IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 03, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Survey on Connected Target Coverage Algorithms in WSN
Anupam Mittal1 Ruchi Aggarwal2 Sapinder Kaur3
1,2
Assistant Professor 3Student
1,2,3
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
1,2,3
Chandigarh University, Gharuan
Abstract— A Wireless Sensor Network is collection of small improvement few properties like as maximum network
sensor nodes which are interconnected by Wireless lifetime and network connectivity so on.
Communication Channels. Coverage and network Pooja Chaturvedi and A.K Daniel [3] provide an
connectivity is critical issue in wireless sensor network. energy efficient target coverage preserving protocol used to
Many authors have been proposed connected target coverage adjudicate which sensor in active state. They proposed
algorithms to reduce energy consumption and increase protocol viewer nodes monitor the neighborhood nodes to
network life time. This paper provides review of energy calculate the trust level. They also define probabilistic
efficiency connectivity target coverage algorithms used in coverage model. They proposed a coverage preserving
wireless sensor network. protocol based on probabilistic coverage model, which
Key words: Wireless Sensor Network, Connected Target determines a set of nodes to keep in active state such that
Coverage Algorithms, CWGC, OTTC, OCCH, AR-SC, HEF each target region is monitored by at least a sensor node [4].
Xiaojian Gren and Weifa Liang [5] present a new
I. INTRODUCTION coverage quality metric to calculate the coverage quality
Wireless Sensor Network is a large network which is using two different time scales. They are introduced
consists of large number of sensor nodes. These sensor centralized and distributed algorithms.
nodes are directly communicate with their environment by Chia Pang Chen and Subhas Chandra introduce a
sensing physical parameters such as temperature, humidity novel maximum connected load–balancing cover
and so on. Wireless sensor network are used now days tree(MCLCT) algorithm .Algorithm consists of two
number of applications like as, Landslide detection, area components:1)Coverage optimizing recursive heuristic for
monitoring, forest fire detection, etc. Wireless sensor coverage management , 2) Probabilistic load balancing
network some issues energy consumption and network life strategy for routing path determination[6]. Sushruta and
time because sensors are used in large distance areas. In a Archanar provide a various energy efficiency improvement
network are millions of sensors which are widely and techniques in wireless sensor network to increase network
randomly deployed. The source of the energy for sensors is life time [7].
battery and which cannot be again charged after the Yaobing Li, Baihai Zhang and Senchum Chai said
deployment. But the networks of sensors are created in such that energy balance VFA (virtual force algorithm) method
way so they can work their last. In wireless sensor network with energy control and efficient deployment of sensor
have two important issues are coverage and connectivity. nodes could importantly reduce the energy consumption and
Coverage determines how well an area of interest is improve the resource management of the network [8].
monitored or tracked by sensors. Coverage classified in Babacar, Dame and Ousmane [9] proposed a
three types: Area coverage, Target coverage and Barrier weight-based greedy algorithm (WGA) which organizes
coverage. Connectivity is another important issue in WSNs sensors in multiple subsets. The main work WGA is to
which addresses how to deliver the sensed data from data maximize the number of computed set covers from the
from source sensor to the destination [14]. partition, which can lead to a network lifetime extension.
Zhang Hongwa, Wang Hongyuan and Feng
Hongcai [10] provide a heuristic greedy optimum coverage
II. RELATED WORK
algorithm (HG-OCA) for target coverage to increase
Gangjie Han, Jinfang Jiang and Gerhard Hancke[1]analyze network lifetime and minimizing energy consumption.
characteristics of energy efficient coverage strategies Xiaofei Xing, Dongqing Xie and Zeyu Sun provide
selecting four connected coverage algorithms: an approximate optimal coverage set (AOCS) algorithm to
Communication weighted greedy cover, Optimized observe a largest cover set. They proposed coverage
connected coverage heuristic, Overlapped target and probability model simplified the computational complexity
connected coverage and Adjustable range set covers .They of coverage property and improved the accuracy of
present comparison for algorithm in terms of network deployed sensor nodes under requirements on different
lifetime, coverage time , average energy consumption ,ratio coverage rate. This CPM model is very helpful in calculate
of dead nodes etc. , characteristics of basic design ideas used the monitoring capacity of sensor node that is distributed
to optimize coverage and network connectivity of randomly and uniformly [11].
IWSNs(Industrial wireless sensor networks). Y.Kim, Yu Wang and H. Choi [12] introduced a
Djamel Djenouri and Miloud Bagaa [2] said that greedy heuristic algorithm for scheduling multiple channels
power efficient coverage in wireless sensor network by and multiple timeslots a time constrained industrial wireless
taking benefits of energy efficient harvesting capability. sensor networks.
They studied environment includes two types of sensor H.Mastafaci and M.Meybodi [13] proposed an
nodes: 1)Harvesting enabled nodes. 2) Non harvesting efficient scheduling method based on learning automata is
nodes. They use HNs for problem of relay node placement called LAML. In which all node is equipped with a learning

