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Job Competence Coaching & Development

Project

**************

ELECTRICAL
Training Module

TOTALFINAELF E&P INDONESIE


1999/2000/2001
JCCD TRAINING Module Code:CE02
MODULE INFORMATION

Course Title Electrical Habilitation (C18 510)


JCCD Course Code CE 02
Module Refer to modules contents herebelow

(8 Chapters)

Course level Basic Intermediate Advanced

Presentation time 8 Hours

Resource Alstom course + others

Location On site or BPN

Audio Visual Equipt Slide projector

Modules Objective Be aware of the dangers of electricity, know the classification of


personnel and their authorisation through the C18510 contents,
major safety rules/procedures, and first actions to do in case of
electrical accident.
Modules contents 1. Introduction to publication UTE C18-510
(Chapter, Sub- 2. The danger of Electricity
Chapter, etc) 3. Contents of C18-510 publication
4. Safety Measures in General
5. Safety during Low Voltage operations
6. Safety during Measuring operations
7. Movable electrical equipment
8. What to do in case of an Electrical accident

Module information1 10-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION TO PUBLICATION UTE C18-510

2. THE DANGERS OF ELECTRICITY

3. CONTENTS OF C18-510 PUBLICATION

- Nature of Operations
- Authorisation of Personnel
- Electrical Environment Areas

4. SAFETY MEASURES IN GENERAL

5. SAFETY DURING LOW VOLTAGE OPERATIONS

6. SAFETY DURING MEASURING OPERATIONS

7. MOVABLE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

8. WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF AN ELECTRICAL ACCIDENT

C18510-1 1/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

1. INTRODUCTION TO PUBLICATION UTE C18-510

We will come back in the Chapter 3 on the contents and main rules of this Publication.

We will see the different types of Operations, which require the certification of the Electrical
or non-Electrical personnel who will carry-out the relevant tasks at different levels.

The objective of this one day training session is mainly to highlight the
dangers of electricity and corresponding safety measures regards of the
personnel and regards of the equipment.

C18510-1 2/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Procedure
For all

The publication UTE C18 510


Why?
The prescription of the UTE C18 510 is established to ensure security of
persons and property against electrical risks. This publication is valid for all
companies, public, private and for ESB (Electricity Supply Board).

To ensure safety of persons and property against electrical risks.

For users, all persons of public or private enterprises;


Using or putting to use, electrical energy, or working in an environment or in proximity
of electricity.

It concerns all jobs on:


Industrial or tertiary installations: switchboard, motor, machine tools,
lighting...
Production, transport, distribution, and network, HV lines, rail catenary
and public lighting....

Industrial and tertiary installations Public jobs on production, transport, distribution


and network

It obliges employers to train all persons concerned

CE02-1-page 3
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

2. THE DANGERS OF ELECTRICITY

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Define the dangers involved in Electricity


! Review the effects of the Electrical current on the human body
! Knows about direct contact/indirect contact

C18510-1 3/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

2.1) GENERALITIES:

Electricity helps in many ways to improve daily life for all of us, at home and at work.

However, electricity is dangerous and causes many accidents which kill around 200 people
every year in France only.

Most of these accidents are due to carelessness, ignorance or negligence.

While qualified electricians would seem to be the ones most exposed to these dangers,
many serious accidents involve non-electricians personnel such as: painters, bricklayers,
joiners, cleaners, etc

WE CAN NEVER TAKE ANYTHING FOR GRANTED AS REGARDS OF SAFETY.


EVERYONE MUST WORK TO ENSURE THAT THE NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS
CONTINUE TO DECREASE.

USE VIDEO CASSETTE FROM ALSTOM AND HAVE GROUP SESSION EXERCISE
(Analyse the cause of the accident, the consequences, the remedies).
FOR ELECTRICIANS
Case 1: Insulation Fault on a Switchboard
Case 2: Working on a cable tray near live non-protected cables
Case 3: Repairing a Protection (replacing a fuse)
Case 4: Use of non-insulated tools during operation with voltage
FOR NON-ELECTRICIANS
The objective of this exercise is to identify the risks connected with non-electrical works in an
electrical environment.

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

2.2) THE DANGERS INVOLVED IN ELECTRICITY:

Electricity involves the following risks:

- the passage of current through the human body


- the projection of matter in fusion as a result of a short circuit
- various risks such as machines starting up unexpectedly.

2.2.1) The passage of Current through the Human body

Electrification is an electric shock that does not kill, whereas electrocution is fatal.

Electrical current passing through the human body causes contractions and internal or
superficial burns which increase with the voltage.

C18510-1 4/28 09-04-01


CE02-2-page 6.doc
C18-510 Introduction
For all

2. Electrical risks on a site

Electrocution

- Is the cause of many


deaths per year in the
world.

- More than half of


them are work accident
and particularly in LV

ALL CPW professions


and associated
professions are at
risks Electric shock

- an innumerable amount of accidents

- several months or even years after


complications can arise

CPW: CONSTRUCTION
PUBLIC
WORK

CE02-2-page 7
C18-510 Non-electrician
For all

Safety
Risks

Plans of underground
cable lines

Risks of contact :
Example : contact between digger and cable.

Provisions to take :
Preparation of work : read the pans of underground cable lines and check
the depth. Digger should be earthed. In case of contact, the current will be
evacuated to the earth.
A work supervisor is present (2 in case of HV). He watches that tigger does
not pass the MDA and supervises respect of safety distances in the air and
underground.

CE02-2-page 8
HAND-OUT CE 02

2.2.2) The consequences of a short circuit

A short circuit is generally the result of a metal part coming into contact with two bare live
conductive components.

The consequences increase in seriousness with the power of the supply source.

