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1 Antisemitism 1
1.1 Origin and usage in the context of xenophobia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 Evolution of usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Cultural antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 Religious antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.3 Economic antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2.4 Racial antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2.5 Political antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.6 Conspiracy theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.7 New antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.8 Indology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.1 Ancient world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3.2 Persecutions in the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3.3 17th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.4 Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.5 Islamic antisemitism in the 19th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.6 Secular or racial antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3.7 20th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.8 21st-century European antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.3.9 21st-century Arab antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 Causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.5 Current situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5.1 Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5.2 Algeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5.3 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5.4 Libya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5.5 Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


1.5.6 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.5.7 Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5.8 Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5.9 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5.10 North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.5.11 South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

2 Semitic people 35
2.1 Ethnicity and race . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2 Antisemitism and Semiticisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

3 Pogrom 39
3.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Historical background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2.1 Pogroms in the Russian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2.2 Russian Civil War period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.2.3 Pogroms outside Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.2.4 Nazi-occupied Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2.5 After World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.3 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 List of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.7 Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3.8 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4 Zionism 50
4.1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.2 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.3 Beliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.4 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.4.1 Territories considered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.4.2 Balfour Declaration and the Palestine Mandate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.4.3 Rise of Hitler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.4.4 Post-WWII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

4.5 Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.5.1 Labour Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
4.5.2 Liberal Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.5.3 Revisionist Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5.4 Religious Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5.5 Green Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.5.6 Neo-Zionism and Post-Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
4.6 Opposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.6.1 Catholic Church and Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.6.2 Characterization as colonialism or ethnic cleansing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.6.3 Characterization as racist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.6.4 Haredi Judaism and Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.6.5 Anti-Zionism or Antisemitism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.7 Non-Jewish support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.7.1 Christian Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.7.2 Muslim Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.7.3 Hindu support for Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.8 Marcus Garvey and Black Zionism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.10 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.11 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
4.14 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.14.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.14.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.14.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Chapter 1


For total or partial opposition to Judaism and Jews

as a religious group, see Religious antisemitism and

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-

semitism) is hostility, prejudice, or discrimination
against Jews.[1][2][3] A person who holds such positions
is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally con-
sidered to be a form of racism.[4][5]
The root word Semite gives the false impression that an-
tisemitism is directed against all Semitic people. How-
ever, the compound word antisemite was popularized in
Germany in 1879[6] as a scientic-sounding term for Ju-
denhass Jew-hatred,[7][8][9][10][11] and that has been its
common use since then.[12][13]
Antisemitism may be manifested in many ways, ranging
from expressions of hatred of or discrimination against
individual Jews to organized pogroms by mobs, state po-
lice, or even military attacks on entire Jewish communi-
ties. Although the term did not come into common usage
until the 19th century, it is now also applied to historic
anti-Jewish incidents. Notable instances of persecution
include the Rhineland massacres preceding the First Cru-
sade in 1096, the Edict of Expulsion from England in
1290, the massacres of Spanish Jews in 1391, the per-
secutions of the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion from
Spain in 1492, the Cossack massacres in Ukraine from
1648 to 1657, various anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian 1879 statute of the Antisemitic League
Empire between 1821 and 1906, the 18941906 Dreyfus
aair in France, the Holocaust in German-occupied Eu-
rope, ocial Soviet anti-Jewish policies, and Arab and anti-Semitism appears to have been used rst by Stein-
Muslim involvement in the Jewish exodus from Arab and schneider, who challenged Renan on account of his 'anti-
Muslim countries. Semitic prejudices [i.e., his derogation of the Semites
as a race].[14] Avner Falk similarly writes: 'The German
word antisemitisch was rst used in 1860 by the Aus-
trian Jewish scholar Moritz Steinschneider (1816-1907)
1.1 Origin and usage in the context in the phrase antisemitische Vorurteile (antisemitic prej-
of xenophobia udices). Steinschneider used this phrase to characterise
the French philosopher Ernest Renans false ideas about
1.1.1 Etymology how "Semitic races" were inferior to "Aryan races"'.[15]
Pseudoscientic theories concerning race, civilization,
The origin of antisemitic terminologies is found in and progress had become quite widespread in Europe
the responses of Moritz Steinschneider to the views of in the second half of the 19th century, especially as
Ernest Renan. As Alex Bein writes: The compound Prussian nationalistic historian Heinrich von Treitschke


did much to promote this form of racism. He coined the thums ber das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of the
phrase the Jews are our misfortune which would later Germanic Spirit over the Jewish Spirit, 1880), presents a
be widely used by Nazis.[16] According to Avner Falk, development of Marrs ideas further and may present the
Treitschke uses the term Semitic almost synonymously rst published use of the German word Antisemitismus,
with Jewish, in contrast to Renans use of it to refer to a antisemitism.
whole range of peoples,[17] based generally on linguisticThe pamphlet became very popular, and in the same
criteria.[18] year he founded the Antisemiten-Liga (League of
According to Jonathan M. Hess, the term was originally Antisemites),[23] apparently named to follow the Anti-
used by its authors to stress the radical dierence be- Kanzler-Liga (Anti-Chancellor League).[24] The league
tween their own 'antisemitism' and earlier forms of an- was the rst German organization committed specically
tagonism toward Jews and Judaism.[19] to combating the alleged threat to Germany and German
culture posed by the Jews and their inuence, and advo-
cating their forced removal from the country.
So far as can be ascertained, the word was rst widely
printed in 1881, when Marr published Zwanglose Anti-
semitische Hefte, and Wilhelm Scherer used the term An-
tisemiten in the January issue of Neue Freie Presse.
The Jewish Encyclopedia reports, In February 1881, a
correspondent of the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums
speaks of 'Anti-Semitism' as a designation which recently
came into use (Allg. Zeit. d. Jud. 1881, p. 138).
On 19 July 1882, the editor says, 'This quite recent Anti-
Semitism is hardly three years old.'"[25]
The related term "philosemitism" was coined around

1.1.2 Usage

From the outset the term anti-Semitism bore special

racial connotations and meant specically prejudice
against Jews.[2][13] The term is confusing, for in modern
usage 'Semitic' designates a language group, not a race. In
this sense, the term is a misnomer, since there are many
speakers of Semitic languages (e.g. Arabs, Ethiopians,
and Assyrians) who are not the objects of anti-Semitic
prejudices, while there are many Jews who do not speak
Hebrew, a Semitic language. Though 'antisemitism' has
been used to describe bigotry against people who speak
Cover page of Marrs The Way to Victory of Germanicism over other Semitic languages,
the validity of such usage has
Judaism, 1880 edition been questioned.
The term may be spelled with or without a hyphen
In 1879 German journalist Wilhelm Marr published a (antisemitism or anti-Semitism). Some scholars fa-
pamphlet, Der Sieg des Judenthums ber das Germa- vor the unhyphenated form because, If you use the
nenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt aus be- hyphenated form, you consider the words 'Semitism',
trachtet (The Victory of the Jewish Spirit over the Ger- 'Semite', 'Semitic' as meaningful whereas in anti-
manic Spirit. Observed from a non-religious perspective) semitic parlance, 'Semites really stands for Jews, just
in which he used the word Semitismus interchangeably that.[29][30][31][32] For example, Emil Fackenheim sup-
with the word Judentum to denote both Jewry (the Jews ported the unhyphenated spelling, in order to "[dispel]
as a collective) and jewishness (the quality of being the notion that there is an entity 'Semitism' which 'anti-
Jewish, or the Jewish spirit).[20][21][22] Semitism' opposes.[33] Others endorsing an unhyphen-
This use of Semitismus was followed by a coining of An- ated term for the same reason include Padraic O'Hare,
tisemitismus which was used to indicate opposition to professor of Religious and Theological Studies and Di-
the Jews as a people and opposition to the Jewish spirit, rector of the Center for the Study of Jewish-Christian-
which Marr interpreted as inltrating German culture. Muslim Relations at Merrimack College; Yehuda Bauer,
His next pamphlet, Der Weg zum Siege des Germanen- professor of Holocaust Studies at the Avraham Harman

Institute of Contemporary Jewry at Hebrew University

of Jerusalem; and James Carroll, historian and novelist.
According to Carroll, who rst cites O'Hare and Bauer
on the existence of something called 'Semitism'", the
hyphenated word thus reects the bipolarity that is at the
heart of the problem of antisemitism.[34]
Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete
nature of the term Semitic as a racial term, have been
raised since at least the 1930s.[24][35]

1.1.3 Denition

Though the general denition of antisemitism is hos-

tility or prejudice against Jews, and, according to Olaf
Blaschke, has become an umbrella term for negative
stereotypes about Jews,[36] a number of authorities have
developed more formal denitions.
Holocaust scholar and City University of New York pro-
Caricature by C.Landre (France, 1898) showing Rothschild
fessor Helen Fein denes it as a persisting latent struc- with the world in his hands
ture of hostile beliefs towards Jews as a collective mani-
fested in individuals as attitudes, and in culture as myth,
ideology, folklore and imagery, and in actionssocial features specic to antisemitism.[39]
or legal discrimination, political mobilization against the
Jews, and collective or state violencewhich results in There have been a number of eorts by international
and/or is designed to distance, displace, or destroy Jews and governmental bodies to dene antisemitism formally.
as Jews. The United States Department of State states that while
there is no universally accepted denition, there is a
Elaborating on Feins denition, Dietz Bering of the generally clear understanding of what the term encom-
University of Cologne writes that, to antisemites, Jews passes. For the purposes of its 2005 Report on Global
are not only partially but totally bad by nature, that is, Anti-Semitism, the term was considered to mean hatred
their bad traits are incorrigible. Because of this bad na- toward Jewsindividually and as a groupthat can be
ture: (1) Jews have to be seen not as individuals but as attributed to the Jewish religion and/or ethnicity.[40]
a collective. (2) Jews remain essentially alien in the sur-
rounding societies. (3) Jews bring disaster on their 'host In 2005, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and
societies or on the whole world, they are doing it secretly, Xenophobia (now Fundamental Rights Agency), then an
therefore the anti-Semites feel obliged to unmask the con- agency of the European Union, developed a more detailed
spiratorial, bad Jewish character.[37] working denition, which states: Antisemitism is a cer-
tain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as ha-
For Sonja Weinberg, as distinct from economic and re- tred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations
ligious anti-Judaism, antisemitism in its modern form of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish
shows conceptual innovation, a resort to 'science' to de- individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish commu-
fend itself, new functional forms and organisational dif- nity institutions and religious facilities. It also adds that
ferences. It was anti-liberal, racialist and nationalist. It such manifestations could also target the state of Israel,
promoted the myth that Jews conspired to 'judaise' the conceived as a Jewish collectivity, but that criticism
world; it served to consolidate social identity; it channeled of Israel similar to that leveled against any other coun-
dissatisfactions among victims of the capitalist system; try cannot be regarded as antisemitic. It provides con-
and it was used as a conservative cultural code to ght temporary examples of ways in which antisemitism may
emancipation and liberalism.[38] manifest itself, including: promoting the harming of Jews
Bernard Lewis denes antisemitism as a special case of in the name of an ideology or religion; promoting neg-
prejudice, hatred, or persecution directed against people ative stereotypes of Jews; holding Jews collectively re-
who are in some way dierent from the rest. Accord- sponsible for the actions of an individual Jewish person
ing to Lewis, antisemitism is marked by two distinct fea- or group; denying the Holocaust or accusing Jews or Is-
tures: Jews are judged according to a standard dierent rael of exaggerating it; and accusing Jews of dual loyalty
from that applied to others, and they are accused of cos- or a greater allegiance to Israel than their own country.
mic evil. Thus, it is perfectly possible to hate and even It also lists ways in which attacking Israel could be anti-
to persecute Jews without necessarily being anti-Semitic semitic, and states that denying the Jewish people their
unless this hatred or persecution displays one of the two right to self-determination, e.g. by claiming that the ex-

istence of a state of Israel is a racist endeavor, can be geous in Europe during the late 19th century. For ex-
a manifestation of antisemitismas can applying double ample, Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of n de si-
standards by requiring of Israel a behavior not expected cle Vienna, skillfully exploited antisemitism as a way of
or demanded of any other democratic nation, or holding channeling public discontent to his political advantage.[49]
Jews collectively responsible for the actions of the State In its 1910 obituary of Lueger, The New York Times notes
of Israel.[41] Late in 2013, the denition was removed that Lueger was Chairman of the Christian Social Union
from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency. A of the Parliament and of the Anti-Semitic Union of the
spokesperson said that it had never been regarded as of- Diet of Lower Austria.[50] In 1895 A. C. Cuza organized
cial and that the agency did not intend to develop its the Alliance Anti-semitique Universelle in Bucharest. In
own denition.[42] However, despite its disappearance the period before World War II, when animosity towards
from the website of the Fundamental Rights Agency, Jews was far more commonplace, it was not uncommon
the denition has gained widespread international use. for a person, an organization, or a political party to self-
The denition has been adopted by the European Par- identify as an antisemite or antisemitic.
liament Working Group on Antisemitism,[43] in 2010 it In 1882, the early Zionist pioneer Judah Leib Pinsker
was adopted by the United States Department of State,[44] wrote that antisemitism was a psychological response
in 2014 it was adopted in the Operational Hate Crime rooted in fear and was an inherited predisposition. He
Guidance of the UK College of Policing[45] and was also named the condition Judeophobia.[51]
adopted by the Campaign Against Antisemitism,[46] and
in 2016 it was adopted by the 31 member states of the
International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance,[47] mak-
ing it the most widely adopted denition of antisemitism
around the world.
Judeophobia is a variety of demonopathy
with the distinction that it is not peculiar to
particular races but is common to the whole
of mankind.'...'Judeophobia is a psychic aber-
ration. As a psychic aberration it is hered-
itary, and as a disease transmitted for two
thousand years it is incurable.'... 'In this way
have Judaism and Anti-Semitism passed for
centuries through history as inseparable com-
panions.'......'Having analyzed Judeophobia as
an hereditary form of demonopathy, peculiar
to the human race, and having represented
Anti-Semitism as proceeding from an inherited
aberration of the human mind, we must draw
the important conclusion that we must give' up
contending against these hostile impulses as we
must against every other inherited predisposi-
tion. (translation from German)[52]

In the aftermath of the Kristallnacht pogrom in 1938,

German propaganda minister Goebbels announced: The
German people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have
its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by par-
1889 Paris, France elections poster for self-described candidat asites of the Jewish race.[53]
antismite Adolphe Willette: The Jews are a dierent race, hos-
After the 1945 victory of the Allies over Nazi Ger-
tile to our own... Judaism, there is the enemy!" (see le for com-
many, and particularly after the full extent of the Nazi
plete translation)
genocide against the Jews became known, the term
anti-Semitism acquired pejorative connotations. This
marked a full circle shift in usage, from an era just
1.1.4 Evolution of usage decades earlier when Jew was used as a pejorative
term.[54][55] Yehuda Bauer wrote in 1984: There are
In 1879, Wilhelm Marr founded the Antisemiten- no anti-Semites in the world... Nobody says, 'I am anti-
Liga (Anti-Semitic League).[48] Identication with anti- Semitic.' You cannot, after Hitler. The word has gone
semitism and as an antisemite was politically advanta- out of fashion.[56]

posedly having certain characteristics, such as greed

and arrogance, and for observing customs such as
kashrut and Shabbat;[64]

and racial antisemitism, with its extreme form re-

sulting in the Holocaust by the Nazis.[65]

Louis Harap separates economic antisemitism and

merges political and nationalistic antisemitism into
ideological antisemitism. Harap also adds a category
of social antisemitism.[66]

religious (Jew as Christ-killer),

economic (Jew as banker, usurer, money-obsessed),

social (Jew as social inferior, pushy, vulgar, there-

fore excluded from personal contact),

racist (Jews as an inferior race),

ideological (Jews regarded as subversive or revolu-

Jews (identied by the mandatory Jewish badge and Jewish hat) cultural (Jews regarded as undermining the moral
being burned during the Black Death in 1348.
and structural ber of civilization).

1.2 Manifestations Gustavo Perednik has argued that what he terms Judeo-
phobia has a number of unique traits which set it
Antisemitism manifests itself in a variety of ways. apart from other forms of racism, including permanence,
Ren Knig mentions social antisemitism, economic an- depth, obsessiveness, irrationality, endurance, ubiquity,
tisemitism, religious antisemitism, and political anti- and danger.[67] He also wrote in his book The Judeo-
semitism as examples. Knig points out that these dier- phobia that The Jews were accused by the nationalists
ent forms demonstrate that the origins of anti-Semitic of being the creators of Communism; by the Commu-
prejudices are rooted in dierent historical periods. nists of ruling Capitalism. If they live in non-Jewish
Knig asserts that dierences in the chronology of dif- countries, they are accused of double-loyalties; if they
ferent antisemitic prejudices and the irregular distribu- live in the Jewish country, of being racists. When they
tion of such prejudices over dierent segments of the spend their money, they are reproached for being ostenta-
population create serious diculties in the denition tious; when they don't spend their money, of being avari-
of the dierent kinds of anti-Semitism.[57] These dif- cious. They are called rootless cosmopolitans or hard-
culties may contribute to the existence of dierent ened chauvinists. If they assimilate, they are accused of
taxonomies that have been developed to categorize the being fth-columnists, if they don't, of shutting them-
forms of antisemitism. The forms identied are sub- selves away.[68][69]
stantially the same; it is primarily the number of forms
and their denitions that dier. Bernard Lazare identi-
es three forms of antisemitism: Christian antisemitism,
1.2.1 Cultural antisemitism
economic antisemitism, and ethnologic antisemitism.[58]
Louis Harap denes cultural antisemitism as that species
William Brustein names four categories: religious, racial,
of anti-Semitism that charges the Jews with corrupting
economic and political.[59] The Roman Catholic his-
a given culture and attempting to supplant or succeed-
torian Edward Flannery distinguished four varieties of
ing in supplanting the preferred culture with a uniform,
crude, Jewish culture.[70] Similarly, Eric Kandel char-
acterizes cultural antisemitism as being based on the idea
political and economic antisemitism, giving as ex- of Jewishness as a religious or cultural tradition that is
amples Cicero[61] and Charles Lindbergh;[62] acquired through learning, through distinctive traditions
theological or religious antisemitism, sometimes and education. According to Kandel, this form of anti-
known as anti-Judaism;[63] semitism views Jews as possessing unattractive psycho-
logical and social characteristics that are acquired through
nationalistic antisemitism, citing Voltaire and other acculturation.[71] Niewyk and Nicosia characterize cul-
Enlightenment thinkers, who attacked Jews for sup- tural antisemitism as focusing on and condemning the

Jews aloofness from the societies in which they live.[72]

sibility of eective conversion... a Jew ceased to be a
An important feature of cultural antisemitism is that it
Jew upon baptism. From the perspective of racial an-
considers the negative attributes of Judaism to be re- tisemitism, however, "... the assimilated Jew was still a
deemable by education or by religious conversion.[73] Jew, even after baptism.... From the Enlightenment on-
ward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of dis-
tinction between religious and racial forms of hostility
1.2.2 Religious antisemitism towards Jews... Once Jews have been emancipated and
secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving
See also: Anti-Judaism, Christianity and antisemitism, behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new
and Islam and antisemitism term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even be-
Religious antisemitism, also known as anti-Judaism, fore explicitly racist doctrines appear.

1.2.3 Economic antisemitism

The underlying premise of economic antisemitism is that
Jews perform harmful economic activities or that eco-
nomic activities become harmful when they are per-
formed by Jews.[75]
Linking Jews and money underpins the most damaging
and lasting Antisemitic canards.[76] Antisemites claim
that Jews control the world nances, a theory promoted in
the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and later
repeated by Henry Ford and his Dearborn Independent.
In the modern era, such myths continue to be spread in
books such as The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and
Jews published by the Nation of Islam, and on the inter-
net. Derek Penslar writes that there are two components
to the nancial canards:[77]

a) Jews are savages that are temperamentally

incapable of performing honest labor
b) Jews are leaders of a nancial cabal seeking
world domination
Execution of Mariana de Carabajal (converted Jew), accused of
a relapse into Judaism, Mexico City, 1601 Abraham Foxman describes six facets of the nancial ca-
is antipathy towards Jews because of their perceived
religious beliefs. In theory, antisemitism and attacks 1. All Jews are wealthy[78]
against individual Jews would stop if Jews stopped prac-
ticing Judaism or changed their public faith, especially 2. Jews are stingy and greedy[79]
by conversion to the ocial or right religion. How- 3. Powerful Jews control the business world[80]
ever, in some cases discrimination continues after con-
version, as in the case of Christianized Marranos or 4. Jewish religion emphasizes prot and
Iberian Jews in the late 15th century and 16th century materialism[81]
who were suspected of secretly practising Judaism or
5. It is okay for Jews to cheat non-Jews[82]
Jewish customs.[60]
Although the origins of antisemitism are rooted in the 6. Jews use their power to benet their own kind[83]
Judeo-Christian conict, other forms of antisemitism
have developed in modern times. Frederick Schweitzer Gerald Krefetz summarizes the myth as "[Jews] con-
asserts that, most scholars ignore the Christian founda- trol the banks, the money supply, the economy, and
tion on which the modern antisemitic edice rests and in- businessesof the community, of the country, of the
voke political antisemitism, cultural antisemitism, racism world.[84] Krefetz gives, as illustrations, many slurs and
or racial antisemitism, economic antisemitism and the proverbs (in several dierent languages) which suggest
like.[74] William Nichols draws a distinction between re- that Jews are stingy, or greedy, or miserly, or aggres-
ligious antisemitism and modern antisemitism based on sive bargainers.[85] During the nineteenth century, Jews
racial or ethnic grounds: The dividing line was the pos- were described as scurrilous, stupid, and tight-sted,

but after the Jewish Emancipation and the rise of Jews to

the middle- or upper-class in Europe were portrayed as
clever, devious, and manipulative nanciers out to dom-
inate [world nances]".[86]
Lon Poliakov asserts that economic antisemitism is not a
distinct form of antisemitism, but merely a manifestation
of theologic antisemitism (because, without the theolog-
ical causes of the economic antisemitism, there would be
no economic antisemitism). In opposition to this view,
Derek Penslar contends that in the modern era, the eco-
nomic antisemitism is distinct and nearly constant but
theological antisemitism is often subdued.[87]
An academic study by Francesco DAcunto, Marcel
Prokopczuk, and Michael Weber showed that people who
live in areas of Germany that contain the most brutal his-
tory of anti-Semitic persecution are more likely to be dis-
trustful of nance in general. Therefore, they tended to
invest less money in the stock market and make poor -
nancial decisions. The study concluded that the persecu-
tion of minorities reduces not only the long-term wealth
of the persecuted, but of the persecutors as well.[88]

1.2.4 Racial antisemitism

Main article: Racial antisemitism

Racial antisemitism is prejudice against Jews as a
racial/ethnic group, rather than Judaism as a religion.[89] Jewish Soviet soldier taken prisoner by the German Army, August
1941. At least 50,000 Jewish soldiers were shot after selection.
Racial antisemitism is the idea that the Jews are a dis-
tinct and inferior race compared to their host nations. In
the late 19th century and early 20th century, it gained
mainstream acceptance as part of the eugenics move-
ment, which categorized non-Europeans as inferior. It and racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once Jews
more specically claimed that Northern Europeans, or have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its ap-
Aryans, were superior. Racial antisemites saw the pearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostil-
Jews as part of a Semitic race and emphasized their non-
ity towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes al-
European origins and culture. They saw Jews as beyond most unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines
redemption even if they converted to the majority reli-
In the early 19th century, a number of laws enabling
Racial antisemitism replaced the hatred of Judaism with emancipation of the Jews were enacted in Western Eu-
the hatred of Jews as a group. In the context of the ropean countries.[91][92] The old laws restricting them
Industrial Revolution, following the Jewish Emancipa- to ghettos, as well as the many laws that limited their
tion, Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of property rights, rights of worship and occupation, were
greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of re- rescinded. Despite this, traditional discrimination and
ligion in public life tempering religious antisemitism, a hostility to Jews on religious grounds persisted and was
combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, supplemented by racial antisemitism, encouraged by the
and resentment at the socio-economic success of the Jews work of racial theorists such as Joseph Arthur de Gob-
led to the newer, and more virulent, racist antisemitism. ineau and particularly his Essay on the Inequality of the
According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism Human Race of 18535. Nationalist agendas based on
may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on ethnicity, known as ethnonationalism, usually excluded
racial or ethnic grounds. The dividing line was the pos- the Jews from the national community as an alien race.[93]
sibility of eective conversion... a Jew ceased to be a Jew Allied to this were theories of Social Darwinism, which
upon baptism. However, with racial antisemitism, Now stressed a putative conict between higher and lower
the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism.... races of human beings. Such theories, usually posited by
From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possi- northern Europeans, advocated the superiority of white
ble to draw clear lines of distinction between religious Aryans to Semitic Jews.[94]

1.2.5 Political antisemitism 1.2.8 Indology

William Brustein denes political antisemitism as hostil- Main article: Indology

ity toward Jews based on the belief that Jews seek na-
tional and/or world power. Yisrael Gutman characterizes German indologists arbitrarily identied layers in the
political antisemitism as tending to lay responsibility on Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of
the Jews for defeats and political economic crises while fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan mi-
seeking to exploit opposition and resistance to Jewish in- gration theory.[109] This identication required equating
uence as elements in political party platforms.[96] Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.[109]
According to Viktor Kardy, political antisemitism be-
came widespread after the legal emancipation of the Jews
and sought to reverse some of the consequences of that 1.3 History
emancipation. [97]

Main article: History of antisemitism

Many authors see the roots of modern antisemitism
1.2.6 Conspiracy theories

See also: List of conspiracy theories Antisemitic

conspiracy theories

Holocaust denial and Jewish conspir-

acy theories are also considered forms of
antisemitism.[98][99][100][101][102][102][103][104] Zoological
conspiracy theories have been propagated by the Arab
media and Arabic language websites, alleging a Zionist
plot behind the use of animals to attack civilians or to
conduct espionage.[105]

1.2.7 New antisemitism

Main article: New antisemitism

Starting in the 1990s, some scholars have advanced the

concept of new antisemitism, coming simultaneously
from the left, the right, and radical Islam, which tends to
The massacre of the Banu Qurayza, a Jewish tribe in Medina,
focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland
in the State of Israel,[106] and they argue that the language
of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are used to attack in both pagan antiquity and early Christianity. Jerome
Jews more broadly. In this view, the proponents of the Chanes identies six stages in the historical development
new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism of antisemitism:[110]
are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind,
and they attribute this to antisemitism. Jewish scholar
Gustavo Perednik has posited that anti-Zionism in itself 1. Pre-Christian anti-Judaism in ancient Greece and
represents a form of discrimination against Jews, in that Rome which was primarily ethnic in nature
it singles out Jewish national aspirations as an illegitimate
and racist endeavor, and proposes actions that would re- 2. Christian antisemitism in antiquity and the Middle
sult in the death of millions of Jews.[107] It is asserted Ages which was religious in nature and has extended
that the new antisemitism deploys traditional antisemitic into modern times
motifs, including older motifs such as the blood libel.[106]
3. Traditional Muslim antisemitism which wasat
Critics of the concept view it as trivializing the meaning least, in its classical formnuanced in that Jews
of antisemitism, and as exploiting antisemitism in order were a protected class
to silence debate and to deect attention from legitimate
criticism of the State of Israel, and, by associating anti- 4. Political, social and economic antisemitism of En-
Zionism with antisemitism, misused to taint anyone op- lightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe which
posed to Israeli actions and policies.[108] laid the groundwork for racial antisemitism
1.3. HISTORY 9

5. Racial antisemitism that arose in the 19th century scribes antisemitism in ancient times as essentially cul-
and culminated in Nazism in the 20th century tural, taking the shape of a national xenophobia played
out in political settings.[60]
6. Contemporary antisemitism which has been labeled
by some as the New Antisemitism There are examples of Hellenistic rulers desecrating the
Temple and banning Jewish religious practices, such as
circumcision, Shabbat observance, study of Jewish reli-
Chanes suggests that these six stages could be merged gious books, etc. Examples may also be found in anti-
into three categories: ancient antisemitism, which was Jewish riots in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.
primarily ethnic in nature; Christian antisemitism, which
was religious; and the racial antisemitism of the nine- The Jewish diaspora on the Nile island Elephantine,
teenth and twentieth centuries.[111] which was founded by mercenaries, experienced the de-
struction of its temple in 410 BCE.[120]
Relationships between the Jewish people and the oc-
1.3.1 Ancient world cupying Roman Empire were at times antagonistic and
resulted in several rebellions. According to Suetonius,
The rst clear examples of anti-Jewish sentiment can be the emperor Tiberius expelled from Rome Jews who
traced back to Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE.[60] had gone to live there. The 18th-century English histo-
Alexandria was home to the largest Jewish diaspora com- rian Edward Gibbon identied a more tolerant period in
munity in the world at the time and the Septuagint, a Roman-Jewish relations beginning in about 160 CE.[60]
Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, was produced However, when Christianity became the state religion of
there. Manetho, an Egyptian priest and historian of the Roman Empire, the states attitude towards the Jews
that era, wrote scathingly of the Jews. His themes gradually worsened.
are repeated in the works of Chaeremon, Lysimachus,
James Carroll asserted: Jews accounted for 10% of the
Poseidonius, Apollonius Molon, and in Apion and
total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if
Tacitus.[112] Agatharchides of Cnidus ridiculed the prac-
other factors such as pogroms and conversions had not
tices of the Jews and the absurdity of their Law", mak-
intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world
ing a mocking reference to how Ptolemy Lagus was able
today, instead of something like 13 million.[121][122]
to invade Jerusalem in 320 BCE because its inhabitants
were observing the Shabbat.[112] One of the earliest anti-
Jewish edicts, promulgated by Antiochus IV Epiphanes in
about 170167 BCE, sparked a revolt of the Maccabees
1.3.2 Persecutions in the Middle Ages
in Judea.
Main article: Jews in the Middle Ages
In view of Manethos anti-Jewish writings, antisemitism
may have originated in Egypt and been spread by the
Greek retelling of Ancient Egyptian prejudices.[113] The In the late 6th century CE, the newly Catholicised Visig-
othic kingdom in Hispania issued a series of anti-Jewish
ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria describes
an attack on Jews in Alexandria in 38 CE in which thou- edicts which forbad Jews from marrying Christians, prac-
sands of Jews died.[114][115] The violence in Alexandria ticing circumcision, and observing Jewish holy days.[123]
may have been caused by the Jews being portrayed as Continuing throughout the 7th century, both Visigothic
misanthropes.[116] Tcherikover argues that the reason for kings and the Church were active in creating social ag-
hatred of Jews in the Hellenistic period was their sep- gression and towards Jews with civic and ecclesiastic
arateness in the Greek cities, the poleis.[117] Bohak has punishments,[124] ranging between forced conversion,
argued, however, that early animosity against the Jews slavery, exile and death.[125]
cannot be regarded as being anti-Judaic or antisemitic From the 9th century, the medieval Islamic world classi-
unless it arose from attitudes that were held against the ed Jews (and Christians) as dhimmi, and allowed Jews to
Jews alone, and that many Greeks showed animosity to- practice their religion more freely than they could do in
ward any group they regarded as barbarians.[118] State- medieval Christian Europe. Under Islamic rule, there was
ments exhibiting prejudice against Jews and their reli- a Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain that lasted until at
gion can be found in the works of many pagan Greek least the 11th century.[126] It ended when several Muslim
and Roman writers.[119] Edward Flannery writes that it pogroms against Jews took place on the Iberian Penin-
was the Jews refusal to accept Greek religious and social sula, including those that occurred in Crdoba in 1011
standards that marked them out. Hecataetus of Abdera, and in Granada in 1066.[127][128][129] Several decrees or-
a Greek historian of the early third century BCE, wrote dering the destruction of synagogues were also enacted
that Moses in remembrance of the exile of his people, in Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Yemen from the 11th century.
instituted for them a misanthropic and inhospitable way In addition, Jews were forced to convert to Islam or face
of life. Manetho, an Egyptian historian, wrote that the death in some parts of Yemen, Morocco and Baghdad
Jews were expelled Egyptian lepers who had been taught several times between the 12th and 18th centuries.[130]
by Moses not to adore the gods. Edward Flannery de- The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids'

Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[131] were population during that period is estimated at 100,000 to
far more fundamentalist in outlook compared to their pre- 200,000, which also includes emigration, deaths from
decessors, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced diseases and captivity in the Ottoman Empire, called
with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews jasyr.[141][142]
and Christians emigrated.[132][133][134] Some, such as the European immigrants to the United States brought anti-
family of Maimonides, ed east to more tolerant Muslim semitism to the country as early as the 17th century. Peter
lands,[132] while some others went northward to settle in Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam, im-
the growing Christian kingdoms.[135] plemented plans to prevent Jews from settling in the city.
During the Middle Ages in Europe there was persecution During the Colonial Era, the American government lim-
against Jews in many places, with blood libels, expulsions, ited the political and economic rights of Jews. It was not
forced conversions and massacres. A main justication of until the Revolutionary War that Jews gained legal rights,
prejudice against Jews in Europe was religious. including the right to vote. However, even at their peak,
The persecution hit its rst peak during the Crusades. In the restrictions on Jews in the United States were never as
the First Crusade (1096) hundreds or even thousands of stringent as they had been in Europe.[143]
Jews were killed as the crusaders arrived.[136] This was In the Zaydi imamate of Yemen, Jews were also singled
the rst major outbreak of anti-Jewish violence Christian out for discrimination in the 17th century, which culmi-
Europe outside Spain and was cited by Zionists in the 19th nated in the general expulsion of all Jews from places in
century as indicating the need for a state of Israel.[137] Yemen to the arid coastal plain of Tihamah and which
In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in Germany were became known as the Mawza Exile.
subject to several massacres. The Jews were also sub-
jected to attacks by the Shepherds Crusades of 1251 and
1.3.4 Enlightenment
1320. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, in-
cluding, in 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in
In 1744, Frederick II of Prussia limited the number of
1394, the expulsion of 100,000 Jews in France; and in
Jews allowed to live in Breslau to only ten so-called pro-
1421, the expulsion of thousands from Austria. Many
tected Jewish families and encouraged a similar practice
of the expelled Jews ed to Poland.[138] In medieval and
in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issued the Revidiertes
Renaissance Europe, a major contributor to the deepen-
General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft:
ing of antisemitic sentiment and legal action among the
the protected Jews had an alternative to either abstain
Christian populations was the popular preaching of the
from marriage or leave Berlin" (quoting Simon Dubnow).
zealous reform religious orders, the Franciscans (espe-
In the same year, Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa
cially Bernardino of Feltre) and Dominicans (especially
ordered Jews out of Bohemia but soon reversed her posi-
Vincent Ferrer), who combed Europe and promoted anti-
[139] tion, on the condition that Jews pay for their readmission
semitism through their often ery, emotional appeals.
every ten years. This extortion was known as malke-geld
As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the (queens money). In 1752 she introduced the law lim-
mid-14th century, causing the death of a large part of iting each Jewish family to one son. In 1782, Joseph
the population, Jews were used as scapegoats. Rumors II abolished most of these persecution practices in his
spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poi- Toleranzpatent, on the condition that Yiddish and Hebrew
soning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were de- were eliminated from public records and that judicial au-
stroyed. Although Pope Clement VI tried to protect them tonomy was annulled. Moses Mendelssohn wrote that
by issuing two papal bulls in 1348, the rst on 6 July and Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tol-
an additional one several months later, 900 Jews were erance than open persecution.
burned alive in Strasbourg, where the plague had not yet
In 1772, the empress of Russia Catherine II forced the
aected the city.[140]
Jews of the Pale of Settlement to stay in their shtetls and
forbade them from returning to the towns that they occu-
pied before the partition of Poland.[145]
1.3.3 17th century
According to Arnold Ages, Voltaire's Lettres
During the mid-to-late 17th century the Polish philosophiques, Dictionnaire philosophique, and
Lithuanian Commonwealth was devastated by several Candide, to name but a few of his better known works,
conicts, in which the Commonwealth lost over a third are saturated with comments on Jews and Judaism and
of its population (over 3 million people), and Jewish the vast majority are negative.[146] Paul H. Meyer adds:
losses were counted in the hundreds of thousands. The There is no question but that Voltaire, particularly in
rst of these conicts was the Khmelnytsky Uprising, his latter years, nursed a violent hatred of the Jews
when Bohdan Khmelnytsky's supporters massacred tens and it is equally certain that his animosity...did have a
of thousands of Jews in the eastern and southern areas considerable impact on public opinion in France.[147]
he controlled (todays Ukraine). The precise number of Thirty of the 118 articles in Voltaires Dictionnaire
dead may never be known, but the decrease of the Jewish Philosophique concerned Jews and described them in
1.3. HISTORY 11

consistently negative ways,[148] being the villain of a story, such as in The Good Bar-
gain ("Der gute Handel) and The Jew Among Thorns
(Der Jude im Dorn).
1.3.5 Islamic antisemitism in the 19th cen- The middle 19th century saw continued ocial harass-
tury ment of the Jews, especially in Eastern Europe under
Czarist inuence. For example, in 1846, 80 Jews ap-
Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th proached the governor in Warsaw to retain the right to
century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim wear their traditional dress, but were immediately re-
countries. Benny Morris writes that one symbol of Jew- bued by having their hair and beards forcefully cut, at
ish degradation was the phenomenon of stone-throwing at their own expense.[152]
Jews by Muslim children. Morris quotes a 19th-century
traveler: I have seen a little fellow of six years old, with In America, even such inuential gures as Walt Whit-
a troop of fat toddlers of only three and four, teaching man tolerated bigotry toward the Jews. During his time
[them] to throw stones at a Jew, and one little urchin as editor of the Brooklyn Eagle (1846-1848), the news-
would, with the greatest coolness, waddle up to the man paper published historical sketches casting Jews in a bad
and literally spit upon his Jewish gaberdine. To all this light.[153]
the Jew is obliged to submit; it would be more than his The Dreyfus Aair was an infamous antisemitic event of
life was worth to oer to strike a Mahommedan.[149] the late 19th century and early 20th century. Alfred Drey-
In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjamin wrote fus, a Jewish artillery captain in the French Army, was
about the life of Persian Jews, describing conditions and accused in 1894 of passing secrets to the Germans. As
beliefs that went back to the 16th century: "they are a result of these charges, Dreyfus was convicted and sen-
obliged to live in a separate part of town Under the tenced to life imprisonment on Devils Island. The actual
pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the spy, Marie Charles Esterhazy, was acquitted. The event
greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited caused great uproar among the French, with the public
by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs choosing sides on the issue of whether Dreyfus was actu-
with stones and dirt.[150] ally guilty or not. mile Zola accused the army of cor-
rupting the French justice system. However, general con-
sensus held that Dreyfus was guilty: 80% of the press in
1.3.6 Secular or racial antisemitism France condemned him. This attitude among the major-
ity of the French population reveals the underlying anti-
In 1850 the German composer Richard Wagner semitism of the time period.[154]
who has been called the inventor of modern Adolf Stoecker (18351909), the Lutheran court chap-
antisemitism[151] published Das Judenthum in der lain to Kaiser Wilhelm I, founded in 1878 an antisemitic,
Musik (roughly Jewishness in Music[151] ) under a anti-liberal political party called the Christian Social
pseudonym in the Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik. The essay Party.[155][156] This party always remained small, and its
began as an attack on Jewish composers, particularly support dwindled after Stoeckers death, with most of its
Wagners contemporaries, and rivals, Felix Mendelssohn members eventually joining larger conservative groups
and Giacomo Meyerbeer, but expanded to accuse Jews such as the German National Peoples Party.
of being a harmful and alien element in German culture,
who corrupted morals and were, in fact, parasites Some scholars view Karl Marxs essay On The Jew-
incapable of creating truly German art. The crux was, ish Question as antisemitic, and argue that he often
of course, the manipulation and control by the Jews of used antisemitic epithets in his published and private
the money economy:[151] writings.[157][158][159] These scholars argue that Marx
equated Judaism with capitalism in his essay, helping
to spread that idea. Some further argue that the es-
According to the present constitution of say inuenced National Socialist, as well as Soviet and
this world, the Jew in truth is already more than Arab antisemites.[160][161][162] Marx himself had Jewish
emancipated: he rules, and will rule, so long as ancestry, and Albert Lindemann and Hyam Maccoby
Money remains the power before which all our have suggested that he was embarrassed by it.[163][164]
doings and our dealings lose their force.[151] Others argue that Marx consistently supported Prussian
Jewish communities struggles to achieve equal political
Although originally published anonymously, when the es- rights. These scholars argue that On the Jewish Ques-
say was republished 19 years later, in 1869, the concept of tion is a critique of Bruno Bauers arguments that Jews
the corrupting Jew had become so widely held that Wag- must convert to Christianity before being emancipated,
ners name was axed to it.[151] and is more generally a critique of liberal rights dis-
courses and capitalism.[165][166][167][168] Iain Hamphsher-
Antisemitism can also be found in many of the Grimms
Monk wrote that This work [On The Jewish Question]
Fairy Tales by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, published
has been cited as evidence for Marxs supposed anti-
from 1812 to 1857. It is mainly characterized by Jews

semitism, but only the most supercial reading of it could interwar period. The pioneer automobile manufacturer
sustain such an interpretation.[169] David McLellan and Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspa-
Francis Wheen argue that readers should interpret On per The Dearborn Independent (published by Ford from
the Jewish Question in the deeper context of Marxs de- 1919 to 1927). The radio speeches of Father Coughlin in
bates with Bruno Bauer, author of The Jewish Question, the late 1930s attacked Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal
about Jewish emancipation in Germany. Wheen says and promoted the notion of a Jewish nancial conspiracy.
that Those critics, who see this as a foretaste of 'Mein Some prominent politicians shared such views: Louis
Kampf', overlook one, essential point: in spite of the T. McFadden, Chairman of the United States House
clumsy phraseology and crude stereotyping, the essay was Committee on Banking and Currency, blamed Jews for
actually written as a defense of the Jews. It was a re- Roosevelts decision to abandon the gold standard, and
tort to Bruno Bauer, who had argued that Jews should claimed that in the United States today, the Gentiles
not be granted full civic rights and freedoms unless they have the slips of paper while the Jews have the lawful
were baptised as Christians.[170] According to McLel- money.[174]
lan, Marx used the word Judentum colloquially, as mean- In the early 1940s the aviator Charles Lindbergh and
ing commerce, arguing that Germans must be emanci-
many prominent Americans led The America First Com-
pated from the capitalist mode of production not Judaism mittee in opposing any involvement in the war against
or Jews in particular. McLellan concludes that readers Fascism. During his July 1936 visit to Germany, Lind-
should interpret the essays second half as an extended bergh wrote letters saying that there was more intel-
pun at Bauers expense.[171] ligent leadership in Germany than is generally recog-
nized. The German American Bund held parades in
1.3.7 20th century New York City during the late 1930s, where members
wore Nazi uniforms and raised ags featuring swastikas
alongside American ags. Sometimes race riots, as in
Detroit in 1943, targeted Jewish businesses for looting
and burning.[175]

The victims of a 1905 pogrom in Yekaterinoslav

Between 1900 and 1924, approximately 1.75 million

Jews migrated to America, the bulk from Eastern Eu-
rope. Before 1900 American Jews had always amounted
to less than 1% of Americas total population, but by
1930 Jews formed about 3.5%. This increase, com- A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium at the
bined with the upward social mobility of some Jews, con- recently liberated Buchenwald concentration camp
tributed to a resurgence of antisemitism. In the rst half
of the 20th century, in the USA, Jews were discriminated In Germany, Nazism led Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party,
against in employment, access to residential and resort ar- who came to power on 30 January 1933 and instituted
eas, membership in clubs and organizations, and in tight- repressive legislation which denied the Jews basic civil
ened quotas on Jewish enrolment and teaching positions rights. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual
in colleges and universities. The lynching of Leo Frank relations and marriages between Aryans and Jews as
by a mob of prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia in Rassenschande (race disgrace) and stripped all German
1915 turned the spotlight on antisemitism in the United Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their citizenship,
States.[172] The case was also used to build support for (their ocial title became subjects of the state). It in-
the renewal of the Ku Klux Klan which had been inactive stituted a pogrom on the night of 910 November 1938,
since 1870.[173] dubbed Kristallnacht, in which Jews were killed, their
property destroyed and their synagogues torched.[176] An-
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Beilis Trial tisemitic laws, agitation and propaganda were extended
in Russia represented incidents of blood-libel in Europe. to German-occupied Europe in the wake of conquest, of-
Christians used allegations of Jews killing Christians as a ten building on local antisemitic traditions. In the east
justication for the killing of Jews. the Third Reich forced Jews into ghettos in Warsaw,
Antisemitism in America reached its peak during the Krakw, Lvov, Lublin and Radom.[177] After the inva-
1.4. CAUSES 13

sion of the Soviet Union in 1941 a campaign of mass strongly negative views of Jews. In the questionnaire,
murder, conducted by the Einsatzgruppen, culminated only 2% of Egyptians, 3% of Lebanese Muslims, and 2%
from 1942 to 1945 in systematic genocide: the Holo- of Jordanians reported having a positive view of Jews.
caust.[178] Eleven million Jews were targeted for extermi- Muslim-majority countries outside the Middle East held
nation by the Nazis, and some six million were eventually similarly negative views, with 4% of Turks and 9% of
killed.[178][179][180] Indonesians viewing Jews favorably.[186]
Antisemitism was commonly used as an instrument for According to a 2011 exhibition at the United States Holo-
settling personal conicts in the Soviet Union, start- caust Memorial Museum in Washington, United States,
ing with the conict between Joseph Stalin and Leon some of the dialogue from Middle East media and com-
Trotsky and continuing through numerous conspiracy- mentators about Jews bear a striking resemblance to Nazi
theories spread by ocial propaganda. Antisemitism in propaganda.[187] According to Josef Joe of Newsweek,
the USSR reached new heights after 1948 during the cam- anti-Semitismthe real stu, not just bad-mouthing
paign against the "rootless cosmopolitan" (euphemism for particular Israeli policiesis as much part of Arab life
Jew) in which numerous Yiddish-language poets, writ- today as the hijab or the hookah. Whereas this darkest
ers, painters and sculptors were killed or arrested.[181][182] of creeds is no longer tolerated in polite society in the
This culminated in the so-called Doctors Plot (1952 West, in the Arab world, Jew hatred remains culturally
1953). Similar antisemitic propaganda in Poland re- endemic.[188]
sulted in the ight of Polish Jewish survivors from the
Muslim clerics in the Middle East have frequently
country.[182] referred to Jews as descendants of apes and pigs,
After the war, the Kielce pogrom and the "March 1968 which are conventional epithets for Jews and
events" in communist Poland represented further inci- Christians.[189][190][191]
dents of antisemitism in Europe. The anti-Jewish vio-
According to professor Robert Wistrich, director of the
lence in postwar Poland has a common theme of blood Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of An-
libel rumours.[183][184]
tisemitism (SICSA), the calls for the destruction of Israel
by Iran or by Hamas, Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad, or the
1.3.8 21st-century European antisemitism Muslim Brotherhood, represent a contemporary mode of
genocidal antisemitism.[192]
Further information: Antisemitism in Europe In the
21st century
1.4 Causes

1.3.9 21st-century Arab antisemitism Antisemitism has been explained in terms of racism,
xenophobia, projected guilt, displaced aggression, and
Main article: Antisemitism in the Arab world the search for a scapegoat.[193]
Robert Bernstein, founder of Human Rights Watch, says It has been theorized that parts of antisemitism has re-
sulted from a perception of Jewish people as unsociable.
Such a perception may have arisen by many Jews hav-
ing strictly kept to their own communities, with their own
practices and laws.[194]
It has also been suggested that parts of antisemitism arose
from a perception of Jewish people as greedy (as of-
ten used in stereotypes of Jews), and this perception
has probably evolved in Europe during Medieval times
where a large portion of money lending was operated by
Jews.[195] Factors contributing to this situation included
that Jews were restricted from other professions,[195]
while the Christian Church declared for their followers
that money lending constituted immoral "usury".[196]
Displaced Iraqi Jews arrive in Israel in 1951 during the Jewish
There are a number of antisemitic canards which are used
exodus from Arab and Muslim countries
to fuel and justify antisemitic sentiment and activities.
These include conspiracy theories and myths such as: that
that antisemitism is deeply ingrained and institutional- Jews killed Christ, poisoned wells, killed Christian chil-
ized in Arab nations in modern times.[185] dren to use their blood for making matzos (the Blood li-
In a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center, all of the bel), or made up the Holocaust, plot to control the world
Muslim-majority Middle Eastern countries polled held (the Protocols of the Elders of Zion), harvest organs, and

other invented stories. A number of conspiracy theories 1.5.4 Libya

also include accusations that Jews control the media or
global nancial institutions. Further information: History of the Jews in Libya

Libya had once one of the oldest Jewish communities in

1.5 Current situation the world, dating back to 300 BCE. Despite the repres-
sion of Jews in the late 1930, as a result of the pro-Nazi
Fascist Italian regime, Jews were third of the population
A March 2008 report by the U.S. State Department found
of Libya till 1941. In 1942 the Nazi German troops oc-
that there was an increase in antisemitism across the
cupied the Jewish quarter of Benghazi, plundering shops
world, and that both old and new expressions of anti-
and deporting more than 2,000 Jews across the desert.
semitism persist.[197] A 2012 report by the U.S. Bureau
Sent to work in labor camps, more than one-fth of this
of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor also noted a
group of Jews perished. A series of pogroms started in
continued global increase in antisemitism, and found that
November 1945, while more than 140 Jews were killed
Holocaust denial and opposition to Israeli policy at times
in Tripoli and most synagogues in the city looted. [203]
was used to promote or justify blatant antisemitism.[198]
Upon Libyas independence in 1951, most of the Jewish
community emigrated from Libya. After the Suez Crisis
in 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about
1.5.1 Africa 100 Jews to ee. When Muammar al-Gadda came to
power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was cons-
See also: Antisemitism in Africa cated and all debts to Jews cancelled.

1.5.5 Morocco
1.5.2 Algeria
Further information: History of the Jews in Morocco
Further information: History of the Jews in Algeria
Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in
Almost all Jews in Algeria left upon independence in ghettos known as mellah, have existed in Morocco for
1962. Algerias 140,000 Jews had French citizenship at least 2,000 years. Intermittent large scale massacres
since 1870 (briey revoked by Vichy France in 1940), (such as that of 6,000 Jews in Fez in 1033, over 100,000
and they mainly went to [France], with some going to Jews in Fez and Marrakesh in 1146 and again in Mar-
Israel. rakesh in 1232)[149][204] were accompanied by system-
atic discrimination through the years. In 1875, 20
Jews were killed by a mob in Demnat, Morocco; else-
1.5.3 Egypt where in Morocco, Jews were attacked and killed in the
streets in broad daylight.[205] While the pro-Nazi Vichy
In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of regime during World War II passed discriminatory laws
Henry Ford's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, against Jews, King Muhammad prevented deportation of
complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the Jews to death camps (although Jews with French, as op-
cover.[199] posed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject
to Vichy law, were still deported.) In 1948, approxi-
On 5 May 2001, after Shimon Peres visited Egypt, the mately 265,000 Jews lived in Morocco. Between 5,000
Egyptian al-Akhbar internet paper said that lies and de- and 8,000 live there now. In June 1948, soon after Israel
ceit are not foreign to Jews[...]. For this reason, Allah was established and in the midst of the rst Arab-Israeli
changed their shape and made them into monkeys and war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujda and Djerada,
pigs.[200] killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews left the country
In July 2012, Egypts Al Nahar channel fooled actors for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Is-
into thinking they were on an Israeli television show and rael and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year.
lmed their reactions to being told it was an Israeli televi- Through the early fties, Zionist organizations encour-
sion show. In response, some of the actors launched into aged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the
antisemitic rants or dialogue, and many became violent. country, seeing Moroccan Jews as valuable contributors
Actress Mayer El Beblawi said that Allah did not curse to the Jewish State: In 1955, Morocco attained indepen-
the worm and moth as much as he cursed the Jews while dence and emigration to Israel has increased further untill
actor Mahmoud Abdel Ghaar launched into a violent 1956 then it was prohibited until 1963, then resumed. By
rage and said, You brought me someone who looks like 1967, only 60,000 Jews remained in Morocco. The Six-
a Jew... I hate the Jews to death after nding out it was Day War in 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions
a prank.[201][202] worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish pop-

ulation was down to 35,000; however, most of this wave Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, former president of Iran, has
of emigration went to Europe and North America rather frequently been accused of denying the Holocaust.
than Israel. In July, the winner of Irans rst annual International Wall
Street Downfall Cartoon Festival, jointly sponsored by
the semi-state-run Iranian media outlet Fars News, was
1.5.6 South Africa an antisemitic cartoon depicting Jews praying before the
New York Stock Exchange, which is made to look like
Further information: History of the Jews in South Africa the Western Wall. Other cartoons in the contest were
antisemitic as well. The national director of the Anti-
Antisemitism has been present in history of South Africa Defamation League, Abraham Foxman, condemned the
since Europeans rst set foot ashore on the Cape Penin- cartoon, stating that Heres the anti-Semitic notion of
sula. In the years 1652-1795 Jews were not allowed Jews and their love for money, the canard that Jews 'con-
to settle at the Cape. An 1868 Act would sanction trol' Wall Street, and a cynical perversion of the Western
religious discrimination.[206] Antisemitism reached its Wall, the holiest site in Judaism, and Once again Iran
apotheosis in the years leading up to World War II. In- takes the prize for promoting antisemitism.
spired by the rise of national socialism in Germany the
Ossewabrandwag (OB) - whose membership accounted
for almost 25% of the 1940 Afrikaner population - and Japan
the National Party faction New Order would champion a
more programmatic solution to the 'Jewish problem'.[207] Main article: Antisemitism in Japan

The Japanese rst learned about antisemitism in 1918,

1.5.7 Tunisia during the cooperation of the Imperial Japanese Army
with the White movement in Siberia. White Army sol-
Further information: History of the Jews in Tunisia diers had been issued copies of the The Protocols of the
Elders of Zion, and . The Protocols continue to be used
as evidence of Jewish conspiracies even though they are
Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2300 years. In
widely acknowledged to be a forgery.[211] During World
the 13th century, Jews were expelled from their homes in
War II,Nazi Germany encouraged Japan to adopt anti-
Kairouan and were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known
semitic policies. In the post-war period, extremist groups
as hara. Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews
and ideologues have promoted conspiracy theories.
earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Sev-
eral prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews.
From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi
laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish ri-
ots that continued at least until 1869. Tunisia, as the only
In 2004, Al-Manar, a media network aliated with
Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi control dur-
Hezbollah, aired a drama series, The Diaspora, which
ing World War II, was also the site of racist antisemitic
observers allege is based on historical antisemitic allega-
measures activities such as the yellow star, prison camps,
tions. BBC correspondents who have watched the pro-
deportations, and other persecution. In 1948, approxi-
gram says it quotes extensively from the Protocols of the
mately 105,000 Jews lived in Tunisia. Only about 1,500
Elders of Zion.[212]
remain there today. Following Tunisias independence
from France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led
to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other Malaysia
half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration
both to Israel and France accelerated. There were also
See also: History of the Jews in Malaysia
attacks in 1982, 1985, and most recently in 2002 when
a bomb in Djerba took 21 lives (most of them German
tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack Although Malaysia presently has no substantial Jewish
claimed by Al-Qaeda. population, the country has reportedly become an ex-
ample of a phenomenon called antisemitism without
1.5.8 Asia In his treatise on Malay identity, The Malay Dilemma,
which was published in 1970, former Malaysian Prime
Iran Minister Mahathir Mohamad wrote: The Jews are not
only hooked-nosed... but understand money instinc-
See also: Holocaust denial in Iran tively.... Jewish stinginess and nancial wizardry gained
them the economic control of Europe and provoked an-

tisemitism which waxed and waned throughout Europe to the Mediterranean Sea; that Jews, especially those who
through the ages.[215] live in Israel, were not really human beings but rather 'the
The Malay-language Utusan Malaysia daily stated in an scum of mankind'; and that all tools were [222]
legitimate in the
editorial that Malaysians cannot allow anyone, espe- struggle against Israel and the Jews. In August 2014,
cially the Jews, to interfere secretly in this countrys busi- the Hamas' spokesman in Doha said on live television that
ness... When the drums are pounded hard in the name Jews use blood to make matzos.
of human rights, the pro-Jewish people will have their
best opportunity to interfere in any Islamic country, Pakistan
the newspaper said. We might not realize that the en-
thusiasm to support actions such as demonstrations will See also: History of the Jews in Pakistan and
cause us to help foreign groups succeed in their mis- Antisemitism in Pakistan
sion of controlling this country. Prime Minister Najib
Razak's oce subsequently issued a statement late Mon-
day saying Utusans claim did not reect the views of the The U.S. State Departments rst Report on Global Anti-
government.[216][217][218] Semitism mentioned a strong feeling of antisemitism in
Pakistan.[224] In Pakistan, a country without Jewish com-
munities, antisemitic sentiment fanned by antisemitic ar-
Palestinian territories ticles in the press is widespread.[225]
In Pakistan, Jews are often regarded as miserly.[226] Af-
See also: Tomorrows Pioneers, Racism in the Pales-
ter Israels independence in 1948, violent incidents oc-
tinian territories, and Textbooks in the IsraeliPalestinian
curred against Pakistans small Jewish community of
about 2,000 Bene Israel Jews. The Magain Shalome Syn-
agogue in Karachi was attacked, as were individual Jews.
The persecution of Jews resulted in their exodus via India
to Israel (see Pakistanis in Israel), the UK, Canada and
other countries. The Peshawar Jewish community ceased
to exist[227] although a small community reportedly still
exists in Karachi.
A substantial number of people in Pakistan believe that
the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in
New York were a secret Jewish conspiracy organized by
Israels MOSSAD, as were the 7 July 2005 London bomb-
ings, allegedly perpetrated by Jews in order to discredit
Muslims. Pakistani political commentator Zaid Hamid
claimed that Indian Jews perpetrated the 2008 Mum-
bai attacks.[228][229] Such allegations echo traditional anti-
semitic theories.[230][231] The Jewish religious movement
Haj Amin al-Husseini is a central gure of Palestinian nation- of Chabad Lubavich had a mission house in Mumbai,
alism in Mandatory Palestine. He took refuge and collabo- India that was attacked in the 2008 Mumbai attacks, per-
rated with Nazi Germany during World War II. He met Adolf petrated by militants connected to Pakistan led by Ajmal
Hitler in December 1941. Scholarly opinion is divided on the Kasab, a Pakistani national.[232][233] Antisemitic intents
Muftis antisemitsm, with many scholars viewing him as a staunch were evident from the testimonies of Kasab following his
antisemite[219] while some deny the appropriateness of the term, arrest and trial.[234]
or argue that he became antisemitic.