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A Survey on Connected Target Coverage Algorithms in WSN
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/518)

automation, which help to select node it proper state
(active/sleep) at fix time.

III. ENERGY EFFICIENT CONNECTED TARGET COVERAGE
ALGORITHM
Connected target coverage problem defined a monitor all
deployed discrete in network which each other and sink (a)
node is network. In this paper survey of connected target
coverage algorithm to increase network lifetime while
maintaining sensing coverage and network connectivity.
A. Communication Weighted Greedy Cover
Qun and Mohan[15] introduce CWGC algorithm uses a
greedy algorithm to select the source set to cover the targets
and it couples the communication cost and source set
selection it is called communication weighted greedy cover .
CWGC algorithm to solve connected target coverage (b)
problem as a maximum cover tree(MCT) problem. CWGC
consists of three steps:
 Step 1- Arrange an edge weight to all edge which
reflects both communication energy consumption on
the edge and residual energy. A minimum weight
communication tree (MWCT) is then created to all
connected sensors. Calculate the communication heads
Fig. 1: Remove traversing a node that covers a critical target
of each edge in the graph to create the shortest routing
1) Advantage
path to the sink.
 Improve sensing quality of poorly covered targets.
 Step 2- Using greedy algorithm to select the sources
covered each the targets.  Medium average energy consumption.
 Step 3- The cover tree is removed as a sub tree of the  Enhanced upper bound of overall network lifetime.
MWCT based on the choosing sources. The residual 2) Disadvantage
energy for sensors in the cover tree is update according  High dead nodes ratio.
to energy consumption. The operation duration for the  Low scalability because strategy of critical node
constructed cover tree is the calculated using equation prevent only works in a densely deployed network.
(1). C. Overlapped Target and Connected Coverage
Shaon, Amir and Matin explain the overlapped target issue
..(1) [17]. The sensors consume the same quantity of energy
1) Advantage when sending and transmitting the data created from a
target, anyway of how many targets a sensor monitor.
 Low dead nodes ratio.
However multiple transmissions of the pair data are iterating
 Less average energy consumption.
and cause the sensors to disuse energy. This defined as
 Low computational complexity and fast convergence overlapped target issue. In figure 2 adjacent nodes may
speed. collect overlapped data from targets and transmit them to a
2) Disadvantage sink node.
 Low utilization of working nodes.
 Small improvement in network lifetime.
 Low scalability.
B. Optimized Connected Coverage Heuristic
According to Dimitrius and Christos [16] OCCH algorithm
is efficient algorithm to protect the critical nodes from
forwarding data. It can be calculated that a target, which is
covered by the less number of sensors is the bottleneck in
cases of the network lifetime. This type of target is called as
a critical target. The sensor nodes that monitor the critical
targets are defined the critical nodes. Increment the
communication weight of critical node is choosing to
transfer data can be decreased show in figure 1.

