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CHAPTER 1 Column I Column II

Glass Silk
ELECTRIC CHARGES AND
FIELDS Wool Amber, ebonite, plastic
Ebonite Polythene
1. What is meant by electrostatics? Dry hair Comb
Ans: Electrostatics is the branch of
physics which deals with charges at 7. How does a body get charged?
rest. Ans: A body gets charged by the
transfer of electrons. The body which
2. Which are the three methods of loses electrons gets positively charged
charging a body? and the body which gains electrons
Ans: The three methods are: gets negatively charged.
a) Rubbing (charging by friction)
b) Conduction 8. Is the mass of a body affected by
c) Induction charging?
Ans: Yes. A positively charged body
3. What is the method to charge an loses electrons. Therefore, its mass
insulator? decreases. A negatively charged body
Ans: Rubbing gains electrons. So its mass increases.
(Electron has a definite mass of 9.1
4. What are the methods to charge a 1031 Kg)
conductor?
Ans: Conduction and induction 9. Distinguish between conductors
and insulators. Give examples for
5. What is frictional electricity? Give both.
an example. Ans: The materials which allow
Ans: The charge obtained by a body on electricity to pass through them easily
rubbing with another body is called are called conductors.
frictional electricity. Examples: Metals
Example: When a glass rod is rubbed The materials which offer a high
with silk, the glass rod gets positively resistance to the passage of electricity
charged and silk gets negatively are called insulators.
charged. Examples: Most of the non-metals
like glass, porcelain, plastic, nylon,
6. Give some examples for wood are insulators.
substances which get charge on
rubbing. 10. Conductors cannot be charged
Ans: The substances in column I when by rubbing but insulators can. Why?
rubbed with substances in column II,
acquire positive charge while
substances in column II acquire
negative charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 1
Ans: This is because, when some
charge is transferred to a conductor, it
readily gets distributed over the entire
surface of the conductor. But if some
charge is put on an insulator, it stays at
the same place.

11. What is meant by charging by


conduction?
Ans: When a charged body is brought
in to contact with an uncharged
conductor, charge flows from the 13. What is the use of an
charged body to the uncharged body. electroscope?
Ans: It is a device used to detect the
12. What is meant by charging by charge on a body.
induction?
Ans: When a charged body is 14. Briefly explain the working of a
brought near to an uncharged gold leaf electroscope.
conductor (without touching), that end Ans: A gold leaf electroscope consists
of the uncharged conductor which is of a vertical metal rod fixed in a box,
near to the charged body gets with two thin gold leaves attached to
oppositely charged and the farther end its end.
is charged with the same type of
charge.

When a charged object touches the


metal knob at the top of the rod, charge
flows on to the leaves. Since both the
leaves are charged by the same type of
charge, they diverge due to
electrostatic repulsion.
The separation between the
leaves gives a rough measure of the
amount of charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 2
b) Conservation Electric Charge
Charge can neither

be created nor be destroyed

but can be transferred from

one body to another.


OR
15. State whether the following The total charge of an isolated
statement is true or false. system is always conserved.
During charging by induction, new c) Quantization of electric
charges are created in the body charge
Ans: False. During induction only a According to quantization of
rearrangement of charges takes place. electric charge in the universe,
No new charges are created in the
body. charge of any body is an

integer multiple of e
16. Repulsion is the sure test of
electrification. Explain Q = ne, where n is an
integer and e = 1.6 10-19 C
Ans: A charged body can attract
That is, charges like 1e, 2e, 3e, ------
another oppositely charged body as
well as an uncharged body. But a are possible but a charge like 1.5e is
charged body can repel only similar not possible.
charged bodies.
19[P]. A polythene piece rubbed with
17. Can a body attract a similar
charged body in any case? wool is found to have a negative
Ans: Yes. If the charge on one body is charge of 3 x 10-7 C.
much greater than the charge on the
(a) Estimate the number of electrons
other body, it can induce opposite
charges on the other body. Then the transferred (from which to which?)
attraction can dominate the repulsion. (b) Is there a transfer of mass from
wool to polythene?
18. Explain the properties electric
charges.
Ans: The basic properties electric COULOMBS LAW
charges are:
State Coulombs inverse square
a) Additive property law in electrostatics.
If a system contains n Ans: Coulombs law states that
charges q1, q2, q3, ------, qn, then the the electrostatic force
total charge of the system is q1 + q2 + between two stationary point
q3 + ------- +qn.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 3
charges is directly proportional permittivity of the
to the product of the
medium to the
magnitudes of the charges and
permittivity of vacuum.
inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between 22. If the air medium between two
them. charges is replaced by water, what
change you expect in the
electrostatic force and why?

