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A

SEMINAR REPORT ON
REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

SUBMITTED BY: GUIDED BY: -

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This acknowledgement is a humble attempt to earnestly thank all


those who were directly or indirectly involved in preparation of this
seminar report.

I n p a r t i c u l a r I a m t h a n k f u l t o m y g u i d e M r. K a l p e s h D . M a n i a
who guide me in my seminar work. I am thankful to him for taking
active part in the preparation of my seminar report. It was impossible
to present this report without his co-operation and suggestion.
Last but not least I would like to express out deep sense of
gratitude to all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering
Department and also my friends who help me to accomplish what I have
s t a r t e d f o r.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

THE SEMINAR REPORT ON :

REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM


PREPARED BY:

GUIDED BY:

EXAMINER H.O.D
(1) ___________________
(2) ___________________
(3) ___________________
(4) ___________________

ABSTRACT

Regenerative Braking System is the way of slowing vehicle by using


the motors as brakes. Instead of the surplus energy of the vehicle
being wasted as unwanted heat, the motors act as generators and return
s o m e o f i t t o t h e o v e r h e a d w i r e s a s e l e c t r i c i t y.
The vehicle is primarily powered from the electrical energy generated
from the generator, which burns gasoline. This energy is stored in a
l a r g e b a t t e r y, a n d u s e d b y a n e l e c t r i c m o t o r t h a t p r o v i d e s m o t i v e f o r c e
to the wheels. The regenerative barking taking place on the vehicle is
a way to obtain more efficiency; instead of converting kinetic energy to
thermal energy through frictional braking, the vehicle can convert a
g o o d f r a c t i o n o f i t s k i n e t i c e n e r g y b a c k i n t o c h a r g e i n t h e b a t t e r y,
u s i n g t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e a s a n a l t e r n a t o r.
LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1 G r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e n e r g y u s a g e b e t w e e n t w o v e h i c l e s.

Fig. 2 Mercury Hybrid Mariner

Fig. 3 R e g e n e r a t i v e B r a k i n g S ys t e m U s i n g N i t i n o l S p r i n g .
CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. NECESSITY OF THE SYSTEM

