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Glass Silk

ELECTRIC CHARGES AND

FIELDS Wool Amber, ebonite, plastic

Ebonite Polythene

1. What is meant by electrostatics? Dry hair Comb

Ans: Electrostatics is the branch of

physics which deals with charges at 7. How does a body get charged?

rest. Ans: A body gets charged by the

transfer of electrons. The body which

2. Which are the three methods of loses electrons gets positively charged

charging a body? and the body which gains electrons

Ans: The three methods are: gets negatively charged.

a) Rubbing (charging by friction)

b) Conduction 8. Is the mass of a body affected by

c) Induction charging?

Ans: Yes. A positively charged body

3. What is the method to charge an loses electrons. Therefore, its mass

insulator? decreases. A negatively charged body

Ans: Rubbing gains electrons. So its mass increases.

(Electron has a definite mass of 9.1

4. What are the methods to charge a 1031 Kg)

conductor?

Ans: Conduction and induction 9. Distinguish between conductors

and insulators. Give examples for

5. What is frictional electricity? Give both.

an example. Ans: The materials which allow

Ans: The charge obtained by a body on electricity to pass through them easily

rubbing with another body is called are called conductors.

frictional electricity. Examples: Metals

Example: When a glass rod is rubbed The materials which offer a high

with silk, the glass rod gets positively resistance to the passage of electricity

charged and silk gets negatively are called insulators.

charged. Examples: Most of the non-metals

like glass, porcelain, plastic, nylon,

6. Give some examples for wood are insulators.

substances which get charge on

rubbing. 10. Conductors cannot be charged

Ans: The substances in column I when by rubbing but insulators can. Why?

rubbed with substances in column II,

acquire positive charge while

substances in column II acquire

negative charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 1

Ans: This is because, when some

charge is transferred to a conductor, it

readily gets distributed over the entire

surface of the conductor. But if some

charge is put on an insulator, it stays at

the same place.

conduction?

Ans: When a charged body is brought

in to contact with an uncharged

conductor, charge flows from the 13. What is the use of an

charged body to the uncharged body. electroscope?

Ans: It is a device used to detect the

12. What is meant by charging by charge on a body.

induction?

Ans: When a charged body is 14. Briefly explain the working of a

brought near to an uncharged gold leaf electroscope.

conductor (without touching), that end Ans: A gold leaf electroscope consists

of the uncharged conductor which is of a vertical metal rod fixed in a box,

near to the charged body gets with two thin gold leaves attached to

oppositely charged and the farther end its end.

is charged with the same type of

charge.

metal knob at the top of the rod, charge

flows on to the leaves. Since both the

leaves are charged by the same type of

charge, they diverge due to

electrostatic repulsion.

The separation between the

leaves gives a rough measure of the

amount of charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 2

b) Conservation Electric Charge

Charge can neither

OR

15. State whether the following The total charge of an isolated

statement is true or false. system is always conserved.

During charging by induction, new c) Quantization of electric

charges are created in the body charge

Ans: False. During induction only a According to quantization of

rearrangement of charges takes place. electric charge in the universe,

No new charges are created in the

body. charge of any body is an

integer multiple of e

16. Repulsion is the sure test of

electrification. Explain Q = ne, where n is an

integer and e = 1.6 10-19 C

Ans: A charged body can attract

That is, charges like 1e, 2e, 3e, ------

another oppositely charged body as

well as an uncharged body. But a are possible but a charge like 1.5e is

charged body can repel only similar not possible.

charged bodies.

19[P]. A polythene piece rubbed with

17. Can a body attract a similar

charged body in any case? wool is found to have a negative

Ans: Yes. If the charge on one body is charge of 3 x 10-7 C.

much greater than the charge on the

(a) Estimate the number of electrons

other body, it can induce opposite

charges on the other body. Then the transferred (from which to which?)

attraction can dominate the repulsion. (b) Is there a transfer of mass from

wool to polythene?

18. Explain the properties electric

charges.

Ans: The basic properties electric COULOMBS LAW

charges are:

State Coulombs inverse square

a) Additive property law in electrostatics.