Ans:
Fair
1 q1q2 Fmed
F r
4 r 2
is called the permittivity of the The force decreases by r times.
medium.
If the charges are placed in vacuum or 23. Write Coulombs law in vector
air, = 0, where 0 is the permittivity form.
of vacuum or air. Ans: Case(i) When the force is
1 q1q 2 attractive
Then, F=
4 0 r 2

0= 8.854 x 10-12 C2/Nm2


1
=9x109Nm2/C2
4 0
For any other medium =0r ,where

Force on q1 due to q2
r = is called the relative 1 q1q2
0 F 12 r12
permittivity (or dielectric constant)of 4 0 r 2
the medium with respect to vacuum or Force on q2 due to q1
air. 1 q1q2
F 21 r 21
Fmed
1 q1q2 4 0 r 2
4 0 r r 2 Case(ii) When the force is repulsive
Fair
Fmed
r

21. Define dielectric constant of a Force on q1 due to q2


medium. 1 q1q2
F 12 r 21
4 0 r 2
Ans: Dielectric constant of a

medium is the ratio of

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 4
Force on q2 due to q1 double the above amount, and the
1 q1q2
F 21 r 21 distance between them is halved?
4 0 r 2

24. Define one coulomb. 27[P]. Suppose the spheres A and B in


Ans: According to Coulombs law, the above problem have identical
1 q1q 2
F= sizes. A third sphere of the same size
4 0 r 2
Put q1 = q2 = 1C and r = 1m, then but uncharged is bought in contact
11 with the first, then brought in contact
F = 9 109 2
9 109 N
1
with the second, and finally removed
One coulomb is defined as that
from both. What is the new force of
charge which when placed in repulsion between A and B?
free space at a distance of 1m 28[P]. Two point charges +16C and
with an equal and similar -9C are placed 8cm apart in air.

charge, will repel with a force You are asked to place a +10 C
charge at a third position such that
of 9 109 N .
the net force on +10 C charge is

25[P]. Four point charges qA=2C, zero. Where will you place the

qB=-5C, qC=2C and qD=-5C are charge? Make necessary calculations.

located at the corners of a square 29. State superposition principle.


ABCD of side 10cm. What is the force Ans: If there are a number of
on a charge of 1C placed at the charges q1, q2, - - - -qn around
centre of the square? a charge q, then according to
26[P]. (a) Two insulated charged super position principle the
total force acting on q is the
copper spheres A and B have their
vector sum of the forces on q
centres separated by a distance of
due to individual charges.
50cm. What is the mutual force of
Total force, F = F1 + F2 + - - - - +Fn
electrostatic repulsion if the charge on
1 qq1
-7 Where F 1 r1 ,
each is 6.5 x 10 C? The radii of A 4 0 r12
and B are negligible compared to the F2
1 qq2
r2
4 0 r2 2
distance of separation.
-------------------------------
(b) What is the force of 1 qqn
Fn rn
repulsion if, each sphere is charged 4 0 rn 2

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 5
30. What is the use of superposition Ans:
principle?
Ans: It is used to find the force on a
charge due to more than two charges.

ELECTRIC FIELD

31. Define electric field. Vis the voltage and d is the distance
Ans: It is the space around an electric
charge, where an electrostatic force is 34. Electric field intensity at a point
experienced by another charge.
F
is defined as E lim
qo q
32. Define electric field intensity at a
point?
Ans: Electric field intensity at a
here what does
imply?
point is defined as the force
Ans: Here q is the test charge which is
experienced by unit positive
to be placed at the point where the field
charge placed at that point. is to be determined.
means that this
test charge must be very
small, otherwise it will produce its own
Let a small test charge q is field so that the field at that point will
placed at P. Then the force experienced be changed.
by this test charge is given by 35. Define an electric line of force or
1 q q electric field line.
F=
4 0 r2 Ans: It is defined as the path
Therefore, the force experienced by
along which a unit positive
F
unit positive charge is E lim charge would move if it is free
q 0 q

1 q to do so.
E=
4 0 r 2
36. Draw the electric field lines due
33. Write the equations for electric to (i) an isolated positive charge
field intensity. (ii) an isolated negative charge
(iii) an electric dipole
(iv) Two positive charges
Ans:

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 6
electric field lines start or

end at infinity.

(ii) In a charge free region

electric field lines have no

break or they are

continuous.

