures.
7. Pressure Gauge: 100 mm dia. To measure chamber pressure. Range 100 to +100
kNm-2 gauge.
8. Flow Meters: Two variable area type, with control valve. To measure the water
flow rate through the condensers.

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THEORY:
Condensation:
Condensation is a convection heat transfer process associated with change in phase of the
fluid from vapor to liquid.
Filmwise Condensation:
The liquid condensate will flow down on the surface under the influence of gravity. When the
liquid wets the surface, spreads out and forms a film, this process is known as filmwise
condensation
Dropwise Condensation:

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If the surface is not wetted by the liquid, then droplets form and run down the surface. This
process is known as dropwise condensation.

Heat transfer rate in dropwise condensation is nearly 10 times higher than in the filmwise
condensation process. But dropwise condensation is very difficult to achieve in practical
cases. All practical design methods are based on filmwise condensation.
Heat Flux:
Heat flux is the heat rate per unit area. In SI units, heat flux is measured in (W/m2)

= Q /As
Heat Transfer Coefficient:

Heat transfer coefficient is a quantitative characteristic of convective heat transfer between a


fluid medium (a fluid) and the surface (wall) flowed over by the fluid. It is the
proportionality coefficient between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the
flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, T):

PROCEDURE:
1. Ensure that water level in the chamber is correct.
2. Carry out air extraction procedure.
3. Run the unit for about five minutes with saturation (steam) temperature t1 of 100C and
low condenser water flow rates. This is to warm all components and to reduce
condensation on the glass.
4. Select the steam temperature (t1)which is to be constant for the test (this may be
anywhere between about 50 and 100)
5. Circulate water through the dropwise condenser at a low rate (say 5 gm/s) and adjust
the heater input to maintain the selected value of t1.
6. Note the steam temperature t1 the surface temperature t2,the cooling water inlet
temperature t3.the water outlet temperature t4 and the water flow rate md
7. Increase the water flow rate (say 10 gm/s) and again adjust the heater input to bring
the steam temperature t1 to the selected value.
8. Again note t1 ,t2 ,t3 ,t4 and md
9. Repeat at other flow rates up to the maximum
10. Repeat in a similar manner but using the filmwise condenser with appropriate water
flow rates observing t1, t5,t6,t7 and md

OBSERVATION:
Atmospheric Temperature: _________
Atmospheric Pressure : __________

DROPWISE CONDENSER

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TEST NO 1 2 3 4 5 6
Chamber pressure Psat / KN m -2g
Saturation temperature t1 / C
Indicated Surface Temperature t2 / C
Water Inlet Temperature t3 / C
Water Outlet Temperature t4 / C
Water Flow Rate md / 10-3 Kg s-1
FILMWISE CONDENSER
Chamber pressure Psat / KN m -2g
Saturation temperature t1 / C
Indicated Surface Temperature t5 / C
Water Inlet Temperature t6 / C
Water Outlet Temperature t7 / C
Water Flow Rate md / 10-3 Kg s-1

USEFUL DATA:
Dimension of Condenser: Length = 90mm
Diameter = 12.7 mm
Specific Heat Capacity of Water: Cp = 4.18 KJ/kgK
Thermal conductivity Of Copper shell: k = 360 W/mK
Thickness of the Copper Shell: x = 0.71 mm
Correction for Thermocouple: Ct = 0.5 K

CALCULATIONS:
Heat Transfer Rate, Condenser: Q = md Cp (t4 t3)
Heat Flux, Condenser: = Q /As (As= Surface
Area)
Temperature drop across the Condenser shell: ts = Qx / Ak
Corrected Surface Temperature: t2c = t2 + Ct
Corrected Steam to Surface Temperature difference: t=t1- t2c - ts
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient: h = / t
Dropwise Condenser:
Test No: ____
Steam temperature = ______ Observed surface Temperature = ______
Water Inlet Temperature = ______ Water Outlet Temperature = ______
Water Flow md = ______

TEST NO 1 2 3 4 5 6
Steam Pressure (abs)
Psat / KNm-2g
Steam Temperature
tsat / C
Heat Transfer Rate
Q /KW
Heat Flux

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/ KWm-2
Temperature Drop Through Shell
ts/ K
Corrected Steam to Surface
Temperature difference
t / K
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient
h /KWm-2K-1