2.2.3) Other Risks

Electricity can involve other dangers such as ill-timed starts of machines, fire, explosions,
etc

2.3) SOME EFFECTS OF THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT ON THE HUMAN BODY:

If the current applied is very low (a few volts) you feel a tingling sensation (i.e. a 4.5 volts
battery on the tongue).

With voltage of tens of volts, the intensity of the current increases and reaches a point called
the non-release threshold. The person loses control of his muscles, which contract. The
body may then be either ejected or bonded. If the current does not exceed a few hundred
volts, the brain will normally regain control of the muscles once the current is off.

If the current reaches thousands of volts, as well as the phenomena described above,
internal burns will irreversibly destroy body tissue.

If an electrical current passes through the skull or the chest, breathing may stop.

But once the current is off, breathing does not systematically restart. It is therefore
necessary to intervene very quickly to help the person in distress by administering artificial
respiration while waiting for aid.

" Even relatively low voltages may stop breathing. An example in abattoirs, animals are
stunned (make unconscious) before to be killed for their meat with a voltage of around 90
volts.

The Heart. In an electrical accident, cardiac arrest may occur in the following
circumstances:
- If breathing stops:
" the heart will stop beating after a few minutes through a lack of oxigen.

- If the current passes through or around the heart:


" in the cardiac cycle of 0.7 seconds, there is a period of about a tenth of a second during
which the heart is very vulnerable. An electrical shock at this precise moment may cause
fibrillation (the uncoordinated contraction of heart muscle fibres).

The probability of a fatal outcome after brief contact with bare live components is the
same as that of Russian roulette.

C18510-1 5/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

2.4) ELECTRIC SHOCKS:

Electrocution can occur either by direct contact or indirect contact.

2.4.1) Direct contact

This is a contact with active conductors or conductive components, which are normally live.

Example:
- touching a set of bars in a switchboard
- touching a power line with a carbon fibre fishing rod

The safety regulations oblige us to use one of the following measures to avoid the risk of
direct contact in normal working circumstances:

- distance

- putting an obstacle in the way

- functional insulation.

(refer to support document enclosed hereafter for more details)

There will be a risk of electrocution by direct contact if one of these measures is


removed or damaged.

2.4.2) Indirect contact

Indirect contact is a contact with an exposed conductive part which has accidentally been
live by faulty insulation.

Example:
- contact with the cover plate of a drill which is live because of an internal insulation
fault.

The regulations provide for many ways of protecting workers and users against this type of
risk.
" Fixed installations are governed by standards, thereby ensuring safety for the user.

" The problem with portable equipment is different, because depending on the way they
are used and connected up, it is much easier to damage or remove built-in safety
features and open the way for an electric shock if there is a fault.

Anyone who uses portable equipment must therefore know a minimum of rules governing
the choice, connection and use of this equipment in order to be able to work in complete
safety.

(refer to support document enclosed hereafter for more details)

C18510-1 6/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Introduction
For all

4. Consequences of electric shock

Metal piping-------- Embedded live___


electric conduits

Suspended
Live metallic
element___
Metallic
gangway

CE02-2-page 11
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Consequence on the individual

- Thermal effect burns

- Cardiac and pulmonary problems

- Problems with organs :

- eyes

- kidneys

- brain

Consequences on the resulting from passage of current: internal and


external burns or varying degrees long term cardiac trouble, problems with
affected organs: eyes, liver, kidneys, brain.

CE02-2-page 12
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Consequence on the individual

For Personal notes:

CE02-2-page 13
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Zone 1: Usually no reaction


Zone 2: Usually no dangerous reaction
Zone 3: Non-fatal physiopathological effects
Zone 4: Probable ventricular fibrillation

ZONE 1: usually no reaction

ZONE 2: usually no dangerous physiopathological effect

ZONE 3: non-fatal physiopathological effects usually reversible,


(increasing according to intensity of current and length of contact) such as
permanent muscular contraction, respiratory problems, high blood
pressure, disturbances in formation and propagation of heart beat including
arterial fibrillation and temporary arrest, without ventricular fibrillation.

ZONE 4: probable ventricular fibrillation, physiopathological effects


(increasing according to intensity of current and length of contact) such as
cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and major burns.

CE02-2-page 14
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Consequences on material

Destruction of material
Destruction of tools
Destruction of instruments
Destruction of machines, motors, etc

CE02-2-page 15
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Consequences on installation

Destruction of installations :
Workshop, factory
Compensation to clients.

CE02-2-page 16
CE02-2-page 17.doc
CE02-2-page 18.doc
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

3. CONTENTS OF C18-510 PUBLICATION

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Identify different types of works/interventions


! Review the 3 areas defined by C18-510
! Identify the types of voltages
! Identify the level of operations
! Identify the nature of operations
! Knows about authorisation of Electricians
! Knows about authorisation of Non-Electricians
! Review some definitions

C18510-1 7/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

3.1) OPERATIONS CARRIED-OUT ON OR IN THE VICINITY OF ELECTRICAL


FACILITIES

Electricians and non-Electricians are called upon to carry-out a number of operations on or in


the vicinity of an electrical facility.

3.1.1) INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT OPERATIONS

There are 3 main categories of operations:

- Emergency operations: # These may be carried-out by any persons.

- Process operations: # These are carried-out by designated personnel. If they are


carried-out in a safe area, the person concerned will also need access authorisation.

- Safety operations: # These operations are designed to make an installation or piece


of equipment safe before work is done on it. A safety operation can only be carried-out
by a designated person with specific authorization.

3.1.2) WORK AND INTERVENTIONS

a) Work:

All work is prepared and planned, taking account of safety regulations.

We can distinguish between :

- Electrical work:
This involves the operating parts of the equipment or installation and requires at least
elementary training in electricity.