3. REGENRATIVE BRAKE

4. ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM

5. DESCRIPTION & OPERATION

6. RESULTS

7. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Brake:-
A brake is a machine element and its principle object is to absorb
energy during deceleration. In vehicle brakes are used to absorb
kinetic energy whereas in hoists or elevators brakes are also used to
absorb potential e n e r g y. By connecting the moving member to
stationary frame, normally brake converts kinetic energy to heat
e n e r g y. This causes wastage of energy and also wearing of frictional
lining material.
Regenerative Braking System:-
Regenerative Braking System is the way of slowing vehicle by
using the motors as brakes. Instead of the surplus energy of the
vehicle being wasted as unwanted heat, the motors act as generators
a n d r e t u r n s o m e o f i t t o t h e o v e r h e a d w i r e s a s e l e c t r i c i t y.
The vehicle is primarily powered from the electrical energy generated
from the generator, which burns gasoline. This energy is stored in a
l a r g e b a t t e r y, a n d u s e d b y a n e l e c t r i c m o t o r t h a t p r o v i d e s m o t i v e f o r c e
to the wheels. The regenerative barking taking place on the vehicle is
a way to obtain more efficiency; instead of converting kinetic energy to
thermal energy through frictional braking, the vehicle can convert a
g o o d f r a c t i o n o f i t s k i n e t i c e n e r g y b a c k i n t o c h a r g e i n t h e b a t t e r y,
u s i n g t h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e a s a n a l t e r n a t o r.
T h e r e f o r e , i f yo u d r i v e l o n g d i s t a n c e w i t h o u t b r a k i n g , yo u l l b e
powering the vehicle entirely from gasoline. The regenerative braking
Regenerative Braking System comes into its own when youre driving
i n t h e c i t y, a n d s p e n d i n g a g o o d d e a l o f yo u r t i m e b r a k i n g .
You w i l l s t i l l u s e m o r e f u e l i n t h e c i t y f o r e a c h m i l e yo u d r i v e t h a n o n
t h e h i g h w a y, t h o u g h . ( T h e r m o d y n a m i c s t e l l s u s t h a t a l l i n e f f i c i e n c y
c o m e s f r o m h e a t g e n e r a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , w h e n yo u b r a k e , t h e b r a k e
p e d a l s h e a t u p a n d a q u a n t i t y o f h e a t , o r e n e r g y, i s l o s t t o t h e o u t s i d e
w o r l d . F r i c t i o n i n t h e e n g i n e p r o d u c e s h e a t i n t h e s a m e w a y.
Heat e n e r g y, also, has higher entropy than, s a y, electric,
meaning that it is less ordered.)
Definition:
Braking method in which the mechanical energy from the load is
converted into electric energy and regenerated back into the line
is known as Regenerative Braking. The Motor operates as
g e n e r a t o r.
R e g e n e r a t i v e B r a k i n g F o r H y b r i d Veh i c l e :
I n m o s t e l e c t r i c a n d h y b r i d e l e c t r i c v e h i c l e s o n t h e r o a d t o d a y,
t h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y o p e r a t i n g t h e t r a c t i o n m o t o r a s a g e n e r a t o r,
providing braking torque to the wheels and recharging the traction
batteries. The energy provided by regenerative braking can then be
used for propulsion or to power vehicle accessories.
CHAPTER 2: NECESSITY OF THE SYSTEM
The regenerative braking system delivers a number of significant
advantages over a car that only has friction brakes. In low-speed, stop-
and-go traffic where little deceleration is required; the regenerative
braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force.
This vastly improves fuel economy with a vehicle, and further enhances
the attractiveness of vehicles using regenerative braking for city
d r i v i n g . At h i g h e r s p e e d s , t o o , r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g h a s b e e n s h o w n t o
contribute to improved fuel economy by as much as 20%.
Consider a heavy loaded truck having very few stops on the road.
I t i s o p e r a t e d n e a r m a x i m u m e n g i n e e f f i c i e n c y. T h e 8 0 % o f t h e e n e r g y
produced is utilized to overcome the rolling and aerodynamic road
forces. The energy wasted in applying brake is about 2%. Al s o i t s
brake specific fuel consumption is 5%.
Now consider a vehicle, which is operated in the main city where
t r a f f i c i s a m a j o r p r o b l e m h e r e o n e h a s t o a p p l y b r a k e f r e q u e n t l y. F o r
such vehicles the wastage of energy by application of brake is about
60% to 65%. An d a l s o i t i s i n e f f i c i e n t a s i t s b r a k e s p e c i f i c f u e l
consumption is high.

Road 80% Rake 65%

Other
18% Road
26%

Brake 2% other 9%

HEAVY LOADED TRUCK CITY BUS

2.1 Graphical representation of energy usage between two vehicles.


S o me of the a d v an t a g e s of reg e n e r a t i v e b r a ki n g over
c o n v e n t i o n a l b r a ki n g a re a s f o l l ow s :
Energy Conservation:
T h e f l yw h e e l a b s o r b s e n e r g y w h e n b r a k i n g v i a a c l u t c h s ys t e m s l o w i n g
t h e c a r d o w n a n d s p e e d i n g u p t h e w h e e l . To a c c e l e r a t e , a n o t h e r c l u t c h
s ys t e m c o n n e c t s t h e f l yw h e e l t o t h e d r i v e t r a i n , s p e e d i n g u p t h e c a r a n d
s l o w i n g d o w n t h e f l yw h e e l . Energy is therefore conserved rather than
wasted as heat and light which is what normally happens in the
c o n t e m p o r a r y s h o e / d i s c s ys t e m .
Wea r R e d u c t i o n :
An electric drive train also allows for regenerative breaking which
increases Efficiency and reduces wear on the vehicle brakes. In
regenerative raking, when the motor is not receiving power from the
battery pack, it resists the turning of the wheels, capturing some of the
energy of motion as if it were a generator and returning that energy to
the battery pack. In mechanical brakes; lessening wear and extending
brake life is not possible. This reduces the use of use the brake.
Fuel Consumption:
The fuel consumption of the conventional vehicles and regenerative
b r a k i n g s ys t e m v e h i c l e s w a s e v a l u a t e d o v e r a c o u r s e o f v a r i o u s f i x e d
urban driving schedules. The results are compared as shown in figure.
R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s a y i n g t o i t s o w n e r, i t h a s b e e n
proved the regenerative braking is very fuel-efficient.
Braking is not total loss:
C o n v e n t i o n a l b r a k e s a p p l y f r i c t i o n t o c o n v e r t a v e h i c l e s k i n e t i c e n e r g y
into heat. In energy terms, therefore, braking is a total loss: once heat
is generated, it is very difficult to reuse. The regenerative braking
s ys t e m , h o w e v e r, s l o w s a v e h i c l e d o w n i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y.
CHAPTER 3 :REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM
.

