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Trika 1 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

History and basic teachings

1. Objective of the document's author
2. History
3. Basic Teachings
4. Further Information

Objective of the document's author

This web document about Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir was conceived
by Gabriel Pradpaka, Argentinean. Click here to get more information about our
purpose. Because it is about 1000 years old, this philosophy is rather new. It
brings brand-new viewpoints about your own nature and that of the universe.

Our minds need new ideas in order to develop their inner potential, and Non-dual
Shaivism of Kashmir or Trika is filled with revolutionary ideas. Since mankind is
really in a bad condition, full of negative thoughts, worshipping such ephemeral
things as money and body, the spiritual teaching is necessary, very badly indeed.

When one person does not think or feel properly, the universe around him is not
harmonious either. Trika brings ideas that bring about proper thoughts and
feelings in you. Therefore, the universe around will become more harmonious,
and you will experience true happiness. This is the objective.


If you have not downloaded the indispensable font(s), you will not see any
original Sanskrit characters.

Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir) was born in Kashmir (IX A.D:), a northern
province of India. Since the true meaning contained in Tantra-s (ancient spiritual
books) was being distorted, the Supreme Being Himself (who is named iva in
this philosophical system) opened the Vasugupta's mind (a wise man living in
Kashmir at that time). Then, Vasugupta was told by iva to seek for some
aphorisms engraved on a rock. These aphorisms were named "ivastra-s", the
Aphorisms (stra-s) of iva (the Auspicious One). But, let us listen to the original
description by the wise Kemarja (X A.D.):

angabodhydisiddhdeana ivrdhanapara
pramevarannyoginsiddhasatsampradyapavitritahdaya rmahdevagirau
mahmhevara rmn vasuguptanm gururabhavat|

In this world (iha), on the sacred (r) mountain (girau) Mahdeva (mahdeva),
someone (kacid) worthy of reverence (rmn) (lived). His heart (hdaya) had
been purified (pavitrita) by the Noble (sat) Tradition (sampradya) of the
various (nn) Self-realized Beings (siddha) and Yogin-s (yogin) pertaining to
the Supreme Lord (pramevara). He was devoted (para) to the
worship (rdhana) of the Auspicious One (iva). Owing to excess (atiayt) of
devotion (bhakti) to the Great Lord (mhevara), which --i.e. devotion-- shone
forth (in him) (unmiat) by (vaa) the Descent (pta) of Power (akti) --Divine
Grace--, gave a teaching (deana) that did not agree (anagkta) with that of
such Self-realized Beings (in Buddhism) (siddha) as Ngabodhi (ngabodhi) and
the rest (di), which were occupied (stha) with
lower (adhara) viewpoints (darana). He was (abhavat) a great devotee of the
Lord (mahmhevara) and a Guru (guru). His name (nm):
Vasugupta (vasugupta).

I will explain this paragraph now:

Kemarja is the author of this description. He was a pupil of the great

Abhinavagupta who belonged to the aiva line coming right from Vasugupta. This
philosophy is denominated "Shaivism" because it pertains to iva (the Auspicious
One), the Supreme Being. And it is "Non-dual" because it states that man and
God are in abosolute unity. Man is undergoing tremendous suffering because of
having forgotten his divine nature. You may say: how could we forget our own
nature? Well, to explain it is one of the purposes of Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of
Kashmir). Besides, since it was born in Kashmir, "of Kashmir" is added. Things
are not so simple as for its birth, but for the time being you will have to accept
that version.
Vasugupta lived on the mountain Mahdeva. He was a Guru. "Guru" is generally
translated as "teacher", but that is not so. Guru is someone who bestows
liberation on people directly. A Guru is Divine Grace in person, and he/she also
teaches sometimes. But, it is not necessary for a Guru to teach. A Guru (if we
could find one) can free us from bondage quickly, but he/she is extremely rare.
In turn, a teacher just "teaches", and by means of his/her knowledge people can
be freed as it were. However, this explanation about the Guru is approximate. It
is very difficult to describe what exactly a Guru is because he/she (whatever
forms the Guru may take on) is beyond words. In fact, the Guru is not a physical
form, a human being, but rather a Cosmic Principle operating through a human

You may wonder who Ngabodhi was. Well, he was a celebrated Buddhist teacher
who lived about 500-700 A.D. Vasugupta lived in Kashmir about 900 A.D.
Ngabodhi wrote "rguhyasamjamaalopyikviavidhi" (a long name) which
is based on "Guhyasamja" (a Buddhist Tantra). The doctrines taught by these
Buddhist teachers (Ngabodhi and the rest) did not agree with that taught by
Vasugupta, specially as far as the nature of Ultimate Reality is concerned.

The Siddha-s are self-realized male Yog-s, while Yogin-s are self-realized female
Yog-s. The spiritual lineage or Noble Tradition (satsampradya) of Vasugupta
was composed of Siddha-s and Yogin-s. His extreme devotion to Lord had its
roots in "aktipta" --Descent of Power--. "Descent of Power" could be translated
as "Divine Grace" in this context. However, the aktipta process is not an easy-
to-describe one. I will try to explain it later.

Kemarja continues to say:

Kadciccsau dvaitadarandhivsitaprye jvaloke rahasyasampradyo m
vicchedtyayato'nujighkparea paramaivena
svapne'nugrahyonmiitapratibha kto yathtra mahbhti mahati iltale
rahasyamasti tadadhigamynugrahayogyeu prakayeti|

And (ca) once upon a time (kadcid), the Supreme (parama) iva (ivena),
disposed (parea) to grant Favor (anujighk) and with the intention (iti-
ayata) that: "Let the Secret (rahasya) Tradition (sampradya) not (m) be
interrupted (vicchedi) in this world (loke) of the living beings (jva) which is
mostly (prye) perfumed (adhivsita) with the
dualistic (dvaita) viewpoint (darana)!"; expanded (unmiita... kta) in
dream (svapne) the consciousness (pratibha) of that (Vasugupta) (asau) by
bestowing Divine Grace on him (anugrahya). (He said to him) so (yath... iti):
"Here (atra), on this mountain (mahbhti), there is (asti) the Secret Esoteric
Teaching (rahasyam) on a big (mahati) slab (tale) of rock (il). Having obtained
it (tat adhigamya), reveal it (prakaya) to those who are fit (yogyeu) for
receiving Divine Grace (anugraha)".

And now, my explanation:

Since iva, the Supreme Being within all of us, did not want the Secret Tradition
to be interrupted, in dream He said to Vasugupta that the Secret Esoteric
Teaching was under a big stone on the mountain Mahdeva. The Secret Tradition
was composed of all true teachers who had taught the real Tantric meaning. And
now, owing to the growing distortion regarding meanings contained in those
sacred books (Tantra-s), iva Himself had to intervene.

This world is mostly perfumed (influenced) with the dualistic viewpoint. In a

word, living creatures consider themselves to be separated and different from
God. Thus, they undergo tremendous and unnecessary suffering. According to
Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir), nothing can never be different or
separated from God, because He is all and all Creation is Him. This is not
pantheism, because Trika says that God is all of us and we are all God, not a part
of Him. He lives as a "whole" in every part of His Creation. This idea may be
controversial just as all new ideas are, no doubt. It is controversial because it
shakes man's egoist structure and brings about a revolution inside him. Before
discarding new ideas, man should study them with care. Therefore, all these new
ideas --as it were (Trika is over 1,000 years old)-- stated by Non-dual Shaivism
of Kashmir must be firstly analyzed and then accepted or discarded. This would
be a wise behaviour.

Despite the aforesaid unity, man has somehow forgotten this truth, has forgotten
his divine nature and fallen into the ignorance. Trika and many other
philosophical systems explain that process of forgetting in different ways. The
explanation given by Trika will be analyzed later.

iva gave specific instructions to Vasugupta. Vasugupta did His bidding and we
can now enjoy the Secret Esoteric Teaching found on the big stone. Let us keep
listening to Kemarja:

Prabuddhacsvanviyast mahat il karasparanamtraparivartanata
savdktasvapn pratyakktyemni ivopaniatsagraharpi ivastri
tata samsasda|

Having awakened (prabuddha ca), he --i.e. Vasugupta-- (asau) started to search

about (anviyan) that (tm) big (mahatm) stone (ilm). (And having found
it,) he turned it round (parivartanata) by a mere (mtra) touch (sparana) of the
hand (kara), seeing with his own eyes (pratyakktya) the
dream (svapnm) confirmed (savdkta). He
thus (tatas) obtained (samsasda) these (imni) Aphorisms (stri) of
iva (iva), which (rpi) are a compendium (sagraha) of the Esoteric
Doctrine (upaniad) of iva (iva).

Vasugupta awakened, remembered the dream and went to the place where the
big stone was supposed to be. He found it and, after turning it round by a mere
touch of the hand, he confirmed his dream. Vasugupta obtained a set of 77
aphorisms which were known as "The Aphorisms of iva -- ivastra-s".
ivastra-s is a very important Scripture in Trika's literature. Vasugupta taught
those sacred aphorisms to his pupils: Kallaa and the rest, who were fit for
receiving Divine Grace. In turn, these pupils taught them to their own pupils and
so on. Thus, an immense literature was born.

Well, I will explain now the basic teachings of Trika:


Basic Teachings
I was thinking for a long time about how to explain the Basic Teachings without
putting something of my own creation. It is really difficult to teach such a great
philosophy as Trika without adding personal opinions. Since my opinions are
intermingled with the real teachings, it is not easy for me to separate them. One
does not know himself, even though one imagines he does; therefore the task of
separating personal concepts from original teachings is rather complicated.

I will try to use the sword of my discernment in order to be as objective as

possible. Sorry about my probable mistakes. All these teachings will be explained
in details later (on the following Web documents about Trika).
The Basic Teachings are as follows:

1) "Trika" means "threefold". One interpretation states that Non-dual Shaivism of

Kashmir is known as Trika or Threefold System because it analyzes the nature of
iva, akti and Nara. iva is God, and akti is God's I-consciousness. Nara is
man (the human being). Trika teachs that iva, akti and Nara are not different
from one another. In short, Man and God are one and the same. In fact, just the
Supreme Self, known as iva in this philosophical system, is the Self of the entire
2) Therefore, there is no difference between iva (God) and akti (God's I-
consciousness). God is and knows He is. There is not any difference at all.
3) iva is a name for the static aspect of God.
4) akti is a name for the dynamic aspect of God.
5) iva-akti is Freedom Itself.
6) Therefore, the human being is inherently free too.
7) However, the human being experiences bondage because of "mala" (limiting
8) Nevertheless, that mala is not something outside human being himself.
9) God becomes "man" (so to speak; because lastly God is God and becomes
nothing) through mala (impurity, limiting condition). In a word, mala arises from
10) iva or God is not inactive. He has akti or I-consciousness. In short, He has
Will, which gives rise to Knowledge and Activity.
11) When a human being realizes his inherent unity with iva and akti, "mala"
(limiting condition) ceases to exist completely.
12) His realization puts an end to the whole "apparent" bondage.
13) Since a human being is essentially God, manifests the entire universe around
him (maybe a "difficult to accept" teaching).
14) Even though Non-dualism between God and human being is predominant in
this philosophical system, all others viewpoints (mostly dualistic) are explained
and included too.
15) The universe is the playful unfoldment of God's power. Therefore, the
universe is born right now from Joy.
16) Unhappiness is experienced by a human being when he becomes oblivious of
his spiritual nature.
17) When he remembers his spiritual nature and realizes his unity with
God, unhappiness is turned into happiness.
18) Mala or impurity is nothing but ignorance of one's essential nature.
19) Human mind is akti Herself having undergone a process of successive
20) Therefore, human mind experiences complete happiness only when it merges
in God.
21) God is not a void, but a Self full of I-consciousness.
22) He may appears to be a "void" because He does not contain, in His innermost
nature, any objects.
23) The human being must understand that his own mind is the Divine
Mind having undergone a process of succesive contractions.
24) Consequently, understanding of one's mind is encouraged, not simply control
of it.
25) To control mind, as it were, one must firstly understand it.

Well, I think it is enough for the time being. I know, I know, these teachings
expounded in this way appear to be a kind of dogma. Please, be patient. I will
give complete explanation later (in Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir: Part 2, 3, etc.)
to all teachings merely outlined here.

And I finished my work now. See you in "Trika: Part 2".

Trika 2 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Literature, Paramaiva, iva and akti, understanding tattva-s
1. Introduction 1. iva and akti
2. Literature 2. Understanding "ta
3. Paramaiva, the Supreme iva 3. Further Informatio

Dear friend, we will keep studying this excelent philosophical system. In Part 1,
you have learnt a little history and the basic teachings enunciated in a dogmatic
manner. And now it is time to begin explaining the real bases behind those

However, our study will be always practical not simply something "theoretical".
Trika gives positive ideas to us, and through these ideas we will be able to attain
to peace. We live all the time with negative ideas in our minds (for example,
"death is the end and all is over", "money is the most important thing in life", "I
am this or that", etc.) and consequently we do not experience happiness. Nobody
can be happy by means of negative ideas.

A lot of people become disappointed with their lives because they do not get what
they want. They may think they want external things, but lastly they want to be
happy, they want "peace". Despite the obvious material poverty suffered by
almost everybody, the real poverty is spiritual. People need positive ideas in
order that their minds work in a positive way. Trika states that the universe
around a person is manifested by him, so if the person thinks negatively, his
universe will be negative too. By the word "negative" I mean "harmful,

Positive ideas are not mere optimism but a real source of happiness. For
example, "death is not the end of all, there is one alive God and He is in me right
now", "I have understood that my happiness is not dependent on money, great!",
"I have understood fully that I can be happy despite external circumstances", etc.
When a person starts to think and feel properly, his life also starts to change and
reflect those "happy" thoughts and feelings. One does not need to leave all and
go to the woods, he can be happy in the midst of a bustling city. One keeps being
responsible for his family, for instance, but he has an autonomous and happy
attitude within, which brings about more happiness in the outside. To experience
real happiness within and without, this is the ultimate goal in our study of Trika.

Get ready, because you are about to start a long and incredible journey into your
own Self.


Trika's literature can be divided into three well-defined sections:


Let us study each of them separately:

The Scriptures in this section have not been written by human beings. They are
considered to be revealed by the Divine iva Himself. The word "gama" means
"that which has come" (from the Supreme Self). "gam" means "to come". This
section contains the famous Tantra-s enunciated in Part 1: Mlinvijaya,
Svacchanda, Vijnabhairava, Mgendra, Netra, Rudraymala, etc.
It also contains the celebrated ivastra-s (The aphorisms of the Auspicious
One). Remember that ivastra-s were discovered by Vasugupta engraved on a
flat stone (Go to Part 1).

ivastra-s have four well-known commentaries (by human authors):

Vtti (by unknown author)

Vrttika (by Bhskara)
Vimarin (by Kemarja --this commentary is being studied here)
Vrttika (by Varadarja, also known as Kadsa)

The first section is somewhat dogmatic. Therefore, this second section formed
from books by human authors, attempts to give a little philosophical reasoning so
that the teachings can be understood by our intellect to a certain extent, and not
merely accepted. The word "Spanda" means "Vibration, Throbbing". In the
Spanda section everything is analyzed from a "vibrating" viewpoint. In short, it is
stated that the entire universe and ourselves are nothing but the product of
Divine Vibration. The most important Scriptures in this Section are the following:
Spandastra-s, also known as Spandakrik-s (by Vasugupta according to
Kemarja; but according to others a disciple of Vasugupta named "Kallaa" was
the real author)
Vtti (a commentary of Kallaa on Spandastra-s)
Spandasarvasva (it is not a new Scripture but the two --Spandastra-s and Vtti--

In turn, Spandastra-s (also known as Spandakrik-s) have four commentaries:

Vivti (by Rmakaha)

Spandapradpik (by Bhaotpala, also know as Utpalavaiava)
Spandasandoha (by Kemarja --a commentary on the first aphorism of
Spandaniraya (by Kemarja --a commentary on all aphorisms of Spandastra-

The word "Pratyabhij" means "Recognition". Our own essential nature is to be

"recognized" and not to be "known". It is not a thing to be known, but the knower
himself. This knower can recognize his own essential nature but he cannot know
it, because that nature is not an knowable object but the knowing subject
himself. To understand this concept of "Recognition" is crucial in Trika.

