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ASSIGNMENT OF GEOGRAPHY TANAH

SHORT PAPER ABOUT


NORMAL SENTENCE PATTERNS

By :

ANDIKA LASEFA (3141131003)


ANA MARIA S. (314)
DELA MAGFIRAH (314)

C Reguler 2014

FACULTY OF EDUCATION SOCIAL


DIRECTION OF GEOGRAPHY
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
2015
Preface
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First at all, give thanks for Gods love and grace for us. Thanks to God for helping me
and give me chance to finish this assighment timely. And I would like to say thank you to Mrs.
Melinda Suryani H, S.Pd , M.Si as the lecturer that always teaches us and give much knowledge
about how to practice English well.

This assighment is the one of English task that composed of Normal Sentence Patterns
English As Second Language I realized this assighment is not perfect. But I hope it can be useful
for us. Critics and suggestion is needed here to make this assighment be better. Hopefully we as a
student in University Of Medan can work more professional by using English as the second
language whatever we done. Thank you.

Compiler

Table of contents

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Preface .vi
Table of contents..vii
Part I Understanding of Normal Sentence Patterns ..1
a. Subject ..1
b. plural...2
c.Verb.4
1. Regular Verb..4
2. irregular Verb.4
d. complement5
e. Modifier..5

Chapter II The Ten Sentence Patterns ..6


Bibliography..9

PART I

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Understanding of Normal Sentence Patterns

An English sentence is constructed with subject, verb, complement, and modifier. Subject
is the agent of a sentence. Verb expresses an action, event or state of the subject. A complement
completes the verb. It generally follows the verb when the sentence is in the active voice. Every
sentence does not require a complement. A complement answers the question what and whom.
Modifier tells the time, place, or manner of the action. For example

we took the train to Binjai yesterdaySubject

The subject is the agent of the sentence in the active voice. Subject normally precedes the
verb. Every English sentence must have a subject, however there are pseudo subjects in the
command.

Subject may be a single noun or noun phrase. Noun phrase is a group of words that ends
with a noun. It can contain determiners (the, this, some, those etc), pronouns, adjectives and
adverbs. It cannot begin with a preposition. Subject and complements are generally noun phrase.

mountain is beautiful

The clouds over the sea

BMKG office is closed at 4 o'clock.

Some times it and there can act as subject such as;

There are plenty of fish in the sea

It is raining outside.

There are two types of nouns in respect of their construction:

(1) Countable noun

(2) Uncountable noun

B. Plural

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A countable noun is one that can be counted. We can make it plural by adding 's' or 'es' at
the end of the noun word such as; book-books, bag-bags, glass-glasses. However, there are some
irregular nouns that cannot be made plural by adding 's' or 'es' such as; person-people, child-
children, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, mouse-mice, man-men, goose-geese etc.

An uncountable noun is one that cannot be counted. We cannot make them plural with
adding 's' or 'es' at the end of the word such as; information, money, news, furniture, aircraft,
soap etc. we use some plural words before the uncountable noun to give them plural sense such
as; some, any, much, a lot of, a large amount of, a little, less then, more then etc.

We have spent too much time on this homework.

Article: A, An, The

'A' or 'An' can precede only singular countable noun. 'A' is used before nouns that begin
with a consonant sound such as;

A cartographer are make a map

I saw a bird

An: An is used before a noun that begins with a vowel sound. The initial sound of the word that
immediately follows the indefinite article will determine whether it should be 'a' or 'an' such as;

A thermometer

An atlas

A Star

A whole hour

The: (1) The is used to indicate something that we already know about or something that is
common knowledge that is;

The earth is round.


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The boy in the corner is my friend.

(2) Normally plural countable noun, when they mean everything within a certain class are
not preceded by 'the' such as;

Oranges are green until they ripen.

Athletes should follow a well balanced diet.

(3) Normally uncountable noun is not preceded by 'the' though it is possible when we
speak in a specific term such as;

Sugar is sweet

The sugar on the table is from Deli Serdang.

Normally, a proper noun is not preceded by an article unless there are several people or things
with the same name and the speaker is specifying one of them

There are three Susan Parks in the telephone directory.

The Susan and friends climb mountain Sibayak.