A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture


and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be 'lost' to heat when braking.

The IMA operating principle

Honda's patented IMA concept is quite simple - use an efficient Otto


engine supplemented by an electric motor when additional power is
n e e d e d . Al s o r e f e r r e d t o a s a ' h yb r i d ' s ys t e m b e c a u s e i t u s e s t w o p o w e r
s o u r c e s , t h e I M A c o n c e p t a l l o w s t h e C i v i c H yb r i d t o u s e a s m a l l e r
gasoline engine without any significant loss in performance.

T h i s s ys t e m i s e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n
requires a significantly higher power than needed for cruising on a level
r o a d ( w h e r e v e h i c l e s s p e n d m o s t o f t h e i r t i m e ) . An e n g i n e m o r e
powerful than needed has to work under low load most of the time,
condition where its efficiency is lower than under high loads, thus
w o r s e n i n g t h e v e h i c l e ' s f u e l e c o n o m y..
The electric motor-generator positioned between the engine and
transmission assists the engine when accelerating and recovers energy to
store in batteries when braking or decelerating (regenerative braking),
allowing it to operate independently without the need for a grid power
s u p p l y.

W h e n t h e C i v i c H yb r i d i s c o a s t i n g o r i t s b r a k e s a r e a p p l i e d , i t s e l e c t r i c
m o t o r b e c o m e s a g e n e r a t o r, c o n v e r t i n g f o r w a r d m o m e n t u m ( k i n e t i c
e n e r g y) i n t o e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y, i n s t e a d o f w a s t i n g i t a s h e a t d u r i n g
conventional braking. Energy is stored in a battery pack located behind
t h e r e a r s e a t i n t h e t r u n k . I f t h e s t a t e o f c h a r g e o f t h e b a t t e r i e s i s l o w,
the motor-generator will also recharge them while the Civic Hybrid is
cruising.
CHAPTER 4: ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM

There are three basic element required which are necessary for the
working of regenerative braking system, these are :
1.Energy Storage Unit (ESU):
The ESU performs two primary functions
1.TO recover & store braking energy
2. TO absorb excess engine energy during light load operation
The selection criteria for an effective energy storage includes
1. High specific energy storage density
2. High energy transfer rate
3. Small space requirement
The energy recaptured by regenerative braking might be stored in one
of three devices: an electrochemical b a t t e r y, a f l yw h e e l , in a
regenerative fuel cell.

Regen and Batteries:

Wi t h t h i s s ys t e m , t h e e l e c t r i c m o t o r o f a c a r b e c o m e s a g e n e r a t o r w h e n
the brake pedal is applied. The kinetic energy of the car is used to
g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t i s t h e n u s e d t o r e c h a r g e t h e b a t t e r i e s . Wit h
t h i s s ys t e m , t r a d i t i o n a l f r i c t i o n b r a k e s m u s t a l s o b e u s e d t o e n s u r e t h a t
t h e c a r s l o w s d o w n a s m u c h a s n e c e s s a r y. T h u s , n o t a l l o f t h e k i n e t i c
energy of the car can be harnessed for the batteries because some of it
is "lost" to waste heat. Some energy is also lost to resistance as the
energy travels from the wheel and axle, through the drivetrain and
e l e c t r i c m o t o r, a n d i n t o t h e b a t t e r y. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e Toyo t a P r i u s c a n
o n l y r e c a p t u r e a b o u t 3 0 % o f t h e v e h i c l e s k i n e t i c e n e r g y.

The Honda Insight is another vehicle in addition to the Prius that is on


the market and currently uses regenerative braking. In the Insight there
are two deceleration modes: When the throttle is engaged, but the brake
p e d a l i s n o t , t h e v e h i c l e s l o w s d o w n g r a d u a l l y, a n d t h e b a t t e r y r e c e i v e s
a partial charge.

When the brake pedal is depressed, the battery receives a higher


c h a r g e , w h i c h s l o w s t h e v e h i c l e d o w n f a s t e r. T h e f u r t h e r t h e
brake pedal is depressed, the more the conventional friction
brakes are employed.