In this third section full philosophical reasoning support is given. The sage
Somnanda was the founder of it. Utpaladeva, his disciple, was the author of
maybe the most important Scripture in this section: varapratyabhij. But, let
us list the main Scriptures:

ivadi (by Somnanda)

varapratyabhij, also known as Pratyabhijstra-s (by Utpaladeva)

In turn, there are three commentaries on varapratyabhij:

Vtti (by Utpaladeva himself)

Pratyabhijvimarin, also known as Laghvvtti (by Abhinavagupta)
Pratyabhijvivtivimarin, also known as Bhatvtti (by Abhinavagupta)

You may have noted that there are several Vtti-s. Well, "Vtti" means
"Commentary" in this context. In order not to be confused, just add the original
title of the commented Scripture. For instance: the Vtti of ivastra-s is to be
named "ivastravtti". And the Vritti of Spandastra-s is to be named
Spandastravtti, and so on. Very simple. Thus, you will never be confused.
Besides the Scriptures and commentaries enunciated, there are other works:

Pratyabhijhdayam (a compendium of the Pratyabhij section, by Kemarja)

A series of Stotra-s --Hymns-- which give devotional support to the Trika's
Tantrloka (a massive work on Trika, by Abhinavagupta)
Tantrasra (Summarized Tantrloka)

and a lot more...

You have now several books on Trika. Try to get one and keep learning Trika.
Trika's literature is massive; this is a mere sample of it. However, the most
important Scriptures of Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir have been referred to.

We can say that six sages are the most important authors in this
system: Vasugupta, Somnanda, Abhinavagupta, Utpaladeva, Kemarja and

Of course, there are other important authors, but those six are predominant.


Paramaiva, the Supreme iva

There are three ways to teach Trika:


When it is taught in a non-dualistic manner, God and man are one and the same.
There is no difference at all. When it is taught in a dualistic/non-dualistic manner,
God and man are different but they share a underlying unity. And finally, when it
is taught in a dualistic manner, God and man are different and separated. There
is no unity between them.

Of course, my way of teaching is a non-dualistically oriented one, because you

surely know the other ways. However, the three modes of teaching are
intermingled in our study. This is inevitable.

To define Paramaiva, the Ultimate Reality, is impossible by means of words. It is

beyond description. Paramaiva is Uccrarahita vastu; It is the Reality (vastu)
deprived (rahitam) of pronunciation (ucra). In short, It cannot be described
through words. It is everything and simultaneously is beyond everything. In It,
there are no subjects or objects. But this Paramaiva is not something in the air.
For example: "the back of the things you are now watching around". While you
are not aware of the back of an object, that area remains with no subject
becoming aware of it. And according to Trika, if no subject is witnessing, so no
objects are existing as objects.

Then, the back of the objects you are watching right now remained as pure
Reality (Paramaiva) without any attribute till you become aware of it. This may
sound strange, but it is going on all the time. Yes, yes, you cannot understand
fully yet. I have just start with the teaching, do not worry, you will understand.
Although Paramaiva is everything, Its innermost nature can be found where
there is no subject or object (for instance, the back of the objects). When you
meditate deeply on the back of the things, you enter Paramaiva. This is a good
meditation's technique.

From this everlasting Paramaiva everything has arisen, but the process of
manifestation is not at random. It exists an accurate sequence of creation. Trika
divide all the Manifestation or Creation into 36 categories or tattva-s. I will
explain this later.

Paramaiva is not a subject or an object, It is Reality in everything and beyond

everything. It is within and without everything. Paramaiva is the foundational
Reality on which everything has come into existence. It is here and there, and at
the same time, It is not here or there. It is impossible to describe it by means of
words. However, this Paramaiva appears to divide Itself firsly into two parts:
iva and akti (the first 2 tattva-s in the sequence of 36 categories). Let us study
them now:


iva and akti

According to Trika, the Absolute has two aspects: Static and Dynamic. The Static
aspect is named iva, and the Dynamic aspect is named akti. But, what do iva
and akti mean? The word "iva" means "Auspicious" and akti means "Power".
Of course, there are other meanings. However, the meanings given by me are
common and well-known by everybody. "Auspicious" and "Power", well, these two
words do not indicate "accurately" the nature of the Static and Dynamic aspects.
That's why, two new terms has been indicated as much more
accurate: Praka and Vimara.

"Praka" means "light, brightness, splendour, clearness" and also "visible,

clearly manifested, etc.". Ah!, this word indicates the true nature of the Static
aspect. iva or Praka is the Revealing Light, Supreme Clearness and Splendour.
And He is completely visible, completely evident and clearly manifested before
the eyes of all. He is the Light that illuminates all within and without. He appears
without as everything having luminous quality. And within He is the light of mind,
by which one can clearly see images and hear thoughts. He is a Static Witness to
all our activities. In fact, He is ourselves, He is our own inner Self, the real "I"
behind every action and thought. For example, this Witness (yourself) is right
now watching everything around. But, in order to be able to "watch", these
objects have to be "illuminated". Well, this Witness (your true nature or "I")
illuminates and watches all around right now.

Nevertheless, it is not enough to illuminate and watch. By the word "watch" I am

not only referring to "look", but also to "hear, touch, etc.". For example, when
you hear thoughts in your mind, you are not using the physical ear. You are using
the "inner" ear. This "inner" ear is furnished by the Supreme Witness (Praka or
iva). In fact, this Praka furnishes all senses (outer and inner ones). But it is
not enough, you must come to "become aware of" that which is looked at, heard,
touched, etc. Vimara or akti furnishes the Witness (Praka or iva) with this
quality of "becoming aware of". The word "Vimara" means "examination".
Vimara is this that "examines" and lets you become aware of all around you.
Vimara is the "examining power" pertaining to Praka or iva. The examination
itself is a kind of "activity" or "dynamism". Vimara makes the "static" Witness
(yourself) not only conscious of all around, but also it makes Him conscious of his
own inner nature. The luminous and static Witness "is" and "knows" He is. You
"are" and "know" you are. You are conscious of your own existence all the time,
because you are the Supreme Self Himself. Trika states this absolute identity with
God. Trika does not say that the human being is a part of God sharing some
qualities of His. No, Trika says that you are God, and everybody is God forever. If
you do not grasp this point to a certain extent, you will not understand anything
about Trika.

A new (but really "ancient") idea just as "everybody is God" produces tremendous
revolution within (and without too). All that revolution is necessary in order to
change our minds. Our minds are generally very "static" and they rarely think by
themselves. Many thoughts we think have been borrowed. For example: "there is
no God, or He is dead". If we think like this, have we really thought about it?
Another instance: "when Death comes, all is over". Whether or not it is true, have
we really thought about this idea? And the answer is "no". Maybe our minds have
thought, but not "us". Man has to be taught to think. However, the first obstacle
man faces is the imagination about he really thinks by himself. We think we have
a "very flexible" mind, but when we face a new idea, we realize how stiff our
minds are. So, new ideas are very necessary in order to show that we are living
in the imagination. Beyond Trika's statements regarding our existence, whether
or not those teachings are right, one statement remains: We are not what we
think we are. All philosophical systems agree with one another with respect to
this teaching. There are no discrepancies. Afterward, every system explains our
true nature in different ways, and discrepancies arise. But, all systems have come
to a complete agreement regarding "we are not what we think we are".
This idea of identity with God is uplifting, because by means of it you come to
realize that "you" do not really exist as "you" but "Him". Thus, you even
surrender to Him your sense of a separated identity as "you". This is the supreme
surrender. Some people sometimes misunderstand this idea of unity with God.
They think of that identity as not being "humble", as being "vain and boastful".
On the contrary, when one come to surrender even his "limited individuality" to
the Supreme, nothing can be as "humble" as that. This surrender brings about a
feeling of love and brotherhood, because not only "one" is God but everybody is.
One does not feel: "Oh, I am God and the others are not, they are limited
people". No! One feels: "Oh, everybody is God and because of that everybody is
me". A feeling of love and peace arises in you. When a person comes to realize
his own inner Self, he has attained the Trika's goal. "Unity with all", this is the

Someone may not agree with Trika, but he can not deny that "he/she is and
knows he/she is". Praka and Vimara are universal principles and they can not
be denied. They may be denominated in different ways (iva-akti, Praka-
Vimara, etc.), but they remain the same. The important thing is that you are a
witness to all, but you are not like an inert log; you are conscious of that which is
witnessed by yourself. You are essentialy Praka, but since you have Vimara
(examining power), you become aware of everything around. These two aspects
are your essential nature, and nobody can take them away from you, because
they are "yourself". Do you understand? Well, if you can understand this, you do
not need to keep studying Trika. You have attained to the goal of Trika.

Besides, Praka (the Witness, yourself) does not have essentially any form. He is
formless. For example, if you imagine right now you are walking down a street,
you will be able to visualize the physical body but not yourself (the Witness).
There is a kind of camera filming all the time, but you can not visualize the
cameraman because He is you. He is you and has no form. He is formless.
Attempt to give some particular form to Him, and you will discover that it is
impossible. It is not possible because He has no form essentially. But, through
Vimara's work, He appears to have one. For instance, a lot of people think they
are the physical body, others think they are their minds. I am Gabriel, and you
are John, and she is Jane, and he is Antonio, etc., etc.

These false identifications with the physical and subtle bodies bring about so
much suffering. But, when one realizes his identity with Praka-Vimara, this
realization brings about "peace".
At the level of spoken word, Praka and Vimara (iva and akti) are also
revealed. For instance: I am Gabriel. "I" is iva, "am" is akti, and "Gabriel" is
ego. The ego (tattva or category 15) is not my real nature but an artificial identity
manifested by the true "me" --iva-akti (Praka-Vimara)--. iva and akti are
the first two tattva-s and stand always as the support for all we think, speak,
feel, etc. "I am" is iva-akti, "I am" is your essential nature. Do not forget it.
Understanding "tattva-s" or categories
And now, let us try to understand "tattva-s" or categories of Manifestation.

The word "tat" means "that", and "tva" something like "ness". Thus, "tattva"
would mean "thatness". A tattva is a rather stable level of reality. Think of it as a
specific frequency. According to Trika, there are 36 tattva-s, in short, 36 different
frequencies. For example, the "ordinary mind" is the tattva 16. This mind works
on a well-defined level of consciousnes, managing the senses in different ways. At
other levels of consciousness we find the "intellect" (tattva 14), which has
predominantly the function of discriminating and labeling. And we find also the
"senses" (tattva-s 17 to 21), all of them working at other level of reality.

All the aggregate of tattva-s is well organized. For instance, when one wakes up
in the morning, all tattva-s pertaining to wakefulness emerge from oneself
(Paramaiva). However, this emergence is not at random but in an accurate
sequence. Imagine you shake a tree, and lots of fruits fall down. Despite they
appear to fall down all at the same time, each of them falls following a defined
sequence. Likewise, when you wake up the whole world appears to emerge
simultaneously, but this is not the case. The world emerge step by step, but
quickly. Thus, you imagine there is a continuous world in front of you, but this is
an illusion. Not the world, but the sense of continuity. Science says this too, but
we rarely think of it. It seems "too scientific" and "not practical" in everyday life.
Nevertheless, as Trika states, it is a daily reality, and "very practical" indeed.

When you start considering the world as a "discontinuous reality", a new field of
experiences will be within reach. You will realize your mind is "discontinuous":
one thought now and other thought afterward. But, who is in between? You
yourself remains as a witness between one thought and the next. The gap
between thoughts is not a void according to Trika, but it is filled with
Consciousness, with Reality, with iva, with You, my friend. Good method to be
used when meditating: "To become conscious of the Witness placed between

So, a tattva is a defined level of Creation or Manifestation. It is a step in the huge

cosmic stair. And the tattva-s are rather stable, each of them being a kind of
universe. For instance, when you are extremely worried, your mind is
predominant. Consequently, you move about the mental world which was created
by a state of identification with a series of thoughts. Then, tattva 16 (mind) gives
rise to an immense world full of worrying thoughts. In short, one tattva is a
universe in itself.
A crucial teaching: tattva-s are predominant when the Witness (You, iva) thinks
He is them. Even though iva and akti are denominated "tattva-s 1 and 2,
respectively", they are not tattva-s, but rather "the source of all tattva-s". Of
course, Paramaiva (the origin of iva-akti) is not a tattva either, but rather the
Highest Reality that gives rise to all. You may wonder: well, I know Paramaiva,
iva and akti, but what is Sadiva? We can say that Sadiva is a kind of iva-
akti's child. Yes, we can say that. However, I will not explain this mysterious
Sadiva now.

You have learnt lots of things. This is just the beginning. In Part 3 I am going to
keep revealing fabulous teachings which will help you effectively break the chains
of bondage brought about by ignorance of your own nature.

See you in "Trika: Part 3".

Trika 3 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Sadiva, vara and Sadvidy
1. Introduction 1. vara 1. Concluding R
2. Sadiva 2. Sadvidy 2. Further Infor

Dear friend, many secrets will be revealed in this document. The Great
Knowledge about man and his possible evolution is real. You will be able to taste
just a bit of it throughout this third part. Three mysterious realities will be


Each of these universes is a predominant experience within the following 3 tattva-

s respectively: SADIVA (tattva 3) -- VARA (tattva 4) -- SADVIDY (tattva 5).

Remember that Trika postulates 36 tattva-s or categories of Creation. The first

two tattva-s are IVA (tattva 1) and AKTI (tattva 2). Both of them form the I-
sense -- I AM -- that is the basis on which all experiences (the rest of the tattva-
s) will be "experienced".

Again, remember that you are essentially IVA-AKTI (I AM) and not the self-
invented person you think you are. The self-invented individual (Gabriel, John,
Ivan, Manuel, etc.) is the ego (tattva 15), it is simply a role you play on the stage
of the world. This ego is necessary in order to "play the role" but you always
should be conscious of your true identity. If you are conscious, no harm will come
from the ego. But, if you are not... well... look around.
In Trika the ego is not to be destroyed but recognized as it is: a mask to play a
role. Very useful mask, but simply a mask and not the real "me". When the ego is
recognized that way, it is seen as pure Consciousness (iva-akti) taking on this
form and it becomes inoffensive. So, Trika gives a chance to the poor ego, a
chance to become a very useful instrument provided that it is fully understood
and recognized as a mere "mask" by us.

Very good, but let us begin with our study.


You are the Witness, the cameraman (iva or Praka) who is always filming
through akti (the camera) the movie of the world. Look around and behold your
own creation. But, that camera (akti or Vimara) is a special one, because it is
united with the movie filmed by it. This is strange, isn't it?

Let us glance at the whole process. I will use the visual field in order to explain
how the cameraman works. Behind your own eyes there is the camera (akti)
that is filming all around. And you are the very Witness operating the camera.
This camera creates the world and then it films it. Another strange idea. Contrary
to the ordinary viewpoint, Trika states that the world firstly emerges from us and
secondly it is perceived (filmed) by ourselves. But you must always remember
that cameraman, camera, stage and movie are all the same Paramaiva playing
to be many. They are completely united with each other. I separate the things so
that you may understand the entire process of Manifestation.

OK, you are the Witness (iva, Praka or the cameraman), and you have I-
consciousness and consequently world-consciousness (akti, Vimara or the
camera). And the world around you, despite it is essentialy akti, appears to be a
different reality filmed by akti camera. Well, as you see it is difficult to explain
by using words. iva and akti are the first two tattva-s (tattva-s 1 and 2).
Sadiva is the third tattva (tattva 3), because the entire world arises in an
"indistinct" form at the beginning. Ah!, you do not believe it... become conscious
now of the corners of your.own eyes. Do not you see an indistinct image over
there? Yes, you are beholding the world about to arise, dear iva. I am only
analyzing the field of vision, but the same "indistinct" reality permeates all senses
and mind. Listen to the sounds, they are firstly indistinct and then they become
more distinct, and lastly they return to their indistinct form and dissapear.

The "indistinct" (foggy) reality penetrates everything, because it is Sadivatattva

(tattva 3). All Creation must always undergo a primitive indistinct state before
being manifested fully (in a distinct form). In turn, all distinct (sharp) creations
must return to their indistinct condition in order that a new Creation emerges.
Ah!, you do not believe it. Look at one object around. The object will appear as a
"distinct" (sharp) thing in front of you. Well done, and now look at another
object... you will see that as the second object becomes more distinct, the first
object becomes more indistinct. Yes, the akti camera generally cannot keep the
two objects as distinct realities simultaneously. So, Sadiva is a tattva revealing
itself in all.

But, what is the use of knowing that? Good question. Apart from the pleasure of
merely knowing more, there is a secret: Mind needs "distinct" things to keep on
working. The "distinct things" are a kind of mental fuel. That is why, when you
are sitting for meditation, the lights are generally off. Likewise, you like the
silence or subtle music while you meditate. Of course, the "indistinct" universe
makes mind become quiet. You already knew that, but the Trika gives you a
serious explanation of the whole process.
Besides, since Sadiva (indistinct universe or tattva 3) is the first step of the
Creation, it is completely full of Icch (Will power). There is a Will to create in it,
and consequently the I-sense is predominant since Will belongs to the "I". At this
level, I feel I AM THIS, I AM THE INDISTINCT UNIVERSE. The 'I' comes first
because the universe is foggy, not full-fledged yet. However, a feeling of unity
remains. Later on, I will explain how you come to feel different and separated
from the universe which is your own creation. Do not hurry. Try to understand all
that has been said so far. Many things have been revealed now. Meditate on the
indistinct universe which you can perceive by looking out of the corners of your
eyes. Your mind will be so quiet. Enjoy friend!