If a system contains n Ans: Coulombs law states that

charges q1, q2, q3, ------, qn, then the the electrostatic force

total charge of the system is q1 + q2 + between two stationary point

q3 + ------- +qn.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 3

charges is directly proportional permittivity of the

to the product of the

medium to the

magnitudes of the charges and

permittivity of vacuum.

inversely proportional to the

square of the distance between 22. If the air medium between two

them. charges is replaced by water, what

change you expect in the

electrostatic force and why?

Ans:

Fair

1 q1q2 Fmed

F r

4 r 2

is called the permittivity of the The force decreases by r times.

medium.

If the charges are placed in vacuum or 23. Write Coulombs law in vector

air, = 0, where 0 is the permittivity form.

of vacuum or air. Ans: Case(i) When the force is

1 q1q 2 attractive

Then, F=

4 0 r 2

1

=9x109Nm2/C2

4 0

For any other medium =0r ,where

Force on q1 due to q2

r = is called the relative 1 q1q2

0 F 12 r12

permittivity (or dielectric constant)of 4 0 r 2

the medium with respect to vacuum or Force on q2 due to q1

air. 1 q1q2

F 21 r 21

Fmed

1 q1q2 4 0 r 2

4 0 r r 2 Case(ii) When the force is repulsive

Fair

Fmed

r

medium. 1 q1q2

F 12 r 21

4 0 r 2

Ans: Dielectric constant of a

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 4

Force on q2 due to q1 double the above amount, and the

1 q1q2

F 21 r 21 distance between them is halved?

4 0 r 2

Ans: According to Coulombs law, the above problem have identical

1 q1q 2

F= sizes. A third sphere of the same size

4 0 r 2

Put q1 = q2 = 1C and r = 1m, then but uncharged is bought in contact

11 with the first, then brought in contact

F = 9 109 2

9 109 N

1

with the second, and finally removed

One coulomb is defined as that

from both. What is the new force of

charge which when placed in repulsion between A and B?

free space at a distance of 1m 28[P]. Two point charges +16C and

with an equal and similar -9C are placed 8cm apart in air.

charge, will repel with a force You are asked to place a +10 C

charge at a third position such that

of 9 109 N .

the net force on +10 C charge is

25[P]. Four point charges qA=2C, zero. Where will you place the

ABCD of side 10cm. What is the force Ans: If there are a number of

on a charge of 1C placed at the charges q1, q2, - - - -qn around

centre of the square? a charge q, then according to

26[P]. (a) Two insulated charged super position principle the

total force acting on q is the

copper spheres A and B have their

vector sum of the forces on q

centres separated by a distance of

due to individual charges.

50cm. What is the mutual force of

Total force, F = F1 + F2 + - - - - +Fn

electrostatic repulsion if the charge on

1 qq1

-7 Where F 1 r1 ,

each is 6.5 x 10 C? The radii of A 4 0 r12

and B are negligible compared to the F2

1 qq2

r2

4 0 r2 2

distance of separation.

-------------------------------

(b) What is the force of 1 qqn

Fn rn

repulsion if, each sphere is charged 4 0 rn 2

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 5

30. What is the use of superposition Ans:

principle?

Ans: It is used to find the force on a

charge due to more than two charges.

ELECTRIC FIELD

31. Define electric field. Vis the voltage and d is the distance

Ans: It is the space around an electric

charge, where an electrostatic force is 34. Electric field intensity at a point

experienced by another charge.

F

is defined as E lim

qo q

32. Define electric field intensity at a

point?

Ans: Electric field intensity at a

here what does

imply?

point is defined as the force

Ans: Here q is the test charge which is

experienced by unit positive

to be placed at the point where the field

charge placed at that point. is to be determined.

means that this

test charge must be very

small, otherwise it will produce its own

Let a small test charge q is field so that the field at that point will

placed at P. Then the force experienced be changed.

by this test charge is given by 35. Define an electric line of force or

1 q q electric field line.

F=

4 0 r2 Ans: It is defined as the path

Therefore, the force experienced by

along which a unit positive

F

unit positive charge is E lim charge would move if it is free

q 0 q

1 q to do so.

E=

4 0 r 2

36. Draw the electric field lines due

33. Write the equations for electric to (i) an isolated positive charge

field intensity. (ii) an isolated negative charge

(iii) an electric dipole

(iv) Two positive charges

Ans:

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 6

electric field lines start or

end at infinity.

continuous.

parallel.

at that point.