In March 2011, the Israeli government issued a paper Saudi Arabia

claiming that Anti-Israel and anti-Semitic messages are
heard regularly in the government and private media and People with either Israeli passports or Israeli stamps in
in the mosques and are taught in school books, to the their passport are not allowed to visit Saudi Arabia.[235]
extent that they are an integral part of the fabric of life Saudi textbooks vilify Jews, call Jews apes (and Chris-
inside the PA.[221] In August 2012, Israeli Strategic Af- tians swine); demand that students avoid and not befriend
fairs Ministry director-general Yossi Kuperwasser stated Jews; claim that Jews worship the devil; and encourage
that Palestinian incitement to antisemitism is going on Muslims to engage in Jihad to vanquish Jews.[236] Saudi
all the time and that it is worrying and disturbing. At Arabian government ocials and state religious leaders
an institutional level, he said the PA has been promoting often promote the idea that Jews are conspiring to take
three key messages to the Palestinian people that consti- over the entire world; as proof of their claims they pub-
tute incitement: that the Palestinians would eventually lish and frequently cite The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
be the sole sovereign on all the land from the Jordan River as factual.[237][238]

Turkey On 1 January 2006, Britains chief rabbi, Lord Jonathan

Sacks, warned that what he called a tsunami of anti-
Main articles: Antisemitism in Turkey and History of semitism was spreading globally. In an interview with
the Jews in Turkey BBC Radio 4, Sacks said: A number of my rabbini-
cal colleagues throughout Europe have been assaulted
In recent decades, synagogues have been targeted in a and attacked on the streets. We've had synagogues dese-
number of terrorist attacks. In 2003, the Neve Shalom crated. We've had Jewish schools burnt to the ground
Synagogue was targeted in a car bombing, killing 21 not here but in France. People are attempting to silence
Turkish Muslims and 6 Jews.[239] and even ban Jewish societies on campuses on the grounds
that Jews must support the state of Israel, therefore they
In June 2011, the Economist suggested that The best should be banned, which is quite extraordinary because...
way for Turks to promote democracy would be to vote British Jews see themselves as British citizens. So its that
against the ruling party. Not long after, the Turk- kind of feeling that you don't know whats going to hap-
ish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoan, said that pen next thats making... some European Jewish commu-
The International media, as they are supported by Is- nities uncomfortable.[247]
rael, would not be happy with the continuation of the
AKP government.[240] The Hurriyet Daily News quotedFollowing an escalation in antisemitism in 2012, which
included the deadly shooting of three children at a Jew-
Erdoan at the time as claiming The Economist is part
ish school in France, the European Jewish Congress de-
of an Israeli conspiracy that aims to topple the Turk-
manded in July a more proactive response. EJC Presi-
ish government.[241] Moreover, during Erdogans tenure,
dent Moshe Kantor explained, We call on authorities to
Hitlers Mein Kampf has once again become a best sell-
take a more proactive approach so there would be no rea-
ing book in Turkey.[240] Prime Minister Erdogan called
son for statements of regret and denunciation. All these
antisemitism a crime against humanity. He also said
smaller attacks remind me of smaller tremors before a
that as a minority, they're our citizens. Both their se-
massive earthquake. The Jewish community cannot af-
curity and the right to observe their faith are under our
guarantee.[242] ford to be subject to an earthquake and the authorities
cannot say that the writing was not on the wall. He added
that European countries should take legislative eorts to
1.5.9 Europe ban any form of incitement, as well as to equip the au-
thorities with the necessary tools to confront any attempt
Main articles: Antisemitism in Europe and New anti- to expand terrorist and [248]
violent activities against Jewish
semitism communities in Europe.

According to a 2004 report from the Jerusalem Center for Austria

Public Aairs, antisemitism had increased signicantly
in Europe since 2000, with signicant increases in verbal
Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Austria
attacks against Jews and vandalism such as grati, re
bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues
and cemeteries. Germany, France, Britain, and Rus-
sia are the countries with the highest rate of antisemitic
incidents in Europe.[243] The Netherlands and Sweden
have also consistently had high rates of antisemitic attacks
since 2000.[244] Main articles: Antisemitism in 21st-century France and
History of the Jews in France
Some claim that recent European antisemitic violence
can actually be seen as a spillover from the long running
Arab-Israeli conict since the majority of the perpetra- France is home to the continents largest Jewish com-
tors are from the large Muslim immigrant communities munity (about 600,000). Jewish leaders decry an inten-
in European cities. However, compared to France, the sifying antisemitism in France,[249] mainly among Mus-
United Kingdom and much of the rest of Europe, in Ger- lims of Arab or African heritage, but also growing among
many Arab and pro-Palestinian groups are involved in Caribbean islanders from former French colonies.[250]
only a small percentage of antisemitic incidents.[243][245] Former Interior Minister Nicolas Sarkozy denounced the
According to The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study killing of Ilan Halimi on 13 February 2006 as an anti-
of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism, most of the semitic crime.
more extreme attacks on Jewish sites and physical at- Jewish philanthropist Baron Eric de Rothschild suggests
tacks on Jews in Europe come from militant Islamic that the extent of antisemitism in France has been exag-
and Muslim groups, and most Jews tend to be assaulted gerated. In an interview with The Jerusalem Post he says
in countries where groups of young Muslim immigrants that the one thing you can't say is that France is an anti-
reside.[246] Semitic country.[251]

In March 2012, Mohammed Merah opened re at a Jew- merly communist East Germany,[262] Germanys mea-
ish school in Toulouse, killing a teacher and three chil- sures against right-wing groups and antisemitism are
dren. An 8-year-old girl was shot in the head at point eective, despite Germany having the highest rates
blank range. President Nicolas Sarkozy said that it was of antisemitic acts in Europe. According to the an-
obvious it was an antisemitic attack[252] and that, I nual reports of the Federal Oce for the Protection
want to say to all the leaders of the Jewish community, of the Constitution the overall number of far-right ex-
how close we feel to them. All of France is by their side. tremists in Germany dropped during the last years
The Israeli Prime Minister condemned the despicable from 49,700 (2001),[263] 45,000 (2002),[263] 41,500
anti-Semitic murders.[253][254] After a 32-hour siege and (2003),[263] 40,700 (2004),[264] 39,000 (2005),[264] to
stando with the police outside his house, and a French 38,600 in 2006.[264] Germany provided several million
raid, Merah jumped o a balcony and was shot in the euros to fund nationwide programs aimed at ghting far-
head and killed.[255] Merah told police during the stand- right extremism, including teams of traveling consultants,
o that he intended to keep on attacking, and he loved and victims groups.[265]
death the way the police loved life. He also claimed con- In July 2012, two women were assaulted in Germany,
nections with al-Qaeda.[256][257][258]
sprayed with tear gas, and were shown a "Hitler salute,
4 months later, in July 2012, a French Jewish teenager apparently because of a Star of David necklace that they
wearing a distinctive religious symbol was the victim wore.[266]
of a violent antisemitic attack on a train travelling be- In late August 2012, Berlin police investigated an attack
tween Toulouse and Lyon. The teen was rst verbally on a 53-year-old rabbi and his 6-year-old daughter, al-
harassed and later beaten up by two assailants. Richard legedly by four Arab teens, after which the rabbi needed
Prasquier from the French Jewish umbrella group, CRIF, treatment for head wounds at a hospital. The police clas-
called the attack another development in the worrying sied the attack as a hate crime. Jdische Allgemeine
trend of anti-Semitism in our country.[259] reported that the rabbi was wearing a kippah and was
Another incident in July 2012 dealt with the vandal- approached by one of the teens, who asked the rabbi if
ism of the synagogue of Noisy-le-Grand of the Seine- he was Jewish. The teen then attacked the rabbi while
Saint-Denis district in Paris. The synagogue was vandal- yelling antisemitic comments, and threatened to kill the
ized three times in a ten-day period. Prayer books and rabbis daughter. Berlins mayor condemned the attack,
shawls were thrown on the oor, windows were shattered, saying that Berlin is an international city in which intol-
drawers were ransacked, and walls, tables, clocks, and erance, xenophobia and anti-Semitism are not being tol-
oors were vandalized. The authorities were alerted of erated. Police will undertake all eorts to nd and arrest
the incidents by the Bureau National de Vigilance Con- the perpetrators.[267]
tre LAntismtisme (BNVCA), a French antisemitism In October 2012, various historians, including Dr. Julius
watchdog group, which called for more measures to be H. Schoeps, a prominent German-Jewish historian and a
taken to prevent future hate crimes. BNVCA President member of the German Interior Ministrys commission to
Sammy Ghozlan stated that, Despite the measures taken, combat antisemitism, charged the majority of Bundestag
things persist, and I think that we need additional legisla- deputies with failing to understand antisemitism and the
tion, because the Jewish community is annoyed.[260] imperativeness of periodic legislative reports on German
In August 2012, Abraham Cooper,the dean of the Simon antisemitism. Schoeps cited various antisemitic state-
Wiesenthal Center, met French Interior Minister Manuel ments by German parliament members as well. The
Valls and reported that antisemitic attacks against French report in question determined that 15% of Germans
Jews increased by 40% since Merahs shooting spree in are antisemitic while over 20% espouse latent anti-
Toulouse. Cooper pressed Valls to take extra measures Semitism, but the report has been criticized for down-
to secure the safety of French Jews, as well as to discuss playing the sharpness of antisemitism in Germany, as well
strategies to foil an increasing trend of lone-wolf terrorists as for failing to examine anti-Israel media coverage in
on the Internet.[261] Germany.[268]

Germany Greece

Further information: History of the Jews in Germany Main article: Antisemitism in Greece

The Interior Minister of Germany, Wolfgang Schu- Antisemitism in Greece manifests itself in religious,
ble, points out the ocial policy of Germany: We political and media discourse. The recent Greek
will not tolerate any form of extremism, xenopho- government-debt crisis has facilitated the rise of far right
bia or anti-Semitism.[262] Although the number of ex- groups in Greece, most notably the formerly obscure
treme right-wing groups and organisations grew from Golden Dawn. Jews have lived in Greece since antiquity,
141 (2001)[263] to 182 (2006),[264] especially in the for- but the largest community of around 20,000 Sephardic

Jews settled in Thessalonica after an invitation from the anisms, whereby traditional anti-Jewish prejudices were
Ottoman Sultan in the 15th century. After Thessalonica mixed with politically based stereotypes.[273] In this be-
was annexed to Greece in 1913, the Greek government lief system, Israeli Jews were charged with full responsi-
recognized Jews as Greek citizens with full rights and bility for the fate of the peace process and with the conict
attributed Judaism the status of a recognized and pro- presented as embodying the struggle between good (the
tected religion. Currently in Greece, Jewish communities Palestinians) and evil (the Israeli Jews).[274]
representing the 5,000 Greek Jews are legal entities un-
der public law. According to the ADL (Anti-Defamation
League) report of 2015, the ADL Global 100, a report Netherlands
of the status of antisemitism in 100 countries around the
world, 69% of the adult population in Greece harbor anti- Further information: History of the Jews in the Nether-
semitic attitudes and 85% think that Jews have too much lands
power in the business world.[269] In March 2015, a sur-
vey about the Greeks perceptions of the holocaust was The Netherlands has the second highest incidence of an-
published. Its ndings showed that less than 60 percent tisemitic incidents in the European Union. However, it
of the respondents think that holocaust teaching should is dicult to obtain exact gures because the specic
be included in the curriculum.[270] groups against whom attacks are made are not specically
identied in police reports, and analyses of police data
for antisemitism therefore relies on key-word searches,
Hungary e.g. Jew or Israel. According to Centre for Infor-
mation and Documentation on Israel (CIDI), a pro-Israel
Main article: Antisemitism in contemporary Hungary lobby group in the Netherlands,[275] the number of an-
tisemitic incidents reported in the whole of the Nether-
In the 21st century, antisemitism in Hungary has evolved lands was 108 in 2008, 93 in 2009, and 124 in 2010.
and received an institutional framework, while verbal and Some two thirds of this are acts of aggression. There
physical aggression against Jews has escalated, creating are approximately 52 000 Dutch Jews.[276] According to
a great dierence between its earlier manifestations in the NRC Handelsblad newspaper, the number of anti-
the 1990s and recent developments. One of the ma- semitic incidents in Amsterdam was 14 in 2008 and 30 in
jor representatives of this institutionalized antisemitic 2009.[277] In 2010, Raphal Evers, an orthodox rabbi in
ideology is the popular Hungarian party Jobbik, which Amsterdam, told the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten
received 17 percent of the vote in the April 2010 na- that Jews can no longer be safe in the city anymore due
tional election. The far-right subculture, which ranges to the risk of violent assaults. We Jews no longer feel at
from nationalist shops to radical-nationalist and neo-Nazi home here in the Netherlands. Many people talk about
festivals and events, plays a major role in the institu- moving to Israel, he said.[278]
tionalization of Hungarian antisemitism in the 21st cen- According to the Anne Frank Foundation, antisemitism
tury. The contemporary antisemitic rhetoric has been in the Netherlands in 2011 was roughly at the same level
updated and expanded, but is still based on the old an- as in 2010.[279] Actual antisemitic incidents increased
tisemitic notions. The traditional accusations and motifs from 19 in 2010 to 30 in 2011. Verbal antisemitic in-
include such phrases as Jewish occupation, international cidents dropped slightly from 1173 in 2010 to 1098 in
Jewish conspiracy, Jewish responsibility for the Treaty 2011. This accounts for 75%80% of all verbal racist
of Trianon, Judeo-Bolshevism, as well as blood libels incidents in the Netherlands. antisemitism is more preva-
against Jews. Nevertheless, in the past few years, this lent in the age group 2327 years, which is a younger
has been increased with the Palestinization of the Hun- group than that of racist incidents in general.
garian people,[271] the reemergence of the blood libel and
an increase in Holocaust relativization and denial, while
the monetary crisis has revived references to the Jewish Norway
banker class.[272]
Main article: Antisemitism in Norway

In 2010, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation after
one year of research, revealed that antisemitism was com-
Main article: Antisemitism in 21st-century Italy mon among some 8th, 9th, and 10th graders in Oslos
schools. Teachers at schools with large numbers of
The ongoing political conict between Israel and Pales- Muslims revealed that Muslim students often praise or
tine has played an important role in the development and admire Adolf Hitler for his killing of Jews", that Jew-
expression of antisemitism in the 21st century, and in hate is legitimate within vast groups of Muslim students
Italy as well. The Second Intifada, which began in late and that Muslims laugh or command [teachers] to stop
September 2000, has set in motion unexpected mech- when trying to educate about the Holocaust". Addition-

ally, while some students might protest when some ex- chanted Hitler in the streets. As a result of security con-
press support for terrorism, none object when students ex- cerns, Malm's synagogue has guards and rocket-proof
press hate of Jews, saying that it says in the Quran that glass in the windows, and the Jewish kindergarten can
you shall kill Jews, all true Muslims hate Jews. Most of only be reached through thick steel security doors.[286]
these students were said to be born and raised in Norway. In early 2010, the Swedish publication The Local pub-
One Jewish father also stated that his child had been taken lished series of articles about the growing antisemitism in
by a Muslim mob after school (though the child managed Malm, Sweden.[287] In 2009, the Malm police received
to escape), reportedly to be taken out to the forest and reports of 79 antisemitic incidents, which was twice the
hung because he was a Jew.[280][281]
number of the previous year (2008).[288] Fredrik Sier-
Norwegian Education Minister Kristin Halvorsen re- adzki, spokesman for the Malm Jewish community, esti-
ferred to the antisemitism reported in this study as being mated that the already small Jewish population is shrink-
completely unacceptable. The head of a local Islamic ing by 5% a year. Malm is a place to move away from,
council joined Jewish leaders and Halvorsen in denounc- he said, citing antisemitism as the primary reason.[289]
ing such antisemitism.[282] In March 2010, Fredrik Sieradzk told Die Presse, an
In October 2012, the Organization for Security and Austrian Internet publication, that Jews are being ha-
Co-Operation in Europe issued a report regarding anti- rassed and physically attacked by people from the Mid-
semitism in Norway, criticizing Norway for an increase dle East, although he added that only a small number of
in antisemitism in the country and blaming Norwegian Malm's 40,000 Muslims exhibit hatred of Jews.[290] In
ocials for failing to address antisemitism.[283] October 2010, The Forward reported on the current state
of Jews and the level of antisemitism in Sweden. Henrik
Bachner, a writer and professor of history at the Univer-
Russia sity of Lund, claimed that members of the Swedish Par-
liament have attended anti-Israel rallies where the Israeli
Main article: Antisemitism in Russia ag was burned while the ags of Hamas and Hezbol-
lah were waved, and the rhetoric was often antisemitic
not just anti-Israel.[291] Judith Popinski, an 86-year-old
Holocaust survivor, stated that she is no longer invited
Spain to schools that have a large Muslim presence to tell her
story of surviving the Holocaust.[289] In December 2010,
Main articles: Antisemitism in Spain and Anti-Semitism the Jewish human rights organization Simon Wiesenthal
in International Brigades Center issued a travel advisory concerning Sweden, ad-
vising Jews to express extreme caution when visiting
the southern parts of the country due to an alleged in-
crease in verbal and physical harassment of Jewish citi-
Sweden zens in the city of Malm.[292] Ilmar Reepalu, the mayor
of Malm for over 15 years, has been accused of failing to
Main article: Antisemitism in Sweden protect the Jewish community in Malm, causing 30 Jew-
ish families to leave the city in 2010, and more preparing
to leave, which has left the possibility that Malm's Jew-
After Germany and Austria, Sweden has the highest rate ish community will disappear soon. Critics of Reepalu
of antisemitic incidents in Europe, though the Nether- say that his statements, such as antisemitism in Malm
lands has reported a higher rate of antisemitism in some actually being an understandable consequence of Israeli
years.[244] A government study in 2006 estimated that policy in the Middle East, have encouraged young Mus-
15% of Swedes agree with the statement: The Jews have lims to abuse and harass the Jewish community.[286] In an
too much inuence in the world today.[284] 5% of the interview with the Sunday Telegraph in February 2010,
total adult population and 39% of adult Muslims har- Reepalu said, There haven't been any attacks on Jewish
bour systematic antisemitic views.[284] The former prime people, and if Jews from the city want to move to Israel
minister Gran Persson described these results as sur- that is not a matter for Malm, which renewed concerns
prising and terrifying. However, the rabbi of Stock- about Reepalu.[293]
holms Orthodox Jewish community, Meir Horden, said
that Its not true to say that the Swedes are anti-Semitic.
Some of them are hostile to Israel because they support Ukraine
the weak side, which they perceive the Palestinians to
be.[285] Main article: Antisemitism in Ukraine
In 2009, a synagogue that served the Jewish community Oleh Tyahnybok, the leader of the far-right Svoboda
in Malm was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were re- party, whose members hold senior positions in Ukraines
peatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused while re- government, urged his party to ght the Moscow-
turning home from prayer, and masked men mockingly Jewish maa ruling Ukraine.[294] The Algemeiner Jour-

(CAA) found that the previous year, 2015, had been the
worst on record for antisemitic hate crime in the UK.[304]
The report noted that the previous peak in antisemitic
crime was during 2014, but that during 2015 antisemitic
crime had surged again, rising by 25.6% over the levels
recorded the year before, with a 50.8% increase in an-
tisemitic violence. Despite rising levels of antisemitic
crime, the report noted that there had been a decrease
of 7.2% in the charging of antisemitic crime. In the re-
ports foreword, CAAs Chairman issued an urgent call
to action: This data should alarm those responsible for
enforcing the law: they are failing British Jews badly.
Britain has the political will to ght antisemitism and
strong laws with which to do it, but in too many cases,
Antisemithic grati in Lviv; Yids will not reside in Lviv, 2007 those responsible for tackling the rapidly growing racist
targeting of British Jews are failing to enforce the law. If
the situation continues to deteriorate, the Jewish commu-
nal reported: Svoboda supporters include among their nity will be faced with the kind of rampant antisemitism
heroes leaders of pro-Nazi World War II organizations seen in other European countries, which has left Jews
known for their atrocities against Jews and Poles, such as feeling fearful and abandoned, many of them convinced
the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the that they have no choice but to emigrate. The time to
Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and the 14th Waen- act was 2014. The authorities can still make up for lost
SS Galicia Division.[295] time, but the window is closing. Britains ght against an-
According to The Simon Wiesenthal Center (in January tisemitism and extremism cannot be allowed to fail.[305]
2011) Ukraine has, to the best of our knowledge, never A report by the Community Security Trust found that the
conducted a single investigation of a local Nazi war crim- rise in antisemitic incidents continued with a further 11%
inal, let alone prosecuted a Holocaust perpetrator.[296] increase in incidents in the rst six months of 2016.[306]
According to Der Spiegel, Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the In 2015, Campaign Against Antisemitism undertook re-
far-right Right Sector, wrote: I wonder how it came search into the prevalence of antisemitic crime in the UK,
to pass that most of the billionaires in Ukraine are commissioning polling by YouGov.[307] The polling re-
Jews?"[297] Late February 2014 Yarosh pledged during a vealed that 45% of British adults held at least one form
meeting with Israels ambassador in Kiev to ght all formsof antisemitic prejudice, 26% held at least two forms of
of racism.[298] Right Sectors leader for West Ukraine, antisemitic prejudice, and 17% held at least three forms
Oleksandr Muzychko, has talked about ghting com- of antisemitic prejudice. Additionally, the polling re-
munists, Jews and Russians for as long as blood ows vealed widespread fear amongst British Jews, with 45%
in my veins.[299] Muzychko was shot dead on 24 March of British Jews saying they feared they had no future in
2014.[300] An ocial inquiry concluded he had shot him- the UK and 25% saying that they had considered emigrat-
self in the heart at the end of a chase with the Ukrainianing in the last two years due to antisemitism. The report
police.[300] gave various indications as to the cause of the fears, with
77% of British Jews saying that they had witnessed anti-
In April 2014, Donetsk Chief Rabbi Pinchas Vishedski semitism disguised as a political comment about Israel.
said that Anti-Semitic incidents in the Russian-speaking
east were rare, unlike in Kiev and western Ukraine.[301] In 2016, the Home Aairs Select Committee held an in-
An April 2014 listing of anti-Jewish violence in Ukraine quiry into the rise of antisemitism in the UK. The
[309] [310]
in Haaretz no incidents outside this Russian-speaking inquiry called Jeremy Corbyn, Ken Livingstone
east were mentioned.[302] and others to give evidence. Its report was sharply criti-
cal of Jeremy Corbyn, the Labour Party, the Chakrabarti
According to the Israels Ambassador to Ukraine, the an- Inquiry, the Liberal Democrats, the National Union of
tisemitism occurs here much less frequently than in other Students, Twitter and police forces for variously exac-
European countries, and has more a hooligans nature erbating or failing to address antisemitism. The report
rather than a system.[303] endorsed various recommendations previously made by
Campaign Against Antisemitism.[311] In 2005, a group
United Kingdom of British Members of Parliament set up an inquiry into
antisemitism, which published its ndings in 2006. Its
Main articles: Antisemitism in the United Kingdom and report stated that until recently, the prevailing opinion
British Jews both within the Jewish community and beyond [had been]
that antisemitism had receded to the point that it existed
only on the margins of society. It found a reversal of
In 2016, a report by Campaign Against Antisemitism

this progress since 2000. The inquiry was reconstituted has been criticized by gures such as former U.S. Com-
following a surge in antisemitic incidents in Britain dur- mission on Civil Rights Sta Director Kenneth L. Mar-
ing the summer of 2014, and the new inquiry published cus, who is now the director of the Initiative to Combat
its report in 2015, making recommendations for reducing Anti-Semitism and Anti-Israelism in Americas Educa-
antisemitism.[312] tional Systems at the Institute for Jewish and Commu-
nity Research, and Deborah Lipstadt, who described the
decision as weird and strange.[318] Antony Lerman
1.5.10 North America has supported Yales decision, describing the YIISA as a
politicized initiative that was devoted to the promotion of
Canada Israel rather than to serious research on antisemitism.[319]

Main article: Antisemitism in Canada A 2007 survey by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL)
concluded that 15% of Americans hold antisemitic views,
which was in-line with the average of the previous ten
Although antisemitism in Canada is less prevalent than in years, but a decline from the 29% of the early sixties. The
many other countries, there have been recent incidents. survey concluded that education was a strong predictor,
For example, a 2004 study identied 24 incidents of an- with most educated Americans being remarkably free
tisemitism between 14 March and 14 July 2004 in New- of prejudicial views. The belief that Jews have too much
foundland, Montreal, Quebec City, Ottawa, the Greater power was considered a common antisemitic view by the
Toronto Area (GTA), and some smaller Ontario commu- ADL. Other views indicating antisemitism, according to
nities. The incidents included vandalism and other at- the survey, include the view that Jews are more loyal to
tacks on four synagogues, six cemeteries, four schools, Israel than America, and that they are responsible for the
and a number of businesses and private residences.[313] death of Jesus of Nazareth. The survey found that an-
tisemitic Americans are likely to be intolerant generally,
United States e.g. regarding immigration and free-speech. The 2007
survey also found that 29% of foreign-born Hispanics and
Main article: Antisemitism in the United States 32% of African-Americans hold strong antisemitic be-
See also: History of antisemitism in the United States liefs, three times more than the 10% for whites.[320]
A 2009 study published in Boston Review found that
In November 2005, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights nearly 25% of non-Jewish Americans blamed Jews for
examined antisemitism on college campuses. It reported the nancial crisis of 20082009, with a higher per-
that incidents of threatened bodily injury, physical in- centage among Democrats than Republicans. 32% of
timidation or property damage are now rare, but anti- Democrats blamed Jews for the nancial crisis, versus
semitism still occurs on many campuses and is a serious 18% for Republicans.[321][322]
problem. The Commission recommended that the U.S. In August 2012, the California state assembly approved a
Department of Education's Oce for Civil Rights protect non-binding resolution that encourages university lead-
college students from antisemitism through vigorous en- ers to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti-Israel
forcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and actions, although the resolution is purely symbolic and
further recommended that Congress clarify that Title VI does not carry policy implications.[323]
applies to discrimination against Jewish students.[314]
On 19 September 2006, Yale University founded the
Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of Anti- 1.5.11 South America
Semitism (YIISA), the rst North American university-
based center for study of the subject, as part of its In- Venezuela
stitution for Social and Policy Studies. Director Charles
Small of the Center cited the increase in antisemitism Further information: Antisemitism in Venezuela and
worldwide in recent years as generating a need to un- History of the Jews in Venezuela
derstand the current manifestation of this disease.[315]
In June 2011, Yale voted to close this initiative. After In a 2009 news story, Michael Rowan and Douglas E.
carrying out a routine review, the faculty review commit- Schoen wrote, In an infamous Christmas Eve speech
tee said that the initiative had not met its research and several years ago, Chvez said the Jews killed Christ and
teaching standards. Donald Green, then head of Yales have been gobbling up wealth and causing poverty and
Institution for Social and Policy Studies, the body under injustice worldwide ever since.[324] Hugo Chvez stated
whose aegis the antisemitism initiative was run, said that that "[t]he world is for all of us, then, but it so happens
it had not had many papers published in the relevant lead- that a minority, the descendants of the same ones that
ing journals or attracted many students. As with other crucied Christ, the descendants of the same ones that
programs that had been in a similar situation, the initia- kicked Bolvar out of here and also crucied him in their
tive had therefore been cancelled.[316][317] This decision own way over there in Santa Marta, in Colombia. A mi-

Jacob Barnet aair

Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory
May Laws
Persecution of Jews
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
Rootless cosmopolitan
Secondary antisemitism
Stab-in-the-back legend
Timeline of antisemitism
Antisemitic grati in Venezuela, alongside a hammer and sickle

1.7 References
nority has taken possession of all of the wealth of the
In February 2012, opposition candidate for the 2012
Venezuelan presidential election Henrique Capriles was [1] Denition from the Oxford dictionary
subject to what foreign journalists characterized as
vicious[326] attacks by state-run media sources.[327][328] [2] anti-Semitism Denition and More from the Merriam-
The Wall Street Journal said that Capriles was vilied Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
in a campaign in Venezuelas state-run media, which in- [3] See, for example:
sinuated he was, among other things, a homosexual and
a Zionist agent.[326] A 13 February 2012 opinion arti- Anti-Semitism, Encyclopdia Britannica, 2006.
cle in the state-owned Radio Nacional de Venezuela, ti- Johnson, Paul. A History of the Jews, HarperPeren-
tled The Enemy is Zionism[329] attacked Capriles Jew- nial 1988, p 133 .
ish ancestry and linked him with Jewish national groups Lewis, Bernard. The New Anti-Semitism, The
because of a meeting he had held with local Jewish American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006,
leaders,[326][327][330] saying, This is our enemy, the Zion- pp. 25-36. The paper is based on a lecture delivered
ism that Capriles today represents... Zionism, along with at Brandeis University on March 24, 2004.
capitalism, are responsible for 90% of world poverty and
imperialist wars.[326] [4] United Nations General Assembly Session 53 Resolution
133.Measures to combat contemporary forms of racism,
racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance
A/RES/53/133 page 4. 1 March 1999.
1.6 See also
[5] Nathan, Julie (9 November 2014). 2014 Report on Anti-
semitism in Australia (PDF). Executive Council of Aus-
1968 Polish political crisis tralian Jewry. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12
April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
Antisemitism around the world
[6] Bein 1990, p. 595.
Antisemitism in the anti-globalization movement
[7] Chanes 2004, p. 150.
Antisemitism in the Arab world
[8] Rattansi 2007, p. 45.
Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 19441946
[9] Roth 2003, p. 30.
Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 19441946 [10] Johnston 1983, p. 27.
Anti-Arabism [11] Laqueur (2006). p. 21.

Criticism of Judaism [12] Johnson 1987, p. 133.

Farhud [13] Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Antisemites. Extract from

Islam in History: Ideas, Men and Events in the Middle East,
Host desecration The Library Press, 1973.

Lewis, Bernard. The New Anti-Semitism, The Christian tradition even when it moved via the natural sci-
American Scholar, Volume 75 No. 1, Winter 2006, ences, into racism. It is doubtful whether the term which
pp. 2536. The paper is based on a lecture de- was rst publicizes in an institutional context (the Anti-
livered at Brandeis University on 24 March 2004. Semitic League) would have appeared at all if the Anti-
broken link Chancellor League, which fought Bismarcks policy, had
not been in existence since 1875. The founders of the new
[14] Bein, Alex. The Jewish Question: Biography of a World Organization adopted the elements of anti and league,
Problem. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990, p. and searched for the proper term: Marr exchanged the
594. ISBN 0-8386-3252-1. term Jew for Semite which he already favored. It is
possible that the shortened form Sem is used with such
[15] Falk (2008), p. 21 frequency and ease by Marr (and in his writings) due to its
[16] Poliakov, Lon The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol. 3: literary advantage and because it reminded Marr of Sem
From Voltaire to Wagner, University of Pennsylvania Biedermann, his Jewish employer from the Vienna period.
Press: 2003, p. 404 ISBN 978-0-8122-1865-7
[25] The Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk & Wagnalls. p. 641 (A).
[17] Falk, Avner (2008). Anti-Semitism: A History and Psy-
[26] Benjamin Isaac,The Invention of Racism in Classical An-
choanalysis of Contemporary Hatred. Westport, Conn.:
tiquity, Princeton University Press 2004 p.442.
Praeger. p. 21.