- Non-electrical work:
This involves the parts of the facility not directly concerned in electrical operation (painting,
cleaning, wall drilling,).
In general, this work is carried-out in the vicinity of electrical facilities.

b) Interventions:

These are short operations aimed at correcting a fault in the shorter time. This generally
involves breakdown repair work by qualified, authorised electricians.

TRAINING AND AUTHORISATION ENABLES THE EMPLOYER TO DELIVER


AN ELECTRICAL AUTHORISATION CERTIFICATE WHICH DEFINES:
- Who can do what?
- Who can go where?

C18510-1 8/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

3.2) AUTHORISATION OF PERSONNEL

3.2.1) General:

Having authorisation means having your employers recognition that you are competent to
carry-out the jobs assigned to you in complete safety.

In order to be authorised, the personnel member has to have had some training on the
prevention of electrical risks be aware of the instructions which will enable him to take care
of his own safety and that of the personnel under his control.

The training is in 2 parts:

- theoretical training about electrical risks and how to prevent them,

- practical training in the area of work of the course member.

Authorisation does not mean that holder is authorised to carry-out on his own initiative the
operations for which he has been authorised. He still has to be designated to carry-out
these operations by his immediate hierarchy.

In special case of personnel made available by temporary employment agencies


(contractors), authorisation is given by the senior manager of the User company.

The authorisation certificate is a document signed by the holder and the employer.

On the certificate are marked:

- the level of authorisation

- the voltage range

- the facilities involved

- special authorisations or prohibitions.

A receipt must be signed when the certificate and regulations book are handed-over to the
person.

3.2.2) The Areas defined by the C18-510

" There are 3 main Domains

1. The type of Voltage


2. Level of operations according to categories of personnel
3. The nature of the operations

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

C18510-1 9/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Procedure
For all

The areas defined by the 510

The three domains defined by the 510 are:

1 The types of voltage


(high and low voltage)

Level of operations according to


2 categories of personnel

3 The nature of the operations


(works and interventions)

CE02-3-page 22
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Types of voltage
Up to From 50 V Over
50 V to 1000 V 1000 V

VLV LV HV

L H

Very low voltage Low voltage High voltage

Alternating (AC) Continuous (direct: DC)


=
HVB HVB
50 000 V 75 000 V

HVA HVA
1000 V 1500 V

LVB LVB
500 V 750 V

LVA LVA
50 V 120 V
VLV VLV
0V 0V

CE02-3-page 23
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Level of operations (some definitions)

The non-electrician:

He is in a situation where the electrical risks have been eliminated. He


carries out or directs non-electrical works. He may have to work in an
environment of exposed live element, at a distance greater than the LDP. In
these conditions, and after being informed of the environment, he becomes
responsible for his own safety. In some cases he may have to work in the
proximity of exposed live elements. These elements should be protected by
insulators and the work area cordoned off by person in charge of works.

The electrician:
He carries out low voltage works by order.
He should ensure his own safety.

The person in charge of works and tests:


He carries out works and tests or has them carried out. He should ensure
his own and others' safety.

The person in charge of lock procedure:


He carries out lock procedure or has it carried out. He should ensure his
own and others' safety.

The person in charge of requisitioning:


He carries out electrical or other tests after lock off by himself, the device
being supplied by an auxiliary source.

The person in charge of interventions:


He carries out interventions with or without voltage or has them carried out.
He ensures his own and others' safety according to his enabling certificate.
He may also carry out lock off for himself.

CE02-3-page 24
C18-510 Procedure
For all

The person who grants enabling certificate:


He is delegated by the head of department to grant, to concerned
personnel after training, (outside training for works with voltage and for part-
time workers) according to their level of acquisitions and the tasks to be
carried out, an enabling certificate.

Cleaning personnel:
They carry out cleaning jobs on live equipment.

Person in charge of cleaning:


He carries out cleaning jobs on live instruments or has them carried out. He
should ensure his own and others' safety.

Non-Electrician
Person in charge of works
Electrician

Person in charge of Person who grants enabling


Person in charge of lock off
interventions certificate

CE02-3-page 25
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Nature of operations

Are:

Works without voltage


Interventions with or without voltage
Works with voltage
Manoeuvres
Measurement
Tests
Verifications

Live
Major works Dead
Low voltage or high voltage

Live
Interventions in low voltage Dead

Lock off
Manoeuvres Operation
Emergency

Test
Others Measurement

CE02-3-page 26
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Works without voltage Intervention with voltage

Manoeuvre of lock off Manoeuvre of exploitation Emergency manoeuvres

Authorised person who Authorised or non authorised


carries out isolation and By any person present on
person
locking off during lock off the site

CE02-3-page 27
HAND-OUT CE 02

3.2.3) Authorisation of Electricians:

There are 4 types of Electrician personnel:

- THE DECOMMISSIONING SUPERVISOR (or Person in charge of lock off


procedure) # (LC authorisation)

He is in charge of making the facilities safe.


He issues a signed written document stating that the facility has been made safe:
. a decommissioning certificate (given to an electrical works Supervisor).

. or a work authorisation (given to the general Supervisor responsible for non-electrical


work).
He only allows the current to be switched back once he has received notification that the
work has been completed.

- THE WORKS SUPERVISOR # (L2 authorisation)

He directs the work. He takes the necessary measures to ensure his own safety and that of
the personnel under his control.

The people working under his control may be electricians or non-electricians.

- THE ELECTRICAL INTERVENTION SUPERVISOR # (LR authorisation)

This person is authorised to work in proximity to live parts.

- He directs operations and can take part himself,

- takes care of his own safety and that of the personnel under his control,

- makes sure that safety measures are complied with and supervises the personnel
under his control.

- THE EXECUTING ELECTRICIAN # (L1/H1 authorisation)

He will always follow the instructions of a works or Electrical interventions supervisor.