I n t h e I n s i g h t , t h e m o t o r / g e n e r a t o r p r o d u c e s AC , w h i c h i s c o n v e r t e d
into DC, which is then used to charge the Battery Module. The Insight,
a s w e l l a s a l l o t h e r r e g e n e r a t i v e s ys t e m s , m u s t h a v e a n e l e c t r i c
controller that regulates how much charge the battery receives and how
much the friction brakes are used.

Regen and Flywheels:

I n t h i s s ys t e m , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n a l e n e r g y o f t h e v e h i c l e i s t r a n s f e r r e d
i n t o r o t a t i o n a l e n e r g y i n t h e f l yw h e e l , w h i c h s t o r e s t h e e n e r g y u n t i l i t
i s n e e d e d t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e v e h i c l e . T h e b e n e f i t o f u s i n g f l yw h e e l
technology is that more of the forward inertial energy of the car can be
captured than in batteries, because the flywheel can be engaged even
during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration. In the
case of batteries, they are not able to accept charge at these rapid
i n t e r v a l s , a n d t h u s m o r e e n e r g y i s l o s t t o f r i c t i o n . An o t h e r a d v a n t a g e
of flywheel technology is that the additional power supplied by the
f l yw h e e l during acceleration substantially supplements the power
o u t p u t o f t h e s m a l l e n g i n e t h a t h yb r i d v e h i c l e s a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h .
2 . C o n t i n u o u s l y Var i a b l e Tra n s m i s s i o n ( C V T ) :

The energy storage unit requires a transmission that can handle


torque and speed demands in a steeples manner and smoothly control
energy flow to and from the vehicle wheels. F o r t h e f l yw h e e l t h e
continuously variable transmission and vehicle because flywheel
rotational speed increases when vehicle speed decreases and vice versa.
F l yw h e e l c a n w o r k w e l l w i t h e i t h e r m e c h a n i c a l o r h yd r o s t a t i c
continuously variable transmission.

3. Control System :
An ON-OFF engine control system is used. That means that the
engine is ON until the energy storage unit has been reached the
desired charge capacity and then is decoupled and stopped until the
energy storage unit charge fall below its minimum requirement.
C H A P T E R 5 : DESCRIPTION & OPERATION
How regenerative braking system works?
R e g e n e r a t i v e ( o r D yn a m i c B r a k i n g ) o c c u r s w h e n t h e v e h i c l e i s i n
motion, such as coasting, traveling downhill or braking. An d t h e
accelerator pedal is not being depressed. During Regent, the motor
becomes a generator and sends energy back to the batteries.
It is explained as follows, because the wheels of a decelerating
vehicle are still moving forward, they can be made to turn the electric
m o t o r, w h i c h t h e n f e e d s e n e r g y t o t h e b a t t e r i e s f o r s t o r a g e . T h e s ys t e m
b e c o m e s , i n e f f e c t , a g e n e r a t o r, w h i c h p r o v i d e s b r a k i n g f o r c e w h i l e i t
c o n v e r t s t h e v e h i c l e s k i n e t i c e n e r g y i n t o a r e u s a b l e f o r m - e l e c t r i c a l
e n e r g y.
When the accelerator pedal is released, the absence of pressure
triggers a response from the Energy Storage Unit (ESU). Regenerative
braking begins, and the batteries are re-charged by the motor, which is
turned by the wheels. In this case, the friction brakes are not engaged.
If more vigorous deceleration is required, and the brake pedal is
depressed, this engages both sets of brakes. H o w e v e r, t o m a x i m i z e
e n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y, i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o a p p l y t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k e a s
such as possible it therefore tends to do more of its total work in the
first part of the braking motion.
There are two deceleration modes:
1. Foot off throttle but not on brake pedal in this mode, the
charge/assist gauge will show partial charge, and the vehicle will slow
d o w n g r a d u a l l y.
2. Foot on brake pedal - In this mode, a higher amount of regeneration
w i l l b e a l l o w e d , a n d t h e v e h i c l e w i l l s l o w m o r e r a p i d l y. During light
brake pedal application, only the IMA motor//generator is slowing the
c a r. Wit h h e a v i e r b r a k e p e d a l a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f r i c t i o n
b r a k e s a l s o c o m e i n t o p l a y. W h e n d e c e l e r a t i n g , r e g e n e r a t i o n w i l l
c o n t i n u e u 8 n t i l e n g i n e s p e e d f a l l s t o a b o u t 1 0 0 0 r p m . At t h i s p o i n t , t h e
driver will typically shift into neutral.
EXAMPLE