This is the fourth tattva: varatattva. The "distinct" universe is predominant in it.
You can behold varatattva just in front of you (within your field of vision). But,
remember that the same truth is to be applied to the rest of senses and mind.
You can hear "distinct" sounds, taste "distinct" flavors, behold "distinct" thoughts,
and so on. Both Sadiva and vara are tattva-s which permeate all your world.
However, I will be using generally the field of vision to explain tattva-s to you
because it is more simple for you and me.

When you look at an object in front of you, it appears to be "solid" and "real", and
this is so for a while at least. akti is fully condensed in varatattva. Your mind
want to see "solid" and "distinct" objects, people, etc. It needs "distinct universe"
to survive as "mind". That is why, when you are sitting for meditation the lights
are off and you want the sounds to be low. You need to enter Sadivatattva (the
"indistinct" universe) in order that the mind become quiet. Then, we could say
that the mind has its primeval source in varatattva. Of course, this original
mind is not the ordinary mind, but a higher one which through the process of
successive contractions will be turned into the ordinary mind.
This higher mind (tattva 4 or varatattva) and the ordinary mind (tattva 16) are
far away from each other and at the same time they are very close. When you
see a "distinct" object, the first experience is the higher mind (you only
contemplate, no thought is arising), and afterward you are thinking of the object
and perhaps lots of opinions begin to arise and so on. This is the ordinary mind.
Well, pay attention to the first experience: "pure contemplation with no thought
in it". If you can do this, you are conscious of the varatattva. There, you will
note that a particular "knowledge" emerges. It is a knowledge regarding the
object. Even though you may put "approximately" that "knowledge" in words later
on, the first experience of it is beyond words. Experience by yourself.

So, Knowledge is predominant in varatattva. When the "distinct" objects

emerge, the respective knowledge emerges with them. That first knowledge
about the distinct objects will be transformed into the ordinary mind in the long
run, which is full of opinions, feelings, etc.

In varatattva you feel: THIS IS ME, THIS DISTINCT UNIVERSE IS ME. Contrary
to Sadiva's experience, the object ("this" or "distinct universe) is predominant.
The "I" is overwhelmed by the "distinct object" experience. The cameraman ("I")
is fascinated by the "distinct" wonder which has been manifested by Himself, and
He "forgets" --a little bit-- His true essence or "I". For that reason, the distinct
universe is predominant at this level. vara is the abode of Omniscience.

And now a simple chart to show the different universes experienced by you. I am
using the field of vision, but you may use this example in the rest of the senses
and mind.

You are at the c enter of the pie (look at the diagram below). The distinct
universe stands in front of you. The indistinct universe stands in the corner of
your eyes as a surrounding "foggy" reality. And behind, beyond your eyes' scope,
the unmanifested universe stands as a "non-perceived" visual reality. The
unmanifested universe changes according to the sense you are using. An object
may be visually unmanifested, but perhaps you may hear a sound coming from it.
In short, the unmanifested universe is all that is not perceived through senses
and mind by you, the Cameraman. The entire unmanifested universe "exists" but
not as a "solid" reality. It is merely a "probability". Every thing or person entering
the manifested universe (composed of indistinct and distinct universes) is ever
new. You do not know generally how that thing or person is going to become
manifest. This is the play you are playing all the time.


Dear friend, you have surely noticed that when you want to glance another
object, the previous one must become "indistinct". Experience this now. You are
looking at an object, and then you want to look at another one. To do it, akti
(the camera) will focus on the second object and the first one will become foggy
automatically. It happens all the time. You are going from "indistinct universe" to
"distinct universe" and vice versa. The constant oscillation brings about a "wave"
or "pulsation" or "throb". In turn, this "pulsation" or "throb" brings about the rest
of the tattva-s (from 6 down to 36).

When akti oscillate that way, you oscillate between two experiences: "I AM
UNIVERSE IS ME". Thus, a resulting experience arises: "I AM I AND THIS IS
oscillation gives a sensation of continuity to the Cameraman or "I". Because of
the aforesaid oscillation, you may experience now an apparently "solid" universe
around. But that "solidity" is a kind of illusion produced by the fast swing of akti
(the camera).

Since the oscillation of akti is an "action", the Action power is predominant at

this level. Sadvidy is the abode of Omnipotence.

And now a simple table with the first five tattva-s and their characteristics:


1 iva "I". The Cameraman, a witness standing behind all.
--Power of
2 akti "am". The camera which by focusing manifests the entire world
--Power of Bliss--
Icchakti "I am This, I am this indistinct universe". akti brings about an
3 Sadiva
--Power of Will-- --the Cameraman ("I")-- has the aforesaid experience with resp
"This is Me, this distinct universe is Me". akti brings about a "d
4 vara --Power of
the Cameraman ("I")-- has the aforesaid experience with respe
Kriyakti "I am I and this universe is this universe". akti, by focusing an
5 Sadvidy
--Power of Action-- and iva --the Cameraman ("I")-- has the aforesaid experience

This way, the Divine iva ("I") undergoes apparently successive transformations,
and He has succesive experiences regarding the universe manifested by Himself.
At last, when He gets to ego-tattva (tattva 15), He starts to consider Himself to
be a "person" with limitations, opinions, family, relationships, etc., etc. Thus, He
plays the role of a human being. Wonderful, really! Even though I speak of "Him",
You are iva, do not forget this.


Concluding remarks
Another document on Trika has been finished. You have learnt lots of things.
Remember that you are living always as the Cameraman or Witness within the
aforesaid universes. You are Pure Spirit who transcends all them. You have no
form or attributes; therefore, mind cannot tie you. You are simply "I am". Never
forget this. See you in "Trika: Part 4".

Trika 4 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

The region between tattva-s 5 and 6, My and the five Kacuka-s
1. Introduction 1. The five Kacuka-s
2. The region between tattva-s 5 and 6 2. Concluding Remark
3. My 3. Further Informatio

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradpaka once again. We are about to study an important
subject: Limitations. You will learn how they work in you. They work above your
conscious mind, that's why you cannot get rid of them using the mind. Your mind
and its contents come from these limitations. Limitations (mala-s, My and
Kacuka-s) give rise to the conditioned being that you think you are.

You have surely tried to change your life, and despite your efforts everything
seems to be the same as before, the same old story. There is a kind of
counterbalance keeping the balance. This counterbalance is in fact all limitations
residing inside you. You are not properly conscious of them, and therefore, you
cannot change anything, just pretend but nothing else. No matter how hard your
effort may be, you will not be able to change anything "essentially" this way. No,
no, no. Before changing anything, you "must" acquire right knowledge about
"who you are" and "limitations". After that acquisition, you may attempt to
change your life with the help of these new tools, and "maybe" you will succeed.
But if you attempt this without right knowledge, you will fail. There are laws in
this universe, and they work following a well defined pattern. Firstly, learn how
the pattern works, and then you may try to change something in your life. Not

I will explain in this page and the next ones, how you may do a good use of your
efforts. I will also explain to you why you cannot do whatever you want without
right knowledge. I will inform you about the definite laws that work above and
inside your mind. One imagines that he is free, and this is true spiritually
speaking. However, when one thinks that he is his mind and body, then one is
not free at all, because there are tons of psychological and physical laws. No end
to them.

So, before undertaking your fight against "limitations", you should learn how they
work. This would be a wise behavior, I think. Let's get down to work.


The region between tattva-s 5 and 6

Up to Sadvidy (tattva 5) the real iva's nature was not veiled. But, between
tattva-s 5 and 6 something is going to happen: "avamala". What is avamala?
The word "mala" means "impurity" and "ava" means "pertaining to au or
conditioned being". In short, avamala is "the primordial impurity of the limited
being". There are three mala-s according to Trika, and this is the first one.
avamala is the source from which comes the entire aggregate of tattva-s from
6 to 36. It is a tremendous contraction of iva's Will. Even though avamala is
located in a stage beyond utterance, if we could put the notion inoculated by
avamala into words, it would be something like this:


This notion of "imperfection" is the first step on your way toward limited
existence. This notion is strong enough as to veil your essential nature, which is
iva Himself. However, Trika does not state that "something coming from
somewhere" veiled iva's Nature. No, no, no. It is iva Himself (You) who brings
about the aforesaid contraction. He does this in order to start His "apparent"
transformation into the conditioned being you think you are. Trika viewpoint is
not like this:

avamala (the villain) veiled iva's nature and turned Him into a limited being

Not at all. iva is "One without a second". There is nobody veiling Him or drawing
the veil. That is mere appearance. iva is the Supreme Actor, and therefore He
plays all roles, because there is nobody else to do this.

To play a role He needs to forget a little His own nature. That's why He assumes
successive contractions, and avamala is the first and most important of all
contractions or limitations. If you do not understand this simple teaching, and
keep thinking that "something different from iva" is veiling His Nature, you will
not be able to grasp the core of Trika.

Despite iva undergoes "apparently" different changes, He does not change at all.
Reality never changes. Imagine you have wonderful multicolored spectacles. Both
you (the perceiver) and the world perceived by you remain the same.
Nevertheless, when you look at the world through these spectacles, it looks like
multicolored. Likewise, iva (You) and His akti (I-consciousness and the entire
universe arising from it) remain the same, but when iva uses those spectacles
(avamala and the rest of limitations), akti looks somewhat different. She
seems to be separated from iva, She seems to be something different from
iva. And the very iva apparently forgets that all these changes are the result of
using those spectacles. If you use spectacles, you know well that sometimes you
forget you are using them. It is something wonderful indeed.

And one day, spectacled iva realizes that the multicolored universe arises as a
result of the spectacles He was using to see His own akti. When He frees Himself
of the spectacles, then He is able to perceive His akti such as She is. In short,
both His "apparent" fall into the ignorance and His subsequent liberation is
nothing but a Divine Play. If you cannot have this view, you will never understand
Trika's viewpoint. You will see everything as a fight against "ignorance", not as a
Divine Display. True, when one meditates, chants, prays, etc., sometimes he
feels he is fighting against "something different from him". But, according to
Trika, this is a mere "notion". You are not fighting against "another". You are
fighting against your own tendency to assume contraction or limitation.

Therefore, your "apparent" spiritual path should be light and full of right
understanding. You should see your own spiritual development as a Divine Play,
not as something painful and sad. There is nobody but you in this "apparent"
fight. No enemies but your own tendency to limit yourself. Look at the following
simple table and try to grasp the core of this teaching:


+ (plus) =
(You) (all limitations in you) to take on the for
(You) (minus) (all limitations in you) found in Her.
SPECTACLED IVA (You thinking you are a AKTI is seen as a
AKTI + (plus) =
conditioned being) residing in it.
AKTI + (plus) =
(You realizing your inherent unity with iva) alone dwells in a

iva and akti are one and the same. akti is the Power of iva. She is the
"active" I-consciousness that is the base on which the whole universe is built up.

When avamala start operating, iva is apparently reduced to a Vijnkala.

And what is a Vijnkala? I will explain this subject righ now. Listen to the

The word "Vijnkala" means "someone who has conscious perception (vijna)
but no power of action (akala)". Below avamala, iva (You) goes through a first
stage of contraction called "Vijnkala". In short, the first consequence of
Aavamala's work is the creation of a special condition called "state of
Vijnkala". When you are in this stage, you experience "conscious perception"
but have no power "to act". What does it mean? Look: It is as if you were
daydreaming. Yes, yes, it is something like that. You are conscious of your nature
as iva, but have no power to play a role in the universe. That is, you have
"vijna" (conscious percepcion of what you are) but no power of action (akala).
Therefore, you experience yourself as a Witness to all. This is a state of pure
Praka or iva, with no Vimara or akti in it. iva is the "static" perceiver, while

akti is the "dynamic" creative power. You have power of perception but not
of action. Got the point?

And now a graphic. Sadvidy is the fifth tattva, and Mya is, obviously, the sixth
tattva. avamala is the line between the two referred to tattva-s, and
Vijnkala is the stage just below the avamala.

This stage of Vijnkala is "generally" the highest state that can be achieved by
an ordinary person (without any additional spiritual knowledge). When a person
acquire spiritual knowledge of a "true" guru, he may advance beyond Vijnkala
stage. Of course, I am not telling you that Trika is the only way to accomplish
that advance. There are many ways to the same goal. However, I just know this
one deeply enough. I know other ways, but my knowledge is shallow yet, I think.
Most people read a little bit of Veda, and afterward they are teaching Veda. They
learn a little of Trika, and think that they know all about Trika. And the same
thing happens with all the rest. This is a common condition of human mind. The
knowledge should not be shallow all the time, but one should know something
deeply before lecturing or writing books or whatsoever about that subject. If his
knowledge is shallow, he will communicate a partial knowledge with lots of
misundertandings. In a word, more confusion will be added to the already
confused minds of people listening to the lecture or reading the book or

Well, the next stage is the Mytattva.


This is the sixth tattva. The word "My" means ordinarily "illusion", but if we go
deeper into its meaning according to Trika, we come to know that this word is
derived from the verbal root "m" (to measure out). Mya is that which
"measures out" the reality. It turns the "iva without parts" into a reality
distributed in various portions. In sum, it creates a sense of difference.
Between the tattva-s 5 and 6, it exists a kind of My called Mahmy (great
My), because there is a primeval sense of difference between "I" and "This",
between "iva" and the "Universe". However, from My on, the sense of
difference is stressed and quite different. It is not a difference between "I" and
"This", between "I" and "the universe as a whole", but between "I" and "a
universe composed of infinite portions". Got the point?

Thus, Mytattva generates more and more difference. It is the Cause or Womb
from which all this variegated universe has risen. You experience My fully when
you enter the deep sleep. This void you experience is really My or the Causal
Womb that is the source of all you experience in the dream and waking states. It
is experienced as a Void because it contains the "seeds" of the Creation. When
you see a seed, you do not see a plant or a tree, but the whole plant or tree is
contained within it. Likewise, within My is contained all the universe around but
in a causal form. My has no known forms, you do not face a tree, a cat, a man
or anything else. You only face the Womb from which a tree, a cat, a man or
anything else will set forth.

This Mytattva (according to Trika) "must not" be mistaken for Non-dual

Vednta's My. In Non-dual Vednta (another important philosophical system),
My means something completely different. I am not going to explain it now,
because it would be too long. I just will say that My is not a "real" stage in
Non-dual Vednta but an illusion. Only Brahma is real according to Non-dual
Vednta. It would be a long explanation indeed. Just remember that "My" in
Trika is not the same as "My" in Non-dual Vednta. In Trika, My is the sixth
"real" stage in the process of Creation.

Myyamala brings about Mytattva. Myyamala (the second mala or impurity)

gives to iva a strong sense of difference. This stage is beyond the gross
utterance, but if we could put the notion inoculated by Myyamala into words, it
would be something like this:

"I am different from all things, and they are different from each other"

However, because "all things" are still unmanifested, this mala remains as a
latent seed within the womb of My. It will have full impact when both mind and
gross body are manifested. But, for now, it is just a seed.

Ah!, one more thing. When you rest in Mytattva, you are a Pralaykala or
experient of the void. The void is also known as "Pralaya" or dissolution of the
manifestation. My is experienced as a void according to my previous

My gives rise to five Kacuka-s or "sheaths". My is also known as

"Ignorance". That's why the five Kacuka-s are often called "sheaths of
Ignorance". Sometimes, My is included as another sheath or Kacuka.