(4) Usually words such as breakfast, lunch, dinner, school, church,

home and college do not take any article unless to restrict the meaning.

I went home yesterday.

C. Verb

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Every sentence must have a verb. The verb follows the subject. The verb may be a single
doing words or a verb phrase. A verb phrase consists of one or more auxiliaries and one main
verb. The auxiliaries always precede the main verb.

Sibayak mountain is very high

She was looking rain.

There are two types of verb in English language in respect of their construction:

(1) Regular verb/weak verb

(2) Irregular verb/ strong verb

1. Regular verb

A regular verb forms its past tense and past participle by adding d/ed/t, for example -

pay - paid - paid

walk - walked- walked

stop stopped - stopped

buy bought bought

Think-- thought thought

2. Irregular verb

This verb is not formed in a regular way. It forms its past and past participle tense by
changing a vowel not by adding regular d/ed/t at the end. These verbs are derived from foreign
language. We have nothing but to memorize them because they do not follow a specific rule. For
example

go went gone

drink drank drunk

give gave give

sing sang sung

D. Complement

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Generally a complement follows the verb when the sentence is in the active voice. It is
usually a noun or noun phrase.

A complement answers the question what or ' whom'. For example

He wants to drink some water.

They called Marry yesterday.

Every sentence does not require a complement.

E. Modifier

The modifier normally follows the complement. It tells the time, place or manner of the
action. Very often, it is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase is a group of words that
begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. A modifier of time usually comes last if more
than one modifier is present. A modifier can also be an adverb or an adverbial phrase.

He went to school, yesterday.

Safia was swimming in Unimed waterpark yesterday.

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PART II
THE TEN SENTENCE PATTERNS

Information :

V-be = verb of being


NP = noun phrase
NP1, NP2, NP3, etc. = designations for different noun phrase functions
LV = linking verb
V-int = intransitive verb
V-tr = transitive verb
ADV/TP = adverbial of time or place
ADJ = adjective

1. NP1 + V-be + ADV/TP

The verb of being is followed by an adverb indicating where or when.

More information on subjects

The adverbial indicating where or when may be a prepositional phrase.

2. NP1 + V-be + ADJ

The verb of being is followed by an adjective that functions as the subjective complement.

More information on subjective complements

The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase.

3. NP1 + V-be + NP1

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The verb of being is followed by a noun that functions as the subjective complement.

Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the
second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Mr. James = teacher).

4. NP1 + LV + ADJ

The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.

The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase.

5. NP1 + LV + NP1

The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.

Note: The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the
second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan = Buddhist).

6. NP1 + V-int

The action verb takes no direct object.

Even if the action verb is followed by a prepositional phrase, the verb is still intransitive as
long as it does not take a direct object.

7. NP1 + V-tr + NP2

The action verb is followed by a direct object.

More information on direct objects

Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2)
because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).

8. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP3

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The action verb is followed by an indirect object and then a direct object.

More information on indirect objects

Note: The indirect object and the direct object each receive a new numerical designation
because each is different from the other and both are different from the subject.

9. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + ADJ

The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by an adjective
functioning as an objective complement.

More information on objective complements

Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2)
because it is not the same as the subject (NP1).

10. NP1 + V-tr + NP2 + NP2

The action verb is followed by a direct object. The direct object is followed by a noun
functioning as an objective complement.

Note: The second NP, the direct object, receives a different numerical designation (NP2)
because it is not the same as the subject (NP1). The third NP, the objective complement, receives
the same numerical designation as the direct object (NP2) because it is the same as the direct
object (Jacobsen = friend).

Bibliography

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http://grammar24.blogspot.com/2011/08/normal-sentence-pattern-in-
english.html#sthash.x2AMtGfn.dpuf

http://masterbari.blogspot.com/2012/10/normal-sentence-pattern-in-english.html

http://bangminhkiem.forumotion.com/t149-topic

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/sentence-patterns.html

http://www.towson.edu/ows/sentpatt.htm

http://grammar24.blogspot.com/2011/08/normal-sentence-pattern-in-english.html

http://www.wordsmile.com/sentence-patterns-pola-kalimat-bahasa-inggris

https://hidayatullahahmad.wordpress.com/2013/03/18/normal-sentence-pattern-in-english/

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