Mercury Hybrid Mariner

1. Mercury Mariner Hybrid


P r o d u c t i o n P u l l a h e a d : P r o d u c t i o n b e g i n s a ye a r
ahead of schedule
Growing the Mercury Brand: New models and goals
Distinctive Design: Mariner features clean lines, careful
craftsmanship
P o w e r P l a y : F u l l - h yb r i d g a s o l i n e a n d e l e c t r i c p o w e r t r a i n
D yn a m i c C h a s s i s : N i m b l e h a n d l i n g a n d a s m o o t h , q u i e t r i d e
Distinguished Safety: Full array of safety features
Green Mission: Ford Motor Company's strategy for sustainability
in vehicles

T h e M e r c u r y M a r i n e r H yb r i d o f f e r s a u n i q u e l y s a t i s f yi n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
choice for an ever-increasing segment of the population concerned
about the environment. It's a stylish, upscale sport-utility vehicle with
nimble handling and impressive performance, as well as ample cargo
a n d t o w i n g c a p a c i t y. I n a d d i t i o n , i t ' s a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y c o n s c i o u s
SUV with remarkable fuel economy an estimated 33 miles per gallon
( m p g ) c i t y, 2 9 m p g h i g h w a y a n d i s e x p e c t e d t o m e e t t h e c l e a n e s t
emissions rating achievable by a fossil-fuel vehicle (California's
A d v a n c e d Tec h n o l o g y P a r t i a l Z e r o E m i s s i o n s Veh i c l e s t a n d a r d ) .
Engineers placed the additional hybrid powertrain components low and
t o t h e r e a r, t o l o w e r t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y a n d i m p r o v e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l
Mariner's front-rear weight distribution.

The rack-and-pinion steering is electrically assisted, rather than using


t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h yd r a u l i c s t e e r i n g p u m p f o r c o n s i s t e n t s t e e r i n g e f f o r t s
and control whether the gasoline engine is stopped or running.
Regenerative braking uses the traction motor to assist the four-wheel
disc brakes in slowing Mariner Hybrid while simultaneously generating
e l e c t r i c i t y f o r c h a r g i n g t h e b a t t e r y.

R e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g o f Toy o t a P r i u s :
Toyo t a r e a l i z e d t h a t o n e w a y t o a c h i e v e l o n g e r v e h i c l e r a n g e w a s
to conserve and reuse some of the energy that a vehicle normally loses
as heat caused by braking friction. This idea led engineers to apply the
principles of regenerative braking.
I n a l l Toy o t a v e h i c l e s t h a t f e a t u r e t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g
s ys t e m , t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k e i s o n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p a r t o f t h e
deceleration necessary to stop the vehicle. I n a n E V, t h i s f r a c t i o n i s
d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e v e h i c l e s s p e e d w h e n b r a k i n g i s i n i t i a t e d . The
r e m a i n i n g b r a k i n g f o r c e i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e v e h i c l e s f r i c t i o n b r a k e s .
To m a x i m i z e f u e l e c o n o m y, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g s ys t e m
is made to do as much of the braking work as possible.
C o m p o n e n t U s e d i n Toy o t a P r i u s f o r R e g e n e r a t i v e B r a k i n g S y s t e m :

Brake Pedal:
I t i s u s e d t o a p p l y b r a k i n g f o r c e b y t h e d r i v e r.
Hydraulic Booster Unit:
I t i s c o m p o s e d o f t h e m a s t e r c y l i n d e r a n d t h e r e g u l a t o r, r e s p o n d s i n
two steps. First it signals electronically to the brake ECU that braking
force has been demanded. Next, the master cylinder exerts hydraulic
pressure on the pedal stroke simulator, and the regulator feeds
h yd r a u l i c f l u i d t o t h e h yd r a u l i c p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t .
Brake ECU:
The brake ECU senses the braking demand and sends a fraction of this
demand to the THSECU for regenerative braking.
It also calculates the force necessary to fulfill remaining braking
demand and instruct the hydraulic pressure control unit to pass on a
corresponding amount of hydraulic fluid
Pedal Stroke Simulator:
I t a b s o r b s a n a m o u n t o f h yd r a u l i c p r e s s u r e f r o m m a s t e r c y l i n d e r t h a t
corresponds to the amount of braking force applied by the regenerative
braking system.
A s h yd r a u l i c p r e s s u r e i s f e d b a c k t o t h e p e d a l , t h e p e d a l , t h e
p e d a l s t r o k e s i m u l a t o r f e e d s b a c k t o t h e m a s t e r c yl i n d e r.