[18] Brustein, William I. (2003). Roots of Hate: Anti-Semitism [27] Matas, David. Aftershock: Anti-Zionism and Anti-
in Europe before the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge semitism, Dundurn Press, 2005, p. 34.
University Press. p. 118.
[28] Lewis (1999), p. 117
[19] Jonathan M. Hess, Johann David Michaelis and the Colo-
nial Imaginary: Orientalism and the Emergence of Racial [29] Almog, Shmuel. Whats in a Hyphen?", SICSA Report:
Antisemitism in Eighteenth-Century Germany, Jewish Newsletter of the Vidal Sassoon International Center for
Social Studies, Volume 6, Number 2, Winter 2000 (New the Study of Antisemitism (Summer 1989).
Series), pp. 56-101 | 10.1353/jss.2000.0003; quote:
[30] The Power of Myth (PDF). Facing History. Archived
When the term antisemitism was rst introduced in
from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 21
Germany in the late 1870s, those who used it did so in or-
August 2006.
der to stress the radical dierence between their own an-
tisemitism and earlier forms of antagonism toward Jews
[31] Bauer, Yehuda. Problems of Contemporary Anti-
and Judaism.
semitism (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
[20] Jaspal, Rusi (2014). Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism: Rep- 7 March 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2006.
resentation, Cognition and Everyday Talk. Farnham, Sur-
[32] Bauer, Yehuda. A History of the Holocaust, Franklin
rey: Ashgate Publishing. Chapter 2, section Anti-
Watts, 1982, p. 52. ISBN 0-531-05641-4.
semitism: Conceptual Issues. Jaspal erroneously gives
the date of publication as 1873.
[33] Prager & Telushkin (2003), p. 199
[21] Marr, Wilhelm. Der Sieg des Judenthums ber das
[34] Carroll, James (2002). Constantines Sword: The Church
Germanenthum. Vom nicht confessionellen Standpunkt
and the Jews. New York: Mariner. pp. 62829. ISBN
aus betrachtet. Rudolph Costenoble. 1879, 8th
0618219080. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
edition/printing. Marr uses the word
Semitismus (Semitism) on pages 7, 11, 14, 30, 32, and [35] Sevenster, Jan Nicolaas (1975). The Roots of Pagan Anti-
46; for example, one nds in the conclusion the following Semitism in the Ancient World. Brill Archive. pp. 1
passage: Ja, ich bin berzeutgt, ich habe ausgesprochen, 2. ISBN 90-04-04193-1. It has long been realised that
was Millionen Juden im Stillen denken: Dem Semitismus there are objections to the term anti-Semitism and there-
gehrt die Weltherrschaft!" (Yes, I am convinced that I fore an endeavour has been made to nd a word which
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Bein, Alex (1990). The Jewish Question: Biog-
[314] Ending Campus Anti-Semitism. Retrieved raphy of a World Problem. Translated by Harry
2 June 2012. Zohn. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Univer-
sity Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3252-9.
[315] Yale creates center to study antisemitism Associated
Press, 19 September 2006 Chanes, Jerome A. (2004). Antisemitism: a Refer-
[316] Mary E. O'Leary (7 June 2011). Yale cancels interdisci-
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[317] Kampeas, Ron. (10 June 2011) Shuttering of Yale pro- Flannery, Edward H. (1985). The Anguish of
gram on anti-Semitism raises hackles. the Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Antisemitism.
Retrieved 2 June 2012. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4324-5.

Flannery, Edward H. (2004). The Anguish of Prager, Dennis; Telushkin, Joseph (2003) [1985].
the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Why the Jews? The Reason for Antisemitism (reprint
Mahwah, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4324-0. ed.). Touchstone. ISBN 0-7432-4620-9.
Falk, Avner (2008). Anti-Semitism: a History and Rattansi, Ali (2007). Racism: A Very Short Intro-
Psychoanalysis of Contemporary Hatred. Westport, duction. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-280590-4.
CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-35384-0.
Rubenstein, Richard L.; Roth, John K. (2003).
Johnson, Paul (1987). A History of the Jews. Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and Its
New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06- Legacy. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-
091533-1. 0-664-22353-3.
Johnston, William (1983). The Austrian Mind: An Anti-semitism entry by Gotthard Deutsch in the
Intellectual and Social History, 1848-1938. Univer- Jewish Encyclopedia, 19011906 ed.
sity of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04955-0.
Laqueur, Walter (2006). The Changing Face of An- Further reading
tisemitism: From Ancient Times to the Present Day
(1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19- Books and reports
Levy, Richard S., ed. (2005). Antisemitism: a His- Bodansky, Yossef. Islamic Anti-Semitism as a Polit-
torical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. ical Instrument, Freeman Center For Strategic Stud-
Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109- ies, 1999.
439-3. Carr, Steven Alan. Hollywood and anti-Semitism: A
Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: cultural history up to World War II, Cambridge Uni-
an Inquiry into Conict and Prejudice. W. W. Nor- versity Press 2001.
ton & Co. ISBN 0-393-31839-7. Cohn, Norman. Warrant for Genocide, Eyre &
Lipstadt, Deborah (1994). Denying the Holocaust: Spottiswoode 1967; Serif, 1996.
the Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. Penguin Freudmann, Lillian C. Antisemitism in the New Tes-
Books. ISBN 0-452-27274-2. tament, University Press of America, 1994.
Perry, Marvin; Schweitzer, Frederick M. (2002). Gerber, Jane S. (1986). Anti-Semitism and the
Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Muslim World. In History and Hate: The Dimen-
Present. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312- sions of Anti-Semitism, ed. David Berger. Jewish
16561-1. Publications Society. ISBN 0-8276-0267-7
Perry, Marvin; Schweitzer, Frederick M. (2005).
Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European
Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the
Jews. Holmes & Meier, 1985. 3 volumes.
Present. New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0-312-16561-
7. Isser, Natalie. Antisemitism during the French Sec-
ond Empire (1991)
Poliakov, Lon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol-
ume 1: From the Time of Christ to the Court Jews, McKain, Mark. Anti-Semitism: At Issue, Green-
University of Pennsylvania Press: 2003 haven Press, 2005.
Poliakov, Lon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol- Marcus, Kenneth L. The Denition of Anti-
ume 2: From Mohammad to the Marranos, Univer- Semitism, 2015, Oxford University Press
sity of Pennsylvania Press: 2003
Michael, Robert and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of
Poliakov, Lon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol- Antisemitism, The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2007
ume 3: From Voltaire to Wagner, University of
Pennsylvania Press: 2003 Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Anti-
semitism, and the Holocaust
Poliakov, Lon. The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol-
ume 4: Suicidal Europe 18701933, University of Nirenberg, David. Anti-Judaism: The Western Tra-
Pennsylvania Press: 2003 dition (New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
2013) 610 pp.
Poliakov, Lon (1997). Anti-Semitism.
Encyclopaedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition Version Richardson, Peter (1986). Anti-Judaism in Early
1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. Christianity. Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
ISBN 965-07-0665-8 ISBN 0-88920-167-6.

Roth, Philip. The Plot Against America, 2004 Yehoshua, A.B., An Attempt to Identify the Root
Cause of Antisemitism, Azure, Spring 2008.
Selzer, Michael (ed). Kike!" : A Documentary His-
tory of Anti-Semitism in America, New York 1972. Antisemitism in modern Ukraine

Steinweis, Alan E. Studying the Jew: Scholarly An- Antisemitism and Special Relativity
tisemitism in Nazi Germany. Harvard University
Press, 2006. ISBN 0-674-02205-X.

Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands:

1.8 External links
A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jew-
ish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276- The Journal for the Study of Antisemitism
0198-0 H-Antisemitism, H-Net discussion list for scholars
and advanced students
Stillman, N.A. (2006). Yahud. Encyclopaedia
of Islam. Eds.: P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. H-HOLOCAUST, H-Net discussion list for scholars
Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. and advanced students
Brill Online
Aish Why the Jews? Real Causes or mere excuses?
""Contemporary Global Anti-Semitism: A Report
Provided to the United States Congress"" (PDF). Yad Vashem Antisemitism: About the Holocaust
(7.4 MB), United States Department of State, 2008.
Anti-Defamation League Report on International
Retrieved 25 November 2010. See html version.
Stav, Arieh (1999). Peace: The Arabian Caricature
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:
A Study of Anti-semitic Imagery. Gefen Publishing
Special Focus: Antisemitism; Encyclopedia 1, 2, 3,
House. ISBN 965-229-215-X
4, 5, 6; Voices on Antisemitism Podcast Series
Tausch, Arno, The New Global Antisemitism: Im-
Yale Initiative for the Interdisciplinary Study of An-
plications from the Recent ADL-100 Data (January
14, 2015). Middle East Review of International Af-
fairs, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Fall 2014). Available at International Institute for Education and Research
SSRN: or http: on Antisemitism (Berlin/London)
Anti-semitism: A Growing Threat to All Faiths:
Hearing before the Subcommittee on Africa, Global
Bibliographies, calendars, etc.
Health, Global Human Rights, and International Or-
ganizations of the Committee on Foreign Aairs,
Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, Experts House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth
explore eects of Ahmadinejad anti-Semitism, 9 Congress, First Session, February 27, 2013
March 2007
The United nations and Anti-Semitism
Lazare, Bernard, Antisemitism: Its History and

Anti-Defamation League Arab Antisemitism

Why the Jews? A perspective on causes of anti-


Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism

(with up to date calendar of antisemitism today)

Annotated bibliography of anti-Semitism hosted by

the Hebrew University of Jerusalems Center for the
Study of Antisemitism (SICSA)

Council of Europe, ECRI Country-by-Country Re-


Porat, Dina. What makes an anti-Semite?",

Haaretz, 27 January 2007. Retrieved 24 November
Chapter 2

Semitic people

This article is about the racial and ethnic term popular 2.1 Ethnicity and race
in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the history of
ancient groups who spoke Semitic languages, see ancient Further information: Archaeogenetics of the Near East,
Semitic-speaking peoples. Caucasian race, Hamitic, and Scientic racism
Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical In the racialist classications of Carleton S. Coon, the

This T and O map, from the rst printed version of Isidore of

Seville's Etymologiae, identies the three known continents as
populated by descendants of Sem (Shem), Iafeth (Japheth) and
Cham (Ham).
The rst depiction of historical ethnology of the world sep-
arated into the Biblical sons of Noah: Semitic, Hamitic and
Japhetic, 1771, Gatterer's Einleitung in die Synchronistische
Semitic peoples were considered to be members of the
Universalhistorie[1] Caucasian race, not dissimilar in appearance to the neigh-
bouring Indo-European, Northwest Caucasian, Berber
and Kartvelian-speaking peoples of the region.[10] As lan-
"Shem", Hebrew: )was a term for an ethnic, cul- guage studies are interwoven with cultural studies, the
tural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic lan- term also came to describe the religions (ancient Semitic
guages.[2][3][4][5] The terminology was rst used in the and Abrahamic) and Semitic-speaking ethnicities as well
1770s by members of the Gttingen School of History, as the history of these varied cultures as associated by
who derived the name from Shem, one of the three sons close geographic and linguistic distribution.[11]
of Noah in the Book of Genesis.[6] The term Semitic, Some recent genetic studies have found (by analysis
together with the parallel terms Hamitic and Japhetic, of the DNA of Semitic-speaking peoples) that they
is now largely obsolete outside of linguistics.[7][8][9] have some common ancestry. Although no signi-
However, in archaeology, the term is sometimes used cant common mitochondrial results have been found, Y-
informally as a kind of shorthand for ancient Semitic- chromosomal links between modern Semitic-speaking
speaking peoples.[9] peoples of the Middle East like Arabs, Hebrews,


Mandaeans, Samaritans and Assyrians have shown links, circuitous route to refer more narrowly to anyone who was
despite dierences contributed from other groups (see Y- hostile or discriminatory towards Jews in particular.[15]
chromosomal Aaron). Anthropologists of the 19th century such as Ernest Re-
A DNA study of Jews and Palestinian Arabs (includ- nan readily aligned linguistic groupings with ethnicity
ing Bedouins) found that these were more closely related and culture, appealing to anecdote, science and folklore
to each other than to people of the Arabian Peninsula, in their eorts to dene racial character. Moritz Stein-
Ethiopian Semitic-speaking people (Amharas, Tigrayans schneider, in his periodical of Jewish letters Hamaskir
, Harari and Tigre people), and the Arabic speakers of (3 (Berlin 1860), 16), discusses an article by Heymann
North Africa.[12][13] Steinthal[16] criticising Renans article New Considera-
Genetic studies indicate that modern Jews (Ashkenazi, tions on the General Character of the Semitic[17]Peoples,
Sephardic and Mizrahi specically), Levantine Arabs, In Particular Their Tendency to Monotheism. Renan
Assyrians, Samaritans, Maronites, Druze, Mandaeans, had acknowledged the importance of the ancient civilisa-
and Mhallami, all have an ancient indigenous common tions of Mesopotamia, Israel etc. but called the Semitic
Near Eastern heritage which can be genetically mapped races inferior to the Aryan for their monotheism, which
back to the ancient Fertile Crescent, but often also dis- he held to arise from their supposed lustful, violent, un-
play genetic proles distinct from one another, indicating scrupulous and selsh racial instincts. Steinthal summed
the dierent histories of these peoples.[14] up these predispositions as Semitism, and so Stein-
schneider characterised Renans ideas as anti-Semitic
In 1879 the German journalist Wilhelm Marr, in a pam-
2.2 Antisemitism and Semiticisa- phlet called Der Weg zum Siege des Germanenthums ber
das Judenthum (The Way to Victory of Germanicism
tion over Judaism), began the politicisation of the term by
speaking of a struggle between Jews and Germans. He ac-
Main article: Antisemitism cused them of being liberals, a people without roots who
The terms anti-Semite or antisemitism came by a had Judaized Germans beyond salvation. In 1879 Marrs
adherents founded the League for Anti-Semitism[19]
which concerned itself entirely with anti-Jewish political
Objections to the usage of the term, such as the obsolete
nature of the term Semitic as a racial term and the exclu-
sion of discrimination against non-Jewish Semitic peo-
ples, have been raised since at least the 1930s.[20][21]

2.3 See also

Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples



Generations of Noah

2.4 References
[1] Einleitung in die synchronistische universalhistorie, Gat-
terer, 1771. Described rst ethnic use of the term Semitic
by: (1) A note on the history of 'Semitic', 2003, by Martin
Baasten; and (2) Taal-, land- en volkenkunde in de acht-
tiende eeuw, 1994, by Han Vermeulen (in Dutch).

[2] Liverani1995, p. 392: A more critical look at this

complex of problems should advise employing today the
1879 statute of the Antisemitic League, the organization which term and the concept Semites exclusively in its linguistic
rst popularized the term sense, and, on the other hand, tracing back every cultural

fact to its concrete historical environment. The use of the Edward Said, who raIsed anew the Semitic question, the
term Semitic in culture, subject as it is to arbitrary sim- role of the imagination can hardly be downplayed.
plications, shows methodological risks which exceed by
far the possibility of positive historical analysis. In any [9] Lewis, Bernard (1987). Semites and Anti-Semites: An In-
case the Semitic character of every cultural fact is a prob- quiry into Conict and Prejudice. W W Norton & Co
lem which in each situation must be ascenained in its lim- Inc. ISBN 0393304205. The confusion between race and
its and in its historical setting (both in time and in the so- language goes back a long way, and was compounded by
cial environment), and may not be assumed as obvious or the rapidly changing content of the word race in Euro-
traced back to a presumed Proto-Semitic culture, stati- pean and later in American usage. Serious scholars have
cally conceived. pointed outrepeatedly and ineectually-that Semitic
is a linguistic and cultural classication, denoting certain
[3] On the use of the terms (anti-)Semitic and (anti-) Zion- languages and in some contexts the literatures and civi-
ist in modern Middle Eastern discourse, Orientalia Sue- lizations expressed in those languages. As a kind of short-
cana LXI Suppl. (2012) by Lutz Eberhard Edzard: In lin- hand, it was sometimes retained to designate the speakers
guistics context, the term Semitic is generally speaking of those languages. At one time it might thus have had a
non-controversial... As an ethnic term, Semitic should connotation of race, when that word itself was used to des-
best be avoided these days, in spite of ongoing genetic ignate national and cultural entities. It has nothing what-
research (which also is supported by the Israeli scholarly ever to do with race in the anthropological sense that is
community itself) that tries to scientically underpin such now common usage. A glance at the presentday speakers
a concept. of Arabic, from Khartoum to Aleppo and from Maurita-
nia to Mosul, or even of Hebrew speakers in the modern
[4] Review of The Canaanites (1964) by Marvin Pope: state of Israel, will suce to show the enormous diversity
The term Semitic, coined by Schlozer in 1781, should of racial types.
be strictly limited to linguistic matters since this is the only
area in which a degree of objectivity is attainable. The [10] The Races of Europe by Carleton Stevens Coon. From
Semitic languages comprise a fairly distinct linguistic fam- Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World Introduction:
ily, a fact appreciated long before the relationship of the This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the
Indo-European languages was recognized. The ethnogra- Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the
phy and ethnology of the various peoples who spoke or southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa,
still speak Semitic languages or dialects is a much more Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across
mixed and confused matter and one over which we have Afghanistan into India.
little scientic control.
[11] Semite. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary,
[5] Glckner, Olaf; Fireberg, Haim (25 September 2015). Eleventh Edition.
Being Jewish in 21st-Century Germany. De Gruyter. p.
200. ISBN 978-3-11-035015-9. ...there is no Semitic eth- [12] Nebel, Almut; Filon, Dvora; Brinkmann, Bernd; Ma-
nicity, only Semitic languages jumder, Partha P.; Faerman, Marina; Oppenheim, Ariella
(2001). The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part
[6] Baasten, Martin (2003). A Note on the History of of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East. Amer-
'Semitic'". Hamlet on a Hill: Semitic and Greek Studies ican Journal of Human Genetics. 69 (5): 1095
Presented to Professor T. Muraoka on the Occasion of His 1112. doi:10.1086/324070. PMC 1274378 . PMID
Sixty-fth Birthday. Peeters Publishers. p. 5773. ISBN 11573163.
[13] Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Lusa; Budowle, Bruce;
[7] Anidjar 2008, p. (Foreword): This collection of es- Poloni, Estella S.; Currat, Mathias (2009). Local
says explores the now mostly extinct notion of Semites. Population Structure in Arabian Peninsula Revealed
Invented in the nineteenth century and essential to the by Y-STR Diversity. Hum Hered. 68: 4554.
making of modern conceptions of religion and race, the doi:10.1159/000210448. PMID 19339785.
strange unity of Jew and Arab under one term, Semite
(the opposing term was Aryan), and the circumstances [14] Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Pi-
that brought about its disappearance constitute the subject azza, The History and Geography of Human Genes, p.
of this volume. 243

[8] Anidjar 2008, p. 6: To a large extent, or rather, to a quite [15] Anti-Semitism. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dic-
complete extent, Semites were, like their ever so distant tionary, Eleventh Edition.
relatives - the Aryans - a concrete gment of the West-
[16] Reprinted G. Karpeles (ed.), Steinthal H., Ueber Juden
ern imagination, the peculiar imagination that concerns
und Judentum, Berlin 1918, pp. 91 .
me in the chapters that follow. And just as the witches (the
simultaneous ecacy and deep unreliability of spectral [17] Published in the Journal Asiatique, 1859
evidence), Semites were - I write in the past tense be-
cause Semites are a thing of the past, ephemeral beings [18] Alex Bein, The Jewish Question: Biography of a World
long vanished as such - Semites were, then, something of Problem, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990, p.
a hypothesis (Chapter 1), contemporary with, and con- 594, ISBN 0-8386-3252-1 quoting the Hebrew Ency-
stitutive of, that other powerfully incarnate ction named clopaedia Ozar Ysrael, (edited Jehuda Eisenstadt, London
secularism (Chapter 2). Again, and as underscored by 1924, 2: 130)

[19] Moshe Zimmermann, Wilhelm Marr: The Patriarch of The south Arabian origin of ancient Arabs
Anti-Semitism, Oxford University Press, USA, 1987
The Edomite Hyksos connection
[20] Sevenster, Jan Nicolaas (1975). The Roots of Pagan Anti-
Semitism in the Ancient World. Brill Archive. pp. 1 The perished Arabs
2. ISBN 90-04-04193-1. It has long been realised that
there are objections to the term anti-Semitism and there- The Midianites of the north
fore an endeavour has been made to nd a word which
better interprets the meaning intended. Already in 1936 Ancient Semitic peoples (video)
Bolkestein, for example, wrote an article on Het anti-
semietisme in de oudheid (Anti-Semitism in the ancient
world) in which the word was placed between quotation
marks and a preference was expressed for the term ha-
tred of the Jews Nowadays the term anti-Judaism is
often preferred. It certainly expresses better than anti-
Semitism the fact that it concerns the attitude to the Jews
and avoids any suggestion of racial distinction, which
was not or hardly, a factor of any signicance in an-
cient times. For this reason Leipoldt preferred to speak
of anti-Judaism when writing his Antisemitsmus in der
alien Welt (l933). Bonsirven also preferred this word to
Anti-Semitism, mot moderne qui implique une thorie
des races.
[21] Zimmermann, Moshe (5 March 1987). Wilhelm Marr :
The Patriarch of Anti-Semitism: The Patriarch of Anti-
Semitism. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 112. ISBN
978-0-19-536495-8. The term anti-Semitism was un-
suitable from the beginning for the real essence of Jew-
hatred, which remained anchored, more or less, in the
Christian tradition even when it moved via the natural sci-
ences, into racism. It is doubtful whether the term which
was rst publicizes in an institutional context (the Anti-
Semitic League) would have appeared at all if the Anti-
Chancellor League, which fought Bismarcks policy, had
not been in existence since 1875. The founders of the new
Organization adopted the elements of anti and league,
and searched for the proper term: Marr exchanged the
term Jew for Semite which he already favored. It is
possible that the shortened form Sem is used with such
frequency and ease by Marr (and in his writings) due to its
literary advantage and because it reminded Marr of Sem
Biedermann, his Jewish employer from the Vienna period.

2.5 Bibliography
Anidjar, Gil (2008). Semites: Race, Religion, Litera-
ture. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-
Liverani, Mario (January 1995). Semites. In Ge-
orey W. Bromiley. The International Standard
Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
pp. 387392. ISBN 978-0-8028-3784-4.

2.6 External links

Semitic genetics
Semitic language family tree included under Afro-
Asiatic in SILs Ethnologue.
Chapter 3


For the volcano in the Aleutian Islands, see Pogromni


A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or

persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly
one aimed at Jews. The term originally entered the En-
glish language in order to describe 19th and 20th cen-
tury attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire (mostly within
the Pale of Settlement, what would become Ukraine and
Belarus). Similar attacks against Jews at other times and
places also became retrospectively known as pogroms.
The word is now also sometimes used to describe publicly
sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or
religious groups.[1][2][3][4][5]
The Hep-Hep riots in Frankfurt, 1819. On the left, two peasant
women are assaulting a Jewish man with pitchfork and broom.
3.1 Etymology On the right, a man wearing spectacles, tails and a six-button
waistcoat, perhaps a pharmacist or a schoolteacher,[9] holds
another Jewish man by the throat and is about to club him with
First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom a truncheon. The houses are being looted. A contemporary en-
(, pronounced [pgrom]) is a noun derived from graving by Johann Michael Voltz.
the verb gromit' (, pronounced [grmit]) mean-
ing to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently.
Its literal translation is to harm.[6] The noun pogrom, gan in Prague that led to the burning of the Jewish quarter,
which has a relatively short history, is used in English and the killing of many Jews, and the suicide of many Jews
many other languages as a loanword, possibly borrowed trapped in the main synagogue; the number of dead was
via Yiddish (where the word takes the form ).[7] estimated at 400500 men, women, and children.[15]
Its widespread circulation in todays world began with the The rst atrocities against Jewish civilians, on a geno-
anti-Semitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881 cidal scale of destruction, were committed during the
1883.[8] Khmelnytsky Pogroms of 16481657 in present-day
Ukraine. The precise number of dead is not known, al-
though it is estimated that about 20 percent of Jews of
3.2 Historical background the entire region were killed.[16] Modern historians give
estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytskys
Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men,
Anti-Jewish riots took place in Europe already in the women and children,[17][18] or perhaps many more.[19]
Middle Ages. The Jewish communities were targeted
in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 13481350,
in Toulon in 1348, in Barcelona and in other Catalan
cities,[10] during the Erfurt massacre (1349), the Basel
3.2.1 Pogroms in the Russian Empire
massacre, massacres in Aragon, and in Flanders,
as well as the Valentines Day Strasbourg pogrom of Further information: Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Rus-
1349.[13] Some 510 Jewish communities were destroyed sian Empire
in this period,[14] extending further to the Brussels mas-
sacre of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom be- The Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews,


acquired territories with the large Jewish populations dur- by the Ukrainian Green Army and various Ukrainian
ing the military Partitions of the PolishLithuanian Com- nationalist gangs, 17 percent by the White Army, espe-
monwealth in 1791, 1793, and 1795 conducted jointly cially the forces of Anton Denikin. A further 8.5 per-
with the Austrian and Prussian armies, and resulting in cent of Gergels total was attributed to pogroms carried
Polands elimination from the geopolitical map of Europe out by men of the Red Army although these pogroms
for the next 123 years.[20] In conquered territories, a new were not sanctioned by the Bolshevik leadership; the
political entity called Pale of Settlement was formed in high command disarmed the regiments which had per-
1791 by Catherine the Great. Most Jewish people from petrated pogroms.[29][32] The Ukrainian Peoples Repub-
the former Commonwealth were only allowed to reside lic of Symon Petliura did also issue orders condemning
within the Pale, including families expelled by royal de- pogroms,[33] but it lacked authority to intervene.[33] Af-
cree from St. Petersburg, Moscow, and other big Rus- ter May 1919 the Directory lost its role as a credible gov-
sian cites.[21] The 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the be- erning body; almost 75 percent of pogroms occurred be-
ginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia; tween May and September of that year.[34]
there were four more such pogroms in Odessa before The instructions issued from above had only a limited im-
the end of the century. Following the assassination of pact on soldiers attitudes toward violence against Jews, as
Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya blamed on related by author and future Nobel laureate Ivan Bunin.
the Jews by the Russian government, anti-Jewish events On May 15, 1919, Bunin wrote in his diary about yet an-
turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern other massacre:
denition, which lasted for several years.[22][23] Jewish
self-governing Kehilla was abolished by Tsar Nicholas I
in 1844.[24] Members of the Red Army in Odessa led
a pogrom against the Jewish population in the
The rst, in the 20th century Russia, was the Kishinev town of Big Fountain. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky
pogrom of 1903 in which 47 Jews were killed, hun- and the writer Kipen happened to be there and
dreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses told me the details. Fourteen comissars and
pillaged.[25] It was followed by the Kiev pogrom of Oc- thirty Jews from among the common people
tober 1905, resulting in a massacre of approximately were killed. Many stores were destroyed. The
100 Jews. However, at about the same time, the Jewish soldiers tore through the night, dragged the vic-
Labour Bund began organizing armed self-defence units tims from their beds, and killed whomever they
ready to shoot, and the pogroms subsided for a number met. People ran into the steppe or rushed into
of years.[26] According to professor Colin Tatz, between the sea. They were chased after and red upon
1881 and 1920, there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine a genuine hunt, as it were. Kipen saved him-
(see: Southwestern Krai parts of the Pale) which took the self by accident fortunately he had spent the
lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a night not in his home, but at the White Flower
million homeless.[27] sanitorium. At dawn, a detachment of Red
Army soldiers appeared 'Are there any Jews
here?' they asked the watchman. 'No, no
3.2.2 Russian Civil War period Jews here.' 'Swear what you're saying is true!'
The watchman swore, and they went on farther.
Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Em- Moisei Gutman, a cabby, was killed. He was a
pire several decades earlier, intensied during the pe- dear man who moved us from our dacha last
riod of the Russian Civil War and the Revolution of fall.[35]
1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman (A Century of Ambiva-
lence) estimated that only in 19181919 over 1,200 Gergels overall gures, which are generally considered
pogroms took place in Ukraine thus amounting to a great- conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and
est slaughter of Jews in Eastern Europe since 1648.[28] newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-yidish his-
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book Two Hundred Years toriche arkhiv, which was rst based in Kiev, then Berlin
Together, provided additional statistics from research into and later New York. The English version of Gergels ar-
the pogroms in Ukraine, conducted by Nahum Gergel ticle was published in 1951 in the YIVO Annual of Jew-
(18871931). Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti- ish Social Science titled The Pogroms in the Ukraine in
Jewish violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms 19181921[36]
occurred the remainder being classied as excesses
not assuming mass proportions.[29] The Kiev pogroms
of 1919, according to Gitelman, were the rst of a 3.2.3 Pogroms outside Russia
subsequent wave of pogroms in which between 30,000
and 70,000 Jews were massacred across Ukraine.[30][31] In the early 20th century the pogroms broke out elsewhere
Of all the pogroms accounted for in Gergels research, in the world as well. In 1904 in Ireland, the Limerick
about 40 percent were perpetrated by the Ukrainian Peo- boycott caused several Jewish families to leave the town.
ples Republic forces led by Symon Petliura, 25 percent During the 1911 Tredegar riot in Wales, Jewish homes

and businesses were looted and burned over the period liest of these Holocaust-era pogroms was the Iai pogrom
of a week, before the British army was called in by then- in Romania, in which as many as 13,266 Jews were killed
Home Secretary Winston Churchill, who described the by Romanian citizens, police, and military ocials.[53]
riot as a pogrom.[37] In 1919, in the Americas, there On 12 June 1941, the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq,
was a pogrom in Argentina, during the Tragic Week.[38] in which rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews,
In the aftermath of the First World War, during injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined num-
the localized armed conicts of independence, 72 ber of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and
Jews were killed and 443 injured in the 1918 Lww homes.[54][55]
pogrom.[39][40][41][42][43] The following year, pogroms
were reported by the New-York Tribune in several cities
in the newly reborn Poland,[44] however, the reports were
not only exaggerated, but also manufactured by the Ger-
man legation in Warsaw, quietly opposed to the rebirth of
Poland after a century of imperial partitions. The Ger-
man reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and
the foreign press elsewhere by the ocial services of the
Wihelmstrasse.[45] Meanwhile, in the Mandatory Pales-
tine under British administration, the Jews have been tar-
geted in the 1929 Hebron massacre and the 1929 Safed
The rst pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht,
often called Pogromnacht, in which at least 91 Jews
were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated
in Nazi concentration camps,[46] over 1,000 synagogues
burned, and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or

3.2.4 Nazi-occupied Europe

Jewish woman chased by men and youth armed with clubs during
the Lviv pogroms, July 1941

In JuneJuly, 1941, encouraged by the Einsatzgruppen

in the city of Lviv location of the Lww Ghetto
the Ukrainian Peoples Militia soon reorganized as
the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police perpetrated two city-
wide pogroms, in which around 6,000 Polish Jews were
murdered,[56] in retribution for alleged collaboration with
the Soviet NKVD; the controversy surrounding the Lviv
Iai pogrom in Romania, June 1941 pogroms of 1941 is still debated today. On 12 October
1941 in Stanisaww, some 10,00012,000 Jewish men,
During World War II, the Nazi German death squads en- women, and children were shot at the Jewish cemetery by
couraged pogroms by local populations. Brand new bat- the Germans and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police during
talions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz (trained by the SD the so-called Bloody Sunday (de).[57] The shooters be-
agents) were mobilized from among the German minori- gan ring at 12 noon and continued without stopping by
ties, in order to make the local populations share responsi-taking turns.[58] It was the single largest massacre of Jews
bility for the killings.[49][50] During Operation Barbarossain General Government prior to mass gassings of Aktion
against the Soviet forces in Eastern Europe Reichsfhrer- Reinhard.[59]
SS Heinrich Himmler established the Schutzmannschaft In Lithuania, some Lithuanian police led by Algirdas Kli-
collaborationist auxiliary battalions tasked with carrying maitis and the Lithuanian partisans consisting of LAF
out pogroms behind the front lines.[51] units reinforced by 3,600 deserters from 29th Lithuanian
A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holo- Territorial Corps of the Red Army[60] engaged in anti-
caust at the hands of non-Germans.[52] Perhaps the dead- Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis.