This person acts on verbal instructions and has to take care of his own safety. He can:

- enter areas restricted to electricians, unsupervised,

- carry-out electrical or non-electrical works,

- carry-out operations in an environment with live parts,

- carry-out process operations when instructed to do so.

C18510-1 10/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

The electrician is part of a team led by a work supervisor. He can work ALONE in LV
environments already made safe, once he has received full instructions from his works
supervisor or interventions supervisor.

3.2.4) Authorisation of non-electricians:

The non-electrician will received L0 and/or H0 authorisation if he has to work in areas


restricted to electricians to carry-out or follow non-electrical work.

If he has to approach live parts and enter into the proximity area, he will have L0V and/or
H0V authorisation.

This person may:

- enter areas restricted to electricians unsupervised,

- carry-out or direct NON-electrical works,

- carry-out permitted operations.

In LV environments, he must not have contact with live parts.

In HV environments, he must not go beyond the minimum approach clearance.

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

3.2.5) Some definitions:

3.2.5.1) Electrical decommissioning of an installation

Decommissioning of an installation is a set of operations designed to ensure that personnel


and equipment are protected against the consequences should the current be left on or
come back on by accident.

3.2.5.2) Taking Isolation or Disconnection appliances out of service

Taking appliances out of services means carrying out the operations required to:

" put it and keep it in a fixed position (open or closed)


" prevent any operation by locking (key or padlock)
" posting a notice that the apparatus must not be operated

3.2.5.3) Isolation

This is a basic safety function. As work and repairs have to be carried-out with the
current off, it is mandatory and vital to know that the equipment has been properly cut
off from its power supply. Electrical apparatus should have an in-built isolation function to
guarentee separation. The function is provided by devices such as:

C18510-1 11/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Non-electrician
For all

Levels of authorisation for non-electricians

Authorisations LO and HO

Level "O" allows work in a situation where electrical risks have been
eliminated.

A person authorised "O" can work in an environment of exposed live


elements, but a distance greater than LDP.

He carries out or directs non-electrical works.

He may do the job of works supervisor.

Authorisations LOV and HOV

A person authorised "OV" may carry out works in the proximity of


exposed live elements, provided he is continuously supervised by an
authorised person (level 2).

CE02-3-page 30
C18-510 Non-electrician
For all

HO
HO HOV

Repairing a skab

LV Switch board LOV

Locked-off

L0

CE02-3-page 31
C18-510 Procedure
For all

The authorisation certificate and its symbols

1) IT is personal

2) It confers a certain responsibility to the holder

3) It fixes the areas of operation by symbols

4) Its validity is temporary (1 year maximum)

5) It is not a work permit

H
L
Types of voltage

2
1
0
Level of operations N
V
T
R
C
Nature of operations

CE02-3-page 32
C18-510 Procedure
For all

The authorisation certificate:

The symbols are:

The first symbol is a letter indicating the nature of the job:

L for low voltage and H for high voltage

The second symbol is a figure that classes the categories of personnel in


situations:

0 worker :
Electrical risks have been eliminated

1 electrician :
Works by order. He is responsible for his own safety.

2 Person in charge :
Carries out works and tests or has them carried out.
Takes measures to ensure his own and others' safety.

The third symbol is a letter indicating the type of the intervention:

C lock off procedure, including requisitioning


R intervention
V proximity
T with voltage
N cleaning with voltage

CE02-3-page 33
C18-510 Procedure
For all

LO
L1

LO LOV

Work without voltage Proximity work

LO L1 L2 LC LOV L1V L2V


HO H1 H2 HC HOV HIV H2V

Work with voltage Interventions

L1T L2T L1N L2N


H1T H2T H1N H2N

CE02-3-page 34
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Levels Types Nature of


of operation of voltage operations
Major works Intervention of
LV type
Dead Live

Non-electrician L0/HO

Executing electrician/interventions L1/H1 L1T/H1T L1R

Persons in charge of interventions/test L1R

Person in charge of lock off LC/HC L2T/H2T


procedure/requisitioning

Cleaner of live elements L1N/H1N

Person in charge cleaning live elements L2N/H2N

CE02-3-page 35
HAND-OUT CE 02

- visible cut-off switches,


- a pull-out circuit breaker and a fixed circuit breaker, as defined by the manufacturer,
- an isolation switch,
- a fused isolation switch,
- a plug
- etc.

Note: The emergency stop devices made compulsory by the regulations for certain types of
machines do not carry out control or isolation functions. Emergency stop devices can
be used by authorised or non-authorised personnel as part of emergency operations
procedures.

3.2.5.4) Identification and marking

In order to avoid errors or mistakes, the equipment on which a personnel member will be
called upon to work must be clearly identified and marked (tag number). This information
should appear on diagrams when such documents are given to the personnel member in
question.

3.2.5.5) People who may receive authorisation

General:
- AUTHORISATION is the employers RECOGNITION of a persons ABILITY to carry-
out his assigned duties SAFELY.

- In order to be authorised, the person MUST HAVE RECEIVED TRAINING IN THE


PREVENTION OF ELECTRICAL RISKS and have the instructions that will enable him
to take care of his own safety.

3.3) ELECTRICAL ENVIRONMENT AREAS

3.3.1) In Industrial Installations:

In Industrial installations, workers frequently come close to bare live parts, for instance when
they enter an area containing bare live parts on a chassis.

3.3.1.1) Low Voltage:

There are 2 areas:


- An area 4 extending from 0 to 30 cm from the bare live parts. To enter this area, you
have to be authorised and have authorisation to work in bare live parts proximity.

- An area 1 extending from 30 cm to the walls of the room: Access to this area is
restricted to authorised personnel.

Note: If an electrician opens a switchboard in a workshop, area 1 extends from 30 cm to 3 m


from the bare live parts.
If the electrician goes away, then he has either to close the switchboard or put DANGER
markers and install cordon.