Filmwise Condenser:
Test No: ____
Steam temperature = ______ Observed surface Temperature = ______
Water Inlet Temperature = ______ Water Outlet Temperature = ______
Water Flow md = ______

TEST NO 1 2 3 4 5 6
Steam Pressure (abs)
Psat / KNm-2g
Steam Temperature
tsat / C
Heat Transfer Rate
Q /KW
Heat Flux
/ KWm-2
Temperature Drop Through Shell
ts/ K
Corrected Steam to Surface
Temperature difference
t / K
Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient
h /KWm-2K-1

GRAPH TREND:

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GRAPH:

1. Heat Flux Vs Corrected Steam to Surface Temperature difference


2. Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient Vs Corrected Steam to Surface Temperature
difference

ANALYSIS:
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CONCLUSION

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QUESTIONS:

1. What are the differences between Dropwise and filmwise Condensation?

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LAB # 08

OBJECTIVE:
Identification of components of refrigeration an A/C equipments and determination of refrigerating

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Effect compressor work mass flow rate, isentropic efficiency and COP

EQUIPMENT:
Hampden Model H-RST-3 Basic Refrigeration:
The Hampden Model H-RST-3 Basic Refrigeration Trainer was designed to provide students with a
Thorough understanding of the refrigeration cycle, including measurement of pressure, vacuum, flow
rate, and temperature.

Refrigeration Trainer which consists of the following devices


a. 0.5 HP Compressor. b. Condenser. c. Liquid Control Devices
d. Evaporator e. Liquid Receiver located after the Condenser
f. Reversing Valve after Compressor g. Filter Drier.

THEORY:

Most of the refrigeration cycles use the modified Reverse Rankine Cycle for its operation. The
working fluid is generally a specific refrigerant (R-12 is being used in this trainer), which undergoes
phase change.
In an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant enters the compressor at state 1 as
saturated vapor and is compressed isentropically to the condenser pressure. The temperature of the
refrigerant increases during this isentropic compression process to well above the temperature of the
surrounding medium. The refrigerant then enters the condenser as superheated vapor at state 2 and

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leaves as saturated liquid at state 3 as a result of heat rejection to the surroundings. The temperature of
the refrigerant at this state is still above the temperature of the surroundings.

The ideal vapor compression cycle consists of four processes which are shown in the cycle as

An actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle differs from the ideal one in several
ways, owing mostly to the irreversibility that occurs in various components. Two
common sources of irreversibilities are fluid friction (causes pressure drops) and heat
transfer to or from the surroundings.

In an actual refrigeration cycle, there are irreversibilities present mostly due to Friction and Heat
Losses. As a result the Heat Absorption and Heat rejection Processes are not isothermal, and the
compression process may not be Isentropic.

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The evaluations of the various parameters are determined from the value of the
enthalpies of the refrigerant at the four state points.

PROCEDURE:
9. Make sure that all switches on panel are in off-position, refrigerant is filled to desired level
and only one of three expansion valve is on-line.
10. Make the external electrical connection.
11. Switch-on the compressor; then open the valves of receiver tank; then switch on fans of
evaporator and condenser.
12. The trainer will be operated at a fixed mass flow
13. The refrigerating trainer has appropriate places for measuring the Pressure and Temperature
of the Refrigerant. Take required readings
14. On completion of observations, switch-off the fans, store refrigerant in receiver tank, close
the receiver tank valves and switch-off the compressor and the unit.

FORMULA:
Coefficient of Performance = COPR = qL / Win, comp
= h1 - h4 / h2a - h1
Isentropic Efficiency = c = h2s h1 / h2 - h1

OBSERVATIONS:
T1 P1 T2 P2 T3 P3 T4 P4
1
2
3
4
5

CALCULATIONS:

Convert the gage pressure into absolute pressure


Pabs = Pg + Patm

T1 P1 T2 P2 T3 P3 T4 P4
1
2
3
4
5

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The method to be used to find out enthalpy will be:


At T1 and P1 find enthalpy h1 and s1
s2 = s1 (isentropic process) at s2 find h2s
At T2 and P2 find enthalpy h2a from superheated Table.
At T3 and P3 find enthalpy h3
At state 4 assume h3 = h4
Show interpolation in calculation

RESULTS:

h1 h2a h2s h3 h4 qL WComp COP c


1
2
3
4
5

GRAPHS:
Three graphs will be plotted and these are
a. COP vs qL
b. WComp vs T2
c. COP vs T2
ANALYSIS:
a. Comment upon the behavior of the three graphs
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b. Indicate what possible sources of error can occur.