The five Kacuka-s

From My (the Womb) five Kacuka-s or sheaths emerge. They do not emerge
without rhyme or reason, but they follow an strict pattern. In fact, all tattva-s are
manifested in succession, although they appear to emerge all at the same time.
First of all, look at the following graphic and learn the names of the Kacuka-s:

Before learning more about Kacuka-s, you must keep in mind that they cannot
be overcome by using your mind because they are above the mind. There are
other sets of tools to accomplish that overcoming. Be patient, please. Before
overcoming them you should study them. Therefore, let's study them one by one:

1. Kal or Kalkacuka (tattva or category 7): This is the same tattva 5

(Sadvidy) but in a contracted condition. Tattva 5 is the abode of Omnipotence
(sarvakarttva) or Kriyakti (power of action) to its full height. In turn, tattva 7
is also the abode of power of action but in a limited state now. There is not
complete absence of power of action at all, there is only a contraction of it. The
same is true regarding the rest of Kacuka-s. Kalkacuka is the limited power of
action by which you carry out all your daily duties. Although there is still no
utterance at this level, if you try to put into words the notions inoculated by
Kalkacuka, this would be the result:
I cannot do this -- I am helpless -- I am limited in respect of action --
This is impossible -- etc.
1. Vidy or Vidykacuka (tattva 8): This is the same tattva 4 (vara) but in a
contracted condition. Tattva 4 is the abode of Omniscience (sarvajatva) or
Jnaakti (power of knowledge) to its full height. In turn, tattva 8 is also the
abode of power of knowledge but in a limited state now. There is not complete
absence of power of knowledge at all, there is only a contraction of it. The same
is true regarding the rest of Kacuka-s. Vidykacuka is the limited power of
knowledge by which you know all in your day-to-day life. Although there is still no
utterance at this level, if you try to put into words the notions inoculated by
Vidykacuka, this would be the result:
I cannot know this -- I am an ignorante person -- I am limited in respect
of knowledge -- This is too complicated to me -- etc.
1. Rga or Rgakacuka (tattva 9): This is the same tattva 3 (Sadiva) but in a
contracted condition. Tattva 3 is the abode of All-satisfaction (pratva) or
Icchakti (power of will) to its full height. In turn, tattva 9 is also the abode of
power of will but in a limited state now. There is not complete absence of power
of will at all, there is only a contraction of it. The same is true regarding the rest
of Kacuka-s. Rgakacuka is the limited power of will by which you make
decisions in your day-to-day life. When the Absolute Will is reduced, you
experience a "lack", which urges you to search for "something or someone" to fill
the void, to meet your "apparent" need. When you think you have found what
you were searching for, you feel attached to it. In sum, the sensation of a "lack"
leads to "attachment". Although there is still no utterance at this level, if you try
to put into words the notions inoculated by Rgakacuka, this would be the
I feel lonely -- I need a thing or a person to be happy -- I feel attachment
-- I lack something -- etc.
1. Kla or Klakacuka (tattva 10): This is the same tattva 2 (akti) but in a
contracted condition. Tattva 2 is the abode of Eternity (nityatva) or nandaakti
(power of bliss) to its full height. In turn, tattva 10 is also the abode of power of
bliss but in a limited state now. There is not complete absence of power of bliss at
all, there is only a contraction of it. The same is true regarding the rest of
Kacuka-s. Klakacuka is the limited power of bliss by which you make your
schedules in your day-to-day life. When the Supreme Bliss is reduced you
experience divisions of Time. Although there is still no utterance at this level, if
you try to put into words the notions inoculated by Klakacuka, this would be
the result:
I have no time -- I am not happy enough -- My prime is past -- I cannot
undo my past -- I hope my future will be better -- etc.
1. Niyati or Niyatikacuka (tattva 11): This is the same tattva 1 (iva) but in a
contracted condition. Tattva 1 is the abode of Freedom (svatantrat) and All-
pervasiveness (vypakatva) or Cicchakti (power of consciousness) to its full
height. In turn, tattva 11 is also the abode of power of consciousness but in a
limited state now. There is not complete absence of power of consciousness at
all, there is only a contraction of it. The same is true regarding the rest of
Kacuka-s. Niyatikacuka is the limited power of consciousness by which you feel
near or far away from someone or something in your day-to-day life. When
Freedom and All-pervasiveness are reduced you experience divisions of Space.
Although there is still no utterance at this level, if you try to put into words the
notions inoculated by Niyatikacuka, this would be the result:
I cannot get there because it is too far -- I need transportation -- Oh my
beloved, even though our bodies are so far from each other... -- I live
here and you there -- I am Argentinian because I was born here -- etc.

You are invited to add your own examples of the notions inoculated by these
What you must understand is the following:
"Nothing, apart from your own limitations (mala-s, My and Kacuka-s), is
making you happy or unhappy. Happiness is your own achievement, and not
dependent on external circumstances. Real bliss is not given by anyone but You.
Nothing is being antagonistic except your own limitations".

If you understand these teachings, you will save yourself so much suffering.
People are constantly fighting and quarreling because they thought that the
"other" is responsible for their happiness or unhappiness. Trika does not state
this. It states that "we ourselves" are lastly responsible for our happiness and
unhappiness. You are surely wasting too much energy in this process of making
the "other" responsible for your happiness or unhappiness. If you become free
from this self-deception, it would be great!

Well, let's go on. In this stage, Krmamala (impurity in respect of action)

emerges due to the link between avamala and Kalkacuka (tattva 7). It might
be expressed using an equation like this:
avamala + Kalkacuka = Krmamala

Krmamala inoculates a notion in you, which put into words would be:

I am a doer of good and evil deeds

And this is the beginning of Karma's law. You are beholding the very birth of
Karma in you right now. Interesting! But, let's go deeper into the aforesaid
equation: Replace the respective notions for the Sanskrit names and see by

I am imperfect + I am limited in respect of action = I am a doer of good and evil

Look at the equation. All Mala-s and Kacuka-s may be overcome by personal
effort (aided by the adequate knowledge, of course) except avamala.
avamala is only overcome through Divine Grace. Never forget this. So, to annul
the result of the equation in the form of Krmamala, you must firstly annul
Kalkacuka. The more you feel that you are limited in respect of action, the
more you are imprisoned by karmic laws. It is that simple.
You may wonder, well, how to run away from this prison? This is my response:
Every Yoga (Jnayoga, Bhaktiyoga, Karmayoga, Mantrayoga, etc.) gives a series
of teachings and techniques to free you from the prison. Trika also gives a series
of teachings and techniques to accomplish this. Go to the English-Home, then
click on Trika section, then on Meditation and start with "Meditation 1" and
afterward go to "Meditation 2" and so on, or click here. There I will teach you
techniques and tricks for you to become a free person at last.

The documents about Trika would be the "theory" and the documents about
Meditation would be the "practice". This is approximate though, because there is
also theory in Meditation pages and practice in Trika pages. But for now the
division is suitable.

Here a technique for you: Study your responses in situations in which your
"capacities" are involved. For example, someone says this to you:
"You would be a very good engineer" or "You are no good for this work" or "You
are a good pupil" or "You are a great Sanskrit teacher" (I hope this, haha!) or
"Your disease is incurable" or "Your enterprise will go bankrupt" or anything else

You feel instantly a series of thoughts emerging in your mind. You may feel
delight or pain. Try now to separate your "I" sense from these delightful or
painful thoughts. You are a Witness to them. They are related to the limited
person you think you are. Keep your "I" apart from the aforesaid thoughts for so
long as possible. Well, relax now.

All those thoughts were lastly born from Kalkacuka. Kalkacuka was their
source. I will write now probable responses to the above sentences:

"You would be a very good engineer" could generate this: "Oh no!, I think I am
not good enough"
or "Yes, I would".

"You are no good for this work" could generate this: "Oh yes, you are right" or
"Oh no, you are not right".

"You are a good pupil" could generate this: "Oh yes" or "Oh no, I am so

"You are a great Sanskrit teacher" could generate this: "Oh yes, I am great" or
"Oh no, I still have
so much to learn".

"Your disease is incurable" could generate this: "You are right, I will die" or "Not
at all".

"Your enterprise will go bankrupt" could generate this: "Yes, everything is

collapsing now" or
"No, you are wrong, I will keep it up".

True, a positive attitude is always welcome, but ultimately the best way for you is
to get rid of all thoughts (negative and positive). And since you cannot
accomplish this by merely wishing it, you first will have to separate your "I" sense
from the thoughts emerging from Kalkacuka. This process is valid with respect
to all Kacuka-s, of course.

Listen to me: You are iva, the purest Self, you are the Highest Reality. Thoughts
(good and evil) have no relation to You. Aided by these teachings, get rid of them
and be happy. By "get rid of them" I mean "separate from them". They might be
but you remain unaffected, as a Witness to them all.

Go to Trika section for more help.


Concluding remarks
Very important: Since this subject of "Limitations" is really essential, I
will upload an Appendix later with more useful information.
This is an interesting subject. You have learnt just a little bit about limitations.
Remember: they cannot be overcome through one's mind, because mind and the
rest are born from the limitations. There are many techniques to overcome
limitations, and although some of them use the mind as a springboard, it is lastly
abandoned. Go to Trika section right now and keep learning Trika.

Trika 5 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Individual soul and undifferentiated matter; inner psychic organ
1. Introduction
1. Concluding remark
2. Individual soul and undifferentiated matter
2. Further Informatio
3. Inner psychic organ

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradpaka once again. This is the fifth document of the series.
We are going to study five important tattva-s now.

Since we have not still arrived at the physical world, these tattva-s to be analyzed
may be divided into two categories: the first two are causals, and the last three
pertaining to the psychic organ.

Through the constant influence of My, these tattva-s come to be manifested

and with them the seed for the actual physical world has been sown.

One advise: If you didn't read any or all previous documents of this Trika section,
read them before reading this one or you will not understand the teachings
properly. Here you are the links to the previous documents: Trika 1
(English), Trika 2 (English), Trika 3 (English) and Trika 4 (English). Let us
get down to work.

Individual soul and undifferentiated matter

Now that I (iva) am using the spectacles of limitation, just one more thing is
needed for me to be completely fettered: MYYAMALA. When this mala or
impurity appears, I feel that:



"Diference" is not a synonymous with "separation" in Trika. In the first two

tattva-s (iva and akti) there was neither difference nor separation because
iva was alone with no universe to behold. From the third tattva (Sadiva) to
the fifth one (Sadvidy), there was an incipient universe. This universe was
experienced as a "different" entity but no "separation" existed. iva beheld that
primal universe feeling complete unity with it, that is, He was different from the
universe but was not separated from it at all anyway. The tattva-s 6 to 11 (My
and her respective Kacuka-s) inoculated apparently the notion of separation into
the Supreme Being (You) and consequently He came to experience separation
apart from difference. From the twelfth tattva down to the last one, iva feels
both difference and separation. Therefore, difference and separation are not the
same thing in Trika. You may feel difference and unity at the same time. The
experience of separation comes when the previous unity has been torn asunder.
My and Kacuka-s are not interested in making you experience just difference,
because this experience already was in tattva-s 3 to 5. No, their primordial
purpose is to make you feel separation from the entire universe. Thus, the cosmic
play may be subsequently evolved. Simple.

Myyamala is that impurity (mala) which is derived from My (hence its name:
Myya or also Myka). This mala is nothing but iva's Jnaakti (power of
knowledge) being contracted. This power of knowledge adopted a first contraction
in the form of Vidykacuka (tattva 8) and now it adopts one more contraction in
the form of Myyamala. This is not its last contraction anyway, because more
contractions of it are left. I will study them later on.

In turn, Icchakti (power of will) experienced an abrupt contraction in the form

of avamala (between the fifth and sixth tattva-s) and then it contracted itself
again giving rise thereby to the Rgakacuka (tattva 9). Finally, Kriyakti
adopted a contraction in the form of Krmamala when Mytattva was
manifested, and afterward it contracted itself once again giving rise thereby to
the Kalkacuka (tattva 7). As you know, Kalkacuka is the tattva which gives
me back just a little bit power that I lost in avamala's hands.

When iva (You) that is merely pure Consciousness goes through the grinding
stones of My and Kacuka-s, comes to consider Himself to be a Purua. This is
the twelfth tattva. The word Purua might be translated into "individual soul".
This is approximated anyway. One thing that you "must" understand is the
following: iva (the real You) willingly assumes contraction. There is no My
apart from Himself making Him a limited soul. It is just a play. iva is full of
sense of humor and fun. He should not be thought of as a solemn Supreme
Being. He is playful and all the time wants to have fun. He became you and me
and the entire universe just to experience Joy. This has to be understood
thoroughly to be able to keep studying Trika properly.

In beholding the entire panorama of the universe which was firstly experienced in
absolute unity with me (in Sadiva, vara and Sadvidy tattva-s), I note now
that, due to my self-limitation, it shines forth only as an indistinct form composed
of undifferentiated matter. I feel separation in respect to this indistinct universe.
My brand-new state is as that of Sadiva (tattva 3), but there is now a new
component: "separation and cease of the awareness of unity". In the waking
state I experience a trace of this condition of an indistinct universe separated
from me. For example, in the field of vision, you may find that trace when you
look out of the corners of your eyes.

In Sadiva (tattva 3) I felt complete unity with that indistinct universe, but not
at this level. That is the difference. I am now Purua (tattva 12) and the
undifferentiated matter is Prakti (tattva 13), but what is really Prakti? I will
explain this to you right now. Pay attention:

In Sadiva I experience myself as iva. Nevertheless, when I go through all

limitations I end up experiencing myself as Purua. The indistinct universe
pertaining to Sadivatattva is transformed into Prakti. Since that indistinct
universe is nothing but pure akti, Prakti lastly arises from akti Herself as
everything else. When akti begins Her play, the first sentiment that I (iva)
experience is that of absolute unity with Her. She is the perceivable universe and
I am the perceiver. Despite the difference, there is no separation. However, after
the operation of limitations (Mala-s, My and Kacuka-s) I come to think that I
am separated from Her. The indistinct universe which was previously perceived in
complete unity with me is now a mass of undifferentiated matter called Prakti.

The power of akti makes possible that which is impossible. She does not need to
change the universe into something separated from iva. She only inoculates the
notion of separation into Him. It is that simple. That is why the universe never
underwent any transformation. It is Herself (akti) forever. The universe is just
the false notion of the self-deluded iva. Neither there was nor there is nor there
will be a universe separated from iva. It is only akti forever. In fact, She
cannot be named "a universe" either. She is pure Consciousness and never was
transformed into anything else. If you can understand this subtle teaching, you
will save time and effort. This teaching is the core of Trika:

The Lord remains the same, and no universe "separated" from Him has ever
arisen. It is just the false notion inoculated by the limitations which is responsible
for this apparent separation.

So, the spiritual path according to Trika is one of "recognition" (pratyabhij) of

this truth. Nothing else is necessary if one develops proper discernment about the
real nature of everthing. Prakti consists of the very three akti-s or powers of
which the tattva-s 3 to 5 were composed. Those three akti-s are: Icchakti
(power of will), Jnaakti (power of knowledge) and Kriyakti (power of
action). The three already had undergone some contractions in the form of Mala-s
(ava, Myya and Krma), Kacuka-s (Rga, Vidy and Kal), and now they
undergo one more contraction in the form of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

Sattva, Rajas and Tamas are "Gua-s" or qualities. If you add "Gua" to Sattva,
Rajas and Tamas, you will note that the last two are changed firstly into "Rajo"
and "Tamo" due to a rule of Sandhi or Combination (See Combination documents
in "Sanskrit" section). Therefore, the three words with "Gua" added to them are
as follows:

Sattvagua, Rajogua and Tamogua

You might use only Sattva, Rajas or Tamas if you wish so anyway. The crucial
point is to understand that those three Gua-s are not a "new" creation but the
previous forces having undergone contraction. The following table shows in
simple terms how Jnaakti, Icchakti and Kriyakti were changed into
Sattvagua, Rajogua and Tamogua respectively.

Icchakti is transformed into Rajas

Jnaakti is transformed into Sattva
Kriyakti is transformed into Tamas

In the waking state these Gua-s are in a unbalanced condition, but in Prakti
they are perfectly balanced. We might state that Prakti is really the three Gua-s
in complete equilibrium. When the Gua-s lose their balance, the rest of the
tattva-s (right from 14 to 36) become manifest. In fact, we might assert that
these very tattva-s are nothing but different mixtures of Gua-s. This viewpoint
reduces the entire universal manifestation (from the tattva 14 down to 36) to
three forces. Interesting!

The Gua-s appear in a definite sequence: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. However, as
I said that they are contractions of three higher powers, they are really
Jnaakti, Icchakti and Kriyakti respectively. Note that the sequence of the
latter has changed if compared to the previous table. The table follows the
sequence in which Sadiva (Icchakti), vara (Jnaakti) and Sadvidy
(Kriyakti) tattva-s are manifested. They are the tattva-s 3, 4 and 5
respectively. Look the following table to understand what I have just said. On this
table, the order to be followed is that of the Gua-s:

Jnaakti (4th tattva) is transformed into Sat

Icchakti (3rd tattva) is transformed into Ra
Kriyakti (5th tattva) is transformed into Tam
You surely note something strange: "When the order of the Gua-s is correct, the
one of the Jna, Icch and Kriy akti-s is altered". You may notice that
something is apparently wrong: "4th tattva, 3rd tattva and 5th tattva". No, nothing
is wrong. I will explain this mystery to you right now. Listen:

The tattva-s 3, 4 and 5 (Sadiva, vara and Sadvidy), which are formed from
Icch, Jna and Kriy akti-s, follow a specific order that is in accordance with
how the Supreme Consciousness works. On the other hand, the Gua-s Sattva,
Rajas and Tamas follow a particular order that is in accordance with how the
lower and limited consciousness works. One more table for you to understand
what I meant:


Icchakti (3rd tattva) Sattva or Sattvagua (Jn
Jnaakti (4th tattva) Rajas or Rajogua (Iccha
Kriyakti (5th tattva) Tamas or Tamogua (Kriy

So what? What does all this mean? It means the following:

When the Supreme Being manifests the universe, He follows this sequence: Icch
(will), Jna (knowledge) and Kriy (action). You may say, "so what?" I will use
common words now to describe the process of manifestation by the Highest
Consciousness or Paramaiva:

The Supreme Being wants to manifest a universe. This is His Icchakti or power
of will. Then, He plans or knows how to do it. This is His Jnaakti or power of
knowledge. And at last He actually does it. This is His Kriyakti or power of
action. The order is "wants, knows, does".