T H S ( Toy o t a H y b r i d S y s t e m ) E C U :
It induces regenerative braking, and returns a signal that indicates
braking force output back to the brake ECU.
Hydraulic Pressure Control Unit:
It passes on a corresponding amount of hydraulic fluid to a four way
c yl i n d e r.
C H A P T E R 6: R E S U LT
Regenerative braking technology is one more positive step
f o r w a r d i n Toyo t a s q u e s t t o r e a l i z e t h e u l t i m a t e e c o c a r. B y w o r k i n g i n
concert with previously developed electric motor technologies, its
application helps Toyo t a s electric vehicles and h yb r i d vehicles
(including the recently released prius) to achieve extended ranges and
t o b e f r i e n d l i e r t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . At t h e s a m e t i m e ,
this new technology remains unobtrusively in the background; drivers
b e n e f i t f r o m r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g w h i l e e n j o yi n g t h e s a m e f i r m b r a k i n g
feel found in conventionally equipped vehicles.

Wheel
Wheel A
Rotating Device. Rotating Device B
Shafts C.D.
Gearbox E
Clutch G
Spring - H
Shafts.

Gearbox Clutch Spring

7.1 Regenerative braking system using Nitinol Spring


A hydraulic regenerative braking system improves the fuel
economy of Ford's F-350 Tonka 25-35% during stop-and-
go driving. The system provides power during initial
acceleration when demand peaks.
T h e H L A s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f a r e v e r s i b l e h yd r a u l i c p u m p / m o t o r f r o m
Eaton's Fluid Power Group (Eden Prairie, MN) coupled to the drive
s h a f t t h r o u g h a c l u t c h a n d t w o a c c u m u l a t o r s . As t h e d r i v e r s t e p s o n t h e
brake, the pump/motor forces hydraulic fluid out of a low-pressure
a c c u m u l a t o r a n d i n t o a h i g h - p r e s s u r e a c c u m u l a t o r, i n c r e a s i n g t h e
pressure of nitrogen gas stored there to 5,000 psi.

D u r i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n , t h e H L A s ys t e m s w i t c h e s f r o m t h e p u m p m o d e t o
t h e m o t o r m o d e , t h e n i t r o g e n g a s f o r c e s t h e h yd r a u l i c f l u i d b a c k i n t o
t h e l o w - p r e s s u r e a c c u m u l a t o r, a n d t h e p u m p / m o t o r a p p l i e s t o r q u e t o t h e
driveshaft through the clutch. If quick acceleration is required, the F-
3 5 0 ' s d i e s e l e n g i n e w o r k s w i t h t h e H L A s ys t e m
T h e h y d r a u l i c l a u n c h a s s i s t s y s t e m i n t h e F - 3 5 0 Ton k a f u n c t i o n s a s a
secondary source of energy during peak power demand. It consists of a
low-pressure accumulator in blue, and a high-pressure accumulator in
r e d . T h e s y s t e m c a p t u r es e n e r g y n o r m a l l y d i s s i p a t e d a s h e a t d u r i n g
b r e a k i n g , s t o r es i t , a n d u s e s i t l a t e r d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p e a k p o w e r
demand.

Eighty percent of the initial kinetic energy is returned to the vehicle.


" T h e s y s t e m s t o r e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 8 0 k J o f e n e r g y," s a ys B r a d
Bohlmann, a mechanical engineer and business development
c o o r d i n a t o r i n Ad v a n c e d Tec h n o l o g y a t E a t o n ' s F l u i d P o w e r G r o u p .
" Wi t h t h a t m u c h e n e r g y, w e c a n a c c e l e r a t e a 1 0 , 0 0 0 - l b v e h i c l e f r o m a
dead stop to between 25 and 30 miles per hour with no assistance from
the vehicle's combustion engine."