(iii) Two electric field lines

never intersect each other.

(iv) In a uniform electric field,

electric field lines are

parallel.

(v) The number density of

electric field lines at a

point gives the strength

(intensity) of electric field

at that point.

(vi) The tangent drawn to the

electric field line at a point

gives the direction of the

electric field at that point.

(vii) Electric field lines do not

form closed loops.


38. Two electric field lines never
intersect. Why?
Ans: If two electric field lines intersect
at a point, then there will be two
directions for electric field at that
37. Write the properties of electric point. But this is not possible. So two
field lines. electric field lines never intersect each
Ans: The properties of electric field other.
lines are:
(i) Electric field lines start at

positive charge and end at

negative charge. For an

isolated single charge

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 7
39. Figure below shows the electric 43. What is the SI unit of electric
dipole moment?
field lines for two point charges
Ans: coulomb- meter (Cm)
separated by a small distance.
44[P]. A system has two charges
qA=2.5 x 10-7 C and qB=-2.5 x 10-7 C
located at points A (0,0,-15cm) and
B ( 0,0,+15cm), respectively. What are
the total charge and electric dipole
q1
(a) Determine the ratio moment of the system?
q2
(b) What are the signs of q1 and q2? 45. Derive the expression for the
torque acting on an electric dipole
placed in a uniform electric field.
ELECTRIC DIPOLE Ans: Consider an electric dipole of
dipole moment p q 2ap , placed in a
40. What is an electric dipole?
uniform electric field.
Ans: Two equal and opposite charges
separated by a small distance is called
an electric dipole.

41. Define electric dipole moment.


Ans: Electric dipole moment is
defined as the product of Because of the two equal and
opposite forces acting at the two ends
magnitude of one of the charges of the dipole, a torque is experienced
and length of the dipole. by the dipole. So the dipole will rotate
till it becomes parallel to the electric
Electric dipole moment p q 2a p field.
Electric dipole moment is a vector
quantity.

42. What is the direction of electric


dipole moment?
Ans: Electric dipole moment is
directed from negative charge to the
positive charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 8
Torque,
Force r dis tan ce What happens when an electric
qE BC dipole is placed in a non- uniform
qE 2a sin electric field?
(q 2a)E sin Ans: The dipole will have both
rotational and translational motion.
pE sin
The rotational motion will stop, when
In vector form, p E, The direction of the dipole becomes parallel to the
this torque is given by right hand rule. electric field.

51[P]. An electric dipole with dipole


What is the maximum value of
moment 4 x 10-9 C m is aligned at 300
torque acting on the dipole?
Ans: with the direction of a uniform
When 90 electric field of magnitude 5x104NC-1.
torque, pE sin 90 pE 1 pE Calculate the magnitude of the torque
This is the max imum value of torque. acting on the dipole.

t what orientations is the


52. Derive an expression for the
dipole placed in a uniform electric
electric field at a point on the axial
field in the (i) the stable
line of an electric dipole
equilibrium?
Ans:
(ii) unstable equilibrium?
Ans: (i) stable equilibrium
When 0
torque, pE sin 0 pE 0 0
This is the orientation of stable equilibrium. Consider an electric dipole of dipole
(ii) unstable equilibrium
moment p q 2ap .We have to find
When 180
the electric field intensity at a point P
torque, pE sin180 pE 0 0 on the axial line of the dipole distant r
This is the orientation of unstable equilibrium. from the midpoint of the dipole.
Electric field at P due to the +q charge
at A,
48. What is the total charge of an 1 q
electric dipole? E (-p)
40 (r a)2
Ans: zero (q+ -q = 0)
Similarly the electric field at P due to
the q charge at B,
49. What is the total force on an
1 q
electric dipole placed in a uniform E (p)
electric field? 40 (r a) 2
Ans: Zero ( qE + -qE =0)

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 9
The resultant electric field at P, point P on the equatorial line of the
E = E+ + E- dipole distant r from the midpoint of
1 q 1 q the dipole.
(-p) (p)
40 (r a) 2
40 (r a) 2 Electric field at P due to the +q
qp 1 1
charge at A,
2 1 q
40 (r a) (r a)
2
E
40 r a 2
2

qp (r a) 2 (r a) 2
Similarly the electric field at P due to
40 (r a) 2 (r a) 2
the q charge at B,
qp (r 2 2ra a 2 ) (r 2 2ra a 2 ) 1 q
E
40 [(r a)(r a)]2