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

C18510-1 12/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

3.3.1.2) High Voltage:

In high voltage environment there is a risk of a discharge even if the bare live parts are not
touched.
This is why there is a minimum approach distance forming the border of area 3 into which
it is strictly forbidden to go.

An example for a 20,000 volt installation:

- the distance is 0.60 meter,

- there is an area 2, called the proximity area, extending from 0.60 m to 2 m. Access
to this area is restricted to personnel with authorisation to work in bare live parts
proximity.

- beyond this area, as far as the walls of the room, access is restricted to authorised
personnel (area 1).

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

Four terms are used:

Contact
MDA = Minimum Distance of Approach
LDP = Limited Distance of Proximity
Environment = Defined Zone (premises or access area reserved for electricians only)

(refer to support documents enclosed hereafter for more details)

C18510-1 13/28 09-04-01


CE02-3-page 38.doc
CE02-3-page 39.doc
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Electrical environment areas


Contact

MDA
Minimum distance
Of approach
Exposed
live
eternent
LDP
MDA
Limited distance of proximity
LD

Environment Environment
Defined zone
(premises or access area
reserved for electricians only)

Contact
(switchboard with voltage)

CE02-3-page 40
C18-510 Procedure
For all

Electrical distribution HV LV station


Rural distribution HV LV Station

Environment Proximity LV Contact or assimilated LV


MDA cordoned off = LDP Distance < 30cm

HV LV
Environment HV wire Contact
Above 3 or 5 metres Distance < MDA
from exposed live elements

Proximity
In the proximity zone
between MDA (0.60m -
2.50m) and LDP
(3m or 5m) for CPW

HV

CE02-3-page 41
C18-510 Introduction
For all

3.5. Distances defined by the 510

Contact

30 cms

MDA = LDP

MDA : minimum distance of


approach

LDP : limited distance of


proximity

Exposed live element

They define the areas of works and interventions, which are said to be in
the proximity.
They are determined according to voltage.
They concern work carried out by an enabled persons supervised by
an enabled persons

CE02-3-page 42
C18-510 Introduction
For all

MDA LDP
Examples

20 kV

Contact Proximity Environment


0,60
3m

MDA LDP

400 kV

Contact Proximity Environment


2,5m
5m

MDA : minimum distance of approach

LDP : limited distance od proxility

Distances in high voltage


CPW, buildings, and non-materialised zones

Personnel working in the proximity:


Should be under supervision of the person in charge of works, or supervised
during interventions on live elements. In situations where risk is not eliminated,
these workers are not responsible for electrical security.
However, these workers are responsible for their own safety outside of the
above interventions but remaining in an electrical environment (i.e. areas where
electrical risks may occur).

CE02-3-page 43
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

4. SAFETY MEASURES IN GENERAL

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Be aware of the safety measures/procedures when working in


electrical environment

C18510-1 14/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

4) Work Organisation

Non-electrical workers may be called upon to work in several different situations:

4.1) Working alone in restricted areas on small jobs

This will be occur frequently.

Examples:
- inspection staff on their rounds
- personnel taking readings in technical rooms
- outside craftmen

The person concerned must be designated and authorised. He will take care of his own
safety in compliance with the regulations.

4.2) Working near electrical boards

Before starting any non-electrical work, you must make sure the board doors are firmly
closed.
You may find that doors or covers have been left open, in domestic installations.
During the work, do not put any tools on the cabinets. They may be forgotten and fall onto
bare live parts when an electrician opens the door or remove the cover.

If the doors have to stay open (for example, if an electrician is at work), you must pay
particular attention to:
- very long objects
- metallic measuring tape
- stray tools,

and stay more than 30cm away from any bare live parts.

During work such as arc welding or grinding, adequate safety measures should be taken
against flying particles in fusion.

Water and electricity form a dangerous mixture, so if the work involves high pressure
cleaning, do not spray water directly onto electrical equipment.

the cabinets must not be used for storing tools or other equipment.

4.3) Working near Batteries

The batteries terminals are not always covered. There is therefore a risk of direct contact
and short circuits.
Also, gaseous emissions may make the atmosphere explosive (case of Nicad batteries), if
the room is badly ventilated. It is therefore forbidden to enter while smoking, or with an
electrical equipment that may cause sparks.

You should be very careful of acid splashes which may cause serious accidents, particularly
to the eyes.
Do not go into the room with very long or metallic objects.

C18510-1 15/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

It is recommended that access doors to battery rooms should be locked.

4.4) Other measures (Refer to attachments)

- Prevent risks
- Protection: the equipment
- Protection: the material
- Insulation categories
- Mechanical protection (IP)
- Cordoning off risk areas
- Earth leakage protection
- lock-off procedure

C18510-1 16/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Electrician
Confirmed

How to provide for different risks?


Preparation Work methods
Work without voltage

respect
enabling earthing
training
procedures device

Equipment

spectacles
helmet shoes gloves

Material

Single pole HV tester insulated tools


insulated mat

CE02-4-page 47
C18-510 Introduction
For all

3. Means of protecting oneself

3.1. The equipment

When necessary :

work clothing
helmet (with chin strap)
spectacles
gloves
protective shoes
protective auditory device

Observation : contact lenses wearer should beware of flashes, even when


wearing protective spectacles (clear lenses)

CE02-4-page 48
C18-510 Introduction
For all

3.2. The material

Use adapted
material
Check material
before and after
use

Preserve the material by having it


checked regularly by a qualified
person

Do not forget that it is important to point out defective material to the person
in charge of the site, in order to have it removed from circulation.