"Ford thinks that both electric and hydraulic regenerative systems have
a f u t u r e , " s a ys J o h n B r e v i c k , a F o r d m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r w o r k i n g o n
the HLA system. "But for heavy vehicles like our 10,000-lb F-350
trucks, hydraulics are better at capturing lost energy than electric
s ys t e m s . "

Eaton's Bohlmann explains that the real advantage of hydraulics is in


i t s p o w e r d e n s i t y. " H y d r a u l i c s i s c a p a b l e o f t r a n s f e r r i n g e n e r g y v e r y
q u i c k l y," s a ys B o h l m a n n . " T h e r a t e o f e n e r g y t r a n s f e r i s i n a h y b r i d
e l e c t r i c s ys t e m o f a s i m i l a r s i z e i s m u c h l o w e r."

Bohlmann adds that the specific vocation or driving cycle of the


v e h i c l e d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r a h y b r i d h yd r a u l i c o r h yb r i d e l e c t r i c s y s t e m
is best suited for the vehicle. "Think of hydraulics as a sprinter,
p r o v i d i n g f a s t b u r s t s o f p o w e r," h e s a ys . " A n e l e c t r i c h yb r i d i s m o r e
l i k e a m a r a t h o n r u n n e r."

" T h e c h a l l e n g e n o w i s t o m a k e u s e o f t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e b r a k i n g s ys t e m
s e a m l e s s t o t h e c u s t o m e r ," s a y s F o r d ' s B r e v i c k . " We s t i l l h a v e r o o m f o r
i m p r o v e m e n t s a n d f e e l t h e H L A s ys t e m h a s a l o t o f p o t e n t i a l . "

As for the future, Ford, Eaton, and the U.S. Environmental Protection
A g e n c y ( E PA) a r e j o i n t l y c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h o n h y d r a u l i c h yb r i d
vehicles, including internal combustion engines that would produce
h yd r a u l i c p r e s s u r e t o d r i v e t h e v e h i c l e . E a t o n s i g n e d b o t h a t e c h n o l o g y
license agreement and a cooperative research and development
a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e E PA f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n
s ys t e m s .

Inertia, Force and Mass


E v e r yt h i n g h a s i n e r t i a ; i f i t h a s a m a s s , i t h a s i n e r t i a . A h y b r i d
r e c l a i m s e n e r g y t h r o u g h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f p h ys i c s . D o yo u r e m e m b e r
any high school or college physics?

You a p p l y a f o r c e t o m o v e a n o b j e c t . T h e e q u a t i o n f o r t h i s i s :

F=ma
F being the force, m being the mass and
a being the acceleration

The faster you want an object to accelerate, the more force you have to
a p p l y.

L e t s j u s t l o o k a t t h e e l e c t r i c m o t o r f o r n o w. E n e r g y f r o m t h e b a t t e r y
( Wat t s ) i s a p p l i e d t o t h e c o i l w i n d i n g s i n t h e m o t o r. T h e s e w i n d i n g s
then produce a magnetic force on the rotor of the motor, which
produces torque on the output shaft. This torque is then applied to the
wheels of the car via a coupling of gears and shafts. When the wheel
turns, it applies a force to the ground, which due to friction between
the wheel and the ground causes the vehicle to move along the surface.
T h i s i s l i k e i f yo u w e r e i n a b o a t a t a d o c k , a n d y o u g r a b b e d t h e d o c k
a n d p u s h e d w i t h yo u r a r m . T h e f o r c e y o u a r e g e n e r a t i n g i s m o v i n g t h e
b o a t r e l a t i v e t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e d o c k . T h e m o r e f o r c e y o u a p p l y, t h e
f a s t yo u g e t t h e b o a t t o m o v e .

Friction in Hybrids
T h e r e i s f r i c t i o n e v e r yw h e r e i n t h e h y b r i d s ys t e m . T h e r e i s e l e c t r i c a l
friction between the atoms and electrons moving in the wires between
the battery and the motor and through the motor itself. There is
magnetic friction in the metal laminations that make up the magnetic
circuit of the motor, as well as in the magnets again on the atomic
level. Then, there is mechanical friction between every moving part,
s u c h a s t h e b e a r i n g s , s e a l s , g e a r s , c h a i n s a n d s o o n . T h e b y- p r o d u c t o f
f r i c t i o n i s h e a t . Tak e y o u r h a n d s r u b t h e m t o g e t h e r a n d yo u r p a l m s g e t
w a r m . T h e f a s t e r y o u d o i t , t h e f a s t e r t h e y h e a t u p . Al s o , t h e h a r d e r
they are pressed together, the faster they will heat. Friction is energy
lost to heat. When all of these losses are added up, that is what
determines the efficiency of the vehicle.