On 2526 June 1941 about 3,800 Jews were killed and 3.3 Usage
synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.[61]
During the Jedwabne pogrom of July 1941, some non-
Jewish Poles burned at least 340 Jews in a barn-house
(nal ndings of the Institute of National Remembrance)
in the presence of Nazi German Ordnungspolizei. The
role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject
of debate.[62][63][64][65][66][67]

3.2.5 After World War II

After the end of World War II, a series of violent anti-

Semitic incidents occurred throughout Europe, partic-
ularly in the Soviet-occupied East, where most of the
returning Jews came back after liberation by the Al-
lied Powers, and where the Nazi propagandists had ex-
tensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist An early
conspiracy (see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944 reference to a pogrom in The Times, December 1903.
1946 and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, 1944 Together with the New York Times and the Hearst
1946). Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in press, they took the lead in highlighting the pogrom
1947. in Kishinev (now Chiinu, Moldova) and other cities
In the Arab world, Anti-Jewish rioters killed over 140 in Russia.[71] In May of the same year, The Times
Jews in the 1945 Anti-Jewish Riots in Tripolitania. Fol- Russian Correspondent Dudley Disraeli Braham had
lowing the start of the 194748 Civil War in Manda- been expelled from Russia.[72]
tory Palestine, a number of anti-Jewish events occurred See also: Denitions of pogrom
throughout the Arab world, some of which have been de-
scribed as pogroms. In 1947, half of Aleppos 10,000 According to Encyclopdia Britannica, the term is usu-
Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots, while ally applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire
other anti-Jewish riots took place in British Aden and the in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, [and] the rst
French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada.[68] extensive pogroms followed the assassination of Tsar

Alexander II in 1881,[1] and the Wiley-Blackwell Dic- which dene the term pogrom.[5][74] Klier writes that
tionary of Modern European History Since 1789 states when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Eu-
that pogroms were antisemitic disturbances that periodi- rope, the term can be misleading, the more so when
cally occurred within the tsarist empire.[2] However, the it implies that 'pogroms were regular events in the re-
term is widely used to refer to many events which oc- gion and that they always shared common features.[3]
curred prior to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Use of the term to refer to events in 191819 in Polish
Empire. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in cities including Kielce, Pinsk and Lww was specically
Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 18811882 that By avoided in the 1919 Morgenthau Report (preferring ex-
the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a cesses), whose authors argued that the term pogrom was
generic term in English for all forms of collective vio- inapplicable to the conditions existing in a war zone and
lence directed against Jews.[3] Abramson wrote that in required the situation to be antisemitic in nature rather
mainstream usage the word has come to imply an act of than political,[5][75][76] and media use of the term pogrom
antisemitism", since whilst Jews have not been the only to refer to the 1991 Crown Heights riot caused public
group to suer under this phenomenon ... historically controversy.[77][78][79] In 2008, two separate attacks in the
Jews have been frequent victims of such violence.[6] West Bank by Israeli Jewish settlers on Palestinian Arabs
were characterized as pogroms by then Prime Minister of
Israel, Ehud Olmert.[80][81]
Werner Bergmann suggests a particular unifying charac-
ter for all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution
of a threat, the pogrom diers from other forms of vi-
olence, such as lynchings, which are directed at individ-
ual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of
power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from
other forms of riot (food riots, race riots, or 'communal
riots' between evenly matched groups), and again, the
low level of organization separates them from vigilantism,
terrorism, massacre and genocide".[82]

The 1921 Tulsa race riot, which destroyed the wealthiest black
3.4 List of events
community in the United States, has been described as a
pogrom.[73] This is a list of events for which one of the commonly
accepted names includes the word pogrom.
The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-
Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some schol-
ars do not include antisemitism as a dening character- 3.5 See also
istic of pogrom. Reviewing its uses in scholarly litera-
ture, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms
Ethnic cleansing
should be dened as a unilateral, nongovernmental form
of collective violence initiated by the majority population Genocidal massacre
against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states
that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state Kristallnacht
to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a (per-
ceived) threat from the minority,[4] but he adds that in
western usage, the words anti-Semitic overtones have 3.6 Notes
been retained.[8] Historian David Engel supports this,
writing that there can be no logically or empirically com- [1] Prof. Sandra Gambetti: A nal note on the use of ter-
pelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode minology related to anti-Semitism. Scholars have fre-
does or does not merit the label [pogrom], but he states quently labeled the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. as the
that the majority of the incidents habitually described rst pogrom in history and have often explained them
as pogroms took place in societies signicantly divided in terms of an ante litteram explosion of anti-Semitism.
by ethnicity and/or religion where the violence was com- This work [The Alexandrian Riots] deliberately avoids any
mitted by the higher-ranking group against a stereotyped words or expressions that in any way connect, explicitly
lower-ranking group against whom they expressed some or implicitly, the Alexandrian events of 38 C.E. to later
complaint, and with the belief that the law of the land events in modern or contemporary Jewish experience, for
which that terminology was created. ... To decide whether
would not be used to stop them.[5]
a word like pogrom, for example, is an appropriate term
There is no universally accepted set of characteristics to describe the events that are studied here, requires a

comparative re-discussion of two historical framesthe in a war zone and required the situation to be antisemitic
Alexandria of 38 C.E. and the Russia of the end of the in nature rather than political.[75]
nineteenth century.[83]
[7] Carole Fink: What happen in Pinsk on April 5, 1919
[2] John Klier: upon the death of the Grand Prince of Kiev was not literally a pogrom an organized, ocially tol-
Sviatopolk, rioting broke out in Kiev against his agents erated or inspired massacre of a minority such as has oc-
and the town administration. The disorders were not curred in Lemberg but rather a military execution of
specically directed against Jews and are best charac- a small, suspect group of civilians. ... The misnamed
terised as a social revolution. This has not prevented Pinsk pogrom, a plain, powerful, alliterative phrase, en-
historians of medieval Russia from describing them as a tered history in April 1919. Its importance lay not only
pogrom.[84][85] in its timing, during the tensest moments of the Paris
George Vernadsky: Incidentally, one should not suppose Peace Conference and the most crucial deliberations over
that the movement was anti-Semitic. There was no general Polands political future: The reports of Pinsk once more
Jewish pogrom. Wealthy Jewish merchants suered be- demonstrated the swift transmission of local violence to
cause of their association with Sviatopolks speculations, world notice and the disguring process of rumor and prej-
especially his hated monopoly on salt.[86] udice on every level.[95]
Norman Davies: The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March
[3] John Klier: Russian armies led by Tsar Ivan IV captured 1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose
the Polish city of Polotsk. The Tsar ordered drowned order to executre thirty-ve suspected Bolshevik inltra-
in the river Dvina all Jews who refused to covert to Or- tors was described by a US investigator as 'fully justied
thodox Christianity. This episode certainly demonstrates by the circumstances"[93]
the overt religious hostility towards the Jews which was
very much a part of Muscovite culture, but its conversion- [8] Norman Davies: Press reports in the West of 'Pogroms in
ary aspects were entirely absent from modern pogroms. Poland', though accepted by Jewish commentators, were
Nor were the Jews the only heterodox religious group sin- repeatedly discredited by the investigations of indepen-
gled out for the tender mercies of Muscovite religious dent British and American observers....the pogroms in
fanaticism.[84] Wilno in April 1919 and again in October 1920 were oc-
casioned by the Red Armys hasty retreats, and by military
[4] Israeli ambassador to Ireland, Boaz Moda'i: I think it is reprisals against suspected collaborators.[93]
a bit over-portrayed, meaning that, usually if you look up
[9] David Engel: similar claims [that] the killing of two Jews
the word pogrom it is used in relation to slaughter and be-
and one Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936 [was
ing killed. This is what happened in many other places in
not, strictly speaking, a pogrom"], which became the sub-
Europe, but that is not what happened here. There was
ject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain and ongoing
a kind of boycott against Jewish merchandise for a while
argument in Poland and beyond in 2001[92]
but thats not a pogrom.[88]
[10] Media use of the term pogrom to refer to the 1991 Crown
[5] William Rubinstein: London-based sources, especially Heights riot caused public controversy.[79][98] For example
the press, Jewish and non-Jewish, consistently exagger- Joyce Purnick of The New York Times wrote in 1993 that
ated the resemblance of the Welsh riots to Russian usage of the word pogrom was inammatory"; she ac-
'pogroms. ... The Western Mails 'London Letter' pointed cused politicians of trying to enlarge and twist the word
this out on 28 August 1911, when it stated that 'both the in order to pander for Jewish voters.[99]
Government and the Jewish leaders think that the Jewish
press is betraying an unnecssary amount of alarm, and that
it would have been better advised to have treated the at-
tacks upon Jews and their property in Wales as part of a 3.7 Citations
general attack upon persons and property'. Perhaps the
most cogent letter on this subject came from Bertam Ja- [1] Pogrom, Encyclopdia Britannica. "pogrom, (Russian:
cobs, a Welsh-born London barrister who wrote to the devastation, or riot), a mob attack, either approved or
South Wales Argus. ... Jacobs pointed out the absurdity condoned by authorities, against the persons and property
of likening the South Wales riots to the Russian pogroms, of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is
noting the crucial dierences between the two, especially usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire
the fact that no Jew was physically assautled, no private in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
house belonging to a Jew was set up, no anti-Semitic cries
or slogans were heard, and, especially, no synagogue was [2] The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European
attacked.[89][90] History Since 1789. Retrieved 15 February 2015.

[6] David Engel: the repeated protests of some scholars [3] John Klier (2011). Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of
that what happened in Lww in November 1918 was not, 18811882. Cambridge University Press. p. 58."By
strictly speaking, a pogrom""[92] the twentieth century, the word pogrom had become a
Norman Davies: The so-called pogrom in Lww, in generic term in English for all forms of collective violence
November 1918, turned out to be a military massacre directed against Jews. The term was especially associated
where three times more Christians died than Jews.[93] with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene
Morgenthau report: The reports authors argued that the of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence be-
term pogrom was inapplicable to the conditions existing fore the Holocaust. Yet when applied indiscriminately

to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, historically Jews have been frequent victims of such vio-
the more so when it implies that pogroms were regular lence. In mainstream usage, the word has come to imply
events in the region and that they always shared common an act of antisemitism.
features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews
were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East [7] Oxford English Dictionary, Dec. 2007 revision. See also:
European life. Pogrom at Online Etymology Dictionary.

[8] International handbook of violence research, Volume 1

[4] For this denition and a review of scholarly denitions see
(Springer, 2005) The word pogrom (from the Russian,
Wilhelm Heitmeyer and John Hagan, International hand-
meaning storm or devastation) has a relatively short his-
book of violence research, Volume 1 (Springer, 2005) pp
tory. Its international currency dates back to the anti-
35255 online
Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years 1881
1883, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a
[5] Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East Eu-
much earlier date and was by no means conned to Rus-
ropean History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David
sia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article The
Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal No doubt many
pogrom paradigm in Russian history, the anti-Semitic
will contend that history suggests the need for a serious
pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as
attempt to clarify what a pogrom is or is not. In the event,
demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the govern-
however, no such clarication is possible, for pogrom
ment made use of the term besporiadok (unrest, riot) to
is not a pre-existing natural category but an abstraction
emphasize the breach of public order. Then, during the
created by human beings in order to divide complex and
twentieth century, the term began to develop along two
innitely varies social phenomena into manageable units
separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-
of analysis. As a result, in the absence of universal agree-
Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary
ment concerning the specic behaviours to which the word
forms of political unrest and, from 1989, for outbreaks of
refers or of some supreme authority to whom the power
interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic
of denition has been delegated, there can be no logi-
overtones were retained and government orchestration or
cally or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that
acquiescence was emphasized.
some particular episode does or does not merit the label.
Engel states that although there are no essential den- [9] Amos Elon (2002), The Pity of It All: A History of the Jews
ing characteristics of a pogrom, the majority of the in- in Germany, 17431933. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-
cidents habitually described as pogroms took place in 8050-5964-4. p. 103.
divided societies in which ethnicity or religion (or both)
served as signicant deners of both social boundaries [10] Anna Foa The Jews of Europe after the black death 2000
and social rank, ... involved collective violent applications p. 13 The rst massacres took place in April 1348 in
of force by members of what perpetrators believed to be Toulon, where the Jewish quarter was raided and forty
a higher-ranking ethnic or religious group against mem- Jews were murdered in their homes. Shortly afterward,
bers of what they considered a lower-ranking or subaltern violence broke out in Barcelona.
group, ... appliers of the decisive force tended to interpret
the behaviour of victims according to stereotypes com- [11] Codex Judaica: chronological index of Jewish history; p.
monly applied to the groups to which they belonged, ... 203 Mttis Kantor - 2005 The Jews were savagely at-
perpetrators expressed some complaint about the victims tacked and massacred, by sometimes hysterical mobs.
group, ... [and] a fundamental lack of condence on the [12] John Marshall John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlight-
part of those who purveyed decisive violence in the ade- enment Culture; p. 376 2006 The period of the Black
quacy of the impersonal rule of law to deliver true justice Death saw the massacre of Jews across Germany, and in
in the event of a heinous wrong. Aragon, and Flanders,
[6] A prayer for the government: Ukrainians and Jews in rev- [13] Stphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, La plus grande
olutionary times, 19171920, Henry Abramson The ety- pidmie de l'histoire (The greatest epidemic in his-
mological roots of the term pogrom are unclear, although tory), in L'Histoire magazine, n 310, June 2006, p. 47
it seems to be derived from the Slavic word for thun- (French)
der(bolt)" (Russian: grom, Ukrainian: hrim). The rst
syllable, po-, is a prex indicating means or target. [14] Durant, Will. The Renaissance, Simon and Schuster
The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of en- (1953), page 730731, ISBN 0-671-61600-5
ergy (thunderbolt) directed at a specic target. A pogrom
[15] Barbara Newman The Passion of the Jews of Prague: The
is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot
Pogrom of 1389 and the Lessons of a Medieval Parody
and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, of-
Church History 81:1 (March 2012), 1-26
ten urban, population is attacked by either an army unit
or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination [16] Herman Rosenthal (1901). Chmielnicki, Bogdan Zi-
of the two. Early instances of this phenomenon in the novi. Jewish Encyclopedia. Also in: Anna Reid (2000).
Russian Empire were described using various terms (here Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine.
in Russian): demonstratsii, gonenie, draky, besporiadki Westview Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-8133-3792-5.
(demonstrations, persecution, ghts, riots). Pogrom, how-
ever, has been the most eective in entering European [17] Historians, who put the number of killed Jewish civilians
languages, perhaps through Yiddish usage. Jews have not at between 40,000 and 100,000 during the Khmelnytsky
been the only group to suer under this phenomenon, but Pogroms in 16481657, include:

(a) Naomi E. Pasacho, Robert J. Littman (2005). A (f) Sol Scharfstein (2004). Jewish History and You,
Concise History Of The Jewish People, Rowman & KTAV Publishing House, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p.
Littleeld, ISBN 0-7425-4366-8, p. 182. 42: estimated at more than 100,000 Jews killed.
(b) David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos (2002). A
[20] Davies, Norman (2005). Rossiya: The Russian Partition
Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell
(17721918)". Gods Playground: a history of Poland.
Publishing, ISBN 0-631-20616-7, p. 68.
Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 6061. ISBN 0199253404.
(c) Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Volume II: Revised Edition.
Conicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and
Other Figures, 15001999, McFarland & Co Inc, [21] Encyclopaedia Judaica. Shtetl. Jewish Virtual Library,
p. 56: estimated at 56,000 dead. The Gale Group. Also in: Rabbi Ken Spiro. Pale of Set-
tlement. History Crash Course #56.
[18] Historians estimating that around 100,000 Jews were
killed include: [22] John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza (2004). Pogroms:
Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cam-
(a) Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate Side of Joseph
bridge University Press. p. 376. ISBN 0521528518. Also
De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Politi-
in: Omer Bartov (2013). Shatterzone of Empires. p. 97.
cal Economy, McGill-Queens Press, 2005, ISBN
Note 45. It should be remembered that for all the vio-
0-7735-2976-4, p. 26.
lence and property damage caused by the 1881 pogroms,
(b) Martin Gilbert (1999). Holocaust Journey: Travel- the number of deaths could be counted on one hand. Fur-
ing in Search of the Past, Columbia University Press, ther information: Oleg Budnitskii (2012). Russian Jews
ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219. Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University
(c) Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing Trap: genocide in of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 1720. ISBN 0812208145.
the twentieth century, Cambridge University Press,
2005, ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352. [23] Heinz-Dietrich Lwe, Pogroms in Russia: Explanations,
Comparisons, Suggestions, Jewish Social Studies , New Se-
(d) Oscar Reiss (2004). The Jews in Colonial America,
ries, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Autumn, 2004) , pp. 17. Excerpt.
McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp.
9899. [24] Henry Abramson (1013 July 2002). The end of inti-
(e) Colin Martin Tatz (2003). With Intent to Destroy: mate insularity: new narratives of Jewish history in the
Reections on Genocide, Verso, ISBN 1-85984- post-Soviet era (PDF). Acts. Sapporo, Japan: Sympo-
550-9, p. 146. sium Construction and Deconstruction of National His-
(f) Samuel Totten (2004). Teaching About Geno- tories in Slavic Eurasia.
cide: Issues, Approaches, and Resources, Informa-
[25] Rosenthal, Herman; Rosenthal, Max (19011906).
tion Age Publishing, ISBN 1-59311-074-X, p. 25.
Kishinef (Kishinev)". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish
(g) Mosheh Weiss (2004). A Brief History of the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
People, Rowman & Littleeld, ISBN 0-7425-4402-
8, p. 193. [26] Shlomo Lambroza (1993). Herbert A. Strauss, ed. Jewish
self-defence. Current Research on Anti-Semitism: Hostages
[19] Historians who estimate that more than 100,000 Jews of Modernization. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1256, 1244
were killed in Ukraine in 16481657 include: 45. ISBN 3110137151.
(a) Meyer Waxman (2003). History of Jewish Liter-
[27] Colin Tatz (2016). The Magnitude of Genocide. Winton
ature Part 3, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0-7661-
Higgins. ABC-CLIO. p. 26. ISBN 1440831610.
4370-8, p. 20: estimated at about two hundred
thousand Jews killed. [28] Gitelman (2001). Revolution and the Ambiguities. p. 25.
(b) Michael Clodfelter (2002). Warfare and Armed Chapter 2.
Conicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and
Other Figures, 15001999, McFarland & Co Inc, [29] Nora Levin (1991). The Jews in the Soviet Union Since
p. 56: estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000 1917: Paradox of Survival. NYU Press. p. 43. ISBN
Jewish victims. 0-8147-5051-6, ISBN 978-0-8147-5051-3.
(c) Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman (2004). Double [30] Zvi Y. Gitelman (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The
Takes: Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present.
Judaism in Ancient Contexts, University Press of Indiana University Press. pp. 6570. ISBN 0253338115.
America, ISBN 0-7618-2894-X, p. 77, footnote
17: estimated at about 100,000500,000 Jews [31] Sharman Kadish. Bolsheviks and British Jews: The Anglo-
(d) The Columbia Encyclopedia (20012005), Jewish Community, Britain, and the Russian Revolution.
Chmielnicki Bohdan, Sixth Edition: estimated at Routledge. p. 87.
over 100,000 Jews.
[32] Encyclopaedia Judaica (2008). Pogroms. The Jewish
(e) Robert Melvin Spector (2005). World Without Civ- Virtual Library.
ilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History,
and Analysis, University Press of America, ISBN [33] Serhy Yekelchyk (2007). Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Na-
0-7618-2963-6, p. 77: estimated at more than tion. Oxford University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-19-
100,000. 530546-3.

[34] Paul Robert Magocsi (2010). History of Ukraine - The [46] World War II: Before the War, The Atlantic, June 19,
Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 537. 2011. Windows of shops owned by Jews which were
ISBN 1-4426-4085-5. broken during a coordinated anti-Jewish demonstration in
Berlin, known as Kristallnacht, on Nov. 10, 1938. Nazi
[35] Ivan Bunin (1998), Cursed Days: A Diary of Revolution. authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and
May 2/15, 1919. Ivan R. Dee, ISBN 1461730309. Page civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the
141. streets covered in pieces of smashed windows. Ninety-
[36] Henry Abramson, Jewish Representation in the Indepen- one Jews were killed, and 30,000 Jewish men were taken
dent Ukrainian Governments of 19171920, Slavic re- to concentration camps.
view, Vol. 50, No. 3 (Fall, 1991), pp. 542550
[47] Michael Berenbaum, Arnold Kramer (2005). The World
[37] Neil Prior. History debate over anti-Semitism in 1911 Must Know. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Tredegar riot. BBC News, 19 August 2011. p. 49.
[38] Tragic Week Summary. 2010-11-02. [48] Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust: the Jewish
Retrieved 2011-10-24. tragedy. Collins. pp. 3033. ISBN 0-00-216305-5.
[39] Joanna B. Michlic (2006). Polands Threatening Other: [49] Browning, Christopher R. (1998) [1992]. Arrival in
The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present. University Poland (PDF le, direct download 7.91 MB complete).
of Nebraska Press. p. 111. In three days 72 Jews were Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Fi-
murdered and 443 others injured. The chief perpetrators nal Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 51, 98, 109,
of these murders were soldiers and ocers of the so-called 124. Retrieved May 1, 2013. Also: PDF cache archived
Blue Army, set up in France in 1917 by General Jozef by WebCite.
Haller (18931960) and lawless civilians.
[40] Herbert Arthur Strauss (1993). Hostages of Modern- [50] Meier, Anna Die Intelligenzaktion: Die Vernichtung Der
ization: Studies on Modern Antisemitism, 18701933/39. Polnischen Oberschicht Im Gau Danzig-Westpreusen
Walter de Gruyter. p. 1048. VDM Verlag Dr. Mller, ISBN 3-639-04721-4 ISBN
[41] Gilman, Sander L.; Milton Shain (1999). Jewries at the
Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conict. University [51] Dean, Martin (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust:
of Illinois Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780252067921. Af- Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine,
ter the end of the ghting and as a result of the Polish 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 6672. ISBN
victory, some of the Polish soldiers and the civilian pop- 9781403963710.
ulation started a pogrom against the Jewish inhabitants.
Polish soldiers maintained that the Jews had sympathized [52] Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust, Greenwood Publish-
with the Ukrainian position during the conicts ing Group, p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-29879-0

[42] Marsha L. Rozenblit (2001). Reconstructing a National [53] Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust
Identity: The Jews of Habsburg Austria During World War in Romania (RICHR) submitted to President Ion Iliescu
I. Oxford University Press. p. 137. The largest pogrom in Bucharest on 11 November 2004.
occurred in Lemberg [= Lwow]. Polish soldiers led an
attack on the Jewish quarter of the city on November 21 [54] The Farhud, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States
23, 1918 that claimed 73 Jewish lives. Holocaust Memorial Museum.

[43] Zvi Y. Gitelman (2003). The Emergence of Modern Jew- [55] Julia Magnet. The terror behind Iraqs Jewish exodus,
ish Politics: Bundism and Zionism in Eastern Europe. The Daily Telegraph, April 16, 2003.
University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 58. In November
1918, Polish soldiers who had taken Lwow (Lviv) from [56] Holocaust Resources, History of Lviv.
the Ukrainians killed more than seventy Jews in a pogrom
[57] Lw, Andrea (10 June 2013). Stanislaww (now Ivano-
there, burning synagogues, destroying Jewish property,
Frankivsk)". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
and leaving hundreds of Jewish families homeless.
Archived from the original on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 29
[44] Tobenkin, Elias (1919-06-01). Jewish Poland and its January 2016. From The USHMM Encyclopedia of Camps
Red Reign of Terror. New York Tribune. Retrieved and Ghettos, 19331945.
[58] Pohl, Dieter. Hans Krueger and the Murder of the Jews in
[45] Neal Pease (2003). M.B.B. Biskupski, ed. This Trouble- the Stanislawow Region (Galicia) (PDF). pp. 1213, 17
some Question: The United States and the Polish Pogroms 18, 21 via Yad It is impossible to deter-
of 19181919. Ideology, Politics and Diplomacy in East mine what Kruegers exact responsibility was in connec-
Central Europe. University of Rochester Press. Also in: tion with 'Bloody Sunday' [massacre of 12 October 1941].
Carole Fink (2006). Defending the Rights of Others: The It is clear that a massacre of such proportions under Ger-
Great Powers, the Jews, and International Minority Pro- man civil administration was virtually unprecedented.
tection, 1878-1938. Cambridge University Press. p. 112.
ISBN 0521029945. See: Wihelmstrasse. As well as: Pe- [59] Operation Reinhard (Einsatz Reinhard)". United States
ter D. Stachura (1998). Poland between the Wars, 1918 Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved August 15,
1939. Springer. p. 36. ISBN 1349269425. 2016.

[60] Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, McFarland & [79] Crown Heights: Politics and Press Coverage of the Race
Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3, Google Print, War That Wasn't, Carol B. Conaway, Polity, Vol. 32, No.
p.164. 1 (Autumn, 1999), pp. 93-118

[61] Holocaust Revealed. Re- [80] As a Jew, I was ashamed at the scenes of Jews open-
trieved 2008-09-02. ing re at innocent Arabs in Hebron. There is no other
denition than the term 'pogrom' to describe what I have
[62] Instytut Pamici Narodowej. Retrieved 15 February seen.Settlers attack Palestinian village
[81] BBC NEWS - Middle East - Olmert condemns settler
[63] A communiqu regarding the decision to end the inves- 'pogrom'". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
tigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish na-
tionality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941 (Komunikat dot. [82] Heitmeyer and Hagan, International handbook of violence
postanowienia o umorzeniu ledztwa w sprawie zabjstwa research, Volume 1 pp 35255
obywateli polskich narodowoci ydowskiej w Jedwab-
nem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r.) from 30 June 2003. [83] Prof. Sandra Gambetti (2009). The Alexandrian Riots of
38 C.E. and the Persecution of the Jews: A Historical Re-
[64] Contested memories By Joshua D. Zimmerman, Rutgers construction. University of California, Berkeley: BRILL.
University Press Publisher; pp. 6768. pp. 1112. ISBN 9004138463.