38. Two electric field lines never

intersect. Why?

Ans: If two electric field lines intersect

at a point, then there will be two

directions for electric field at that

37. Write the properties of electric point. But this is not possible. So two

field lines. electric field lines never intersect each

Ans: The properties of electric field other.

lines are:

(i) Electric field lines start at

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 7

39. Figure below shows the electric 43. What is the SI unit of electric

dipole moment?

field lines for two point charges

Ans: coulomb- meter (Cm)

separated by a small distance.

44[P]. A system has two charges

qA=2.5 x 10-7 C and qB=-2.5 x 10-7 C

located at points A (0,0,-15cm) and

B ( 0,0,+15cm), respectively. What are

the total charge and electric dipole

q1

(a) Determine the ratio moment of the system?

q2

(b) What are the signs of q1 and q2? 45. Derive the expression for the

torque acting on an electric dipole

placed in a uniform electric field.

ELECTRIC DIPOLE Ans: Consider an electric dipole of

dipole moment p q 2ap , placed in a

40. What is an electric dipole?

uniform electric field.

Ans: Two equal and opposite charges

separated by a small distance is called

an electric dipole.

Ans: Electric dipole moment is

defined as the product of Because of the two equal and

opposite forces acting at the two ends

magnitude of one of the charges of the dipole, a torque is experienced

and length of the dipole. by the dipole. So the dipole will rotate

till it becomes parallel to the electric

Electric dipole moment p q 2a p field.

Electric dipole moment is a vector

quantity.

dipole moment?

Ans: Electric dipole moment is

directed from negative charge to the

positive charge.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 8

Torque,

Force r dis tan ce What happens when an electric

qE BC dipole is placed in a non- uniform

qE 2a sin electric field?

(q 2a)E sin Ans: The dipole will have both

rotational and translational motion.

pE sin

The rotational motion will stop, when

In vector form, p E, The direction of the dipole becomes parallel to the

this torque is given by right hand rule. electric field.

What is the maximum value of

moment 4 x 10-9 C m is aligned at 300

torque acting on the dipole?

Ans: with the direction of a uniform

When 90 electric field of magnitude 5x104NC-1.

torque, pE sin 90 pE 1 pE Calculate the magnitude of the torque

This is the max imum value of torque. acting on the dipole.

52. Derive an expression for the

dipole placed in a uniform electric

electric field at a point on the axial

field in the (i) the stable

line of an electric dipole

equilibrium?

Ans:

(ii) unstable equilibrium?

Ans: (i) stable equilibrium

When 0

torque, pE sin 0 pE 0 0

This is the orientation of stable equilibrium. Consider an electric dipole of dipole

(ii) unstable equilibrium

moment p q 2ap .We have to find

When 180

the electric field intensity at a point P

torque, pE sin180 pE 0 0 on the axial line of the dipole distant r

This is the orientation of unstable equilibrium. from the midpoint of the dipole.

Electric field at P due to the +q charge

at A,

48. What is the total charge of an 1 q

electric dipole? E (-p)

40 (r a)2

Ans: zero (q+ -q = 0)

Similarly the electric field at P due to

the q charge at B,

49. What is the total force on an

1 q

electric dipole placed in a uniform E (p)

electric field? 40 (r a) 2

Ans: Zero ( qE + -qE =0)

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 9

The resultant electric field at P, point P on the equatorial line of the

E = E+ + E- dipole distant r from the midpoint of

1 q 1 q the dipole.

(-p) (p)

40 (r a) 2

40 (r a) 2 Electric field at P due to the +q

qp 1 1

charge at A,

2 1 q

40 (r a) (r a)

2

E

40 r a 2

2

qp (r a) 2 (r a) 2

Similarly the electric field at P due to

40 (r a) 2 (r a) 2

the q charge at B,

qp (r 2 2ra a 2 ) (r 2 2ra a 2 ) 1 q

E

40 [(r a)(r a)]2

40 r 2 a 2

qp 4ra E+ can be split in to two components

2 2 2

40 (r a ) E+cos and E+sin. Similarly E- can

1 2(q 2a)rp be split in to components E-cos and

E-sin. The E+sin and E-sin

40 (r 2 a 2 ) 2

components cancel each other being

1 2prp

equal and opposite. The E+cos and

40 (r a 2 ) 2

2

E-cos components add together.