On the contrary, the order followed by the lower and limited consciousness is
somewhat different. Firstly one has to have a previous knowledge which is used
as a base. The limited being cannot desire something "original" because he needs
always a previous knowledge. For example, if you invented a particular device,
you did it by basing your investigations on a knowledge that existed before your
desire of creating that device. It is easy to understand. So, in any creation done
by a limited being, the sequence is always: knowledge, will and action. In sum,
the limited being has a previous knowledge on which his desire to create
something is based. Then, he wants to create a certain thing. And at last he
actually does it. So, the sequence is "knows, wants, does". You may wonder, why
he is bound to follow the aforesaid order? The answer is obviously: the order of
the Gua-s (Sattva, Rajas, Tamas) makes him follow that order. The primal law of
firstly knowledge, secondly will and lastly action is an all-pervading one in the
realm comprising the tattva-s 14 to 36. It is impossible for a limited being
(someone who is a puppet of his mind) to desire something without basing on a
previous knowledge. Try to do it and you will see how difficult it is. Therefore, a
good method to enter a higher consciousness is "to attempt" to imitate
approximately how the Supreme Consciousness works. It is difficult if we use
merely our ordinary mind, but uplifting if we develop a subtle discerment to do it.


Inner psychic organ

Antakaraa or "the inner psychic organ" consists of Buddhi (intellect), Ahakra
(ego) and Manas (mind). It is not as a cake composed of three portions but
rather it should be considered to be one "only" entity playing a triple role. Yes,
this is a good concept to fully understand what Antakaraa is really and how it
works within us.

Prakti is nothing but the three Gua-s in perfect balance. However, a first
unbalance occurs: Sattva becomes predominant. Rajas and Tamas are still there,
but they are not predominant. Buddhi or Mahat (according to Skhya system) is
the name associated with that first lack of equilibrium regarding Gua-s.

Buddhi is the intellect. It is the fourteenth tattva (See Tattvic Chart). As it is

predominantly sattvic, it reflects the pure Light of the inner Self. In other words,
it acts as a mirror on which you can see the purity of your own Spirit. But you
should not forget that the other two Gua-s are also a part of its nature. Thus,
the mirror is not all the time completely limpid and crystalline. Here you are a
simple chart with the three Gua-s and their characteristics:
Lit. "(1) Existence, (2) Goodness". It is
Sattva or Sattvagua associated with the characteristics of
(Jnaakti contracted) illumination, knowledge, pleasure, purity,
virtues and the like.
Lit. "Passion". It is associated with the
Rajas or Rajogua
characteristics of movement, pain, anxiety,
(Icchakti contracted)
activity and the like.
Lit. "Darkness". It is associated with the
Tamas or Tamogua
characteristics of heaviness, inertia, dullness,
(Kriyakti contracted)
indifference, laziness and the like.
The continuous mutation of the three Gua-s is the responsible for the likewise
continuous mutation in Buddhi. You have surely noted that your intellect is not
always "brilliant and pure". It is maybe so for a while. After that, it becomes
cloudy and so many "crazy" ideas arise in it. The limited being does not know
how to stop once and for all that endless mutation in the intellect. That
conditioned person needs the help of new ideas, new knowledges, which will
affect positively his intellect and finally stop the "mechanical" mutation. For
example: if you contemplate continuously on the idea that "I am iva, I am the
Self", your intellect will become sattvic because that idea is sattvic (See
uddhavikalpa in Meditation 3). When the intellect is sattvic, the mutation slows
down and lastly stops. At that moment, Buddhi is a clear mirror reflecting the
pure Light of the Spirit. That is why the philosophical systems are very important.
They give positive ideas to us so that the mutation of our Buddhi-s comes to an

When you can see the Spiritual Light of your own Self being reflected on Buddhi,
you simply merge your limited being into that Supreme Being. You lose your
separate identity from the Lord and become the Lord Himself. Paradoxically, you
were always Him but somehow you failed to realize your innermost nature and
assumed a false identity. That false identity is Gabriel (substitute your own name
for Gabriel).

Gabriel is the ego or tattva 15. From the ego, Manas --the mind-- (and its
Jnendriya-s) and Karmendriya-s are derived. But, I will explain Jnendriya-s
and Karmendriya-s to you later. Ego is called Ahakra in Trika. "Aham" is "I" and
"kra" is "doer". In short, "I am a doer". Besides, from a technical viewpoint
Ahakra is the aggregate of all Saskra-s or impressions. Every act we do
produces a subtle impression within us. However, do not worry about Saskra-s
for now. I will also explain this topic to you later on.

Ego is predominantly rajasic, that is, the qualities of passion, anxiety, desire and
activity are predominant in it. As Rajas is really Icchakti (Power of Will) having
undergone a process of contraction, the ego is completely "creative". From
Ahakra, practically all remaining tattva-s will emanate. Although the ego is
rather static, it contains immense activity inside. It is responsible for all that you
experience in your day-to-day life. If you have ever played a computer game, you
will surely understand what I mean. You play the game for a long time, you
experience pleasure, frustration, joy, failure, etc. You have enemies to overcome,
secret keys to find and all that. You roam hallways, courtyards, hills, castles,
futuristic cities or anything else. However, all that is just the creation of the
developer's mind. That developer makes your computer work in a particular way,
and thus you are able to enjoy a computer game. Regarding this universe, which
is a Divine Play, we could consider akti to be the developer, while Ahakra
would be the computer. This is merely an analogy though.

All that is being perceived by you now is the Divine Play designed by akti and
carried out by Ahakra. Myyamala makes you think that you are separated
from everything and everybody. In turn, that mala brings about the notion of
objects being separated from each other. Why does this happen? Because akti
(the developer) designed the game like that, haha! Besides, avamala makes
you feel that you are not iva. If you realize your true nature, the game would
come to an end. Afterward, Krmamala makes you feel that you are a doer,
which prepares all for the arrival of Ahakra. When you get involved in the play
of Krmamala, you forget your real essence because of your being constantly
worried about good and evil actions. iva (You) is not a doer, but somehow He is
transformed into one due to Krmamala.

So, akti has to write several lines with codes to give rise to the Mala-s,
Kacuka-s, ego, etc. She is all the time bewildering Her Husband (iva). That is
Her Play and Cosmic Delight. In fact, iva and akti are not two entities but one.
To understand Their Play, you will have to realize your unity with Them. When
you realize that you are essentially iva-akti, you also understand the nature of
this Divine Pastime. It cannot be apprehended by the ordinary mind, because this
mind is a creation of Them. Got my point?

Ahakra gives birth to Manas (the ordinary mind) because it needs a means to
control the Jnendriya-s (Powers of Perception) and Karmendriya-s (Powers of
Action), which are not still manifested. Then, the principal duty of Manas is to
control the Indriya-s. See Tattvic Chart.

Manas (tattva 16) is also responsible for the flow of thoughts you experience
constantly. If you try to stop that flow, you will note that you can only do this for
a short period of time. There is a kind of pressure behind Manas giving rise to the
thoughts. That pressure is Ahakra or ego. Ahakra is not composed of
thoughts but impressions, which are the deep source of all those thoughts. At the
same time, there is something that knows how this process is going on. That
"something" is Buddhi or intellect. It reflects the pure Light of the inner Self who
is a Witness to all mental processes.

Manas is simply composed of thoughts. It is tamasic. Tamas is a contraction of

the Power of Action (Kriyakti). There are lots of activity in Manas, but that
activity is performed in the darkness (Tamas) of ignorance. Observe your
ordinary thoughts, that is, almost all your psychic life. You will realize that they
are both active and dull. By "dull" I mean that they lead you to nowhere. It is just
activity without any awareness of its origin, without rhyme or reason.

Buddhi knows how the mental processes go on because Sattva is predominant in

it. Remember that Sattva is Power of Knowledge having undergone a contraction.
Ahakra is creative, that is to say, it manifests thoughts after thoughts because
Rajas is predominant in it. Remember that Rajas is Power of Will having
undergone a contraction. And finally Manas is both active and dull because Tamas
is predominant in it. Remember that Tamas is Power of Action having undergone
a contraction. A simple chart now:

It is the knowing
aspect of
Antakaraa or
Sattva (a contraction of Inner Psychical
Buddhi or intellect Jnaakti --the Power of Organ because it is
Knowledge--) as a mirror reflecting
the inner Self who is
a Witness to all our
It is the creative
aspect of
Antakaraa or
Inner psychic Organ
Rajas (a contraction of because it is a mass
Ahakra or ego Icchakti --the Power of of impressions
Will--) (Saskra-s) acting
as seeds which give
rise to the vast
majority of our
It is the active as
well as dull aspect of
Antakaraa or
Inner Psychic Organ
because it is
Tamas (a contraction of
composed of
Manas or mind Kriyakti --the Power of
turbulent thoughts
which are not mostly
able to lead you
somewhere. By
"somewhere" I mean
"a true spiritual

The physical universe has not been still manifested. After Manas, four sets of five
tattva-s each will have to be manifested in order that the entire universe is fully
unfolded. Nonetheless, I will talk about those 4 sets of 5 tattva-s each on next

The process of involution of akti into the matter is simultaneously a process of

universal evolution. The real unfoldment occurs from iva (You) down to the last
tattva (tattva 36), but in the day-to-day life one tends to perceive the opposite.
You surely perceive that the impressions (images, sounds, odors, etc.) enter your
system and produce an effect there. It is as a rebound: you manifest all, but at
the same time you experience that all is affecting you from the outside, haha!
Good joke! It is just as a wave turning back into the ocean from which it came,
but paradoxically the ocean feels moved and affected for that backward
movement of the wave, hehe! The following explanation of other functions of
Buddhi, Ahakra and Manas will be related to the aforesaid backward movement
of akti. In other words, I will consider that something is entering your system
from "the outside" (which is lastly your own manifestation). To make things
easier: I will use the "common and ordinary" viewpoint, according to which there
is a reality out there being perceived by you and affecting you too. Let us down to

You see a dog and say: "That is a dog". Great!, but how did you do that? The
process is not a simple one. As it occurs at tremendous velocity, you take it for
granted. In fact, you surely take most miracles in your life for granted, and this
behaviour is synonymous with "ignorance". Look at your hands and do not take
them for granted. Do not think: "Oh, they are simply two hands". Ponder over the
mystery hidden behind your hands. This is a good practice for you.

Back to the dog, I will teach you now how the process of perception really
happens within your Antakaraa:

(1) Cakus or Cakurindriya (power of seeing --see "Cakus" in Tattvic Chart)

operating through your eyes produces a faded and inverted 2D image of a dog on
the retina.
(2) Manas, which controls Cakus and the rest of Indriya-s, straightens and
colors that 2D image of a dog.
(3) Ahakra takes that 2D image and searches for a similar image in its 3D
library. When the ego finds one, it compares both of them. At the moment it does
so, the 2D image is transformed into a 3D one. Thus, the dog image becomes
endowed with volume through that process of comparison.
(4) Buddhi, take the brand-new 3D image and assign a name to it ("dog") after
searching for a suitable label in its own library.
So, you are able to affirm: "That is a dog". Note that if Ahakra would not exist,
you would see the world in two dimensions only. In turn, if Buddhi would not
exist you actually would see a 3D world, but you would not be able to affirm what
a particular thing is. It would be a world of people not knowing how to name the
things. Strange! That is why the world is lastly the creation of Antakaraa. You
are not really perceiving something outside, but your own mental contents. In
fact, one could wonder: "Is there actually a reality out there or is everything a
mental world as a dream in wakefulness?" Interesting! Well, find yourself the
answer. This teaching is a key to final Liberation if after reflecting on it for a long
period of time you come to realize its true meaning. Use it wisely.

Of course, you may use this very framework to explain any other process of
perception (olfactory, auditory, etc.), just substitute the respective Indriya which
is used (power of smelling, hearing and so on) for Cakus (power of seeing).

Another chart now to summarize the fourfold process of perception (from a visual
viewpoint this time):


(1) Perceiving a faded and Cakus (the power of seeing) operating through one's own eyes
inverted 2D image places a faded and inverted 2D image of a dog on the retina.
(2) Straightening and Manas straightens and colors that gross 2D image which was
coloring that 2D image supplied by Cakus.
(3) Transforming the 2D Ahakra compares the 2D image of a dog with one of its own
image into a 3D one library. Thus, a brand-new 3D image of a dog emerges magically.
(4) Placing a convenient
Buddhi assigns a suitable lable ("dog") to that brand-new 3D image
label on the brand-new 3d
of a dog.
In fact, your intellect could assign an entire set of labels to the dog: "That is a dog... hmmm...
a fox terrier indeed!" Note that "hmmm". In that short period of time, Buddhi was searching for
the label "fox terrier" in its library. It is somewhat slow sometimes, haha! If you know a great
deal of names, that indicates that your Buddhi has an enormous library of labels. However, to
know names does not mean "to understand" that which is designated by them. Remember this.

This process of perception is ocurring constantly in your life. Attempt to grasp

how wonderful and miraculous it is. Only a Divine Being could create so
marvelous process, and that Divine Being is You!

Trika 6 - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Jnendriya-s, Karmendriya-s, Tanmtra-s and Mahbhta-s
1. Introduction 1. Mahbhta-s
2. Jnendriya-s and Karmendriya-s 2. Concluding remark
3. Tanmtra-s 3. Further Informatio

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradpaka once again. This is the sixth document of the series.
We are going to study the last 20 tattva-s in the process of Creation: 5
Jnendriya-s or Powers of Perception; 5 Karmendriya-s or Powers of Action; 5
Tanmtra-s or Subtle elements and 5 Mahbhta-s or Gross elements.

This study will be quite simple because it deals with a well-known reality to

One advise: If you didn't read any or all previous documents of this Trika section,
read them before reading this one or you will not understand the teachings
properly. Here you are the links to the previous documents: Trika 1
(English), Trika 2 (English), Trika 3 (English), Trika 4 (English) and Trika
5 (English). Let us get down to work.

Jnendriya-s and Karmendriya-s

JNENDRIYA-S: Firstly a simple table with the five Jnendriya-s according to

Tattva 17. rotra -- or ravaa - The power of hearing. It is that energy

that ordinarily circulates through the organs of hearing
- (ears).

Tattva 18. Tvak - -

The power of feeling by touch. It is that energy
that predominantly circulates through the skin. J
The power of seeing. It is that energy
Tattva 19. Cakus --
that ordinarily circulates through the organs of seeing
(eyes). P
Tattva 20. Jihv -- or The power of tasting. It is that energy
that ordinarily circulates through the organ of tasting
Rasan - (tongue).
The power of smelling. It is that energy
Tattva 21. Ghra -- that ordinarily circulates through the organ of smelling

Jnendriya-s are born from the mind or Manas (tattva 16). These five
Jnendriya-s along with the respective Karmendriya-s are real instruments of
Manas. Through them, one's own mind is able to manifest and then perceive and
get in touch with the subtle and gross worlds. The most important thing you
should keep in mind is that the Powers (indriya-s) of Perception or Knowledge
(jna) are not the "organs" of perception but the energies circulating "generally"
through them. For example: The power of seeing (Cakurindriya) is the energy
flowing "normally" through the eyes. If the eyes were to be damaged or not
working in you, this power would increase the capacity of perception pertaining to
another organ of perception (e.g. ears, nose, etc.). That is why when you close
your eyes, you are able to hear even better. This is so because you are using less
visual energy and thus the rotrendriya (rotra-indriya) or power of hearing is

The names for the Jnendriya-s which were given above are usually used with
the word "indriya" affixed to them. According to certain rules of Sandhi or
Sanskrit Combination (See Combination documents), the original words have
often to experience a little change when forming a compound. Thus:

rotra + indriya = rotrendriya (Tattva 17 - Power of hear

Tvak + indriya = Tvagindriya (Tattva 18 - Power of feeli
Cakus + indriya = Cakurindriya (Tattva 19 - Power of seei
Jihv + indriya = Jihvendriya (Tattva 20 - Power of tast
Ghra + indriya = Ghrendriya (Tattva 21 - Power of sme

These Jnendriya-s are predominantly sattvic because are related to

"knowledge". As you know, Sattva or Sattvagua is a contraction of Jnaakti or
Supreme Power of Knowledge. Another characteristic of Sattva is that it is rather
"static". If you observe the organs of perception, you will note that they remain
static while receiving information from the world around them. Of course, they
also have a little mobility because the other two Gua-s (Rajas and Tamas) are
still there to a certain extent. They are "predominantly" but not "completely"

The common viewpoint is that the Powers of Perception "perceive" the world, that
is, they receive different kinds of impressions from outside and so on. However,
according to Trika, the Jnendriya-s are manifested by Manas in order to bring
the world into existence. In other words, the Jnendriya-s perceive that which
was manifested by themselves under the command of Manas. The idea is
amazing if you ponder over it. There is no reality out there which is independent
from your Manas or mind, but you yourself manifest it and then perceive that. So,
you are the author of your own life. Stop complaining about your current life and
manifest a different one if you are not pleased with it. There are no people out
there being antagonistic toward you. There are no people giving happiness to
you. Everything is your own creation. Nobody is yours and you do not belong to
anybody. Real happiness comes from within yourself. Abandon ignorance,
renounce the present delusion which you live in, and aided by this knowledge
attain to your own Self and be happy forever.