[65] Antisemitism By Richard S. Levy, ABC-CLIO Pub- [84] Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian His-
lisher; p. 366. tory, edited by John Doyle Klier, Shlomo Lambroza,
pages 13 and 35 (footnotes)
[66] Alexander B. Rossino, Polish Neighbors and German
Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Bi- [85] Klier also writes that Alexander Peresweto-Morath has
aystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation advanced a strong argument against considering the Kiev
Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 riots of 1113 an anti-Jewish pogrom. Peresweto-Morath
(2003). writes in A Grin without a Cat (2002) that I feel that
Birnbaums use of the term anti-Semitism as well as, for
[67] Jan Tomasz Gross, Neighbors: The Destruction of the example, his use of pogrom in references to medieval
Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland", Penguin Books, Rus are not warranted by the evidence he presents. He is,
Princeton University Press, 2002. of course, aware that it may be controversial.
[68] Bostom, Andrew G. (Ed.) 2007. The Legacy of Islamic [86] George Vernadsky, Kievan Russia, Yale University Press,
Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History. 1 Apr 1973, p94
[69] Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood. Retrieved 15 February [87] "Portugal". Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica.
[88] Limerick Leader, Saturday 6 November 2010, Jewish en-
[70] Easter in Kishinev. Retrieved 15 February 2015. voy says Limerick pogrom is 'over-portrayed'
[71] Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood. Retrieved 15 February [89] Welsh Journals Online -". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
[90] Controversy and Crisis. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
[72] Easter in Kishinev. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
[91] Daniela Giose (1993). On Prejudice: A Global Perspec-
[73] Reading Ferguson: books on race, police, protest and tive. Anchor Books. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-385-46938-
U.S. history. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 8. Retrieved 2 September 2013. ...Andric describes the
Sarajevo frenzy of hate that erupted among Muslims,
[74] Bergmann writes that the concept of ethnic violence
Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the
covers a range of heterogeneous phenomena, and in many
assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Fer-
cases there are still no established theoretical and con-
dinand in Sarajevo...
ceptual distinctions in the eld (Waldmann, 1995:343)"
Bergmann then goes on to set out a variety of conicting [92] Anti-Jewish Violence. Rethinking the Pogrom in East Eu-
scholarly views on the denition and usage of the term ropean History. Edited by Jonathan Dekel-Chen, David
pogrom. Gaunt, Natan M. Meir, and Israel Bartal the repeated
protests of some scholars that what happened in Lww in
[75] Polands Holocaust. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
November 1918 was not, strictly speaking, a pogrom
[76] Neal Pease. "'This Troublesome Question': The United or similar claims about the killing of two Jews and one
States and the 'Polish Pogroms of 19181919. In: Pole in the townlet of Przytyk in March 1936, which be-
Mieczysaw B. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page 60. came the subject of a similar bit of semantic legerdemain
Ideology, Politics, and Diplomacy in East Central Europe. and ongoing argument in Poland and beyond in 2001
Boydell & Brewer, 2003, p.72
[93] In Gods Playground, Volume II, p192, Norman Davies
[77] What The 'Pogrom' Wrought - The Jewish Week. The writes in relation to events in Lviv (1918), Pinsk (1919)
Jewish Week. Retrieved 15 February 2015. and Vilnius (1919-20): Press reports in the West of
'Pogroms in Poland', though accepted by Jewish commen-
[78] New York Magazine. Retrieved 15 February 2015. tators, were repeatedly discredited by the investigations

of independent British and American observers. The so- Engel, David (2010), Whats in a Pogrom? Eu-
called pogrom in Lww, in November 1918, turned out to ropean Jews in the Age of Violence, in Dekel-
be a military massacre where three times more Christians Chen, Jonathan, Anti-Jewish Violence: Rethinking
died than Jews. The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March the Pogrom in East European History, Bloomington,
1919 turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose IN: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-35520-6
order to executre thirty-ve suspected Bolshevik inltra-
tors was described by a US investigator as 'fully justied Horvitz, Leslie A.; Catherwood, Christopher, eds.
by the circumstances; the pogroms in Wilno in April 1919 (2006). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide.
and again in October 1920 were occasioned by the Red New York, NY: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-6001-
Armys hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against
suspected collaborators.
Klier, John D., ed. (2011), What was a Pogrom?",
[94] Mideast Dispatch Archive
Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of 1881-1882,
[95] Defending the Rights of Others:The Great Powers, the Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-
Jews, and International Minority Protection, 1878-1938, 521-89548-0
Carole Fink, 2006, p185
Shelton, Dinah, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of
[96] Steven K. Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism Ex- Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Detroit:
plained. University Press of America. 2011. p. 174. Macmillan Reference. ISBN 0-02-865847-7.
[97] "Istanbul love story". The Post and Courier. April 10, Thackrah, John R., ed. (1987). Encyclopedia of
2011. Terrorism and Political Violence. London: Rout-
[98] The Jewish Week, August 9, 2011 A divisive debate over ledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7102-0659-3.
the meaning of pogrom, lasting for more than two years,
could have easily been ended if the mayor simply said to
the victims of Crown Heights, yes, I understand why you
experienced it as a pogrom.

[99] Purnick, Joyce (June 3, 1993). Editorial Notebook:

Crown Heights Was Not Iasi. The New York Times.

[100] TIMELINE: How the 1991 Crown Heights riots un-

folded. New York Daily News. Retrieved 25 October

[101] Okeowo, Alexis (August 19, 2011). Crown Heights,

Twenty Years After the Riots. The New Yorker. Giu-
liani called the riots a pogrom.

[102] Buddhists from Bangladesh resettle in Myanmar, Ro-

hingya Muslims cry foul. May 24,

3.8 Further reading

Bergmann, Werner (2003), Pogroms, in
Heitmeyer, Wilhelm; Hagan, John, International
Handbook of Violence Research, 1, Dordrecht:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 1-4020-1466-

Brass, Paul R. (December 6, 2002). On the Study

of Riots, Pogroms, and Genocide. Sawyer Seminar
session on Processes of Mass Killing. Center for
Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stan-
ford University.

Cohn, Norman (1966). Warrant for Genocide: The

Myth of the Jewish World-Conspiracy and the Pro-
tocols of the Elders of Zion. New York: Harper &
Row. OCLC 220903085.
Chapter 4


This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the ily to advocate on behalf of Israel and to address threats
History of Israel. For other uses, see Zion (disambigua- to its continued existence and security.
A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding
nut] af-
Zionism (Hebrew: Tsiyyonut IPA: [tsijo their Jewish identity dened as adherence to religious Ju-
daism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other so-
cieties, and has advocated the return of Jews to Israel
as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their
own state.[1] A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zion-
ism, founded and represented most prominently by Ahad
Ha'am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish spiritual
center in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political
Zionism, Ahad Ha'am strived for Israel to be a Jewish
state and not merely a state of Jews.[10]
Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation
movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people re-
siding as minorities in a variety of nations to their an-
cestral homeland.[11][12][13] Critics of Zionism view it as
a colonialist,[14] racist[15] and exceptionalist[16] ideology
that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Pales-
tine, followed by the exodus of Palestinians, and the sub-
sequent denial of their right to return to property lost dur-
ing the 1948 war.[17][18][19][20]

Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of the Zionist movement.

In his 1896 book Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of
a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.

ter Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish peo-

ple that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish home- 4.1 Terminology
land in the territory dened as the historic Land of Is-
rael (roughly corresponding to Palestine, Canaan or the
Holy Land).[1][2][3][4] Zionism emerged in the late 19th The term Zionism is derived from the word Zion
century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national re- (Hebrew: ,Tzi-yon), referring to Jerusalem.
vival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclu- Throughout eastern Europe in the late 19th century,
sionary nationalist movements in Europe.[5][6] Soon after numerous grassroots groups were promoting the national
this, most leaders of the movement associated the main resettlement of the Jews in their homeland, as well as the
goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an revitalization and cultivation of the Hebrew language.
area controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[7][8][9] These groups were collectively called the "Lovers of
Until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re- Zion" and were seen to encounter a growing Jewish
establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, movement toward assimilation. The rst use of the term
ingathering of the exiles, and liberation of Jews from the is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder
antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they ex- of a nationalist Jewish students movement Kadimah; he
perienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment used the term in 1890 in his journal Selbstemanzipation
of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primar- (Self Emancipation).[21]

4.3. BELIEFS 51

4.2 Overview ple. The proportion of the worlds Jews living in Israel
has steadily grown since the movement emerged. By the
early 21st century, more than 40% of the worlds Jews live
Main article: Types of Zionism in Israel, more than in any other country. These two out-
comes represent the historical success of Zionism, and
are unmatched by any other Jewish political movement
The common denominator among all Zionists is the
in the past 2,000 years. In some academic studies, Zion-
claim to Eretz Israel as the national homeland of the
ism has been analyzed both within the larger context of
Jews and as the legitimate focus for Jewish national
diaspora politics and as an example of modern national
self-determination.[22] It is based on historical ties and
liberation movements.[27]
religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land
of Israel.[23] Zionism does not have a uniform ideology, Zionism also sought assimilation of Jews into the modern
but has evolved in a dialogue among a plethora of ideolo- world. As a result of the diaspora, many of the Jewish
gies: General Zionism, Religious Zionism, Labor Zion- people remained outsiders within their adopted countries
ism, Revisionist Zionism, Green Zionism, etc. and became detached from modern ideas. So-called as-
similationist Jews desired complete integration into Eu-
After almost two millennia of the Jewish diaspora resid-
ropean society. They were willing to downplay their Jew-
ing in various countries without a national state, the Zion-
ish identity or even to abandon traditional views and opin-
ist movement was founded in the late 19th century by
ions in an attempt at modernization and assimilation into
secular Jews, largely as a response by Ashkenazi Jews to
the modern world. A less radical form of assimilation
rising antisemitism in Europe, exemplied by the Dreyfus
was called cultural synthesis. Those in favor of cultural
aair in France and the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Rus-
synthesis desired continuity and only moderate evolution,
sian Empire.[24] The political movement was formally
and were concerned that Jews should not lose their iden-
established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor
tity as a people. Cultural synthesists emphasized both a
Herzl in 1897 following the publication of his book Der
need to maintain traditional Jewish values and faith, and
Judenstaat (The Jewish State).[25] At that time, the move-
a need to conform to a modernist society, for instance, in
ment sought to encourage Jewish migration to Ottoman
complying with work days and rules.[28]
In 1975, the United Nations General Assembly passed a
I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring
resolution that designated Zionism as "a form of racism
into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again. Let me
and racial discrimination". The resolution was repealed
repeat once more my opening words: The Jews who wish
in 1991 by replacing Resolution 3379 with United Na-
for a State will have it. We shall live at last as free men
tions General Assembly Resolution 46/86. Within the
on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes.
context of the ArabIsraeli conict, Zionism is viewed
The world will be freed by our liberty, enriched by our
by critics as a system that fosters apartheid and racism.[29]
wealth, magnied by our greatness. And whatever we at-
Opposition to Zionism in principle has also been charged
tempt there to accomplish for our own welfare, will react
as racist and as fostering the segregation of peoples that
powerfully and benecially for the good of humanity.
should seek peaceful coexistence.[30][31]
Theodore Herzl, concluding words of The Jewish State,
Although initially one of several Jewish political move-
ments oering alternative responses to assimilation and 4.3 Beliefs
antisemitism, Zionism expanded rapidly. In its early
stages, supporters considered setting up a Jewish state in Main articles: Return to Zion, Sabra (person), Aliyah,
the historic territory of Palestine. After World War II and Racial antisemitism, New antisemitism, Religious anti-
the destruction of Jewish life in Central and Eastern Eu- semitism, and Revival of the Hebrew language
rope where these alternative movements were rooted, it See also: Yiddish, Ladino language, and Hebraization of
became dominant in the thinking about a Jewish national surnames
Creating an alliance with Great Britain and securing sup- Zionism was established with the political goal of creating
port for some years for Jewish emigration to Palestine, a Jewish state in order to create a nation where Jews could
Zionists also recruited European Jews to immigrate there, be the majority, rather than the minority which they were
especially Jews who lived in areas of the Russian Empire in a variety of nations in the diaspora. Theodor Herzl, the
where anti-semitism was raging. The alliance with Britain ideological father of Zionism, considered Antisemitism
was strained as the latter realized the implications of the to be an eternal feature of all societies in which Jews
Jewish movement for Arabs in Palestine but the Zionists lived as minorities, and that only a separation could al-
persisted. The movement was eventually successful in es- low Jews to escape eternal persecution. Let them give
tablishing Israel on May 14, 1948 (5 Iyyar 5708 in the us sovereignty over a piece of the Earths surface, just
Hebrew calendar), as the homeland for the Jewish peo- sucient for the needs of our people, then we will do the

rest!" he proclaimed exposing his plan.[32] :p.27 (29)

Herzl proposed two possible destinations to colonize, Ar-

gentina and Palestine. He preferred Argentina for its vast
and sparsely populated territory and temperate climate,
but conceded that Palestine would have greater attrac-
tion because of the historic ties of Jews with that area.
He also accepted to evaluate Joseph Chamberlain's
proposal for possible Jewish settlement in Great Britains
East African colonies.[33]:pp.5556
Aliyah (migration, literally ascent) to the Land of Is-
rael is a recurring theme in Jewish prayers. Rejection of
life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in Zionism.[34] The delegates at the First Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzer-
Supporters of Zionism believed that Jews in the Diaspora land (1897)
were prevented from their full growth in Jewish individ-
ual and national life.
Zionists generally preferred to speak Hebrew, a Semitic
language that developed under conditions of freedom in
ancient Judah, and worked to modernize and adapt it
for everyday use. Zionists sometimes refused to speak
Yiddish, a language they thought had developed in the
context of European persecution. Once they moved to
Israel, many Zionists refused to speak their (diasporic)
mother tongues and adopted new, Hebrew names. He-
brew was preferred not only for ideological reasons, but
also because it allowed all citizens of the new state to have
a common language, thus furthering the political and cul-
tural bonds among Zionists.
Major aspects of the Zionist idea are represented in the
Israeli Declaration of Independence:

The Land of Israel was the birthplace of the

Jewish people. Here their spiritual, religious
and political identity was shaped. Here they
rst attained to statehood, created cultural val-
ues of national and universal signicance and
gave to the world the eternal Book of Books.
After being forcibly exiled from their land,
the people kept faith with it throughout their
Dispersion and never ceased to pray and hope Lord Shaftesbury's Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Eu-
for their return to it and for the restoration in it rope for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine, published in the
of their political freedom. Colonial Times, in 1841
Impelled by this historic and traditional at-
tachment, Jews strove in every successive gen-
eration to re-establish themselves in their an-
and Islam, Eretz Israel is a land promised to the Jews
cient homeland. In recent decades they re-
by God according to the Hebrew and Greek Bibles and
turned in their masses.[35]
the Quran, respectively.[37][38] The Diaspora began in 586
BCE during the Babylonian occupation of Israel. The
Babylonians destroyed the First Temple, which was cen-
4.4 History tral to Jewish culture at the time. After the 1st century
Great Revolt and the 2nd century Bar Kokhba revolt, the
Main articles: History of Zionism, Proto-Zionism, and Roman Empire expelled the Jews from Judea, changing
History of Israel the name to Syria Palaestina. The Bar Kokhba revolt
Since the rst centuries of the CE, most Jews have lived caused a spike in anti-Semitism and Jewish persecution.
outside the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel, better known as The ensuing exile from Judea greatly increased the per-
Palestine), although there has been a constant minority cent of Jews who were dispersed throughout the Diaspora
presence of Jews. According to Judaism, Christianity, instead of living in their original home.
4.4. HISTORY 53

Zion is a hill near Jerusalem (now in the city), widely sym- suit.[46] He emigrated to Ottoman Palestine and estab-
bolizing the Land of Israel.[39] lished an agricultural colony in the Valley of Rephaim
In the middle of the 16th century, Joseph Nasi, with the of Jerusalem. He hoped to prevent any attempts being
support of the Ottoman Empire, tried to gather the Por- made to take advantage of the necessities of our poor
tuguese Jews, rst to migrate to Cyprus, then owned by brethren ... (that would) [47]
... FORCE them into a pre-
the Republic of Venice, and later to resettle in Tiberias. tended conversion.
Finally, Nasi was forced by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed Moral but not practical eorts were made in Prague to
IV to visit him. To the surprise of his followers, in the organize a Jewish emigration, by Abraham Benisch and
presence of the Sultan, Nasi converted to Islam.[40] Be- Moritz Steinschneider in 1835. In the United States,
tween the 4th and 19th centuries, Nasis was the only Mordecai Noah attempted to establish a Jewish refuge
practical attempt to establish some sort of Jewish polit- opposite Bualo, New York on Grand Isle, 1825. These
ical center in Palestine.[41] In the 17th century Sabbatai early Jewish nation building eorts of Cresson, Benisch,
Zevi (16261676) announced himself as the Messiah and Steinschneider and Noah failed.[48][49]
gained many Jews to his side, forming a base in Salonika.
He rst tried to establish a settlement in Gaza, but moved
later to Smyrna. After deposing the old rabbi Aaron La-
papa in the spring of 1666, the Jewish community of
Avignon, France prepared to emigrate to the new king-
dom. The readiness of the Jews of the time to believe
the messianic claims of Sabbatai Zevi may be largely ex-
plained by the desperate state of Central European Jewry
in the mid-17th century. The bloody pogroms of Bohdan
Khmelnytsky had wiped out one-third of the Jewish pop-
ulation and destroyed many centers of Jewish learning
and communal life.[42]
In the 19th century, a current in Judaism supporting a
The Great Synagogue of Rishon LeZion was founded in 1885.
return to Zion grew in popularity,[43] particularly in Eu-
rope, where antisemitism and hostility toward Jews were
growing. The idea of returning to Palestine was rejected Sir Moses Monteore, famous for his intervention in fa-
by the conferences of rabbis held in that epoch. Individ- vor of Jews around the world, including the attempt to
ual eorts supported the emigration of groups of Jews to rescue Edgardo Mortara, established a colony for Jews in
Palestine, pre-Zionist Aliyah, even before 1897, the year Palestine. In 1854, his friend Judah Touro bequeathed
considered as the start of practical Zionism.[44] money to fund Jewish residential settlement in Palestine.
Monteore was appointed executor of his will, and used
The Reformed Jews rejected this idea of a return to Zion.
the funds for a variety of projects, including building in
The conference of rabbis, at Frankfurt am Main, July 15
1860 the rst Jewish residential settlement and almshouse
28, 1845, deleted from the ritual all prayers for a return to
outside of the old walled city of Jerusalemtoday known
Zion and a restoration of a Jewish state. The Philadelphia
as Mishkenot Sha'ananim. Laurence Oliphant failed in a
Conference, 1869, followed the lead of the German rab-
like attempt to bring to Palestine the Jewish proletariat
bis and decreed that the Messianic hope of Israel is the
of Poland, Lithuania, Romania, and the Turkish Empire
union of all the children of God in the confession of the
(1879 and 1882).
unity of God. The Pittsburgh Conference, 1885, reiter-
ated this Messianic idea of reformed Judaism, expressing The ocial beginning of the construction of the New
in a resolution that we consider ourselves no longer a na- Yishuv in Palestine is usually dated to the arrival of the
tion, but a religious community; and we therefore expect Bilu group in 1882, who commenced the First Aliyah.
neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacricial worship un- In the following years, Jewish immigration to Palestine
der the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the started in earnest. Most immigrants came from the Rus-
laws concerning a Jewish state.[45] sian Empire, escaping the frequent pogroms and state-led
persecution in what are now Ukraine and Poland. They
Jewish settlements were established in the upper Missis-
founded a number of agricultural settlements with nan-
sippi region by W.D. Robinson in 1819. Others were de-
cial support from Jewish philanthropists in Western Eu-
veloped near Jerusalem in 1850, by the American Con-
rope. Additional Aliyahs followed the Russian Revolu-
sul Warder Cresson, a convert to Judaism. Cresson was
tion and its eruption of violent pogroms, as well as the
tried and condemned for lunacy in a suit led by his wife
Nazi persecution of the 1930s. At the end of the 19th
and son. They asserted that only a lunatic would con-
century, Jews were a small minority in Palestine.
vert to Judaism from Christianity. After a second trial,
based on the centrality of American 'freedom of faith' is- In the 1890s, Theodor Herzl infused Zionism with a new
sues and antisemitism, Cresson won the bitterly contested ideology and practical urgency, leading to the First Zion-
ist Congress at Basel in 1897, which created the World

Zionist Organization (WZO).[50] Herzls aim was to initi-all future settlement eorts solely to Palestine.[55][56]
ate necessary preparatory steps for the development of a Israel Zangwill's Jewish Territorialist Organization aimed
Jewish state. Herzls attempts to reach a political agree-
for a Jewish state anywhere, having been established in
ment with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine were unsuc- 1903 in response to the Uganda Scheme, was supported
cessful and he sought the support of other governments. by a number of the Congresss delegates. Following the
The WZO supported small-scale settlement in Palestine; vote, which had been proposed by Max Nordau, Zangwill
it focused on strengthening Jewish feeling and conscious-charged Nordau that he will be charged before the bar
ness and on building a worldwide federation. of history, and his supporters blamed the Russian vot-
ing bloc of Menachem Ussishkin for the outcome of the
The Russian Empire, with its long record of state- [56]
organized genocide and ethnic cleansing (pogroms), vote.
was widely regarded as the historic enemy of the Jewish The subsequent departure of the JTO from the Zionist
people. The Zionist movements headquarters were lo- Organization had little impact.[55][57][58] The Zionist So-
cated in Berlin, as many of its leaders were German Jews cialist Workers Party was also an organization that fa-
who spoke German. Given Russias anti-semitism, at the vored the idea of a Jewish territorial autonomy outside
start of World War I, most Jews (and Zionists) supported of Palestine.[59]
Germany in its war with Russia. As an alternative to Zionism, Soviet authorities estab-
lished a Jewish Autonomous Oblast in 1934, which re-
mains extant as the only autonomous oblast of Russia.[60]
4.4.1 Territories considered
Main articles: Jewish territorialism and Proposals for a
Jewish state 4.4.2 Balfour Declaration and the Pales-
tine Mandate
Throughout the rst decade of the Zionist movement,
there were several instances where Zionist gures sup-
ported a Jewish state in places outside Palestine, such
as Uganda and Argentina.[51] Even Theodor Herzl, the
founder of political Zionism was initially content with any
Jewish self-governed state.[52] However, other Zionists
emphasized the memory, emotion and myth linking Jews
to the Land of Israel.[53] Despite using Zion as the name
of the movement (a name after the Jebusite fortress in
Jerusalem, which became synonymous with Jerusalem),
Palestine only became Herzls main focus after his Zion-
ist manifesto 'Judenstaat' was published in 1896, but even
then he was hesitant.[54]
In 1903, British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain
oered Herzl 5,000 square miles in the Uganda Pro-
tectorate for Jewish settlement.[55] Called the Uganda
Scheme, it was introduced the same year to the World
Zionist Organization's Congress at its sixth meeting,
where a erce debate ensued. Some groups felt that ac-
cepting the scheme would make it more dicult to es-
tablish a Jewish state in Palestine, the African land was
described as an "ante-chamber to the Holy Land. It
was decided to send a commission to investigate the pro-
posed land by 295 to 177 votes, with 132 abstaining. The
following year, congress sent a delegation to inspect the
plateau. A temperate climate due to its high elevation,
was thought to be suitable for European settlement. How-
ever, the area was populated by a large number of Maasai,
who did not seem to favour an inux of Europeans. Fur- Palestine as claimed by the World Zionist Organization in 1919
thermore, the delegation found it to be lled with lions at the Paris Peace Conference
and other animals.
After Herzl died in 1904, the Congress decided on the Lobbying by Russian Jewish immigrant Chaim Weiz-
fourth day of its seventh session in July 1905 to decline mann together with fear that American Jews would en-
the British oer and, according to Adam Rovner, direct courage the USA to support Germany in the war against
4.4. HISTORY 55

communist Russia, culminated in the British govern- 4.4.3 Rise of Hitler

ments Balfour Declaration of 1917.
In 1933, Hitler came to power in Germany, and in
It endorsed the creation of a Jewish homeland in Pales-
1935 the Nuremberg Laws made German Jews (and later
tine, as follows:
Austrian and Czech Jews) stateless refugees. Similar
rules were applied by the many Nazi allies in Europe.
His Majestys government view with favour The subsequent growth in Jewish migration and the im-
the establishment in Palestine of a national pact of Nazi propaganda aimed at the Arab world led
home for the Jewish people, and will use their to the 19361939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Britain es-
best endeavours to facilitate the achievement tablished the Peel Commission to investigate the situa-
of this object, it being clearly understood that tion. The commission did not consider the situation of
nothing shall be done which may prejudice the Jews in Europe, but called for a two-state solution and
civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish compulsory transfer of populations. Britain rejected this
communities in Palestine, or the rights and solution and instead implemented the White Paper of
political status enjoyed by Jews in any other 1939. This planned to end Jewish immigration by 1944
country.[61] and to allow no more than 75,000 additional Jewish mi-
grants. This was disastrous to European Jews already be-
In 1922, the League of Nations adopted the declaration, ing gravely discriminated against and in need of a place
and granted to Britain the Palestine Mandate: to seek refuge. The British maintained this policy until
the end of the Mandate.
The Mandate will secure the establishment
of the Jewish national home ... and the de-
velopment of self-governing institutions, and
also safeguard the civil and religious rights of
all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of
race and religion.[62]

Weizmanns role in obtaining the Balfour Declaration led

to his election as the Zionist movements leader. He re-
mained in that role until 1948, and then was elected as
the rst President of Israel after the nation gained inde-
Jewish migration to Palestine and widespread Jewish land
purchases from feudal landlords contributed to landless-
ness among Palestinian Arabs, fueling unrest. Riots
erupted in Palestine in 1920, 1921 and 1929, in which
both Jews and Arabs were killed.[63] Britain was respon-
sible for the Palestinian mandate and, after the Balfour
Declaration, it supported Jewish immigration in princi-
ple. But, in response to the violent events noted above,
the Peel Commission published a report proposing new Yitzhak Ben Zvi speaking at the opening meeting of the Fourth
provisions and restrictions in Palestine. Parliament
In 1927, Ukrainian Jew Yitzhak Lamdan, wrote an epic
poem titled Masada to reect the plight of the Jews, The growth of the Jewish community in Palestine and the
calling for a last stand.[64] Upon the German adop- devastation of European Jewish life sidelined the World
tion of the swastika, Theodore Newman Kaufman, bent Zionist Organization. The Jewish Agency for Palestine
on provoking a race war and eliminating his perception under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion increasingly
of "inbred Germanism, published Germany Must Per- dictated policy with support from American Zionists who
ish! Anti-German articles, such as the Daily Express call- provided funding and inuence in Washington, D.C., in-
ing for an "Anti-Nazi boycott", in response to German cluding via the highly eective American Palestine Com-
antisemitism were published prior to Adolf Hitler's rise, mittee.
as well. This has given birth to the conspiracy theory that During World War II, as the horrors of the Holocaust be-
Jews started the holocaust, although the Nazi Propaganda came known, the Zionist leadership formulated the One
Minister Joseph Goebbels was largely responsible for ig- Million Plan, a reduction from Ben-Gurions previous tar-
noring the patriotic Jew, and for instead promoting anti- get of two million immigrants. Following the end of the
German materials as evidence that the Jews needed to war, a massive wave of stateless Jews, mainly Holocaust
be eradicated. survivors, began migrating to Palestine in small boats in

On May 14, 1948, at the end of the British mandate, the

Jewish Agency, led by David Ben-Gurion, declared the
creation of the State of Israel, and the same day the armies
of seven Arab countries invaded Israel. The conict led to
an exodus of about 711,000 Palestinian Arabs,[69] known
in Arabic as al-Nakba (the Catastrophe). Later, a se-
ries of laws passed by the rst Israeli government pre-
vented Palestinians from returning to their homes, or
claiming their property. They and many of their de-
scendants remain refugees.[70][71] The ight and expul-
sion of the Palestinians has since been widely, and con-
troversially, described as having involved ethnic cleans-
ing.[72][73] According to a growing consensus between Is-
raeli and Palestinian historians, expulsion and destruction
of villages played a part in the origin of the Palestinian
refugees.[74] Efraim Karsh, however, states that most of
the Arabs who ed left of their own accord or were pres-
sured to leave by their fellow Arabs, despite Israeli at-
tempts to convince them to stay.[75][76]

David Ben-Gurion proclaiming Israels independence beneath a

large portrait of Theodor Herzl

deance of British rules. The Holocaust united much of

the rest of world Jewry behind the Zionist project.[65] The
British either imprisoned these Jews in Cyprus or sent
them to the British-controlled Allied Occupation Zones in
Germany. The British, having faced the 19361939 Arab
revolt against mass Jewish immigration into Palestine,
were now facing opposition by Zionist groups in Palestine
for subsequent restrictions. In January 1946 the Anglo-
American Committee of Inquiry was a joint British and
American committee set up to examine the political, eco-
nomic and social conditions in Palestine as they bore upon
the problem of Jewish immigration and settlement and
the well-being of the peoples living there; to consult rep-
resentatives of Arabs and Jews, and to make other rec-
ommendations 'as necessary' for ad interim handling of
these problems as well as for their eventual solution.[66]
Ultimately the Committees plans were rejected by both
Arabs and Jews; and Britain decided to refer the problem
to the United Nations.