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QUESTIONS:

a. Write down the function of each component of Vapor compression refrigeration Cycle?

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b. Does the ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle involve any internal irreversibility?
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c. How many types of compressors are used in refrigeration & air conditioning plants?
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d. Briefly describe the refrigeration cycle.
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LAB # 09

OBJECT: To operate absorption refrigeration trainer by using electric


heater OR with gas.

THEORY: The condenser, receiver, and evaporator (cooling coil) are


quite similar to those used in the compression system. The compressor
has been replaced by a heater and generator. Systems shown have been
simplified by leaving out various controls. These will be recovered later.
The figure below illustrates a basic absorption system. Its the
liquid/absorbent type. It uses a water-cooled condenser. Absorption
systems are based on several combinations of substances which have an
unusual property. One substance will absorb the other without any
chemical action taking place. It will absorb the other substance when cool
and release it when heated. If the substance is a liquid, the process is
called absorbing; there are two absorption refrigerators. One uses a solid
absorbent material; the other uses a liquid absorbent. Absorption systems
are further classified as:

1. Intermittent systems.
2. Continuous systems.

Absorption systems have had several applications:

1. Domestic
2. Recreational vehicle
3. Industrial
4. Air Conditioning

Absorption systems are also identified by heat source:

1. Kerosene
2. Natural gas
3. Steam
4. Electrical heat

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5. Solar Energy

PROCEDURE:
1. Prepare all the equipment for exercise.
2. Ensure that the gas is not connected to the system. Note: For this
operation the gas flame is not used because the heating energy is
from the electric heater.
3. Ensure that the system is connected to the correct power source
(220-240V AC).
4. Adjust the thermostat to 5C by turning the adjuster.

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5. Switch ON the MCB and main power switch. Ensure that the system
is powered by correct power source (220-240V AC).
6. Switch ON the electric heater.
7. Let the system is running for about 30 minutes.
8. After you understand how to operate this system by using electric
heater, switch OFF the electric heater, main power switch and the
MCB.

OBSERVATIONS:
Measurement Value
T1(C)
T2(C)
T3(C)
T4(C)
T5(C)
T6(C)
T7(C)
T8(C)

QUESTIONS:
1. Define Intermittent Absorption System?

Ans)

2. Define Continuous Absorption System?

Ans)

3. What possible safeties could be used while doing this experiment?

Ans)

Lab # 10

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OBJECTIVE:
To calculate

(a) The coefficient of performance.

(b) The refrigeration effect per kilogram of refrigerant.

(c) The circulation rate of refrigerant for a refrigeration load of 1kilowatt.

APPARATUS:
Hampden refrigeration system trainer.

THEORY:

In order to evaluate the performance of any refrigeration system an


effectiveness term must be defined. The idea of performance is not called
efficiency, However because that term is usually reserved for the ratio of output
to input.

the performance term in the refrigeration cycle is called the coefficient of


performance, defined as

useful refrigeration
Coefficient of performance (C.O.P)= net work

The two terms must be in same units, so that the cop is dimensionless. The cop
of standard vapor compression cycle is the refrigerating effect divided by the
work of compression.

h1h4
C.O.P= h2h 1

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The refrigerating effect in kilojoules per kilogram is the heat transferred in

process 4-1 or
h1h4 . Knowledge of the magnitude of the term is necessary

because performing this process is the ultimate purpose of the entire system.

The volume flow rate is a rough indication of the physical size of the compressor.
The greater the magnitude of the term, the greater the displacement of the
compressor in cubic meters per second must be. The power per KW of
refrigeration is the inverse of the C.O.P, and an efficient refrigeration system has
a low value of power per KW of refrigeration but a high C.O.P.

REFRIGERATION RATE KW
also C.O.P= COMPRESSOR POWER KW

Compressor power=(refrigeration rate)x


h2h1

Procedure:
1. Start the refrigeration trainer.
2. Select any one expansion value.

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3. let the system run for five minutes.


4. Note the pressures and temperatures at given points.

Observations:
Take three set of readings.

S.NO STATE POINT PRESSURE TEMPERATURE


1.
2.
3.