40 r 2 a 2
qp 4ra E+ can be split in to two components
2 2 2
40 (r a ) E+cos and E+sin. Similarly E- can
1 2(q 2a)rp be split in to components E-cos and
E-sin. The E+sin and E-sin
40 (r 2 a 2 ) 2
components cancel each other being
1 2prp
equal and opposite. The E+cos and
40 (r a 2 ) 2
2
E-cos components add together.
If r 2 a 2 , a 2 can be neglected,then Resultant electric field at P is given
1 2p by,
E= p
40 r 3 E=E+cos + E-cos
1 q 1 q
E cos cos
40 r a
2 2
40 r a 2
2

a
From figure, cos 1

53. Derive an expression for the r2 a2 2


electric field at a point on the 1 q a
E 2
equatorial line of an electric dipole. 40 r a r 2 a 2 1/ 2
2 2

Ans:
1 q 2a

40 r 2 a 2 3/ 2

1 p
E
40 r 2 a 2 3/ 2

If r 2 a 2 ,a 2 can be neglected,then
1 p
E
4 0 r 3
n vector form,
1 p
E (p)

Consider an electric dipole of 40 r 3

dipole moment p q 2ap .We have to


find the electric field intensity at a

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 10
Compare the electric fields on flux of this field through a square of
the axial and equatorial lines of an
10cm on a side whose plane is parallel
electric dipole .
Ans: (i) Eaxial = 2Eequatorial to the yz plane? (b) What is the flux
(ii) Both the fields are inversely through the same square if the normal
proportional to r3
to its plane makes a 600 angle with the
(iii) The direction of Eaxial is parallel
to electric dipole moment and that of x-axis?
Eequatorial is antiparallel to electric 58[P]. What is the net flux of the
dipole moment. uniform electric field of above
ELECTRIC FLUX
problem through a cube of side 20 cm
55. Define electric flux. oriented so that its faces are parallel to
Ans: Electric flux is defined as the the coordinate planes?
total number of electric field lines
59. Define the three charge
passing normally through a
densities.
surface. Ans: The three different charge
Electric flux through small area ds is densities are:
defined as, (i) Linear charge
d E dS density()
It is the charge per unit
q
length.

SI unit is C/m
(ii) Surface charge
The total electric flux through the density()
surface S is given It is the charge per unit area
by q

E dS A
If the surface S is a plane surface, then SI unit is C/m2
the total electric flux is (iii) Volume charge
E S density()
=ES cos It is the charge per unit
q
volume.
Give the SI unit of electric flux. V
Ans: Nm2/C or Vm SI unit is C/m3

57[P]. Consider a uniform electric 60. A spherical conducting shell of

field E=3x103 i N/C. (a) what is the inner radius r1 and outer radius r2 has

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 11
a charge Q. A charge q is placed at E dS
the centre of the shell. EdS cos 0 ( E dS )

(a) What is the surface charge density = EdS

on the (i) inner surface, (ii) outer E dS

surface of the shell? E 4r 2


At the surface of the sphere,
(b) Write the expression for the 1 q
E=
electric field at a point x>r2 from the 4 0 r 2
1 q
centre of the shell. E dS 4r 2
4 0 r 2

q

GAUSSS THEOREM 0
What is a Gaussian surface?
State Gausss theorem in Ans: An imaginary surface enclosing
electrostatics. a charge is called a Gaussian surface.
Ans: Gausss theorem states that the A Gaussian surface can be a surface of
any shape.
total electric flux over a closed
surface enclosing a charge is
64. Figure shows three point
equal to 1/0 times the net
charges,+2q, -q and +3q.Two charges
charge enclosed.
Mathematically Gausss theorem can +2q and q are enclosed in a surface


1
q
S. What is the electric flux due to
0
be stated as this configuration through the
q
E dS
0 surface S?
Prove Gausss theorem.
Ans: Consider a point charge q placed
at a point. Imagine a sphere of radius r
with q as the centre.
The total electric flux through the
sphere,

65[P]. A point charge +10C is at a


distance 5 cm directly above the
centre of a square of side 10 cm, as
shown in Fig. What is the magnitude
of the electric flux through the

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 12
square? (Hint: Think of the square as 69. Derive Coulombs law from
Gausss theorem.
one face of a cube with edge 10 cm)
Ans: By Gausss theorem,
q
E dS 0