CE02-4-page 49
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Category II
Category I
Symbol :

Symbol : double isolation

Category III

III

damp areas

CE02-4-page 50
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Category I or II
floodlight preferable
Category II
trouble light This is category III
situation

(1 machine
Category 1 or 2
per isolation
Isolation transformer
transformer)

The isolation transformer


It is recommended to use an isolation transformer in damp areas

CE02-4-page 51
C18-510 Introduction
For all

First figure Second figure Third figure


0-6 0-8 0-9

Mechanical shock
Penetration of solid Penetration of liquids
0 : unprotected
matter 0 : unprotected
1 : 0.225 joules
0 : unprotected 1 : vertically
2 : 0.375 joules
1 : 50 mm 2 : at 15
3 : 0.5 joules
2 : 12 mm 3 : at 60
5 : 2 joules
3 : 2.5 mm 4 : against projections
7 : 6 joules
4 : 1 mm 5 : against spray
9 : 20 joules
5 : dust 6 : against waves
6 : airtight 7 : against immersion
8 : against soaking

When one of the protections is not specified there is an "x" in its place.

CE02-4-page 52
C18-510 Introduction
For all

3.3. Cordoning off risk areas

- All work areas should be cordoned off


- Only enabled persons can enter in this zone
- Types of barrier:

Wood
Streamer
Notice/sign
Flood lights
Cords
Grills
Standards

CE02-4-page 53
C18-510 Introduction
For all

3.7. Earth leakage protection

NORMAL FONCTIONING FAULTY FONCTIONING

Ia Ia

If
G D G D

Ia Ir
Ia = Ir
Ia = If + Ir

G: generator Protection the individual


D: differential protection
Ia : nominal current
If If 30 mA
If : faulty current triggering the supply
Ir : Residual current

It is a device whose role is ensuring:

Protection of persons from indirect contact (current leaks at ground


level).

CE02-4-page 54
C18-510 Electrician
Confirmed

Organisation of lock off procedure


before authorised works or
interventions

st
1
case Isolation Identification

LC or HC L2 or H2

Verification of
absence of VAV
Locking off voltage ED,
device earthing and SC
short circuiting
Person in charge Person in charge and cordoning
of lock off of work off

nd
2 Isolation
case Attestation of
lock off
Locking off procedure for
LC or HC
device authorised
works
Identification

Isolation: consists of isolating the part on which


VAV, ED, SC intervention will occurs, by isolating it from the
Person in charge
of lock off
circuit.
Locking-off: allows to keep isolated equipment in
off position.
Identification: consists of finding and defining the
Before works and interventions zone for intervention.
VAV, ED, SC: verification of absence of voltage,
using a tester (itself previously tested). Then
earthing and short circuiting to protect from risks
connected with difference of potential.
CE02-4-page 55
C18-510 Electrician
Confirmed

Lock out

st Remove ED
1 case
and SC and
perhaps also Remove the
VAV devices locking off
Removal of devices
L2 or H2 LC or HC
tools, shields Hand over
and barriers. Advice end job to
Assemble the of works person in
personnel charge of
exploitation
Identification
Resume
working order
Person in Person in
charge of charge of lock
works (or of off
lock off)

2nd case
Remove ED and SC devices

Advice end LC or HC Remove protective shields


of work
Hand over job
to person in
Identification charge of
exploitation

Remove locking off devices

Person in
charge of lock Resume working order
off

CE02-4-page 56
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

5. SAFETY MEASURES IN LOW VOLTAGE OPERATIONS

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Be aware of the safety measures/procedures when working on


electrical LV equipment

C18510-1 17/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

5.1) Types of operations

Personnel with L1 or L1V authorisation and specific authorisation for particular equipment
must only be authorised to carry-out very specific and limited operations, in compliance
with the WRITTEN SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS of the company. The instructions are
compulsory as the person will in principle be working alone.

These operations include (but not limited to):

- process operations,
- resetting overload protective relays,
- adjusting automatic control sensors,
- adjusting time delay relays,
- replacing fuses,
- replacing lamps,
- replacing lighting accessories,
- checking the electrolyte in battery elements
- etc

5.2) The electrical risks involved

People working in areas restricted to electricians are likely to run the risk of:

- DIRECT CONTACT
- SHORT CIRCUITS, possibly with the projection of matter in fusion.

5.2.1) Protection against the risk of direct contact

To protect against this risk, the following precautions should be taken:

- only do work on equipment that has first been switched off and that has isolation
protection provided by the appropriate device,
- make sure the equipment cannot be switched back on by decommissioning it (lock-
off procedure),
- protect against bare live parts by using LV insulating gloves,
- only use suitable tools or insulated or insulating tools,
- only use known test or measurement equipment that is suited to the job and in good
working condition (valid calibration certificate),
- do not carry out any operations that is not clearly defined in the safety
instructions.
- if in doubt, always call in a qualified electrician.

5.2.2) Protection against the risk of short circuit

Protecting against short circuits involves:

avoiding any metal object accidentally making contact between:


- two bare live parts, or a bare live part and earth (frame of the machine).

C18510-1 18/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

If an accident occurs:

Investigate which protective relay has tripped, activated by???


correct the cause, or get corrected, in compliance with the Safety Regulations,
only switch back the current when you are sure that the cause of the incident has been
corrected (risk of closing on a short circuit).
Furthermore, apply the rules of par. 5.2.1.
Wearing safety gloves and goggles is recommended when switching equipment back to
service after overcurrent protection has been activated.

C18510-1 19/28 09-04-01


CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

6. SAFETY DURING MEASURING OPERATIONS

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Be aware of the safety measures/procedures when using electrical


testing/measuring equipment/devices.

C18510-1 20/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

6.1) Minimum Training

Measuring is an operation that poses a real risk of direct contact. This is why these
operations must only be carried-out by personnel with at least L1V authorisation for the
following two reasons:
- the operator is always obliged to work in areas restricted to electricians,

- the operator must be qualified, having the theoretical and practical knowledge
required for the type of measurements he has been asked to take.