If r 2 a 2 , a 2 can be neglected,then Resultant electric field at P is given

1 2p by,

E= p

40 r 3 E=E+cos + E-cos

1 q 1 q

E cos cos

40 r a

2 2

40 r a 2

2

a

From figure, cos 1

electric field at a point on the 1 q a

E 2

equatorial line of an electric dipole. 40 r a r 2 a 2 1/ 2

2 2

Ans:

1 q 2a

40 r 2 a 2 3/ 2

1 p

E

40 r 2 a 2 3/ 2

If r 2 a 2 ,a 2 can be neglected,then

1 p

E

4 0 r 3

n vector form,

1 p

E (p)

Consider an electric dipole of 40 r 3

find the electric field intensity at a

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 10

Compare the electric fields on flux of this field through a square of

the axial and equatorial lines of an

10cm on a side whose plane is parallel

electric dipole .

Ans: (i) Eaxial = 2Eequatorial to the yz plane? (b) What is the flux

(ii) Both the fields are inversely through the same square if the normal

proportional to r3

to its plane makes a 600 angle with the

(iii) The direction of Eaxial is parallel

to electric dipole moment and that of x-axis?

Eequatorial is antiparallel to electric 58[P]. What is the net flux of the

dipole moment. uniform electric field of above

ELECTRIC FLUX

problem through a cube of side 20 cm

55. Define electric flux. oriented so that its faces are parallel to

Ans: Electric flux is defined as the the coordinate planes?

total number of electric field lines

59. Define the three charge

passing normally through a

densities.

surface. Ans: The three different charge

Electric flux through small area ds is densities are:

defined as, (i) Linear charge

d E dS density()

It is the charge per unit

q

length.

SI unit is C/m

(ii) Surface charge

The total electric flux through the density()

surface S is given It is the charge per unit area

by q

E dS A

If the surface S is a plane surface, then SI unit is C/m2

the total electric flux is (iii) Volume charge

E S density()

=ES cos It is the charge per unit

q

volume.

Give the SI unit of electric flux. V

Ans: Nm2/C or Vm SI unit is C/m3

field E=3x103 i N/C. (a) what is the inner radius r1 and outer radius r2 has

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 11

a charge Q. A charge q is placed at E dS

the centre of the shell. EdS cos 0 ( E dS )

At the surface of the sphere,

(b) Write the expression for the 1 q

E=

electric field at a point x>r2 from the 4 0 r 2

1 q

centre of the shell. E dS 4r 2

4 0 r 2

q

GAUSSS THEOREM 0

What is a Gaussian surface?

State Gausss theorem in Ans: An imaginary surface enclosing

electrostatics. a charge is called a Gaussian surface.

Ans: Gausss theorem states that the A Gaussian surface can be a surface of

any shape.

total electric flux over a closed

surface enclosing a charge is

64. Figure shows three point

equal to 1/0 times the net

charges,+2q, -q and +3q.Two charges

charge enclosed.

Mathematically Gausss theorem can +2q and q are enclosed in a surface

1

q

S. What is the electric flux due to

0

be stated as this configuration through the

q

E dS

0 surface S?

Prove Gausss theorem.

Ans: Consider a point charge q placed

at a point. Imagine a sphere of radius r

with q as the centre.

The total electric flux through the

sphere,

distance 5 cm directly above the

centre of a square of side 10 cm, as

shown in Fig. What is the magnitude

of the electric flux through the

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 12

square? (Hint: Think of the square as 69. Derive Coulombs law from

Gausss theorem.

one face of a cube with edge 10 cm)

Ans: By Gausss theorem,

q

E dS 0

the centre of a cubic Gaussian surface

EdScos 0 0

( E dS )

q

9.0cm on edge. What is the net EdS 0

electric flux through the surface? q

E dS

0

67[P]. A point charge causes an q

E 4r 2

0

electric flux of -1.0 x 103 Nm2/C to

1 q

pass through a spherical Gaussian E=

4 0 r 2

surface of 10.0 cm radius centred on this is the electric field at the

the charge. (a) If the radius of the surface of the sphere.