4.4.4 Post-WWII

In 1947, the United Nations Special Committee on Pales-

tine (UNSCOP) recommended that western Palestine
should be partitioned into a Jewish state, an Arab state
and a UN-controlled territory, Corpus separatum, around
Jerusalem.[67] This partition plan was adopted on Novem-
ber 29, 1947 with UN GA Resolution 181, 33 votes in
favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. The vote led to cel-
ebrations in the streets of Jewish cities.[68] However, the
Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected the UN
decision, demanding a single state and removal of Jewish
migrants, leading to the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. Jewish zones in Palestine in 1947
4.5. TYPES 57

Since the creation of the State of Israel, the World Zion- Ingathering of the Jewish People in its historic
ist Organization has functioned mainly as an organization homeland, Eretz Israel, through Aliyah from all
dedicated to assisting and encouraging Jews to migrate to countries
Israel. It has provided political support for Israel in other
countries but plays little role in internal Israeli politics. Strengthening of the State of Israel, based on the
The movements major success since 1948 was in provid- prophetic vision of justice and peace
ing logistical support for migrating Jews and, most impor-
Preservation of the identity of the Jewish People
tantly, in assisting Soviet Jews in their struggle with the
through fostering of Jewish and Hebrew education,
authorities over the right to leave the USSR and to prac-
and of Jewish spiritual and cultural values
tice their religion in freedom, and the exodus of 850,000
Jews from the Arab world, mostly to Israel. In 1944- Protection of Jewish rights everywhere
45, Ben-Gurion described the One Million Plan to for-
eign ocials as being the primary goal and top priority
Since the creation of modern Israel, the role of the
of the Zionist movement.[77] The immigration restric-
movement has declined. It is now a peripheral factor
tions of the British White Paper of 1939 meant that such
in Israeli politics, though dierent perceptions of Zion-
a plan could not be put into large scale eect until the Is-
ism continue to play roles in Israeli and Jewish political
raeli Declaration of Independence in May 1948. The new
countrys immigration policy had some opposition within
the new Israeli government, such as those who argued that
there was no justication for organizing large-scale em- 4.5.1 Labour Zionism
igration among Jews whose lives were not in danger, par-
ticularly when the desire and motivation were not their Main article: Labor Zionism
own[78] as well as those who argued that the absorption Labor Zionism originated in Eastern Europe. Social-
process caused undue hardship.[79] However, the force
of Ben-Gurions inuence and insistence ensured that his
immigration policy was carried out.[80][81]

4.5 Types
The multi-national, worldwide Zionist movement is struc-
tured on representative democratic principles. Con-
gresses are held every four years (they were held every
two years before the Second World War) and delegates
to the congress are elected by the membership. Mem-
bers are required to pay dues known as a shekel. At
the congress, delegates elect a 30-man executive council,
which in turn elects the movements leader. The move-
ment was democratic from its inception and women had
the right to vote.[83]
Until 1917, the World Zionist Organization pursued a
strategy of building a Jewish National Home through per-
sistent small-scale immigration and the founding of such
bodies as the Jewish National Fund (1901 a charity
that bought land for Jewish settlement) and the Anglo-
Palestine Bank (1903 provided loans for Jewish busi-
nesses and farmers). In 1942, at the Biltmore Confer-
ence, the movement included for the rst time an express Israeli author Amoz Oz, who today is described as the 'aristocrat'
objective of the establishment of a Jewish state in the of Labor Zionism[87]
Land of Israel.[84]
The 28th Zionist Congress, meeting in Jerusalem in 1968, ist Zionists believed that centuries of oppression in anti-
adopted the ve points of the Jerusalem Program as the semitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, vulnerable,
aims of Zionism today. They are:[85] despairing existence that invited further antisemitism, a
view originally stipulated by Theodor Herzl. They ar-
gued that a revolution of the Jewish soul and society was
Unity of the Jewish People and the centrality of Is- necessary and achievable in part by Jews moving to Israel
rael in Jewish life and becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country

Kibbutznikiyot (female Kibbutz members) in Mishmar HaEmek,

during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War. The Kibbutz is the historical
Israeli youth from the Socialist Zionist youth movement No'al,
heartland of Labor Zionism.
meeting with Jewish resistance ghter Simcha Rotem. Founded
in 1924, No'al is one of the largest Zionist Youth movements.

of their own. Most socialist Zionists rejected the obser- Herzl and Chaim Weizmann aspired. Liberal Zionism,
vance of traditional religious Judaism as perpetuating a although not associated with any single party in mod-
Diaspora mentality among the Jewish people, and es- ern Israel, remains a strong trend in Israeli politics advo-
tablished rural communes in Israel called "kibbutzim". cating free market principles, democracy and adherence
The kibbutz began as a variation on a national farm to human rights. Kadima, the main centrist party dur-
scheme, a form of cooperative agriculture where the Jew- ing the 2000s that is now defunct, however, did identify
ish National Fund hired Jewish workers under trained with many of the fundamental policies of Liberal Zion-
supervision. The kibbutzim were a symbol of the Sec- ist ideology, advocating among other things the need for
ond Aliyah in that they put great emphasis on commu- Palestinian statehood in order to form a more democratic
nalism and egalitarianism, representing to a certain ex- society in Israel, arming the free market, and calling
tent Utopian socialism. Furthermore, they stressed self- for equal rights for Arab citizens of Israel. In 2013, Ari
suciency, which became an important aspect of Labor Shavit suggested that the success of the then-new Yesh
Zionism. Though socialist Zionism draws its inspiration Atid party (representing secular, middle-class interests)
and is philosophically founded on the fundamental values embodied the success of the new General Zionists.[90]
and spirituality of Judaism, its progressive expression of Dror Zeigerman writes that the traditional positions of
that Judaism has often fostered an antagonistic relation- the General Zionists"liberal positions based on social
ship with Orthodox Judaism. justice, on law and order, on pluralism in matters of State
Labor Zionism became the dominant force in the polit- and Religion, and on moderation and exibility in the do-
ical and economic life of the Yishuv during the British main of foreign policy and securityare still favored by
Mandate of Palestine and was the dominant ideology of important circles and currents within certain active polit-
the political establishment in Israel until the 1977 elec- ical parties.[91]
tion when the Israeli Labor Party was defeated. The Is- Philosopher Carlo Strenger describes a modern-day
raeli Labor Party continues the tradition, although the version of Liberal Zionism (supporting his vision of
most popular party in the kibbutzim is Meretz.[88] Labour Knowledge-Nation Israel), rooted in the original ide-
Zionisms main institution is the Histadrut (general organ- ology of Herzl and Ahad Ha'am, that stands in contrast
isation of labor unions), which began by providing strike- to both the romantic nationalism of the right and the Net-
breakers against a Palestinian workers strike in 1920 and zah Yisrael of the ultra-Orthodox. It is marked by a con-
until 1970s was the largest employer in Israel after the cern for democratic values and human rights, freedom to
Israeli government.[89] criticize government policies without accusations of dis-
loyalty, and rejection of excessive religious inuence in
public life. Liberal Zionism celebrates the most authen-
4.5.2 Liberal Zionism tic traits of the Jewish tradition: the willingness for inci-
sive debate; the contrarian spirit of davka; the refusal to
Main article: General Zionists bow to authoritarianism.[92][93] Liberal Zionists see that
General Zionism (or Liberal Zionism) was initially the Jewish history shows that Jews need and are entitled to
dominant trend within the Zionist movement from the a nation-state of their own. But they also think that this
First Zionist Congress in 1897 until after the First World state must be a liberal democracy, which means that there
War. General Zionists identied with the liberal Euro- must be strict equality before the law independent of re-
pean middle class to which many Zionist leaders such as ligion, ethnicity or gender.[94]
4.5. TYPES 59

4.5.3 Revisionist Zionism worldview translated into a geostrategic con-

ception in which Zionism was to be perma-
Main article: Revisionist Zionism nently allied with European colonialism against
Revisionist Zionists, led by Ze'ev Jabotinsky, developed all the Arabs in the eastern Mediterranean.[97]

The revisionists advocated the formation of a Jewish

Army in Palestine to force the Arab population to accept
mass Jewish migration.
Supporters of Revisionist Zionism developed the Likud
Party in Israel, which has dominated most governments
since 1977. It advocates Israels maintaining control of
the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and takes a
hard-line approach in the Israeli-Arab conict. In 2005
the Likud split over the issue of creation of a Palestinian
state in the occupied territories. Party members advocat-
ing peace talks helped form the Kadima Party.

4.5.4 Religious Zionism

Main article: Religious Zionism

Religious Zionism is an ideology that combines Zionism

and observant Judaism. Before the establishment of the
State of Israel, Religious Zionists were mainly observant
Jews who supported Zionist eorts to build a Jewish state
in the Land of Israel.
After the Six-Day War and the capture of the West
Bank, a territory referred to in Jewish terms as Judea
and Samaria, right-wing components of the Religious
Zionist movement integrated nationalist revindication
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, founder of Revisionist Zionism and evolved into Neo-Zionism. Their ideology revolves
around three pillars: the Land of Israel, the People of Is-
what became known as Nationalist Zionism, whose guid- rael and the Torah of Israel.[98]
ing principles were outlined in an essay The Iron Wall
(1923) . In 1935 the Revisionists left the World Zionist
Organization because it refused to state that the creation 4.5.5 Green Zionism
of a Jewish state was an objective of Zionism.
Jabotinsky believed that, Main article: Green Zionism

Zionism is a colonising adventure and it Green Zionism is a branch of Zionism primarily con-
therefore stands or falls by the question of cerned with the environment of Israel. The only envi-
armed force. It is important to build, it ronmental Zionist party is the Green Zionist Alliance.
is important to speak Hebrew, but, unfortu-
nately, it is even more important to be able to
shoot - or else I am through with playing at 4.5.6 Neo-Zionism and Post-Zionism
During the last quarter of the 20th century, classic na-
tionalism in Israel declined. This led to the rise of two
and that antagonistic movements: neo-Zionism and post-Zionism.
Both movements mark the Israeli version of a worldwide
Although the Jews originated in the East, phenomenon:
they belonged to the West culturally, morally,
and spiritually. Zionism was conceived by Emergence of globalization, a market society and
Jabotinsky not as the return of the Jews to their liberal culture
spiritual homeland but as an oshoot or im-
plant of Western civilization in the East. This Local backlash[99]

Neo-Zionism and post-Zionism share traits with classi- ter the 1897 Basel Conference, the semi-ocial Vatican
cal Zionism but dier by accentuating antagonist and periodical (edited by the Jesuits) Civilta Cattolica gave
diametrically opposed poles already present in Zionism. its biblical-theological judgement on political Zionism:
Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particu- 1827 years have passed since the prediction of Jesus
laristic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post- of Nazareth was fullled ... that [after the destruction
Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic of Jerusalem] the Jews would be led away to be slaves
dimensions.[100] Post-Zionism asserts that Israel should among all the nations and that they would remain in the
abandon the concept of a state of the Jewish people and dispersion [diaspora, galut] until the end of the world.
strive to be a state of all its citizens,[101] or a binational The Jews should not be permitted to return to Pales-
state where Arabs and Jews live together while enjoying tine with sovereignty: According to the Sacred Scrip-
some type of autonomy. tures, the Jewish people must always live dispersed and
vagabondo [vagrant, wandering] among the other nations,
so that they may render witness to Christ not only by the
4.6 Opposition Scriptures ... but by their very existence.
Nonetheless, Theodore Herzl travelled to Rome in late
Main articles: Anti-Zionism and Timeline of Anti- January 1904, after the sixth Zionist Congress (August
Zionism 1903) and six months before his death, looking for some
See also: Non-Zionism, New Antisemitism, Criticism kind of support. On January 22, Herzl rst met the Papal
of the Israeli government, and Zionist Occupation Secretary of State, Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val. Ac-
Government conspiracy theory cording to Herzls private diary notes, the Cardinals in-
terpretation of the history of Israel was the same as that
of the Catholic Church, but he also asked for the con-
Zionism is opposed by a wide variety of organizations and
version of the Jews to Catholicism. Three days later,
individuals. Among those opposing Zionism are some
Herzl met Pope Pius X, who replied to his request of
secular Jews,[102] some branches of Judaism (Satmar Ha-
support for a Jewish return to Israel in the same terms,
sidim and Neturei Karta), the former Soviet Union,[103]
saying that we are unable to favor this movement. We
some African Americans,[104] many in the Muslim world,
cannot prevent the Jews from going to Jerusalem, but
and Palestinians. Reasons for opposing Zionism are var-
we could never sanction it ... The Jews have not recog-
ied, and they include the perception that land cons-
nized our Lord, therefore we cannot recognize the Jew-
cations are unfair, expulsions of Palestinians, violence
ish people. In 1922, the same periodical published a
against Palestinians, and alleged racism. Arab states
piece by its Viennese correspondent, anti-Semitism is
in particular strongly oppose Zionism, which they be-
nothing but the absolutely necessary and natural reaction
lieve is responsible for the 1948 Palestinian exodus. The
to the Jews arrogance...Catholic anti-Semitism - while
preamble of the African Charter on Human and Peoples
never going beyond the moral law - adopts all necessary
Rights, which has been ratied by 53 African countries
means to emancipate the Christian people from the abuse
as of 2014, includes an undertaking to eliminate Zion-
they suer from their sworn enemy.[108] This initial at-
ism together with other practices including colonialism,
titude changed over the next 50 years, until 1997, when
neo-colonialism, apartheid, aggressive foreign military
at the Vatican symposium of that year, Pope John Paul II
bases and all forms of discrimination.[105][106]
rejected the Christian roots of antisemitism, stating that
Zionism was also opposed for other reasons by some Jews "... the wrong and unjust interpretations of the New Tes-
even before the establishment of the state of Israel be- tament relating to the Jewish people and their supposed
cause Zionism constitutes a danger, both spiritual and guilt [in Christs death] circulated for too long, engender-
physical, to the existence of our people.'..[107] The book ing sentiments of hostility toward this people.[109]
also states The booklet which we are publishing here,
'Serufay. Ha Kivshbnim Maashimim' ('The Holocaust
Victims Accuse'), serves as an attempt to show, by means
of testimonies., documents and reports, how Zionism and
4.6.2 Characterization as colonialism or
its high-level organizations brought a catastrophe upon ethnic cleansing
our people during the era of the Nazi holocaust.
Zionism has been characterized as colonialism, and Zion-
ism has been criticized for promoting unfair conscation
4.6.1 Catholic Church and Zionism of land, involving the expulsion of, and causing violence
towards, the Palestinians. The characterization of Zion-
Main articles: Holy SeeIsrael relations, Supersessionism ism as colonialism has been described by, among others,
Roman Catholicism, and Christianity and antisemitism Nur Masalha, Gershon Shar, Michael Prior, Ilan Pappe,
and Baruch Kimmerling.[14]
The initial response of the Catholic Church seemed to Others, such as Shlomo Avineri and Mitchell Bard, view
be one of strong opposition to Zionism. Shortly af- Zionism not as colonialist movement, but as a national

movement that is contending with the Palestinian one.[110] the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the
David Homan rejected the claim that Zionism is a English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman
'settler-colonial undertaking' and instead characterized to impose the Jews on the Arabs ... Surely it would be a
Zionism as a national program of armative action, crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that
adding that there is unbroken Jewish presence in Israel Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as
back to antiquity.[111] their national home ... They can settle in Palestine only by
Noam Chomsky, John P. Quigly, Nur Masalha, and the goodwill of [123] the Arabs. They should seek to convert
Cheryl Rubenberg have criticized Zionism, saying that it the Arab heart. Gandhi later told American journal-
[112] ist Louis Fischer in 1946 that Jews have a good case in
unfairly conscates land and expels Palestinians.
Palestine. If the Arabs have a claim to Palestine, the Jews
Edward Said and Michael Prior claim that the notion have a prior claim.[124]
of expelling the Palestinians was an early component of
Zionism, citing Herzls diary from 1895 which states we
shall endeavour to expel the poor population across the 4.6.3 Characterization as racist
border unnoticed the process of expropriation and the
removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and
See also: Racism in Israel Zionism; Israel, Palestinians,
circumspectly.[113] This quotation has been critiqued by
[114] and the United Nations; and Israel and the apartheid
Efraim Karsh for misrepresenting Herzls purpose.
He describes it as a feature of Palestinian propaganda,
writing that Herzl was referring to the voluntary resettle-
ment of squatters living on land purchased by Jews, and David Ben-Gurion stated that There will be no discrim-
that the full diary entry stated, It goes without saying ination among citizens of the Jewish state on the basis
that we shall respectfully tolerate persons of other faiths of race, religion, sex, or class. Likewise, Vladimir
and protect their property, their honor, and their freedom Jabotinsky avowed the minority will not be rendered de-
with the harshest means of coercion. This is another area fenseless...[the] aim of democracy is to guarantee that the
in which we shall set the entire world a wonderful ex- minority too has inuence on matters of state policy.
ample Should there be many such immovable own- However, critics of Zionism consider it a colonialist[14] or
ers in individual areas [who would not sell their property racist[15] movement. According to historian Avi Shlaim,
to us], we shall simply leave them there and develop our throughout its history up to present day, Zionism is re-
commerce in the direction of other areas which belong to plete with manifestations of deep hostility and contempt
us.[115][116] Derek Penslar says that Herzl may have been towards the indigenous population. Shlaim balances this
considering either South America or Palestine when he by pointing out that there have always been individuals
wrote the diary entry about expropriation.[117] Accord- within the Zionist movement that have criticized such at-
ing to Walter Lacquer, although many Zionists proposed titudes. He cites the example of Ahad Ha'am, who after
transfer, it was never ocial Zionist policy and in 1918 visiting Palestine in 1891, published a series of articles
Ben-Gurion emphatically rejected it.[118] criticizing the aggressive behaviour and political ethno-
Ilan Pappe argued that Zionism results in ethnic centrism of Zionist settlers. Ha'am wrote that the Zion-
cleansing.[119] This view diverges from other New Histo- ists behave towards the Arabs with hostility and cru-
rians, such as Benny Morris, who accept the Palestinian elty, trespass unjustly upon their boundaries, beat them
exodus narrative but place it in the context of war, not eth- shamefully without reason and even brag about it, and
nic cleansing.[120] When Benny Morris was asked about nobody stands to check this contemptible and dangerous
the Expulsion of Palestinians from Lydda and Ramle, he tendency and that they believed that the only language
responded There are circumstances in history that jus- that the Arabs understand is that of force.[127] Some
tify ethnic cleansing. I know that this term is completely criticisms of Zionism claim that Judaisms notion of the
negative in the discourse of the 21st century, but when the "chosen people" is the source of racism in Zionism,[128]
choice is between ethnic cleansing and genocide - the an- despite, according to Gustavo Perednik, that being a reli-
nihilation of your people - I prefer ethnic cleansing.[121] gious concept unrelated to Zionism.[129]
Saleh Abdel Jawad, Nur Masalha, Michael Prior, Ian Lu- In December 1973, the UN passed a series of resolu-
stick, and John Rose have criticized Zionism for having tions condemning South Africa and included a refer-
been responsible for violence against Palestinians, such ence to an unholy alliance between Portuguese colonial-
as the Deir Yassin massacre, Sabra and Shatila massacre, ism, Apartheid and Zionism.[130] At the time there was
and Cave of the Patriarchs massacre.[122] little cooperation between Israel and South Africa,[131]
although the two countries would develop a close re-
In 1938, Mahatma Gandhi rejected Zionism, saying that
lationship during the 1970s.[132] Parallels have also
the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine
been drawn between aspects of South Africas apartheid
is a religious act and therefore must not be performed by
regime and certain Israeli policies toward the Palestini-
force, comparing it to the Partition of India into Hindu
ans, which are seen as manifestations of racism in Zionist
and Muslim countries. He wrote, Palestine belongs to

In 1975 the UN General Assembly passed Resolution ideals and, since most Israeli citizens are Jews, they pur-
3379, which said Zionism is a form of racism and racial sue this agenda within Israel. Others reject any possibility
discrimination. According to the resolution, any doc- of a Jewish state, since according to them a Jewish state
trine of racial dierentiation of superiority is scientif- is completely forbidden by Jewish religious law. In their
ically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust, and view a Jewish state is considered an oxymoron.
dangerous. The resolution named the occupied territory Two Haredi parties run candidates in Israeli elections.
of Palestine, Zimbabwe, and South Africa as examples They are sometimes associated with views that could be
of racist regimes. Resolution 3379 was pioneered by the regarded as nationalist or Zionist. They prefer coalitions
Soviet Union and passed with numerical support from
with more nationalist Zionist parties, probably because
Arab and African states amidst accusations that Israel was these are more interested in enhancing the Jewish nature
supportive of the apartheid regime in South Africa.[136]
of the Israeli state. The Sephardi-Orthodox party Shas re-
The resolution was robustly criticised by the US repre- jected association with the Zionist movement; however,
sentative, Daniel Patrick Moynihan as an 'obscenity' and
in 2010 it joined the World Zionist Organization. Its vot-
a 'harm ...done to the United Nations.[137] 'In 1991 the ers generally identify as Zionist, and Knesset members
resolution was repealed with UN General Assembly Res- frequently pursue what others might consider a Zionist
olution 46/86,[138] after Israel declared that it would only agenda. Shas has supported territorial compromise with
participate in the Madrid Conference of 1991 if the res- the Arabs and Palestinians, but it generally opposes com-
olution were revoked.[139] promise over Jewish holy sites.
The non-Hasidic or 'Lithuanian' Haredi Ashkenazi world
The United States ...does not acknowledge,
is represented by the Ashkenazi Agudat Israel/UTJ party.
it will not abide by, it will never acquiesce in
It has always avoided association with the Zionist move-
this infamous act The lie is that Zionism is
ment and usually avoids voting on or discussing issues re-
a form of racism. The overwhelmingly clear
lated to peace, because its members do not serve in the
truth is that it is not.
army. The party works to ensure that Israel and Israeli law
Daniel Patrick Moynihan, speaking in the
are in tune with the halacha, on issues such as Shabbat
UN General Assembly after Resolution 3379
rest. The rabbinical leaders of the so-called Litvishe
was passed, 1975.[137]
world in current and past generations, such as Rabbi
Elazar Menachem Shach and Rabbi Avigdor Miller, are
strongly opposed to all forms of Zionism, religious and
Arab countries sought to associate Zionism with racism in secular. But they allow members to participate in Israeli
connection with a 2001 UN conference on racism, which political life, including both passive and active participa-
took place in Durban, South Africa,[140] which caused the tion in elections.
United States and Israel to walk away from the confer-
ence as a response. The nal text of the conference did Many other Hasidic groups in Jerusalem, most famously
not connect Zionism with racism. A human rights forum the Satmar Hasidim, as well as the larger movement they
arranged in connection with the conference, on the other are part of, the Edah HaChareidis, are strongly anti-
hand, did equate Zionism with racism and censured Israel Zionist. One of the best known Hasidic opponents of all
for what it called racist crimes, including acts of geno- forms of modern political Zionism was Hungarian rebbe
cide and ethnic cleansing.[141] and Talmudic scholar Joel Teitelbaum. In his view, the
current State of Israel is contrariwise to Judaism, be-
Supporters of Zionism, such as Chaim Herzog, argue cause it was founded by people who included some anti-
that the movement is non-discriminatory and contains no religious personalities, and were in apparent violation of
racist aspects.[142] the traditional notion that Jews should wait for the Jewish
4.6.4 Haredi Judaism and Zionism Teitelbaum referred to core citations from classical Ju-
daic sources in his arguments against modern Zionism;
See also: Haredim and Zionism specically a passage in the Talmud, in which Rabbi Yosi
b'Rebbi Hanina explains (Kesubos 111a) that the Lord
imposed "Three Oaths" on the nation of Israel: a) Israel
Many Haredi Orthodox organizations oppose Zionism;
should not return to the Land together, by force; b) Israel
they view Zionism as a secular movement. They reject
should not rebel against the other nations; and c) The na-
nationalism as a doctrine and consider Judaism to be rst
tions should not subjugate Israel too harshly. According
and foremost a religion that is not dependent on a state.
to Teitelbaum, the second oath is relevant concerning the
However, some Haredi movements (such as Shas since
subsequent wars fought between Israel and Arab nations.
2010) do openly aliate with the Zionist movement.
Other opponent groups among the Edah HaChareidis
Haredi rabbis do not consider Israel to be a halachic Jew-
were Dushinsky, Toldos Aharon, Toldos Avrohom Yitz-
ish state because it has secular government. But they take
chok, Spinka, and others. They number in the tens
responsibility for ensuring that Jews maintain religious

of thousands in Jerusalem, and hundreds of thousands the Palestine Liberation Organization has historically
worldwide. avoided using the word Jewish in favor using Zionist,
though PLO ocials have sometimes slipped.[157]
Some antisemites have alleged that Zionism was, or is,
part of a Jewish plot to take control of the world.[158]
One particular version of these allegations, "The Proto-
cols of the Elders of Zion" (subtitle Protocols extracted
from the secret archives of the central chancery of Zion)
achieved global notability. The protocols are ctional
minutes of an imaginary meeting by Jewish leaders of
this plot. Analysis and proof of their fraudulent origin
goes as far back as 1921.[159] A 1920 German version re-
named them "The Zionist Protocols".[160] The protocols
were extensively used as propaganda by the Nazis and re-
main widely distributed in the Arab world. They are re-
ferred to in the 1988 Hamas charter.[161]
Two Neturei Karta members join in a large anti-Israel demon- There are examples of anti-Zionists using accusations,
stration in Berlin, 2014 slanders, imagery and tactics previously associated with
antisemites. On October 21, 1973, the then-Soviet am-
The Neturei Karta, an Orthodox Haredi religious move- bassador to the United Nations Yakov Malik declared:
ment, strongly oppose Zionism, considering Israel a The Zionists have come forth with the theory of the
racist regime.[143] They are viewed as a cult on Chosen People, an absurd ideology. Similarly, an ex-
the farthest fringes of Judaism by most mainstream hibit about Zionism and Israel in the former Museum
Jews;[144] the Jewish Virtual Library puts their numbers of Religion and Atheism in Saint Petersburg designated
at 5,000,[145] but the Anti-Defamation League estimates the following as Soviet Zionist material: Jewish prayer
that fewer than 100 members of the community actu- shawls, tellin and Passover Hagaddahs,[162] even though
ally take part in anti-Israel activism.[144] The movement these are all religious items used by Jews for thousands of
equates Zionism to Nazism,[146] believes that Zionist ide- years.[163]
ology is contrary to the teachings of the Torah,[147] and
On the other hand, anti-Zionist writers such as Noam
also blames Zionism for increases in antisemitism.[148] Chomsky, Norman Finkelstein, Michael Marder, and
Members of Neturei Karta have a long history of extrem- Tariq Ali have argued that the characterization of anti-
ist statements and support for notable anti-Semites and Zionism as antisemitic is inaccurate, that it sometimes
Islamic extremists.[144] obscures legitimate criticism of Israel's policies and ac-
The Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic movement traditionally tions, and that it is sometimes used as a political ploy in
did not identify as Zionist, but has adopted a Zionist order to stie legitimate criticism of Israel.[164]
agenda since the late 20th century, opposing any terri-
torial compromise in Israel.
4.7 Non-Jewish support
4.6.5 Anti-Zionism or Antisemitism
Political support for the Jewish return to the Land of
Main articles: Anti-Zionism Anti-Zionism and anti- Israel predates the formal organization of Jewish Zion-
semitism, and New Antisemitism ism as a political movement. In the 19th century, ad-
vocates of the restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land
Some critics of anti-Zionism have argued that oppo- were called Restorationists. The return of the Jews to
sition to Zionism can be hard to distinguish from the Holy Land was widely supported by such eminent [165]
antisemitism, [149][150][151][152][153]
and that criticism of Is- ures as Queen Victoria, Napoleon Bonaparte, King
rael may be used as an excuse to express viewpoints Edward VII, President John Adams of the United States,
that might otherwise be considered antisemitic.[154][155] General Smuts of South Africa, President Masaryk of
Martin Luther King Jr. condemned anti-Zionism as Czechoslovakia, philosopher and historian Benedetto
antisemitic.[156] Other scholars argue that certain forms Croce from Italy, Henry Dunant (founder of the Red
of opposition to Zionism constitute antisemitism.[152] A Cross and author of the Geneva Conventions), and sci-
number of scholars have argued that opposition to Zion- entist and humanitarian Fridtjof Nansen from Norway.
ism and/or the State of Israels policies at the more ex- The French government, through Minister M. Cambon,
treme fringes often overlaps with antisemitism.[152] In the formally committed itself to "... the renaissance of the
Arab world, the words Jew and Zionist are often used Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of
interchangeably. To avoid accusations of antisemitism, Israel were exiled so many centuries ago.