KARMENDRIYA-S: Firstly a simple table with the five Karmendriya-s according

to Trika:
The power of speaking. It is that energy
Tattva 22. Vk - - that ordinarily circulates through the
organ of speaking (mouth).
Tattva 23. Pi - The power of handling. It is that energy

- that predominantly circulates through

the organs of handling (hands).
The power of locomotion. It is that KARMENDRIYA-S
Tattva 24. Pda -
energy that ordinarily circulates through --
the organs of locomotion (legs and feet).
Powers of Action
Tattva 25. Pyu - The power of excreting. It is that energy (predominantly

- that ordinarily circulates through the rajasic)

organ of excreting (anus).
The power of sexual activity and
Tattva 26. Upastha - restfulness. It is that energy

- that ordinarily circulates through the

organs of sexual activity and restfulness

These Karmendriya-s are predominantly rajasic because are related to "will". As

you know, Rajas or Rajogua is a contraction of Icchakti or Supreme Power of
Will. Another characteristic of Rajas is that it is rather "dynamic". If you observe
the organs of action, you will note that they keep moving all the time while
performing actions in the world. Of course, they also have a little immobility
because Sattvagua is still to a certain extent. They are "predominantly" but not
"completely" rajasic.

Jnendriya-s emerge "directly" from Manas (tattva 16), while Karmendriya-s do

"directly" from Ahakra. Granted, Manas comes from Ahakra too, and in this
sense Jnendriya-s also arise from Ahakra but in an indirect way. Got my
point? Karmendriya-s are born because ego (Ahakra) not only want to perceive
the world but also perform actions in it. For example, you are probably now
looking at an object... and along with that "static" perception, a desire to "take" it
emerges all of a sudden. Thus, Ahakra manifests the power of handling (Pi)
in order to take that object. Afterward, the very Ahakra will manifest the
physical hand and even the object itself... but do not worry about it right now. Let
us move slowly step by step.
Just as Jnendriya-s, Karmendriya-s are not the organs themselves (mouth,
hands, legs, feet, anus and genitals) but the energy ordinarily circulating through
them. This energy does not disappear if you lose a particular organ. For instance,
you lose a leg and then, as time passes by, you note that the other leg has
become stronger... and your arms have become stronger and so on. That simple
fact shows that Pdendriya (Pda-indriya) or power of locomotion did not go
away together with the leg because it is not "physical" but "subtle". Let us study
Tanmtra-s now.


Firstly a simple table with the five Tanmtra-s according to Trika:

Sound-as-such. You can recognize

Tattva 27. abda -- different sounds because
of this sound pattern.
Touch-as-such. You can recognize
Tattva 28. Spara -- different kinds of touch because of
this touch pattern. TANMTRA-S

Color-as-such. You can recognize --

Tattva 29. Rpa -- different colors because of this color
Subtle Elements
pattern. (predominantly
Flavor-as-such. You can recognize tamasic)
Tattva 30. Rasa -- different flavors because
of this flavor pattern.
Odor-as-such. You can recognize
Tattva 31. Gandha -- different odors because of this odor
Just as Karmendriya-s, Tanmtra-s (Subtle Elements) are also born from ego or
Ahakra. It is not enough for ego to manifest Manas, Jnendriya-s and
Karmendriya-s inasmuch as there is no "real" object yet but only powers to think
of, perceive and take objects. Well, the first step in manifesting objects is a
"subtle" one, that is, a pattern design of the future object is firstly "drawn". So,
Tanmtra-s are the foundations on which the solid house known as "physical"
world is going to be built. The term "Tanmtra" is derived from "Tat-mtra", i.e.
"only that, merely that". In other words, a Tanmtra is merely something with no
particular differentiation in it. For example: Rpatanmtra is a "pattern color"
which is not any known color. It is not red, black, etc., but its "subtle and
unnoticed" existence allows you to recognize red, black and the remaining colors.
Tanmtra-s are indispensable tools helping Ahakra to differentiate the various
perceptions of the upcoming physical world. In First Steps (3) you will find more
information about Tanmtra-s and a practical example of their realization.

From Tanmtra-s the five Mahbhta-s are developed:

Tattva 32. ka -- The space or 3D framework within which the entire physical

Tattva 33. Vyu -- All that is gaseous. So, it is not only the ordinary "air".

Tattva 34. Agni --

All that contains heat and color. So, it is not only

or Tejas -- the ordinary "fire".

Tattva 35. pas -- All that is liquid. So, it is not only the ordinary "water".

Tattva 36. Pthiv - - All that is solid. So, it is not only the ordinary "earth".

I said that Mahbhta-s arise from Tanmtra-s. A first understanding of this

statement would be the following:

From tattva 27. abda -- emerges Tattva 32. ka --

From tattva 28. Spara -- emerges Tattva 33. Vayu --

From tattva 29. Rpa -- emerges Tattva 34. Agni -- or Tejas -

From tattva 30. Rasa -- emerges Tattva 35. pas --

From tattva 31. Gandha -- emerges Tattva 36. Pthiv - -

This is partially true though. Vednta (a celebrated philosophical system -- See

First Steps series under "Sanskrit" section for more information) states a more
sophisticated process for the development of Mahbhta-s. Of course, Trika
agrees with Vednta's viewpoint. Pay attention:


From tattva 27. abda -- (50%) emerges Tattva 32. Manifestation of

From tattva 28. Spara -- (12.5%)
ka - Mahbhta-s

- according to Vednta
From tattva 29. Rpa -- (12.5%) (of course, Trika
completely agrees
From tattva 30. Rasa -- (12.5%) with Vednta's
From tattva 31. Gandha -- (12.5%)

From tattva 28. Spara -- (50%)

From tattva 27. abda -- (12.5%)

Tattva 33.
From tattva 29. Rpa --
Vayu --
(12.5%) emerges

From tattva 30. Rasa -- (12.5%)

From tattva 31. Gandha -- (12.5%)

From tattva 29. Rpa -- (50%)

From tattva 27. abda --

Tattva 34.
Agni --
From tattva 28. Spara -- (12.5%) emerges
or Tejas -
From tattva 30. Rasa -- (12.5%) -
From tattva 31. Gandha -- (12.5%)

From tattva 30. Rasa -- (50%)

From tattva 27. abda -- (12.5%)

Tattva 35.
From tattva 28. Spara --
pas --
(12.5%) emerges

From tattva 29. Rpa -- (12.5%)

From tattva 31. Gandha -- (12.5%)

From tattva 31. Gandha -- (50%)

Tattva 36.

From tattva 27. abda -- (12.5%) emerges

Pthiv -

From tattva 28. Spara -- (12.5%)
From tattva 29. Rpa -- (12.5%)

From tattva 30. Rasa -- (12.5%)

Note that Mahbhta-s has a five-fold nature because of their being formed from
five Tanmtra-s, that is to speak, every Gross Element can be heard, touched,
seen, tasted and smelled to an extent completely dependent upon the respective
percentage. For instance: Agni is "mostly" seen, but it can also be heard,
touched, tasted and smelled. As you know, Agni or Fire is the basic component in
all colors. Therefore, all colors are "mostly" seen, but they can also be heard,
touched, tasted and smelled. Interesting! The same process can be applied to the
remaining Mahbhta-s.

Ego or Ahakra manifests Mahbhta-s from Tanmtra-s in order to have some

objects to experience and enjoy. He tries to find "lasting" happiness in objects all
the time, but he fails to find it there. The reason is simple: "it is not there!" The
objects of which the entire world consists, are reflections of the Supreme Self
who is the "real" source of Bliss. The Supreme Self is a Witness to the aforesaid
objects and that Supreme Self is You. Awake! The world is as a dream. When you
dream in the night, you experience various worlds containing oneiric objects
which looks like "real" ones. When you wake up in the morning, you realize that
all was a mere dream. You feel specially happy when the dream was a nightmare,
hehe! When you are in wakefulness, you understand that every object in the
dream was really your own mind. Likewise, all objects around you in the waking
state are another dream... a little longer. When you finally go beyond all
"dreams" (those of wakefulness included), you attain to your own Self who is not
describable by words. Just as you cannot fully realize the nature of wakefulness
while asleep and dreaming, so you cannot completely understand your real
essence while you are spiritually "snoring". You need to awake a little bit to grasp
a little bit... if you want more, you need to awake a little more. When you have
gone beyond all dreams, you get "all". Therefore, strive to achieve final
Emancipation and stop falling asleep all the time. Since the world is a Play of
iva, enjoy it but do not develop attachment to it. There is nothing out there that
is the "goal" of your life. There is nothing out there giving you happiness or
sadness. Only the Witness in you is the genuine goal. This world is like a long
dream. Wake up now!

Well, a last teaching: All objects around you consist of Gross Elements but each
of them has a different proportion of a particular Mahbhta. For example: air is
composed predominantly of Vyu, but it also contains ka, Agni, pas and
Pthiv. That is way, you can "hear, see, taste and smell" air, to a certain extent
of course, apart from "touching" it (main characteristic of Vyu). Besides, Vyu
itself contains the five Tanmtra-s despite Spara is predominant (50%) in it.
Usually, Mahbhta-s are balanced, but sometimes there is a lack of balance. At
that moment, you may feel somewhat disturbed. For instance: you lean out of
the window on a 20th floor and you feel vertigo... you even feel pain in the heart
area. Why? Because there is too much Vyu. The heart area is paining to you
since Anhatacakra is in charge of Vyu in your body... but this will be studied
some day, not now. Likewise, when Agni is predominant you feel disturbed. For
example: a too hot room. You can surely find many more examples.

A few concluding words now.


Concluding remarks
This document is finished! I have also finished the study of 36 tattva-s according
to Trika... for now. We will go deep into the subject in the future, when studying
ivastra-s, etc. in depth. The most important thing you must ever remember is
the following: The world emerges from You (iva). There is nobody opposing You
and there is nobody helping You either. Everything is like a dream. In a dream
you undergo so many experiences... some of them are nice... some... ugh! But
when you wake up in the morning, all is gone (nightmares and nice dreams).
Renounce self-invented ignorance and be really blissful. Repeat constantly
"ivo'ham" (I am iva) and abandon Ahakra or ego. You do not need to
experience all this misery in your life. You can be completely happy if you decide
to. There is no real happiness or sadness in this world because it is a dream.
Remember this teaching and meditate on the Witness who is iva, who is You.
See you soon!

rika: The Six Courses - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

The Six Courses of manifestation
1. Introduction to The Six Courses
2. The universal manifestation 1. Pada or Full-fledge
according to Trika 2. Bhuvana or Manife
3. Vara or Letters 3. A Chart summarizi
4. Kal or Primeval Powers 4. Concluding remark
5. Mantra or Seed Syllables 5. Further Informatio
6. Tattva or Categories of Manifestation

Introduction to The Six Courses

Hi, Gabriel Pradpaka once again. I have often been asked for a document dealing
with the mysterious subject known as aadhv or The Six Courses. Well, from
now on, aadhv will be no longer a mystery. The word "aadhv" is composed
of two words: "a" --six-- and "adhv" --course, path, way, etc.--. Note that "t"
in "a" changes to "" by the third sub-rule of the 2nd Rule of Consonant Sandhi
(See Rules of Sandhi).

When you start studying Trika, you will generally come across with the "Tattva-s"
or categories of manifestation. Despite "Tattva-s" topic is a crucial one in Trika, it
is really situated in a middle position within the entire process of manifestation.
The "Tattva-s" constitute only "one course" in that process. But, what about the
remaining five ones? Well, they are indirectly studied as you go deep into Trika.
However, their study is as important as that of the Tattva-s themselves so that
you can grasp how the manifestation works according to Non-dual Shaivism of
Kashmir. Through the present document, I will attempt to clarify this abstruse
subject called aadhv. Of course, my work will be only an introductory outline
of something that is much more profound and complicated. By keeping this in
mind, let us begin our study!

Ah!, a suggestion: print the Tattvic Chart if you can, because you will have to
resort to it often, as a support, while reading this document.

The universal manifestation according to Trika

In order to understand the whole display of universe according to Non-dual
Shaivism of Kashmir, you have to understand that it travels through two major
"highways", as it were: "Vcaka" and "Vcya". What is Vcaka and Vcya?
"Vcaka" literally means "that which speaks or says, speaker, etc.". And "Vcya"
literally means "that which is spoken of, that which is denoted by means of
speech, etc.". In short, "Vcaka" is the "sound or subjective aspect" of the
Supreme Self or iva, while "Vcya" is His "objective aspect".

Vcaka is also known as "abda or Sound", and Vcya as "Artha or Object". For
example, you say "a table", and immediately an image of it appears in your mind.
The word "table" belongs to the Vcaka side, while "the mental image of a table"
manifested by that word" belongs to Vcya side. Thus, the manifestation consists
of two major realities: "Sound" (subjective side) and "That which is denoted by
sound" (objective side). Understood? Well done. It is really simple, and you will
surely find many examples of those two aspects in your own daily life. A certain
name arises in your mind all of a sudden, and afterward that person appears, and
so on. It seems a mere coincidence, but it does not. All objects and persons
around you have arisen directly from You, iva. Your essential nature is formless,
but by the throbbing of akti (tattva 2), it is filled with sounds, as it were. In fact,
even though everything is just iva, I could state that Vcaka side is the "soul" of
manifestation, while Vcya side would be its "body". It is an analogy, of course,
but it is useful now and makes the things a little easier for you.
The subjective side of manifestation is always "a sound", and the objective one is
always "that which is denoted or indicated by a sound". There are subtle and
gross sounds, and accordingly subltle and gross objects are denoted by them. To
put the things in order, Trika divides both Vcaka and Vcya sides into three
stages each. Pay attention, please:


The subjective side of manifestation The objective side
Vara Letters Kal
Mantra Seed syllables Tattva
Pada Full-fledged words Bhuvana
One thing you must understand is that Vcaka or abda (subjective side) is
always the "manifesting" principle, while Vcya or Artha is the principle "which is
manifested". akti, the Power of iva (You), assumes two aspects: Vcak and
Vcya, and thus brings about the manifestation of the universe. Nonetheless, It
could be said that Vcaka is iva-oriented, and Vcya akti-oriented because
Vcaka is related to the Subject (iva), while Vcya to the Object (akti). This is
approximate, obviously, because iva and akti constitute an only Reality that
Trika had to separate into two sub-realities in order to study it properly. "I" (iva)
is in complete unity with "AM" (akti), and the former cannot exist without the
latter and vice versa. Therefore, on one hand, when you try to study
iva, some akti is still there; and on the other hand, when you attempt to study
akti, some iva is still there too. Both of Divine Powers live in constant unity,
and as a matter of fact they cannot be separated at all, except for the sake of
study. They are like the sun and its inherent light. You may study each of them
separately, but both of them constitute "the sun" as an entirety.

Let us study now each course or "adhv" in depth.


Vara or Letters
Even though the word "Vara" itself does not mean "letter" as such in this
supreme level, I have to explain the things to you somehow. Vara is not a sound
either. As a matter of fact, Vara is here a kind of index that measures the
operating form related to Kal or Primeval Powers (the respective Vcya aspect of
Vara). Granted, this is too complicated, and I decided to call "Vara" merely
"letters" as a form to explain something that is not explainable via limited words.
At the highest level of consciousness, all sounds and associated objects are in an
indistinguishable unity. We cannot talk about them at the gross level, which we
are generally in, without making some mistakes. So, my calling Vara "letter" is a
way of explaining that which is beyond all explanations.
In various scriptures you will find complicated descriptions of Vara, which will
make you even more confused. That is why, I am not going so deep into my
explanation now. Do not worry about all those abstruse descriptions for now, and
attempt to grasp the fundamental concept behind the formulation of the six
adhv-s or courses.