If we place another ch arg e q on

Gaussian surface were doubled, how

the surface of the sphere, then force

much flux would pass through the

acting on it is

surface? 1 qq

F This is Coulomb 's law.

(b) What is the value of the point 40 r 2

charge?

70. By applying Gausss theorem

deduce the expression for electric

68[P]. A uniformly charged field due to a spherical shell of

conducting sphere of 2.4 m diameter charge (hollow sphere) density .

Ans: Consider a shell of radius R and

has a surface charge density of 80.0

charge density . We have to find the

C/m2. (a) Find the charge on the electric field at a point distant r from

sphere. (b) What is the total electric the centre of this shell. For this we

imagine a Gaussian sphere of radius r,

flux leaving the surface of the sphere?

concentric with the given shell of

charge and passing through P.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 13

Case(i): E.F.Outside the shell

The total Electric flux through the In this case the charge enclosed by the

Gaussian sphere, Gaussian sphere, q=0

E dS Substituting in Gauss 's theorem

EdS cos 0 ( E dS ) 0

E 4r 2

= EdS 0

E 0.The electric field inside

E dS

a sperical shell of charge is zero.

E 4r 2

he charge enclosed by the Gaussian

What is meant by electrostatic

sphere, q=A 4R 2

shielding?

Applying Gausss theorem,

Ans:

q

E dS 0

Electric field inside the cavity of a

conductor of any shape is zero. This is

E 4r 2 4R 2 called electrostatic shielding.

R 2

E

0 r 2

Put r=R

R 2

E

0 R 2

0

72[Q]. Draw the variation of electric

E

0 field intensity of a shell of radius R

Case(iii) E.F.inside the shell with distance r .

a car is safer than outside. Why?

Ans: This is due to electrostatic

shielding. Due to electrostatic

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 14

shielding, electric field inside the car is E dS

zero. curved

surface

derive an expression for the electric he charge enclosed by the Gaussian

field due to a straight infinitely long cylinder, q

charged wire (line charge) of charge Applying Gausss theorem,

density . q

Ans: E dS 0

Consider an infinitely long E 2r

0

straight wire of charge density . We

have to find the electric field at a point E

P distant r from this line charge. For 2 0 r

this imagine a Gaussian cylinder of

radius r and length l with the line

charge as the axis.

produces a field of 9 x104 N/C at a

distance of 2 cm. Calculate the linear

charge density.

an expression for the electric field

he total electric flux, due to an infinitely large plane sheet

of charge density

E dS Ans: Consider an infinitely large

plane sheet of charge density . We

E dS E dS

have to find the electric field at a point

curved end

surface faces P distant r from this plane sheet of

cerved

EdScos 0

end

EdScos 90 charge. For this imagine a Gaussian

cylinder of small area of cross section

surface faces

with one end passing through the point

curved

EdS

end

EdS 0

P, penetrating the sheet and extending

surface faces

to both sides equally.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 15

Ans: Consider two infinitely large

plane parallel sheets having charge

densities + and .

Gaussian cylinder,

s

E

E dS E dS 20

curved

surface

end

faces

In Region I

E I E E 0

EdScos 90 EdScos 0

curved

surface

end

faces

In Region II

E II E E

EdS 0 EdS 1

curved end

surface faces

= =2

20 20 20 0

E

end

dS

faces

E 2A In Region III

The charge enclosed by the Gaussian EIII E (E) 0

cylinder, q A

Applying Gausss theorem, 77[P]. Two charge, thin metal plates

q

E dS are parallel and close to each other.

On their inner faces, the plates have

0

A

E 2A surface charge densities of opposite

0

signs and of magnitude 17.0 x 10-22

E

2 0 C/m2. What is E: (a) in the outer region

of the first plate, (b) in the outer region

76. Find the expressions for the

of the second plate, and (c) between

electric field due to two infinitely

large parallel plane sheets of equal the plates?

and opposite charge densities.

SAJU K JOHN, M.Sc. Physics, NET, PhD Research Scholar at NIT Calicut 16

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