Frictional Losses in Conventional Cars


A standard car generates torque to move the wheels to drive the vehicle
down the road. During this time, it is generating friction and losses.
W h e n yo u a p p l y s t a n d a r d b r a k e s , i t i s j u s t a n o t h e r f r i c t i o n d e v i c e t h a t
has specially designed material to handle the heat from friction, which
is applied to the drums and rotors that stop the wheel from turning. The
friction between the wheel and the ground stops the vehicle. This
standard vehicle has frictional losses to move the vehicleand uses the
f u n d a m e n t a l b e h i n d f r i c t i o n a l l o s s e s t o s t o p t h e v e h i c l e . S o i t s a l o s e -
lose situation.

Tra n s f e r r i n g Tor q u e B a c k t o t h e M o t o r
This inertia is the fundamental property of physics that is used to
reclaim energy from the vehicle. Instead of using 100% of the
foundation brakes of the vehicle, which are the friction brakes, we now
let the linkages back to the motor such as the drive shafts, chains, and
gears transfer the torque from the wheels back into the motor shaft.
One of the unique things about most electric motors is that electrical
energy can be transferred into mechanical energy and also mechanical
e n e r g y c a n b e t r a n s f e r r e d b a c k i n t o e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y. I n b o t h c a s e s ,
t h i s c a n b e d o n e v e r y e f f i c i e n t l y.

T h u s , t h r o u g h t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e m o t o r a n d m o t o r c o n t r o l l e r, t h e
force at the wheels becomes torque on the electric motor shaft. The
magnets on the shaft of the motor (called the rotorthe moving part of
the motor) move past the electric coils on the stator (the stationary part
of the motor) passing the magnetic fields of the magnets through the
c o i l s p r o d u c i n g e l e c t r i c i t y. T h i s e l e c t r i c i t y b e c o m e s e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g y,
w h i c h i s p u m p e d b a c k t o t h e b a t t e r y. T h i s , i n t u r n , c h a r g e s t h e h yb r i d
battery pack. This is where the comment regeneration or reclaiming
e n e r g y c o m e s f r o m .

T h a t i s t h e b a s i c s o f h o w r e g e n e r a t i o n w o r k s . H o w m u c h e n e r g y yo u
can reclaim depends on a lot of factors. There are different
regeneration theories and designs, which fall into two groups: one
being called parallel regen and the other called series regen, which are
d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p a r a l l e l a n d s e r i e s h yb r i d s . T h e s e r e g e n g r o u p s
strictly are design topologies for braking systems. It also matters how
m a n y w h e e l s y o u a r e u s i n g t o r e c l a i m e n e r g y. M o s t v e h i c l e s t o d a t e a r e
front wheel drive so you can only reclaim energy from the front
wheels. The back wheels still waste energy to standard friction brakes
u n l e s s t h e y a r e s o m e h o w c o n n e c t e d b a c k t o t h e e l e c t r i c m o t o r. T h e
o t h e r f a c t o r i s b a t t e r y s t a t e o f c h a r g e a n d h o w h a r d c a n yo u d r i v e t h a t
e n e r g y b a c k i n t o t h e b a t t e r y.
C H A P T E R 7: CONCLUSION

Theoretical investigations of a regenerative braking system show about


25% saving in fuel consumption.
The lower operating and environment costs of a vehicle with
regenerative braking system should make it more attractive than a
conventional one. The traditional cost of the s ys t e m could be
r e c o v e r e d i n t h e f e w y e a r s o n l y.
The exhaust emission of vehicle using the regenerative braking concept
would be much less than equivalent conventional vehicles as less fuel
are used for consumption.
These systems are particularly suitable in developing countries such as
India where buses are the preferred means of transportation within the
cities.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 ) G e n e r a l M o t o r s Web s i t e ( w w w .g m . c o m ) .
2 ) w w w .s a e . o r g
3 ) w w w .g o o g l e . c o m