6.2) General safety rules to be followed before LV measuring work

In order to carry out electrical measurement, the technician must:

- have perfect knowledge of the measurement techniques,


- know how to use the necessary appliances,
- have the right equipment,
- check that the apparatus and his accessories are in good working conditions, before
starting,
- select the appropriate range to be used,
- be particularly careful of short circuits,
- bear in mind the special risks in the environment (fire, explosion, etc),
- after every measurement with a Voltmeter, reset the switch to the highest AC voltage
sensitivity.

Also, as he is looking after his own safety, the technician must evaluate the level
of risk for each measuring operation. To minimise the risks, he will use individual
protection such as insulating gloves, insulating mats, goggles, etc.

6.3) Connection accessories

Many leads used in measurements are dangerous, as they are of the male-male type.
There is therefore danger on the measuring apparatus and at the point of measurement.

As part of a safety procedure, it is strongly advised:

- only to use in perfect working order and of different colours,


- to opt for moulded leads with safety plugs,
- to use: - shouldered plugs pins
- fully insulated crocodile clips and grips

Measuring equipment manufacturers now take care to eliminate accessible live metal
components. Adapters are available for older apparatus.

6.4) Using the main test and measurement apparatus

In all cases, the authorised NON-Electrician carrying out limited measuring work must
comply with the safety instructions which will set out exactly what measurements are
authorised and what equipment to use.
the following pages explain how to use various pieces of measuring appratus that may be
required.

C18510-1 21/28 09-04-01


OPERATING CONDITION MINIMUM AUTHORIZATION : L1V

This is not a piece of measuring equipment. Depending on the model, it simply tests
for the absence of current or continuity in a conductive element. This means that this
type of apparatus works on an ALL OR NOTHING basis.
Example:

'Voltage test', if the 22O V diode lights up, it means that the real voltage is
somewhere between 220 V and 380 V (diode not lit up).
Ohm test', the sound and/or light signal shows that the element tested is
CONDUCTING, and therefore has low resistance (but without indicating the
resistance value)

Using the tester to detect voltage.

make sure the tester is positioned to VOLT,


using the two special sins, carry out the test and press the appropriate button,
the level of voltage is shown by the number of diodes that light up.

e.g. the 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and 110 V diodes are lit. The voltage is over
110 V and under 220 V.

Using in the ohm position to test a fuse.


only work with the current off,
remove the fuse from its holder,
set the tester to the OHM position.
carry out the continuity test on the two extremities of the fuse element and
press the corresponding button,
a light and/or sound signal shows that the fuse is CONDUCTING (or not).

CE02-3-page 62.doc
no signal at all may mean that the fuse is broken or that the test circuit
battery is dead,
cheek the internal battery by contact with the two pins.

A signal means that the battery is in working order.

SPECIAL RISKS MEANS OF PROTECTION

OHM TEST

Short circuits if the test is carried out Know the test apparatus
with the current on Use apparatus and leads in good
working order
WORK WITH CURRENT OFF by
disconnecting the element to be
tasted.

VOLTAGE TEST
Follow the first two points above
Use LV insulating gloves and safety
goggles

CE02-page 63.doc
OPERATING CONDITIONS MINIMUM AUTHORISATION L1V

The multimeter, operating as an ohmmeter, is used exclusively on equipment


with the current off.

After disconnecting the two extremities of the element for testing:

set the selector to the 'ohmmeter' position.


set zero on the ohmmeter by joining the two pins.
measure the value of the element to be tested.
reset the switch to the highest rating in the AC voltage range.

SPECIAL RISKS MEANS OF PROTECTION

Risk of short circuits if the element to Completely disconnect the element to


be testendhas not been disconnected be tested
from the equipment which is still on.

CE02-page 64.doc
OPERATING CONDITIONS MINIMUM AUTHORIZATION: l1V

Before measuring:

set the selector to AC or DC VOLTS.


set the sensitivity switch to the highest rating.
connect up the two different coloured measuring leads (fitted with pins) on
the voltage inputs of the equipment.

To take the measurement:


carry out the measurement holding the apparatus and one pin in one
hand and the second pin in the other hand.
if the pins do not have safety shouldering use LV insulating gloves.
take a f irst measurement to see how high the voltage is. 'Then select the
most suitable rating.

SPECIAL RISKS MEANS OF PROTECTION

Risk of short circuit if: Use suitable connection equipment


Wrong range is selected (ohm,I) in good working order.
Wrong entrance is chosen (I) Know the equipment you are using
Same colour male-male leads are
used. Wear LV insulating gloves
Risk of electric shocks in case of
contract with neighbouring bare live
parts

CE02-page 65.doc
OPERATING CONDITIONS MINIMUM AUTHORISATION: l1V

Before measuring:
set the selector of the multimeter to 'AC current
connect up the clamp-on probe
select the highest intensity rating.

To take the measurement:


fix the clamp on the conductor on which you want to measure the current.
gradually close the clamp.

in accordance with the first measurement, once you have removed the clamp
from the circuit, adjust the sensitivity switch to obtain the maximum needle
deviation.

SPECIAL RISKS MEANS OF PROTECTION

Risk of short circuit with the jaws of Use clamps with well insulated
the clamp when taking jaws.
measurement on a set of bars Wear LV insulating gloves
Risk of electric shocks incase of
contact with neighbouring bare live
parts

CE02-page 66.doc
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

7. MOVABLE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Be aware of the risks which could occur with movable/portable


equipment if not properly maintained/damaged/etc
! Know the rules to follow to avoid such risks

C18510-1 22/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

7.1) General observations

Movable electrical equipment is connected to the mains by flexible cables and plugs, which,
because they are easily damaged are a potentially dangerous source of electric shocks.

Hand-held, portable equipment are the most dangerous because tetanization can prevent
the user from releasing the equipment if there is an insulation fault.