Calculations:

h1h4
1. C.O.P= h2h 1 .

h1h4 .
2. Refrigeration effect= ( kj/kg)

3. Circulation rate of refrigerant. (Power=1kw)=


Refrigeration capacity
refrigerationeffect .

QUESTIONS:

1. Identify the type of safety device and their function in this


refrigeration trainer.

2. Discuss the different types of expansion values.

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3. What is the advantage of hermetic compressor.

4. Give reasons of different type of condenser cooling.

LAB # 11

OBJECT:
To measure the velocity and static pressure of an air flow in a duct and perform common air
calculations [i.e. determination of the air velocity & its CFM (cubic feet per minute)].

APPARATUS

TECHNOVATE SYSTEM, MODEL 9007 without external duct connected.

THEORY:

1. Static Pressure:

Static pressure is felt when the fluid is at rest or when the measurement is taken when traveling along
with the fluid flow. It is the force exerted on a fluid particle from all directions, and is typically
measured with gauges and transmitters attached to the side of a pipe or tank wall. Since static pressure
is what most pressure gauges measure, static pressure is usually what is implied when the term
"pressure" is used in discussions

2. Velocity Pressure:

The difference between the total and static pressure is the velocity
pressure , which represents the kinetic energy of the flowing fluid.

3. Transverse Method: Traversing consists of dividing the area of the duct


into evenly sized sections and averaging the air flows at the center of all
sections. By spending an equal amount of time at each measurement location
and quickly moving between measurement locations, the average air flow measurement can provide a
more accurate measure of the air flow in the duct. Capturing an average can be particularly helpful
when measuring ducts with registers or dimensionally uneven air flow.

PROCEDURE:

1. Turn on the unit and adjust the speed to obtain approximately 2000 fpm. Turn the pressure
switches on the panel to external. Using the external pitot tube measure static pressure and
velocity pressure and calculate the velocity at the points indicated in the below diagram at the
duct outlet.

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2. For 8- inch- OD duct 6 readings should be taken on each diameter. The distance in inches
from wall to each point is 0.35, 1.17, 2.37.
3. Add the velocities and divide by the number of points to obtain the Average velocity. With
careful measurement this velocity should be accurate within 2%.
4. Now measure the velocity at the center of the duct. Multiply this velocity by 0.9 to obtain
average velocity. This measurement should produce a velocity accurate to within 5% and is
frequently used in the field where extreme accuracy is not required. Compare this velocity
with the velocity obtained by the transverse method and the velocity read by the velocity gage
on the panel connected to the internal pitot tube.
5. Use the average velocity and the cross sectional area of the duct to compute the cfm.

OBSERVATION:

Point Static Pressure Velocity Pressure Velocity


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

CALCULATION:

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Average Velocity = Velocity/ No. of points

CFM= Average velocity * Cross sectional area of duct

DISCUSSION:

When comparing the velocity which is determined at the center of the duct with the velocity obtained
by the transverse method and the velocity read by the velocity gage on the panel connected to the
internal pitot tube, which set of observation gives the least error? Explain.

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LAB# 12

OBJECTIVE:

To measure the friction loss in ducts and compare results with tabulated values.

APPARATUS:

Model 9007 plus external duct,

PROCEDURE & CALCULATION:

In this experiment the student will measure the resistance or friction of a section of straight
duct and compare results with the values tabulated.

1. Set up the unit with the damper open and without any fittings or external duct
connected to the measurement section. Turn on the fan and adjust speed to obtain
approximately 2000 fpm velocity.
Record the following data

Fpm Static Pressure rpm Amps cfm

2. Turn off unit. Attach at least one section of external duct to the end of the
measurement section. Turn on the fan and adjust the rpm to obtain the same velocity
as in step 1. Record the following data.

Fpm Duct
Static Rpm Amps cfm
Length
Pressure

Addition
al
Diameter

Note that the readings from column 1 to 5 are the same as above and the additional
diameter and duct length are to be computed.

3. The difference between the static pressure in step 1 and step 2 is the frictional loss in
the duct section.
Duct frictional loss_______________________ inches of water.

4. Turn on the unit again (the damper must be in the same position as it was initially)and
adjust the speed control to obtain the desired rpm calculated in step 2 and record the
following data.

rpm Fpm Static Pressure Duct Diameter Amps

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8 inches

5. Compare the results with calculated data.

DISCUSSION:

What did you observe when you compared the results?

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