Besides, by "Vara" or Letters I do not mean "syllables" either. Sanskrit alphabet

is mostly a "syllabic" one, except Vowels. However, many Vowels are derived
from the combinations of others. The only "pure" Vowels are "a", "i" and "u". The
last two Vowels have obviously arisen from the original "a", which is iva. In turn,
"", "", "e", etc. simply result from "i + i", "u + u", "a + i", etc. [See First Steps
(4)]. Thus, in the origin of the universe, only "a" exists in the form of the
Supreme Self. This "a" is also named "Anuttara" as there cannot be anything
higher than it. The Vowel "a" gives rise to "" (akti), and then to "i" and "u". The
Vowel "i" embodies the Will Power of Supreme iva, while Vowel "u" is His Power
of Knowledge. The Power of Action is simply originated from a combination of
those two Powers inherent in the Absolute Consciousness together with "a" or

So, by Vara I means "a" (specially) along with "i" and "u", his eternal
companions. As I said, the remaining Vowels result from the combination of these
primordial Letters. The consonants are the natural consequence of the display of
the aforesaid Vowels. Pay attention:

Vowel from which it

Name of the group Letters arisen from that Vowel
is derived

a k kh g gh

i c ch j jh

h h

t th d dh n

u p ph b bh m

Remember that "" and "" are ultimately derived from "a" and "i". And what
about Semivowels? Well, Semivowels are born from Vowels. Pay attention again:
Semivowel Transliteration Origin

y Vowels "i" and ""

r Vowel ""

l Vowel ""

v Vowel "u"

Sibilants (, and s) and the Sonant Aspirate (h) emerge from Icchakti (Power
of Will) in the form of "i, and " when they are inspired by the Light of the Self.
The Light of the Self is simply "a", the Primordial Vowel from which everything is

Sibilants and Sonant

Transliteration Origin

Vowels "i", "" and "" inspired by the Light of the Se

The consonant "h" is merely a gross aspect of Visargaakti... well, read First
Steps (4) for more information.
As you see, the entire manifestation has emanated from "a", "i" and "u". Of
course, "i" and "u" have in turn arisen from "a". This "a", although it is called a
vowel or letter, is not a letter as such. It is something that is beyond all
descriptions. I have called it "letter" so that you may be able to understand the
things at the gross level. The "a" vowel is the source from which all has been
manifested. How might something that was "manifested" properly define the very
Manifesting Force? Thus, the stage known as Vara is firstly formed from "a"...
then "i" and "u" are added... and afterward, the remaining Vowels are manifested
along with the corresponding entire set of Consonants. Note that all consonants
are devoid of "a", which is commonly added when you study the Sanskrit
Alphabet. That is why the Sanskrit Alphabet is generally called "syllabic". The
consonants in the alphabet are really "a consonant" plus "a".

Vara (Letters) on the Vcaka or subjective side gives rise to Kal (Primeval
Powers) on the Vcya or objective side of manifestation. So, let us study Kal

Kal or Primeval Powers
The Kal-s are the first aspect of the Vcya side whose operating form is
"measured" by Vara (the index). This would be the "difficult" technical definition.
Think of them as five Kal-s or Primeval Powers acting as the framework on
which the entire manifestation is going to be built. Each of them support a set of
tattva-s or categories (See Tattvic Chart for more information). As Kal belongs
to the Vcya side, it arises directly from Vara. The primordial "a", "i" and "u"
give rise to the five Kal-s. Here you are their names as well as the extent of
their respective scopes:
ntyatt (Beyond Peace) Tattva-s 1 and 2 (iva-akti)
nti (Peace) Tattva-s 3 to 5 (from Sadiva to Sadvidy)
Vidy (Knowledge) Tattva-s 6 to 12 (from My to Purua)
Pratih (Base or Point of
Tattva-s 13-35 (from Prakti to pas)
Nivtti (Cessation,
Tattva 36 (Pthiv)
Disappearance, Return)
Let us go deep into the subject now. The first Kal is named "ntyatt" (Beyond
Peace), because it is beyond the Supreme Peace or nti coming from the
cessation of duality. This Sublime Peace is attained when you abandon once and
for all the ignorant duality based on "I" and "you" and so on, and embrace the
resplendent Light of your own Self. This Peace is achieved when you realize tattva
5 (Sadvidy), and continues up to tattva 3 (Sadiva). Hence ntikal (the
second Kal) is called in that manner, that is, Peace. However, in ntyatt there
is a "negative" experience of that Peace, in the sense that iva and akti are
beyond the scope of even that Supreme Joy. They are indescribable and cannot
be understood via any parameters but Themselves. If you go even deeper into
the subject, you learn that the word "Kal" has many translations, one of them
being "part". So, "Kal" would be a part belonging to a "whole". In this context,
the use of the term Kal only would reach aktitattva, because iva is devoid of
any parts. That is why He is known as "Nikala" or "having no parts".
Nonetheless, I use here the word Kal in the form of "Primeval Power" and thus it
is completely right to include iva within ntyattkal's scope.
The Kal called "nti" has been partially described above. "nti" means
"Peace". The tattva-s 3 to 5 constitute the realm of that Peace which is beyond all
duality. There you experience absolute unity with the entire universe. An
immense experience of Divine Peace arises in you when you merge your limited
being into that Mass of Bliss. All fears of "others" dissappear because the
realization that "I am the only inhabitant of this universe" is overwhelming
The Kal known as "Vidy" is so called because it is the foundation under all
"conditioned" knowledge acting as support for the display of Ignorance or My.
This limited knowledge lives within you as seeds which will ultimately sprout as
mind, body and outer world. Later on, this very "contracted" knowledge will
appear as the following phrases: "I am not perfect", "I am doing actions", "I need
something", "I feel lonely", "I am from Argentina" and so on. At dawn of those
ideas in your mind, you can be sure that you are quite a slave.
The penultimate Kal is named "Pratih" because it is the base or point of
support for practically all mental and physical framework. This Kal is the
animating force within the tattva-s 13 (Prakti or the very subtle source of all
matter in the mental and physical universes) to 35 (pas, the liquid aspect in the
Universal Manifestation).
The last Kal is called "Nivtti" because it is the place where all "ceases". It is the
force behind the last tattva (Pthiv, the solid aspect in the Universal
Manifestation), in which the entire "creative" movement comes to an end. akti
spreads from the Highest Abode beyond Peace (ntyatt) down to Nivttikal, in
which "she ceases to manifest", as it were, of course. In turn, in Pthivtattva, the
same akti who has ceased to manifest turns upward. The evolution or expansion
of the universe produced involution or contraction of the divine Self, as it were
again. However, through that upward movement the universe undergoes
involution while the divine Self experiences an evolution of His awareness, that is,
He becomes more and more conscious of His true nature. The macrocosmic
upward movement of akti has its microcosmic manifestation within man in the
form of Kualin going upward.

The relationship between microcosm and macrocosm may be compared to that

between the graphic interface of your operating system and all things occurring
behind it. For example, you press a button on the screen and a series of events is
triggered, which are invisible to you. But you know that something changed
because you note a change in the graphic interface (the mouse pointer changed,
a new window was opened, and so on). In turn, all modifications happening
behind the graphic interface, in that "macrocosmic universe" consisting of
complicated software instructions and hardware circuits, are manifested in the
graphic interface (microcosm) somehow. For instance, a virus has accessed your
computer and the antivirus software warns you on the screen. After that, you
make the right decision, press some buttons and the virus is removed. Microcosm
and macrocosm are all the time in a dynamic relationship. Of course, there are
many other examples showing the way in which microcosm and macrocosm are
related to each other. I used this example with the computer because it seemed a
good one to me.

With reference to the five Kal-s, think of them as the foundations upon which
the building called "Tattva and Bhuvana" is about to be built. The Absolute is
always "One without a second", but through His own Manifesting Power, He is
transformed into 5 Kal-s, 36 Tattva-s and 226 Bhuvana-s (or 118, according to
other authors). Still, He has never departed from His inherent Unity. A paradox.

Mantra or Seed Syllables

Somehow, those original Vara-s ("a", "i" and "u"), which had manifested all
letters in the alphabet, are transformed into Mantra-s or Seed Syllables, that is,
Syllables acting as seeds from which the "plant" of Tattva-s will be born. As I said
before, the "a" vowel (from which "i" and "u" emerge) is not a letter or Vara as
such, but I had to designate it like that in order to explain the subject. At this
level (Mantra), the "a" vowel along with "i" and "u" will really appear as letters
but in a subtle aspect. As I explained to you previously, the "a" vowel gives rise
to "i" and "u", which in turn give rise to the rest of letters. The level known as
"Mantra" is composed of all vowels plus the consonants. The former appear "as
such", but the consonants will have now the company of "a" (e.g. "ka" and not
merely "k"). Thus, the consonants will arise as a kind of "seed syllables"
(consonant + a). The vowels themselves, though letters, may be considered
"monosyllables". So, vowels along with consonants plus "a", will form an entire
set of "seed syllables" which the 36 Tattva-s or categories of Creation will be
derived from.

Granted, the subject is much more complicated... but this is enough for you now.
Various scriptures give different descriptions of Mantra, which will make you even
more confused. Hence, that is not important now for you.

Although I am now giving you a brief description of the process, in Tattva-s &
Sanskrit you will find a detailed description of it.

1 iva a
2 akti
3 Sadiva or Sdkhya
4 vara u

5 Sadvidy or uddhavidy :
6 My va
7 Kal va
8 Vidy la
9 Rga la
10 Kla ra
11 Niyati ya
12 Purua ma
13 Prakti bha
14 Buddhi ba
15 Ahakra pha
16 Manas pa
17 rotra or ravaa na
18 Tvak dha
19 Cakus da
20 Jihv or Rasan tha
21 Ghra ta
22 Vk a
23 Pi ha
24 Pda a
25 Pyu ha
26 Upastha a
27 abda a
28 Spara jha
29 Rpa ja
30 Rasa cha
31 Gandha ca
32 ka a
33 Vyu gha
34 Agni or Tejas ga
35 pas kha
36 Pthiv ka

Tattva or categories of Manifestation

From the Mantra-s or Seed Syllables arise thirty-six tattva-s as you saw before.
The word "tat" means "that", and "tva" something like "ness". Thus, "tattva"
would mean "thatness". A tattva is a rather stable level of reality. Think of it as a
specific frequency. According to Trika, there are 36 tattva-s, in short, 36 different
frequencies. For example, the "intellect" is the tattva 14. This intellect works on a
well-defined level of consciousness. In other words, a tattva is a definite category
of Manifestation. Please, read a more detailed description of the tattva-s here.
The Universal Manifestation is made following an order, and not without rhyme or
reason. Thus, you will find that the tattva-s are ordered following, at least, two
definite patterns. Look at this chart:
1. iva Even though they are known
as the first two tattva-s or
2. akti categories, they are really the uddhdhv or Pure
origin of all Manifestation. Course
3. Sadiva or Sdkhya The divine tattva-s in which [the course or "adhv"
4. vara "Idam" or universe emerges in which the true
apart from "Aham" or I. nature of the Divine
5. Sadvidy or However, this universe is Self is not still veiled]
uddhavidy "ideal" and remains in
complete unity with Aham.
6. My These are the tattva-s of the Auddhdhv
7. Kal conditioned individual or Impure Course
8. Vidy experience. They turn, as it [the course or "adhv"
9. Rga were, the Supreme Experient in which the true
10. Kla or iva into a miserable nature of the Divine
individual that is utterly Self is veiled]
11. Niyati powerless, ignorant and
devoid of real will.
12. Purua These tattva-s are called the
tattva-s of the conditioned
individual, as they are the
13. Prakti
result of the diligent work of
My and her Kacuka-s.
14. Buddhi These tattva-s form the
15. Ahakra Antakaraa or Inner
(Psychic) Organ, because
16. Manas they look after all mental
17. rotra or ravaa These tattva-s are called the
18. Tvak Jnendriya-s (Powers of
19. Cakus perception), on account of
20. Jihv or Rasan their helping the mind to
21. Ghra perceive the world around.

22. Vk These tattva-s are called the

23. Pi Karmendriya-s (Powers of
24. Pda action), on account of their
25. Pyu allowing the mind to operate
26. Upastha on that very outer world.

27. abda These tattva-s are called the

28. Spara Tanmtra-s (Subtle
29. Rpa elements), since they form
the subtle framework which
30. Rasa
the material world will be
31. Gandha build upon.
32. ka These tattva-s are called the
33. Vyu Bht-s or Mahbhta-s
34. Agni or Tejas (Gross elements), since the
35. pas entire material gross world is
36. Pthiv composed of them.
For more information on Tattva-s, see Tattvic Chart.
Tattvic Chart - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir
Categories of the manifestation according to Trika system
1. Introduction
2. Chart
3. Further Information


Gabriel Pradpaka, again. I have published this document in order to show

concisely the thirty-six tattva-s or levels of Creation according to Trika.

Despite this is a kind of summary, I will describe each of the tattva-s to a certain
extent. You should use this document as an essential one. Each time you need it,
here it is to be used. As you go deeper and deeper into your studies of Trika,
Sanskrit, Meditation and other philosophies, you will have to return to it over and
over again.

Note that the 25 tattva-s stated by Skhya (a philosophical system) are the
same as the last 25 tattva-s of Trika. Trika reworked the tattvic scheme of
Skhya and added 11 more categories to it. So, if you are a follower of Skhya,
this chart will prove very useful for you too.

Please, go to Trika section on this website for more information on tattva-s or


Let us get down to work.





(The Supreme iva or Source of all)

Even though He is beyond description, it might be said that He is the r
iva is full of Cicchakti (Cit + akti) or the Power of Consciousness. Bo
1. iva -- and akti emerge from Paramaiva or the Supreme iva. In Paramaiv
not even the subtle "duality" of iva-akti. All tattva-s emerge from th

2. akti --
She is beyond description too. However, it might be said that She is th
"am" . iva and akti constitute the real "I am". akti makes iva cons
Himself, but no separation between them both may be stated anyway.
as it were, a very subtle "stress" on the infinite and static body of iva
Her the rest of the tattva-s arises and, in fact, they are a form of Her.
absolute unity between Her and the rest of the tattva-s. She is full of
nandaakti or the Power of Bliss.


(iva without any categories)

Sadiva is the abode of Icchakti or Power of Will. Here a foggy univ
3. Sadiva or Sdkhya appears. The consciousness is "I am This" (I am this foggy universe). T

- or - universe is a "newborn" yet, hence it is indistinct. Since the universe is

formed, the side "I" is predominant. The side "This" (universe) is still f
vara is the abode of Jnaakti or Power of Knowledge. Here a distin
clear universe appears. The consciousness is "This is Me" (This distinct
4. vara -- is Me). The universe is now full-fledged, hence it is distinct. Since the u
is fully formed, the side "This" is predominant. The side "I" is still there
overwhelmed by the divine wonder unfolding itself before Him.
Sadvidy is the abode of Kriyakti or Power of Action. Here the consc
is fully balanced between "I" and "This". "This" is the universe, of cour
5. Sadvidy or uddhavidy
consciousness is "I am I and This is This". The side "I" is now balanced
- or - side "This", that is to say, both of them are likewise predominant. This
unity in the difference, because there is a universe which is different fr
("I") but at the same time there is a underlying unity among them bot

AVAMALA -- (avamala or the Primordial Impurity bringing about the rest of the tat

which the difference and dualism is predominant). After avamala, two more Mala-s or Impurities

produced: Myyamala -- and Krmamala --, which bring about more differen

attachment to actions respectively.

My is Ignorance. Trika's My is not like that of Vednta. In Trika, M
tattva or a "real" level of Creation. My is in charge of drawing a veil
essential nature of iva (apparently, of course). My turns the Infinite

6. My --
someone full of limitations. Amazing! Myyamala and Krmamala arise
account of the operation of the Mytattva. These two impurities bring
diffences and attachment to actions with them. Sometimes, My is co
to be "a sixth" Kacuka or Sheath wraping the consciousness with a su
strong veil of ignorance.