66[P]. A point charge of 2.0C is at q


the centre of a cubic Gaussian surface
EdScos 0 0
( E dS )

q
9.0cm on edge. What is the net EdS 0
electric flux through the surface? q
E dS
0
67[P]. A point charge causes an q
E 4r 2
0
electric flux of -1.0 x 103 Nm2/C to
1 q
pass through a spherical Gaussian E=
4 0 r 2
surface of 10.0 cm radius centred on this is the electric field at the
the charge. (a) If the radius of the surface of the sphere.
If we place another ch arg e q on
Gaussian surface were doubled, how
the surface of the sphere, then force
much flux would pass through the
acting on it is
surface? 1 qq
F This is Coulomb 's law.
(b) What is the value of the point 40 r 2
charge?
70. By applying Gausss theorem
deduce the expression for electric
68[P]. A uniformly charged field due to a spherical shell of
conducting sphere of 2.4 m diameter charge (hollow sphere) density .
Ans: Consider a shell of radius R and
has a surface charge density of 80.0
charge density . We have to find the
C/m2. (a) Find the charge on the electric field at a point distant r from
sphere. (b) What is the total electric the centre of this shell. For this we
imagine a Gaussian sphere of radius r,
flux leaving the surface of the sphere?
concentric with the given shell of
charge and passing through P.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 13
Case(i): E.F.Outside the shell






The total Electric flux through the In this case the charge enclosed by the
Gaussian sphere, Gaussian sphere, q=0
E dS Substituting in Gauss 's theorem
EdS cos 0 ( E dS ) 0
E 4r 2
= EdS 0
E 0.The electric field inside
E dS
a sperical shell of charge is zero.
E 4r 2

he charge enclosed by the Gaussian
What is meant by electrostatic
sphere, q=A 4R 2
shielding?
Applying Gausss theorem,
Ans:
q
E dS 0
Electric field inside the cavity of a
conductor of any shape is zero. This is
E 4r 2 4R 2 called electrostatic shielding.
R 2
E
0 r 2

Case(ii): E.F. on the shell


Put r=R
R 2
E
0 R 2
0
72[Q]. Draw the variation of electric

E
0 field intensity of a shell of radius R
Case(iii) E.F.inside the shell with distance r .

73. During lightning, a person inside


a car is safer than outside. Why?
Ans: This is due to electrostatic
shielding. Due to electrostatic

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 14

shielding, electric field inside the car is E dS
zero. curved
surface

By applying Gausss theorem, E 2r


derive an expression for the electric he charge enclosed by the Gaussian
field due to a straight infinitely long cylinder, q
charged wire (line charge) of charge Applying Gausss theorem,
density . q
Ans: E dS 0


Consider an infinitely long E 2r
0
straight wire of charge density . We

have to find the electric field at a point E
P distant r from this line charge. For 2 0 r
this imagine a Gaussian cylinder of
radius r and length l with the line
charge as the axis.

74[P]. An infinite line charge


produces a field of 9 x104 N/C at a
distance of 2 cm. Calculate the linear
charge density.

75. Applying Gausss theorem find


an expression for the electric field
he total electric flux, due to an infinitely large plane sheet
of charge density
E dS Ans: Consider an infinitely large
plane sheet of charge density . We
E dS E dS
have to find the electric field at a point
curved end
surface faces P distant r from this plane sheet of

cerved
EdScos 0
end
EdScos 90 charge. For this imagine a Gaussian
cylinder of small area of cross section

surface faces
with one end passing through the point

curved
EdS
end
EdS 0
P, penetrating the sheet and extending
surface faces
to both sides equally.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 15
Ans: Consider two infinitely large
plane parallel sheets having charge
densities + and .

The total electric flux through the


Gaussian cylinder,

E dS Electric field due to a single sheet,


s
E
E dS E dS 20
curved
surface
end
faces
In Region I
E I E E 0
EdScos 90 EdScos 0
curved
surface
end
faces
In Region II
E II E E
EdS 0 EdS 1
curved end
surface faces
= =2
20 20 20 0
E
end
dS
faces

E 2A In Region III
The charge enclosed by the Gaussian EIII E (E) 0
cylinder, q A
Applying Gausss theorem, 77[P]. Two charge, thin metal plates
q
E dS are parallel and close to each other.
On their inner faces, the plates have
0

A
E 2A surface charge densities of opposite
0
signs and of magnitude 17.0 x 10-22
E
2 0 C/m2. What is E: (a) in the outer region
of the first plate, (b) in the outer region
76. Find the expressions for the
of the second plate, and (c) between
electric field due to two infinitely
large parallel plane sheets of equal the plates?
and opposite charge densities.

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