Movable equipment should always be kept in good repair, especially the coating that
protects the power cables.

Users should always check their equipment before use. They should also be inspected
periodically by designated maintenance personnel.

The user must take care to protect himself against direct and indirect contact.

7.2) Protection against risks of direct contact

To avoid risks of direct contact, a few simple rules must be followed:

Make sure the tool and its power cable are in good working condition.

Do not carry out any do-it-yourself repairs.

Do not use an extension that has two pins at each end.

Use industrial cables on stands (H07 RNF).

Protect cables against risk of walking on in passageways.

Use standard plugs and sockets that are in good state.

C18510-1 23/28 09-04-01


CE02-page 69.doc
HAND-OUT CE 02

7.3) Protection against risks of indirect contact

7.3.1) General points

Protection against indirect contact involved making sure that no dangerous current get into
metal parts easily accessible by the user.

As regards the equipment, it all depends on:

- the yellow-green earth wires being unbroken and in good state in class I equipment.

- efficient inbuilt insulation in class II equipment (double insulated equipment


identifiable by the double square).

7.3.2) Working outside in the rain or in wet areas

To avoid electrocution outside in the rain or in wet areas, you should use:

- either pneumatic tools

- or cordless, battery-operated tools.

7.3.3) Use in dry or humid areas

The movable equipment that can be used in dry or humid areas are:

- class II equipment,

- class I equipment plugged into an earthed socket.

It is recommended in every case only to use extension leads with an earth wire (yellow-
green).

C18510-1 24/28 09-04-01


CE02-page-71.doc
HAND-OUT CE 02

7.3.4) Construction sites

A construction site is generally supplied from a temporary installation fitted with LV and ELV
sockets.

LV sockets should conform to standard and be fitted with an earth pin and a high sensitivity
differential device (30 mA) ELCB.

The following mobile electrical equipment can be used on these sockets:

- class II equipment

- professional safety lamps complying with standard NF C 71 008

- class I equipment fitted with an earth lead.

ELV sockets must be supplied through safety transformers complying with standard NF EN
60 742.

These can be used, amongst other things, for 24 volts safety lamps.

7.3.5) Restrictive conducting enclosures

In small conductive enclosures, only equipment supplied through a safety transformer should
generally be used.

The transformer should always be kept outside the enclosure and:

- if it is movable, must be in class II,

- if it is fixed, must be either class II, or class I with a compulsory earth lead.

A French government decree issued on 07/12/1988 allows the use of hand-held, portable
class II LV tools, as long as they are individually powered through a class II separation
transformer situated outside the enclosure and not in contact with it.

C18510-1 25/28 09-04-01


CE02-page 73.doc
CE02

Divider CE02
HAND-OUT CE 02

8. WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF ELECTRICAL ACCIDENT

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MODULE

! Be aware of the basic element to accomplish in case of accident or


fire.

C18510-1 26/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

8.1) First Aid for Victims of electric shocks

Follow the instructions for giving first aid to electrical accident victims. The employer will
have a first aid set.

It is most important to be familiar with the notices posted on access doors to premises
containing electrical equipment in live condition.

The rule is: P.A.I.

PROTECT: # Free the victim, taking care not to become a second victim yourself.

ASSIST: # Give first aid while waiting for the emergency services.

DO NOT FORGET! IF THE VICTIM IS NOT BREATHING, EVERY SECOND COUNTS!!!

INFORM: # Or get someone else to inform the emergency services.

Examination of the situation is essential, not only to protect the victim, but also to protect
oneself and ones surroundings.
It is preferable not to rush to the scene, but to think before acting.

C18510-1 27/28 09-04-01


HAND-OUT CE 02

8.2) Fire in an Electrical installation

If a fire breaks out in or near a live electrical installation, three main risks pose threat to the
fire-fighters:

- the risk of electrocution if there is contact with bare live parts or through the
extinguisher,

- the risk of solid in fusion being projected after short circuits caused by the flames,

- the risk of poisoning due to the various toxic gases emitted by burning insulation.

Steps must be taken to protect against these risks and to apply the safety regulations in
force on site.

*************************************

C18510-1 28/28 09-04-01


C18-510 Introduction
For all

5. What to do in case of accident?

1 - PROTECT

2 - Raise the alert

or have the alert

raised

3 - Administer first aid.

Wait, if not qualified

CE02-8-page 77
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Protect

Examination of the situation is essential, not only to protect the victim, but
also to protect oneself and one's surroundings.

It is preferable not to rush to the scene, but to think before acting.

CE02-8-page 78
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Raise the alert

Raise the alert by giving the telephone number you are calling from, the
exact location, the nature of the accident (electric shock, road accident...),
the number and condition of the victims, the particular risks (landslide,
fire...)

CE02-8-page 79
C18-510 Introduction
For all

The specific case of fallen conductor

Remove victim using Do not approach


insulated material or allow others to approach

Move about in leaps or small Alert the person in charge


steps (in case of HV)

CE02-8-page 80
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Administer first aid

If you are qualified to do so :

1 - Place the victim lying down

2 - Stop any heavy bleeding

3 - Insure respiration

Observations : In case of amputation, keep the limb cold


(without applying ice directly)

CE02-8-page 81
C18-510 Introduction
For all

6. Incidents/accidents on electrical jobs

Close all doors


Turn off power Protection windows in unaffected areas

Open smoke ducts Use correct extinguishers

CE02-8-page 82
C18-510 Introduction
For all

Distances to be respected when using


Extinguishers

Use a CO2 extinguisher (open area)


or powder extinguisher...
on electrical equipment

HV 20kV

<20kV <50kV

WITH VOLTAGE >50kV <250kV

WITH VOLTAGE, USE SPECIAL


DIFFUSER
> 250kV

CE02-8-page 83
CE02-page 84.doc