In China, top gures of the Nationalist government, in- The Russian Orthodox ideologue Hippolytus Lutostan-
cluding Sun Yat-sen, expressed their sympathy with the sky, also known as the author of multiple antisemitic
aspirations of the Jewish people for a National Home.[166] tracts, insisted in 1911 that Russian Jews should be
helped to move to Palestine as their rightful place is
in their former kingdom of Palestine.[178]
4.7.1 Christian Zionism
Notable early supporters of Zionism include British
Main article: Christian Zionism Prime Ministers David Lloyd George and Arthur Balfour,
See also: Christian Zionism in the United Kingdom American President Woodrow Wilson and British Major-
Some Christians have actively supported the return of General Orde Wingate, whose activities in support of
Zionism led the British Army to ban him from ever serv-
ing in Palestine. According to Charles Merkley of Car-
leton University, Christian Zionism strengthened signi-
cantly after the Six-Day War of 1967, and many dispen-
sationalist and non-dispensationalist evangelical Chris-
tians, especially Christians in the United States, now
strongly support Zionism.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a strong supporter of Israel
and Zionism,[167] although the Letter to an Anti-Zionist
Friend is a work falsely attributed to him.
In the last years of his life, the founder of the Latter Day
Saint movement, Joseph Smith, declared, the time for
Jews to return to the land of Israel is now. In 1842,
Smith sent Orson Hyde, an Apostle of the Church of Je-
sus Christ of Latter Day Saints, to Jerusalem to dedicate
the land for the return of the Jews.[179]
Some Arab Christians publicly supporting Israel include
US author Nonie Darwish, and former Muslim Magdi
Allam, author of Viva Israele,[180] both born in Egypt.
Brigitte Gabriel, a Lebanese-born Christian US journal-
ist and founder of the American Congress for Truth, urges
Americans to fearlessly speak out in defense of Amer-
Martin Luther King, Jr. was a notable Christian supporter of ica, Israel and Western civilization.
Israel and Zionism.[167]

Jews to Palestine even prior to the rise of Zionism, as 4.7.2 Muslim Zionism
well as subsequently. Anita Shapira, a history profes-
sor emerita at Tel Aviv University, suggests that evangel- Main article: Muslim Zionism
ical Christian restorationists of the 1840s 'passed this no- Muslims who have publicly defended Zionism include
tion on to Jewish circles.[168] Evangelical Christian an-
ticipation of and political lobbying within the UK for
Restorationism was widespread in the 1820s and com-
mon beforehand.[169] It was common among the Puritans
to anticipate and frequently to pray for a Jewish re-
turn to their homeland.[170][171][172] One of the principal
Protestant teachers who promoted the biblical doctrine
that the Jews would return to their national homeland was
John Nelson Darby. His doctrine of dispensationalism is
credited with promoting Zionism, following his 11 lec-
tures on the hopes of the church, the Jew and the gentile
given in Geneva in 1840.[173] However, others like C
H Spurgeon,[174] both Horatius[175] and Andrew Bonar,
Robert Murray M'Chyene,[176] and J C Ryle[177] were
among a number of prominent proponents of both the im-
portance and signicance of a Jewish return, who were Israeli Druze Scouts march to Jethros tomb. Today, thousands
not dispensationalist. Pro-Zionist views were embraced of Israeli Druze belong to 'Druze Zionist' movements.[182]
by many evangelicals and also aected international for-
eign policy. Dr. Tawk Hamid, Islamic thinker and reformer[183]

and former member of al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, an Is- An international opinion survey has shown that India is
lamist militiant group that is designated as a terrorist or- the most pro-Israel country in the world.[196] In more cur-
ganization by the United States and European Union,[184] rent times, conservative Indian parties and organizations
Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, Director of the Cul- tend to support Zionism.[195][197] This has invited attacks
tural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community,[185] and on the Hindutva movement by parts of the Indian left op-
Tashbih Sayyed, a Pakistani-American scholar, journal- posed to Zionism, and allegations that Hindus are con-
ist, and author.[186] spiring with the "Jewish Lobby.[198]
On occasion, some non-Arab Muslims such as some
Kurds and Berbers have also voiced support for
Zionism.[187][188][189] 4.8 Marcus Garvey and Black
During the Palestine Mandate era, Asad Shukeiri, a Mus- Zionism
lim scholar ('alim) of the Acre area, and the father of PLO
founder Ahmad Shukeiri, rejected the values of the Pales- See also: Alliance of Black Jews and Back-to-Africa
tinian Arab national movement and was opposed to the movement
anti-Zionist movement.[190] He met routinely with Zion-
ist ocials and had a part in every pro-Zionist Arab or-
ganization from the beginning of the British Mandate, Zionist success in winning British support for the forma-
publicly rejecting Mohammad Amin al-Husayni's use of tion of a Jewish National Home in Palestine helped in-
Islam to attack Zionism.[191] spire the Jamaican Black nationalist Marcus Garvey to
form a movement dedicated to returning Americans of
Some Indian Muslims have also expressed opposition African origin to Africa. During a speech in Harlem in
to Islamic anti-Zionism. In August 2007, a delegation 1920, Garvey stated: other races were engaged in see-
of the All India Organization of Imams and mosques ing their cause throughthe Jews through their Zionist
led by Maulana Jamil Ilyas visited Israel. The meeting movement and the Irish through their Irish movement
led to a joint statement expressing peace and goodwill and I decided that, cost what it might, I would make this
from Indian Muslims, developing dialogue between In- a favorable time to see the Negros interest through.[199]
dian Muslims and Israeli Jews, and rejecting the percep- Garvey established a shipping company, the Black Star
tion that the Israeli-Palestinian conict is of a religious Line, to allow Black Americans to emigrate to Africa,
nature.[192] The visit was organized by the American Jew- but for various reasons he failed in his endeavour.
ish Committee. The purpose of the visit was to promote
meaningful debate about the status of Israel in the eyes Garvey helped inspire the Rastafari movement in Ja-
of Muslims worldwide, and to strengthen the relationship maica, the Black Jews[200] and the African Hebrew Is-
between India and Israel. It is suggested that the visit raelites of Jerusalem who initially moved to Liberia be-
could open Muslim minds across the world to understand fore settling in Israel.
the democratic nature of the state of Israel, especially in
the Middle East.[193]
4.9 See also
American Council for Judaism
4.7.3 Hindu support for Zionism
Berne Trial
Main articles: IndiaIsrael relations and Hindu Nation-
alism Gathering of Israel

List of Zionist gures

After Israels creation in 1948, the Indian National
Congress government opposed Zionism. Some writ- Yehud Medinata
ers have claimed that this was done in order to get Jewish Agency for Israel
more Muslim votes in India (where Muslims numbered
over 30 million at the time).[194] However, conservative
Hindu nationalists, led by the Sangh Parivar, openly sup-
ported Zionism, as did Hindu Nationalist intellectuals 4.10 Footnotes
like Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Sita Ram Goel.[195]
Zionism, seen as a national liberation movement for the [1] Motyl 2001, pp. 604..
repatriation of the Jewish people to their homeland then [2] Herzl, Theodor (1988) [1896]. Biography, by Alex
under British colonial rule, appealed to many Hindu Na- Bein. Der Judenstaat [The Jewish state]. transl. Sylvie
tionalists, who viewed their struggle for independence d'Avigdor (republication ed.). New York: Courier Dover.
from British rule and the Partition of India as national p. 40. ISBN 978-0-486-25849-2. Retrieved 28 Septem-
liberation for long-oppressed Hindus. ber 2010.

[3] Zionism: denition of Zionism in Oxford dictionary [12] Aaronson, Ran (1996). Settlement in Eretz Israel A
(American English) (US)". Colonialist Enterprise? Critical Scholarship and Histor-
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[4] Zionism | nationalistic movement. Retrieved 2016-06-
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[5] LeVine, Mark; Mossberg, Mathias (2014). One Land, Culture. Volume 30, Issue 2, 2011 - pages 115-139 -
Two States: Israel and Palestine as Parallel States. Uni- Michael J. Cohen
versity of California Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-520-
95840-1. The parents of Zionism were not Judaism and [14] Shar, Gershon, Being Israeli: the dynamics of mul-
tradition, but antiSemitism and nationalism. The ideals of tiple citizenship, Cambridge University Press, 2002,
the French Revolution spread slowly across Europe, nally pp 3738
reaching the Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire and Bareli, Avi, Forgetting Europe: Perspectives on
helping to set o the Haskalah, or Jewish Enlightenment. the Debate about Zionism and Colonialism, in Is-
This engendered a permanent split in the Jewish world, raeli historical revisionism: from left to right, Psy-
between those who held to a halachic or religious-centric chology Press, 2003, pp 99116
vision of their identity and those who adopted in part the
Papp Ilan, A history of modern Palestine: one land,
racial rhetoric of the time and made the Jewish people into
two peoples, Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp
a nation. This was helped along by the wave of pogroms
in Eastern Europe that set two million Jews to ight; most
wound up in America, but some chose Palestine. A driv- Prior, Michael, The Bible and colonialism: a
ing force behind this was the Hovevei Zion movement, moral critique, Continuum International Publishing
which worked from 1882 to develop a Hebrew identity Group, 1997, pp 106215
that was distinct from Judaism as a religion. Shar, Gershon, Zionism and Colonialism, in The
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[6] Gelvin, James L. (13 January 2014). The Israel-Palestine
chology Press, 1999, pp 7285
Conict: One Hundred Years of War. Cambridge Univer-
sity Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-107-47077-4. The fact that Lustick, Ian, For the Land and the Lord
Palestinian nationalism developed later than Zionism and Zuriek, Elia, The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in
indeed in response to it does not in any way diminish the Internal Colonialism, Routledge & K. Paul, 1979
legitimacy of Palestinian nationalism or make it less valid
than Zionism. All nationalisms arise in opposition to some Penslar, Derek J., Zionism, Colonialism and Post-
other. Why else would there be the need to specify who colonialism, in Israeli historical revisionism: from
you are? And all nationalisms are dened by what they left to right, Psychology Press, 2003, pp 8598
oppose. As we have seen, Zionism itself arose in reaction Pappe, Ilan, The ethnic cleansing of Palestine,
to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Oneworld, 2007
Europe. It would be perverse to judge Zionism as some-
Masalha, Nur (2007), The Bible and Zionism: in-
how less valid than European anti-Semitism or those na-
vented traditions, archaeology and post-colonialism
tionalisms. Furthermore, Zionism itself was also dened
in Palestine-Israel, 1, Zed Books, p. 16
by its opposition to the indigenous Palestinian inhabitants
of the region. Both the conquest of land and the con- Thomas, Baylis (2011), The Dark Side of Zion-
quest of labor slogans that became central to the domi- ism: Israels Quest for Security Through Dominance,
nant strain of Zionism in the Yishuv originated as a result Lexington Books, p. 4
of the Zionist confrontation with the Palestinian other. Prior, Michael (1999), Zionism and the state of Is-
rael: a moral inquiry, Psychology Press, p. 240
[7] Cohen, Robin (1995). The Cambridge Survey of World
Migration. Cambridge University Press. p. 504. [15] Zionism, imperialism, and race, Abdul Wahhab
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[11] Israel Aairs - Volume 13, Issue 4, 2007 - Special Is-
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by its spokespersons. Thus, Yakov Malik,
".. the Zionist movement, which claims to the Soviet ambassador to the UN, declared
be secular, found it necessary to embrace in 1973: The Zionists have come forward
the idea of 'the promised land' of Old Tes- with the theory of the Chosen People, an ab-
tament prophecy, to justify the conscation surd ideology. (As it is well known, the bib-
of land and the expulsion of the Palestini- lical concept of Chosen People is part of
ans. For example, the speeches and letter of Judaism; Zionism has nothing to do with it).
Chaim Weizman, the secular Zionist leader, "
are lled with references to the biblical ori-
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he often mixes liberally with more pragmatic the UN General Assembly
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sion and death was justied. The Jewish- [132] Brothers in arms Israels secret pact with Pretoria (The
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Genesis 1948 describes the view of one
of the Deir Yassins killers: 'The Sternists [133] UN envoy hits Israel 'apartheid' (BBC, Feb. 23, 2007)
followed the instructions of the Bible more
rigidly than others. They honored the pas- [134] Its time to rethink Zionism (The Guardian, Feb. 17,
sage (Exodus 22:2): 'If a thief be found ' 2009)
This meant, of course, that killing a thief was
not really murder. And were not the enemies [135] Zionism as a Racist Ideology, by Kathleen and Bill
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[136] UN General Assembly Resolution 3379, Racial Discrim-

Ehrlich, Carl. S., (1999) Joshua, Judaism, and
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deputy speaker of my Parliament; to Arab ocers and
men serving of their own volition in our border and police [157] Mitchell, Thomas G. (2000). Native vs. Settler. Green-
defense forces, frequently commanding Jewish troops; to wood Press. p. 48. To most Arabs the terms Jew or Jew-
the hundreds of thousands of Arabs from all over the Mid- ish and Zionist are interchangeable. After the introduc-
dle East crowding the cities of Israel every year; to the tion of European anti-Semitism into the Arab world in the
thousands of Arabs from all over the Middle East coming thirties and forties through the Axis powers, Arab propa-
for medical treatment to Israel; to the peaceful coexistence ganda has displayed many classic Nazi anti-Semitic claims
which has developed; to the fact that Arabic is an ocial about the Jews. For public relations purposes the PLO
language in Israel on a par with Hebrew; to the fact that it has never wanted to be accused of being anti-Semitic but
is as natural for an Arab to serve in public oce in Israel rather only of being anti-Zionist. Occasionally its leaders
as it is incongruous to think of a Jew serving in any public slip, as Arafat did when he referred to the Jewish inva-
oce in an Arab country, indeed being admitted to many sion in his speech.
of them. Is that racism? It is not! That, Mr. President, is
[158] Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, Serif 2001 chapter
[143] We oppose the Zionists and their 'state' Archived May [159] A Hoax of Hate
15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. vigorously and we
continue our prayers for the dismantlement of the Zion- [160] Norman Cohn, Warrant for Genocide, Serif 2001 page
ist 'state' and peace to the world. Rabbi E Weisssh, 75-76
NETUREI KARTA, Representatives of Orthodox Jewry,
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After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the
[144] Neturei Karta: What is it? Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the
region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion,
[145] Neturei Karta and so on. Their plan is embodied in the Protocols of the
Elders of Zion ...
[162] Korey, W., Updating the Protocols, Midstream, May
DAISM, Paper delivered by G. J. Neuberger, a member
1970, p. 17.
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[164] Professor Noam Chomsky argues: There have
[148] Zionism promotes antisemitism Archived November long been eorts to identify anti-Semitism and anti-
24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., Jews against Zion- Zionism in an eort to exploit anti-racist sentiment
ism for political ends; one of the chief tasks of any dia-
logue with the Gentile world is to prove that the dis-
[149] Laquer, Walter (2003). A History of Zionism. Random tinction between anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism is
House. p. XXiii. not a distinction at all, Israeli diplomat Abba Eban
argued, in a typical expression of this intellectually
[150] Ottolenghi, Emanuele (2003-11-29). Anti-Zionism is and morally disreputable position (Eban, Congress
anti-semitism. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2003- Bi-Weekly, March 30, 1973). But that no longer
11-29. suces. It is now necessary to identify criticism of
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4.10. FOOTNOTES 73

Philosopher Michael Marder argues: To decon- [168] Shapira, Anita (2014). Israel a history. London: Weiden-
struct Zionism is ... to demand justice for its vic- feld and Nicolson. p. 15. ISBN 9780297871583.
tims - not only for the Palestinians, who are suf-
fering from it, but also for the anti-Zionist Jews, [169] Lewis, Donald (2 January 2014). The Origins of Christian
erased from the ocially consecrated account of Zionism: Lord Shaftesbury And Evangelical Support For
Zionist history. By deconstructing its ideology, we A Jewish Homeland. Cambridge: Cambridge University
shed light on the context it strives to repress and on Press. p. 380. ISBN 9781107631960.
the violence it legitimises with a mix of theological [170] Murray, Iain (October 2014). the Puritan Hope. Edin-
or metaphysical reasoning and aective appeals to burgh: Banner of Truth. p. 326. ISBN 9781848714786.
historical guilt for the undeniably horric persecu-
tion of Jewish people in Europe and elsewhere. [171] The Puritan Hope and Jewish Evangelism. Herald Mag-
azine, Christian Witness to Israel. 2015. Archived from
American political scientist Norman Finkelstein
the original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
argues that anti-Zionism and often just criticism
of Israeli policies have been conated with anti- [172] John MacArthur, Israel, Calvinism, and Postmillennial-
semitism, sometimes called new antisemitism for ism. American Vision. 2007-07-03. Archived from the
political gain: Whenever Israel faces a public original on 2016-06-29. Retrieved 2016-06-29.
relations dbcle such as the Intifada or interna-
tional pressure to resolve the Israel-Palestine con- [173] Sizer, Stephen (Dec 2005). Christian Zionism: Road-
ict, American Jewish organizations orchestrate map to Armageddon?. Nottingham: IVP. p. 298. ISBN
this extravaganza called the 'new anti-Semitism.' 9780830853687.
The purpose is several-fold. First, it is to dis-
[174] Sermon preached in June 1864 to the British Society for
credit any charges by claiming the person is an anti-
the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews
Semite. Its to turn Jews into the victims, so that
the victims are not the Palestinians any longer. As [175] 'The Jew', July 1870, The Quarterly Journal of Prophecy
people like Abraham Foxman of the ADL put it,
the Jews are being threatened by a new holocaust. [176] Sermon preached 17th November 1839, after returning
Its a role reversal the Jews are now the victims, from a Mission of Inquiry into the State of the Jewish
not the Palestinians. So it serves the function of People
discrediting the people leveling the charge. Its no
[177] Sermon preached June 1864 to London Society for pro-
longer Israel that needs to leave the Occupied Terri-
moting Christianity among the Jews
tories; its the Arabs who need to free themselves of
the anti-Semitism. Archived copy. Archived [178] Herman Bernstein (August 27, 1911). Ritual murder li-
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Herzl, Theodor. A Jewish state: an attempt at a mod-
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Taub, Gadi. The Settlers and the Struggle over the

Meaning of Zionism (2010, Hebrew, English)
Taylor, A.R., 1971, 'Vision and intent in Zion-
ist Thought', in 'The transformation of Palestine',
ed. by I. Abu-Lughod, ISBN 0-8101-0345-1,
Northwestern University Press, Evanston, USA
Urofsky, Melvin I. American Zionism from Herzl to
the Holocaust (1995), a standard history
Wigoder, Georey, ed. New Encyclopedia of Zion-
ism and Israel (2nd ed. 2 vol. 1994); 1521pp

4.13 External links

Media related to Zionism at Wikimedia Commons
Works related to Zionism at Wikisource

Works related to Zionism an Armation of Judaism

at Wikisource

Central Zionist Archives site in Jerusalem

WZO website

Jewish Zionism, News, Links PBS Documentary Film focusing
on the secret American involvement in Aliyah Bet,
narrated by Morley Safer

SAZ Support Association for Zionism

Theodore Herzl and Rev. William Hechler and the
Zionist Beginnings
Is Zionism in Crisis? A Follow-Up Debate with
Peter Beinart and Alan Dershowitz at The Graduate
Center, CUNY

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HexaChord, Thegman12321, Laduqesa, Kristos248, Addbot, Cxz111, Mr0t1633, Piz d'Es-Cha, Simply31, Dikkid, Wickey-nl, Binary
TSO, Jabranahmed, Ronhjones, TutterMouse, CanadianLinuxUser, Sunshine Sean, USchick, LegendaryHammy, Thebigbopper5000, Li-

haas, Jomunro, Thegame77, Favonian, Doniago, LinkFA-Bot, West.andrew.g, 5 albert square, Gotsomeideas, LamaLoLeshLa, Tide rolls,
HagiMalachi, Aminhungryboy, WikiDreamer Bot, Jarble, LuK3, Wikifan12345, G-tutti, Kchtar, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Kartano,
MiS-Saath, Jimjilin, KamikazeBot, Eric-Wester, Igorb2008, Thundera m117, AnomieBOT, Fatal!ty, A More Perfect Onion, Psikiatro, Ru-
binbot, Abudda911, VX, Icky Thump 1, Killiondude, Shamslam, IRP, AdjustShift, 1$WikiPL0(, Kingpin13, Ulric1313, Mahmudmasri,
Giants27, Slobking, Prathuallapur, Al-farfrogs123, Frankenpuppy, LilHelpa, Apjohns54, Enok, Xqbot, Tamir-Yehuda Ben Avraham, His-
toricist, Gronkjaer91, Sionus, Zz 888 r t f v n, Capricorn42, Untwirl, Renaissancee, Nasnema, Tad Lincoln, NFD9001, Gloriaadriana,
Bruceandrea, Zionist7, GrouchoBot, Armbrust, HawthorneTR, Liberate the world, Call me Bubba, Wineow, No More Mr Nice Guy,
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DePlume, Richard BB, Apbiologyrocks, Shadowjams, Mastermaozi, Ilana81, Misortie, Prezbo, Plot Spoiler, BoomerAB, An08yl, Daily-
care, FrescoBot, No badmashi, LucienBOT, Sky Attacker, Sin cloro8, Midrashah, Caucasoid, Khilafa, Michael93555, StraightToThePoint,
Jocauley, Zionisthaters, Stefaberg, WurzelT, Firebride, Cs32en, AndresHerutJaim, Kwiki, Markanthony07, Citation bot 1, Duragkidman,
Cpsoper, OreL.D, Vanished user indfoijwe3ty, DrilBot, WZO, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Vicenarian, Libertyfolk, Fuzbaby, Migger-
ish, Israelboy, Skyerise, A8UDI, Igorp lj, Jschnur, RedBot, Boatduty177177, Fixer88, Farzinxxx, Jim Fitzgerald, Jiujitsuguy, Pakiboy949,
Xotn, ElChe1967, Full-date unlinking bot, Mahaaiweg, , Darigan, Kickassjoe, Lotje, Drpvfx, GregKaye, Dinamik-bot, Vre-
nator, Jigglydders, AirRuritania, IRISZOOM, Tbhotch, Hornlitz, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Ca.w.hampton, Commissarusa, Whatever47,
Woogee, Aa42john, RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, YaakovHalevi, Omarlegend, WildBot, Marxistan, DASHBot, Tiany331, EmausBot, John of
Reading, Ykantor, Sarah182, WikitanvirBot, Arg noodles, Huzhu, Pplop, Guavagreg, Tsdek, Dude-haha, Zelasya, Dewritech, Going-
Batty, SiriusBsns, Mychele Trempetich, Espentespen, Kkassis, The Mysterious El Willstro, Tommy2010, Dees21, Foswiki, Arganomics,
Alib898, Doncorto, Yoooox3, J390, F, DalitDynamite, J.Higgins, Iaki Salazar, DenizTURK, Oncenawhile, Dwinkler2k2, Mar4d, LoR.
Caarl Robinson, Dochodge, Crabapplekid, Zezen, Gigi iv, H3llBot, VictorSasson, Reyazmohideen, Greyshark09, SporkBot, OnePt618, Re-
gent of the Seatopians, SpencerCollins, Akraqp, Truthsnolies, CN3777, Brandmeister, Coasterlover1994, L Kensington, HupHollandHup,
Anyoumys, AdamZecharia, JuJubird, Mizushimomochi, Orange Suede Sofa, Hasbara4U, Mostiessin, Status, Zpsmi, ChuispastonBot, Anti-
fox-news, LibiBamizrach, Aonana, Freedomghter1212, Neil P. Quinn, Amanhanda, TheTimesAreAChanging, Winnie ru, Seafood91,
GoGeo, ClueBot NG, Yambaram, Michaelmas1957, Lilwaynedon, Far but no Cigar, Tanbircdq, Je Song, Zammann, Arabmuslim12,
Rushton2010, Iloveandrea, KIeio, Stevegoldeld, FrankieRyan1936, Spartan54232, Rabanus Flavus, Krshwunk, Strangedevil, Twillisjr,
Doors22, Bennyzr, Jmescraig, Edalrymple, Lydia9bailey, Aimbriemoore, , Mdphddr, Helpful Pixie Bot, Lower-
case sigmabot, BG19bot, U109, Dalai lama ding dong, Herr Lennartz, Vagobot, Iselilja, Lprd027, ComputerJA, Tritomex, Blue Mist 1,
Arminden, Z554, Trevayne08, Bfugett, Rokr1, Russianamerican1, Comfr, BattyBot, Dlv999, Triggerhippie4, SkepticalRaptor, Somesh
Tripathi, Khazar2, Pultusk, AK456, Stumink, Jabotito48, Maghasito, Dexbot, Bjhodge8, Hmainsbot1, Charles Essie, Chicbyaccident,
Chadhkra, Pluto2012, Everything Is Numbers, Pararrei, Zontas, Evildoer187, Rupert loup, Sonntagsbraten, Rosemary Cheese, Jonney2000,
Faizan, CsDix, MelissaLond, Hadassah.web, Moyamba, Debouch, LordMintyBadger, Hendrick 99, Babycake Blossoms, Precision123,
Keira1992, IranitGreenberg, Monochrome Monitor, Onegoal91, Vycl1994, MrWonderphul, Michael Zeev, JDiala, Gubino, Motique, Wl-
glunight93, Hiefer Kabalarian, Sarah Bronson, Yaakovaryeh, ZinedineZidane98, CyberXRef, Hh892, Carlos Rojas77, Monkbot, Bolter21,
AmirSurfLera, Gouncbeatduke, Willdsfox, Makeandtoss, RyanTQuinn, Knowledgebattle, Keramiton, Hbtora, Averysoda, Crito10, Jat91,
Iwant2write, Prinsgezinde, KasparBot, Meher Mansion, Moscowonthehudson, Biosaurus, Johnmcintyre1959, Yschilov, LEachenow, Bow-
lAndSpoon, InternetArchiveBot, GreenC bot, Epson Salts, Scotty1141, Bender the Bot, Martyn.Preller, TheFreeWorld and Anonymous:

4.14.2 Images
File:1889_French_election_poster_for_antisemitic_candidate_Adolphe_Willette.jpg Source:
wikipedia/commons/f/f2/1889_French_election_poster_for_antisemitic_candidate_Adolphe_Willette.jpg License: Public domain
This image is available from Gallica Digital Library under the digital ID btv1b9008427t/f1
Original artist: Adolphe Willette
File:A_coloured_voting_box.svg Source: License: Cc-by-
sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Al-Quds_2014_Berlin_20140725_173841.jpg Source:
Berlin_20140725_173841.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Denis Barthel
File:Amos_Oz_by_Kubik.JPG Source: License: CC
BY 2.5 Contributors: own work, Original artist: Mariusz Kubik, http://www.
File:Antisemithic_graffiti_Lvov.jpg Source:
License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Russianname
File:Antisemiticroths.jpg Source: License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Asefathanivharim.jpg Source: Li-
cense: Public domain Contributors: "" 1948. Original artist: Un-
known<a href='' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https:
//' width='20' height='11'
srcset=' 1.5x, 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Banu_Qurayza.png Source: License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Bookcover-1880-Marr-German_uber_Juden.jpg Source:
Bookcover-1880-Marr-German_uber_Juden.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?

File:Buchenwald_Corpses_60623.jpg Source:

jpg License: Public domain Contributors: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Photograph #60623 (Direct link to Archive.)
Original artist: Parke O. Yingst (Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army)
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-267-0111-36,_Russland,_russische_Kriegsgefangene_(Juden).jpg Source: https://upload.
%28Juden%29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal
Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation
only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive.
Original artist: Friedrich
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1987-004-09A,_Amin_al_Husseini_und_Adolf_Hitler.jpg Source:
wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1987-004-09A%2C_Amin_al_Husseini_und_Adolf_Hitler.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part
of a cooperation project. The German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or
positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: Heinrich Homann
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Declaration_of_State_of_Israel_1948_2.jpg Source:
State_of_Israel_1948_2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1]see also: Israel Ministry of Foreign Aairs Original artist: Rudi
File:Delegates_at_First_Zionist_Congress.jpg Source:
Zionist_Congress.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: JAFI:Zionist Congresses: First Congress - Basle (Basel), 1897 Original artist:
Epson291 (talk)
File:Disclogo1.svg Source: License: Public domain Contributors:
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File:Execution_of_Mariana_de_Carabajal.jpg Source:
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File:First_depiction_of_historical_ethnology_by_Semitic,_Hamitic_and_Japhetic,_1771,_Gatterer.jpg Source: https:
2C_1771%2C_Gatterer.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Gatterer, Johann Christoph (1771) Einleitung in die synchronistische
universalhistorie zur erluterung seiner synchronistischen tabellen, im Verlag der Wittwe Vandenhoek, pp. 67-70 Original artist: Johann
Christoph Gatterer
File:Flag_of_Israel.svg Source: License: Public domain Con-
tributors: Original artist: The Pro-
visional Council of State Proclamation of the Flag of the State of Israel of 25 Tishrei 5709 (28 October 1948) provides the ocial
specication for the design of the Israeli ag.
File:Flag_of_Palestine.svg Source: License: Public do-
main Contributors: Own work. Based on Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005 on the
Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag Original artist: Orionist, previous versions by Makaristos, Mysid, etc.
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Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: AndresHerutJaim
File:Hep-hep_riots.jpg Source: License: Public domain Con-
tributors: Image source: [1] Original artist: Johann Michael Voltz
File:Iraqi_jews_displaced_1951.jpg Source:
License: Public domain Contributors: Original artist: Un-
known<a href='' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='https://upload.' width='20' height='11' srcset='https:// 1.5x, https://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590'
File:Is-map.PNG Source: License: Public domain Contributors:
CIA-WF Original artist: CIA
File:Israel_location_map.svg Source: License: CC
BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: own work, using
United States National Imagery and Mapping Agency data
World Data Base II data
Original artist: NordNordWest
File:Jewish_zones_1947.jpg Source: License: CC-BY-
SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Kotel_Israel.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contrib-
utors: This panoramic image was created with Canon PhotoStitch (Stitched images may dier from reality.) Original artist: SuperJew

File:Lock-green.svg Source: License: CC0 Contributors: en:File:

Free-to-read_lock_75.svg Original artist: User:Trappist the monk
File:Lviv_pogrom_(June_-_July_1941).jpg Source:
-_July_1941%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Lviv pogrom of 1941 in pictures (Axis History Forum) with external links and
reprints. Original artist: Unknown<a href='' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:
Q4233718' src=''
width='20' height='11' srcset='
svg.png 1.5x, 2x'
data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Map_Land_of_Israel.jpg Source: License: CC
BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Emmanuelm
File:Martin_Luther_King_Jr_NYWTS.jpg Source:
NYWTS.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Pho-
tographs division under the digital ID cph.3c26559.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.
Original artist: Dick DeMarsico, World Telegram sta photographer
File:Medieval_manuscript-Jews_identified_by_rouelle_are_being_burned_at_stake.jpg Source:
wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Medieval_manuscript-Jews_identified_by_rouelle_are_being_burned_at_stake.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: Heritage. Civilization and the Jews by w:Abba Eban p.160 Credit: Burgerbibliothek, Lucerne Original artist: Diebold Schilling
1841.jpg Source:
the_restoration_of_the_Jews_to_Palestine%2C_Colonial_Times_1841.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Times of London
Original artist: The Times of London
File:Mishmar_HaEmek.JPG Source: License: Public
domain Contributors: adapted from [1] Original artist: Hashomer Hatzair
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Own work Original artist: User:Kontos
File:Palestine_claimed_by_WZO_1919.png Source:
WZO_1919.png License: CC0 Contributors: - Maps of the Hejaz Railroad

Original artist: Wickey-nl

File:PikiWiki_Israel_1337_Druze_scouts_at_jethro_holy_place____.jpg Source:
A8%D7%95.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: PikiWiki - Israel free image collection project Original artist: '
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File:PikiWiki_Israel_5628_Synagogue.jpg Source:
Synagogue.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Museum of Rishon Le- zion via the PikiWiki - Israel free image collection project
Original artist:
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Judengasse_1614.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Institut fr Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt / Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main
Original artist: Unknown<a href='' title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718'
src='' width='20'
height='11' srcset=' 1.5x, 2x' data-le-width='1050'
data-le-height='590' /></a>
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Original artist: ?
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tributors: Own work Original artist: Zscout370
File:Statuten_der_Antisemiten-Liga.jpg Source:
Antisemiten-Liga.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Judaica Collection of the Frankfurt University Library judaica- Original artist: Antisemitenliga
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del Mundo Conocido.jpg
Original artist: Isidore of Seville
File:The_Russian_Pogrom,_The_Times,_Monday,_Dec_07,_1903.png Source:
ff/The_Russian_Pogrom%2C_The_Times%2C_Monday%2C_Dec_07%2C_1903.png License: Public domain Contributors: The Times
of London Original artist: The Times of London

File:Theodore_Herzl.jpg Source: License: Public domain

Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:TulsaRaceRiot-1921.png Source: License: Public
domain Contributors: Original artist: United States Library of Congress
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CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: This le was derived from Wiki letter w.svg: <a href='//
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100px-Wiki_letter_w.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='44' data-le-height='44' /></a>
Original artist: Derivative work by Thumperward
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Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC)
Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use ocial Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded by
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lic domain Contributors: Unknown Original artist: Unknown<a href='' title='wikidata:
Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='
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File:Zionism-template.png Source: License: CC-BY-SA-
3.0 Contributors:
Theodor_Herz007.jpg Original artist:
derivative work: <( a href='//
D7%AA%D7%99%D7%9E%D7%A0%D7%99' title='User talk:>' talk</a>)
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unknown jurnalist
File:_____.jpg Source:
9C%D7%95%D7%9E%D7%93.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Meron Derso Original artist: Meron Derso

4.14.3 Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0