7. Kal --
Kal is the first Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of
"limited activity" to the consciousness --

which was veiled by My. It is
Kriyakti (Omnipotence) having
undergone contraction. It infuses the
erroneous notion: "I have limits
regarding action, I cannot do this, I
cannot do that, etc." This tattva is the
root for the future Karmic Law, that
is, Karma can work on a limited
individual because of the operation of
Kal which restrains his inherent
Vidy is the second Kacuka or
Sheath of Ignorance. It gives the
notion of "limited knowledge" to the
consciousness which was veiled by
8. Vidy -- My. It is Jnaakti (Omniscience)
having undergone contraction. It
infuses the erroneous notion: "I have
limits regarding knowledge, I do not
know this, I do not know that, etc.".
Rga is the third Kacuka or Sheath
of Ignorance. It gives the notion of
"limited will" --leading to attachment-
- to the consciousness which was
veiled by My. It is Icchakti
9. Rga -- (Absolute Will) having undergone
contraction. It infuses the erroneous
notion: "I lack something, I need
something", and consequently the
final result of that need in the form of
"I am attached to something" arises.
Kla is the fourth Kacuka or Sheath
of Ignorance. It gives the notion of
"parts" --leading to the notion of

10. Kla --
time-- to the consciousness which
was veiled by My. It is nandaakti
(Supreme Bliss) having undergone
contraction. It infuses the erroneous
notion: "I am not everlasting, eternal,
I just live a few years, I am old, I am
young, etc.".
Niyati is the last Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of
"space" to the consciousness which
was veiled by My. It is Cicchakti
11. Niyati -- (the Power of Consciousness) having
undergone contraction. It infuses the
erroneous notion: "I am here and that
is over there, I am not all-pervading,
It is iva Himself having undergone all previous limitations (Kacuka-s

12. Purua -
Despite the self-imposed limitation, iva remains the same though. Th
is the inner Self in all beings. Although it is the goal to be attained in S
Trika considers it to be just a step in the involution/evolution of akti.
Prakti is merely that state in which the three qualities (Gua-s) remain
completely balanced. These Gua-s are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. They
well-known Jnaakti, Icchakti and Kriyakti, respectively, having
undergone one more contraction. When the Supreme Witness (iva) is
13. Prakti -- by the veil of My and her Kacuka-s, He is "apparently" transformed
Purua. This Purua beholds His akti and She appears now to be form
three forces known as Gua-s or qualities. Neither iva nor akti were
"essentially" modified, but iva, through a self-imposed limitation, cha
viewpoint and began to consider Himself to be an individual soul. Inter
It is the first evolute of Prakti. Buddhi
constitutes the determinative faculty
by which you decide a course of
action in your life. In short, Buddhi is
"the intellect". It is a predominantly
14. Buddhi or Mahat sattvic tattva, that is, Jna

- or - (knowledge) is predominant in it. ANTAKARAA

Buddhi is also that principle which
allows you to abstractly catalog a
particular object, animal or person Inner (psychic) organ
under a definite category. For
example, "That is a dog", "This is a
15. Ahakra or Asmit It is the second evolute of Prakti.

- or - Ahakra constitutes the limited "I-

ness". In short, Ahakra is "the ego".
Not only from it, Manas, Indriya-s and
Tanmtra-s emerge, but all these
principles are also sustained by
Asmit. Its main characteristic is
"self-appropriation". It makes "pure I-
ness" a doer, hence one of its names
is "Ahakra or I-doer". It associates
pure "I", who is a mere witness, with
a particular action or concept. For
example, "I do my job", "I construct
buildings", "I love you", "I am poor",
etc. Let us remove the Ahakra and
the sentences would be like this: "Job
is being done", "Buildings are being
constructed", "There is love for you",
"There is poverty", etc. It sounds
somewhat strange, doesn't it? Well, a
world without ego would be
wonderful, but what the heck, it is
impossible for now. Ahakra also
gives "volume" to all. It is the cause
for this 3D universe. The ego is
predominantly rajasic.
It is the third evolute of Prakti.
Manas constitutes a net of thoughts.
In short, Manas is the ordinary mind
which is the source and the controller
of the future Jnendriya-s (Powers of
perception) and Karmendriya-s
16. Manas -- (Powers of action). Other of its
functions is to straighten and color
the primitive image formed in the
retina. Manas works only in 2D, not
3D. To assign the third dimension is
the work of Ahakra. Manas is
predominantly tamasic.

17. rotra -- or The power of hearing. It is that JNENDRIYA-S

energy that ordinarily circulates
ravaa -- through the organs of hearing (ears).
The power of feeling by touch. It is Powers of Perception
18. Tvak - - that energy that predominantly (predominantly
circulates through the skin. sattvic)
The power of seeing. It is that energy
19. Cakus -- that ordinarily circulates through the
organs of seeing (eyes).

20. Jihv -- or The power of tasting. It is that energy

that ordinarily circulates through the
Rasan -- organ of tasting (tongue).
The power of smelling. It is that
21. Ghra -- energy that ordinarily circulates
through the organ of smelling (nose).
The power of speaking. It is that

22. Vk - -
energy that ordinarily circulates
through the organ of speaking
The power of handling. It is that

23. Pi --
energy that ordinarily circulates
through the organs of handling
The power of locomotion. It is that
24. Pda --
energy that ordinarily circulates
through the organs of locomotion Powers of Action
(legs and feet).
The power of excreting. It is that rajasic)
25. Pyu --
energy that ordinarily circulates
through the organ of excreting
The power of sexual activity and
restfulness. It is that energy that
26. Upastha -- ordinarily circulates through the
organs of sexual activity and
restfulness (genitals).
Sound-as-such. You can recognize TANMTRA-S
27. abda --
different sounds because of this
sound pattern.
Touch-as-such. You can recognize Subtle elements
28. Spara -- different kinds of touch because of (predominantly
this touch pattern. tamasic)
Color-as-such. You can recognize
29. Rpa -- different colors because of this color
Flavor-as-such. You can recognize
30. Rasa -- different flavors because of this flavor
Odor-as-such. You can recognize
31. Gandha -- different odors because of this odor

32. ka --
The space or 3D framework within
which the entire physical world exists.

33. Vyu --
All that is gaseous. So, it is not only
the ordinary "air". MAHBHTA-S

34. Agni -- or Tejas - --

All that contains heat and color. So, it

- is not only the ordinary "fire". Gross elements


35. pas --
All that is liquid. So, it is not only the tamasic)
ordinary "water".

36. Pthiv - -
All that is solid. So, it is not only the
ordinary "earth".

attva-s & Sanskrit - Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir

Relationship between Sanskrit letters and Trika tattva-s
1. Introduction
2. Chart
3. Further Information

Gabriel Pradpaka, once again. I have created this document for you to
understand the profound relationship existing between Sanskrit alphabet and
Tattva-s. The Tattva-s or categories (levels) of universal manifestation
(See Tattvic Chart) arise from the course known as "Mantra" (seed syllables)
(See aadhv for more information).

These seed syllables or Mantra-s are really Vowels and Consonants of the
Sanskrit alphabet. To know exactly how each Tattva is related to a specific
Sanskrit letter is very important to understand how the universe is manifested
from the sound.
In turn, when you pronounce a particular Sanskrit letter with an onepointed mind
for a while, you gain access to the respective Tattva or category. That is why,
every person aspiring to experience divine realities should study this document
thoroughly. My advise is that you should also print it out for further use.

Let us get down to work.


The first two tattva-s or categories are the highest ones:

He is beyond
However, it might be
said that He is the
1. iva
a real "I".Philosophical
name for this letter:
Anuttara --the
Highest letter--.
She is beyond
description too.
However, it might be
said that She is the
real "am". Both of
them form the real
"I am". akti makes
iva conscious of
Himself, but no
2. akti
separation between

them both may be
names for this
letter: nanda --
Bliss-- and
Paravisarga --
supreme Visarga--.
The following three tattva-s are divine ones too, but now an ideal universe has
been manifested.

Sadiva is the
abode of Icchakti
or Power of Will.
Here a foggy
universe appears.
The consciousness
is "I am This" (I
am this foggy

names for the

3. Sadiva or Sdkhya letters associated:
i sa (1) Icch --Will--
(letter "i"); (2)
na --The power
of mastery-- (letter
""); (3) aha --
Eunuchs-- (letters
", , "); (4)
Pariprmta --
the perfect
imperishable letter-
- (letter "sa").
vara is the abode
of Jnaakti or
Power of
Knowledge. Here a
distinct and clear

4. vara
universe appears.
The consciousness
u a
is "This am I" (This
distinct universe
am I).
names for some of
the letters
associated: (1)
Unmea --Opening,
(letter "u"); (2)
nat --
Deficiency-- (letter
""); (3) Bindu --
Dot representing
the Ultimate
Knower-- (letter
"" or Anusvra
appearing here
devoid of "a",
which is added to it
in the Sanskrit
alphabet because a
vowel is necessary
for it to be
Sadvidy is the
abode of Kriyakti
or Power of Action.
Here the
consciousness is
fully balanced
between "I" and
"This". "This" is the

: universe, of
5. Sadvidy or uddhavidy course. The
e ai o au a consciousness is "I
am I and This is
names for some of
the letters
associated: (1)
Trikoa --Triangle--
(letter "e"); (2)
akoa --
Hexagon-- (letter
"ai"); (3) Trila --
Trident-- (letter
"au"); (4)
Parparavisarga --
supreme Visarga--
(letter ""). There
is three types of
Visarga: ""
(supreme), ""
supreme) and "ha"
This would be the
intermediate one.

Next tattva-s concern Limitations. Semivowels are the letters associated with
them. Note that the order of association (va, la, ra, ya) is exactly the opposite if
compared to that one you find in the Sanskrit alphabet (ya, ra, la, va):

My is Ignorance. Trika's My is not
like that of Vednta. In Trika, My is a
tattva or a "real" level of Creation. My
is in charge of drawing a veil over the
essential nature of iva (apparently, of
course). This letter has no philosophical
name of its own. However, the entire
group of Semivowels (ya, ra, la, va) are
called Antastha (lit. standing in between,
6. My
va they are not either purely Vowels or
purely Consonants, hence they are called
Semivowels) because they operate from
within the human mind. They are also
named "Dhra" (supporting letters)
since they wrap up and support the
limited consciousnes, which was formed
due to the operation of My, thereby
preventing it from falling into the gross
matter (lower tattva-s).
Kal is the first Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of "limited

activity" to the consciousness which was

7. Kal veiled by My. It is Kriyakti
va (Omnipotence) having undergone
contraction. The letter "va" stands for
both My and Kalkacuka.
Vidy is the second Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of "limited
knowledge" to the consciousness which
8. Vidy
was veiled by My. It is Jnaakti
(Omniscience) having undergone
Rga is the third Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of "limited
will" --leading to attachment-- to the
consciousness which was veiled by My.
9. Rga
It is Icchakti (Absolute Will) having
undergone contraction. The letter "la"
stands for both Vidy and Rga Kacuka-
Kla is the fourth Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of "parts" -
-leading to the notion of time-- to the
10. Kla
ra consciousness which was veiled by My.
It is nandaakti (Supreme Bliss) having
undergone contraction.
Niyati is the last Kacuka or Sheath of
Ignorance. It gives the notion of "space"
to the consciousness which was veiled by
11. Niyati
ya My. It is Cicchakti (the Power of
Consciousness) having undergone

The upcoming two tattva-s are very important. Note that from tattva 12 to 36,
the letters associated with them are Labials, Dentals, Cerebrals, Palatals and
Gutturals (in that order). That is to say, the letters start with "ma" and end with
"ka" (tattva-s 12 to 36). If you study the Sanskrit alphabet you will realize that
the order of the letters there is exactly the opposite: Gutturals, Palatals,
Cerebrals, Dentals and Labials:
It may be called
soul". It is
with a veil over.
This veil was

drawn by My
12. Purua or Ignorance.
ma Purua still has
no mind at this
level, but the
seed for the
formation of a
psychic organ is
about to be
Prakti is the
seed. It is
formed from
three Gua-s
(Sattva, Rajas
and Tamas) or
qualities which
are in absolute
balance at this

level. Purua
13. Prakti and Prakti form
bha an
reality, but an
unbalance of the
Gua-s will
bring about the
rest of tattva-s
(right from
tattva 14 to 36).
Prakti is
matter. It is the
source for all
tattva-s to

And finally we have arrived in the inner "psychic" organ (Antakaraa), formed
from intellect, ego and mind:

Buddhi is the intellect.
The intellect acts as a
mirror reflecting the
pure light of the inner
self. It still suffers
from mutations or
modifications, but
these are not so gross
as those of Manas or
mind. Buddhi is also a
kind of library or
14. Buddhi
ba storehouse of "labels".
These labels are
indispensable to give
a name to the objects
(e.g. "that is a dog";
the word "dog" is an
abstract label
associated with the
actual "animal" that is
perceived through the
Ahakra is the ego.

You know him, don't

15. Ahakra you? (haha!). From
pha the ego arises the rest
of the tattva-s or
levels of Creation. Ego
is full of will or icch.
Ego is also responsible
for the generation of
objects with volume.
If there was no ego,
you would only see
objects in 2D. So, ego
is the cause of this 3D
world. The false
aspect of ego
appropriates all that
gets in contact with it
and become identified
with that.
attachment and
aversion take hold of
the you, and the final
result is obviously
"pain". Its quality of
appropriation is a kind
of "plague", which
everybody suffers
Manas is the mind.
The mind is the
master of
Jnendriya-s and
(powers of perception

and action,
16. Manas respectively). That is
pa why, it is sometimes
considered to be one
"additional" Indriya. It
is undergoing
mutation and
modification all the
time, and this feature
clearly indicates that
the mind is not a
source of happiness
(haha!). Happiness
cannot come from
something that
changes continuously
without rhyme or
reason. Manas has
also other functions,
but this summary is

And now the Jnendriya-s or powers of perception. They may be called "organs
of perception", but I prefer to use "powers" because the Jnendriya-s are really
the "energies" circulating through the respective "organs" that we use to
perceive. Manas is behind every Jnendriya as its inner controller. We might say
that the Jnendriya-s are the sensors by which Manas perceives the outer

power of
It is that

17. rotra or ravaa ordinarily
na circulates
organs of

The power of feeling by touch. It is that energy that "

18. Tvak
dha the skin.

The power of seeing. It is that energy that ordinarily

19. Cakus
seeing (eyes).
The power of tasting. It is that energy that ordinaril
20. Jihv or Rasan
tasting (tongue).

The power of smelling. It is that energy that ordinari

21. Ghra
smelling (nose).

The following group of five tattva-s is Karmendriya-s or powers of action. These

are the instruments by which Manas performs activities in this world. They have,
as well as the Jnendriya-s, a set of organs through which operate generally.
However, since the ten Indriya-s (Jnendriya-s and Karmendriya-s) are energies
(not physical organs), they are able to work by using some alternative organ
(e.g. the normal course of a blind person's power of seeing must be diverted to
the organs of hearing and feeling by touch because the eyes are not working.
Thus, that person finds that he can hear and feeling by touch better than ever.):

The power of
speaking. It is
that energy

that ordinarily
22. Vk circulates
a through the
organ of
The power of
handling. It is
that energy

that ordinarily
23. Pi circulates
ha through the
organs of
The power of
locomotion. It
is that energy
24. Pda
a that ordinarily
through the
organs of
(legs and feet).
The power of
excreting. It is
that energy

that ordinarily
25. Pyu circulates
ha through the
organ of
The power of
sexual activity
restfulness. It
is that energy
that ordinarily
26. Upastha
a circulates
through the
organs of
sexual activity
and restfulness

Just ten more tattva-s to go. The following set of 5 categories is the Tanmtra-s.
Tanmtra-s are the subtle elements from which will be evolved the last five
tattva-s (the well-known gross elements: space or ether, air, fire, water and
earth). Tanmtra-s are a kind of patterns or atoms. For example: the Tanmtra
known as Sound-as-such is the auditory pattern by which you are be able to
recognize different sounds:

You can

27. abda different
a sounds
because of this
sound pattern.
You can

28. Spara different kinds
jha of touch
because of this
touch pattern.
You can
29. Rpa
different colors
because of this
color pattern.
You can

30. Rasa different
cha flavors because
of this flavor
You can
31. Gandha
ca different odors
because of this
odor pattern.

And finally the five gross elements or Mahbhta-s. These five tattva-s emerge
from the Tanmtra-s. They should not merely be understood as "space or ether,
air, fire, water and earth", but as "space or ether, all that is gaseous, all that
contains heat and color, all that is liquid and all that is solid", respectively. As you
see, the meaning behind such simple words as "space or ether, air, fire, water
and earth" is much more comprehensive:


The space or 3D

framework within
32. ka which the entire
a physical world
All that is gaseous.
33. Vyu So, it is not only the
gha ordinary "air".
All that contains
heat and color. So,
34. Agni or Tejas
ga it is not only the
ordinary "fire".

All that is liquid. So,

35. pas it is not only the
kha ordinary "water".

All that is solid. So,

36. Pthiv it is not only the
ka ordinary "earth".
I am done enumerating the 36 tattva-s and their respective associated letters.
When you repeat one of those letters with an onepointed mind, you will lastly
realize the tattva associated with it. By "realization" I mean "full understanding".
For example, if you repeat "i", you will come to realize the Supreme Will which
that vowel embodies. You may use each letter to attain to the level or tattva you
wish. In the document "First Steps (4)" I explain in detail this topic to you.