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A Survey on Connected Target Coverage Algorithms in WSN
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/518)

2) Quadratic Model
In which energy consumption is a quadratic function of the
sensing range.
ep = c2 * rp2 (2)
a) AR-SC Algorithm Working:
 Step 1- Formulate the problem using integer
programming.
 Step 2-Using relaxation and rounding techniques solve
this problem.
 Step 3- Proposed a greedy heuristic, where centralized
and distributed solutions are given for computing the
set cover.
Fig. 2: Overlapped Target and Corresponding overlapping 3) Advantage
sensors
 High scalability
OTCC algorithm to protect redundant coverage and
 Major improvement in network lifetime.
transmission, it is sufficient that data created from an
overlapped target is transferred only one time. [18] Y.Kim,  Maximum usage of working nodes.
C.Mun, D.Park and C.Park provide OTCC algorithm to 4) Disadvantage
eliminate the redundancy caused by the overlapped target.  High ratio of dead nodes
The redesign the OTCC problem and make the maximum  High average energy consumption.
cover and non-duplication transmission graph (MCNTG)
problem by developing a new graph model called CT (Cover
and Transmission).To remove MCNTG problem using
heuristic algorithm known as shortest path based on targets
and using greedy method to create a maximum number of
the active group of sensors and find unique route from all
the target to the sink node. OTCC algorithm working in
three steps:
(a)
 Step 1- Cover and Transmission (CT) graph introduce.
 Step 2- Reformulate OTCC problem and generate
MCNTG problem.
 Step 3- Using SPT-greedy algorithm to solve MCNTG
problem and less energy consumption and increase
network lifetime.
1) Advantage
 Eliminated redundancy of overlapped targets.
(b)
 Less energy consumption
Fig. 3: Example with one node, one target and three power
2) Disadvantage
level
 Medium convergence speed
 Low scalability (The number of adjacent targets E. High-Energy-First (HEF) Heuristic
calculate network lifetime). According to Manju and Arun K Pujari [20] High energy
D. Adjustable Range Set Covers Algorithm first heuristic algorithm proposed to solve the target
coverage problem. HEF algorithm based on residual battery
M.Cardei and M.Pervaiz [19] addressed the discrete life of specific sensors. HEF perform better for save battery
coverage problem in wireless sensor networks with life. HEF working in three steps:
adjustable sensing range. They consider large number of
 Step 1- HEF heuristic create sensor covers by choosing
sensors with adjustable sensing range that are contingent
a sensor with maximized residual battery life and
deployed to monitor a number of targets. ASR-CSC
which cover at most one uncovered target.
(Adjustable Range Set-Connected sensor Cover) problem
 Step 2- In next step using naïve greedy algorithm for
define as given a set of targets and a set of sensors with
assign lifetime to a cover. The algorithm need a user-
adjustable sensing ranges in a Wireless sensor network,
specified constant w and a cover S is create:
schedule sensors, sensor ranges, such that the WSNs
w’ = min (w, max_lifetime(S))
lifetime increased under the conditions that both target
Use this process, we do not consume total energy
coverage and network connectivity are satisfied, and all
for sensors and make these sensors obtainable for other
sensors energy consumption should be no more than initial
covers.
energy E. AR-SC are used two energy models:
1) Linear Model  Step 3- Priority of a sensor decrease once it is used in a
In which energy consumption is a linear function of the sensor cover and the greedy construction of sensor
sensing range. cover in the next repetition tries to skip such a sensor.
ep = c 1 * r p (1) 1) Advantage
Where ep denotes the energy consumed for sensing  Less energy consumption.
a bit of data corresponding to the current sensing radius r p.  It covers all the current sensors in working state.

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A Survey on Connected Target Coverage Algorithms in WSN
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 03/2016/518)

2) Disadvantage [14] D.Priyashree, B.Baranidharan and B.Shanthi, “Energy
 Do not use the concept of critical targets, because this Efficiency Target Coverage in Sensor Networks,”
is not possible without price. Indian Journal of Science and technology, Vol-7(S4),
21-23 April, 2014.
IV. CONCLUSION [15] Qun Zhao and Mohan Gurusamy, “Lifetime
Maximization for Connected Target Coverage in
Wireless sensor network play vital role in recent era. WSNs
WSNs,” IEEE Transaction on Networking, Vol. 16, No.
need increase day by day due to uses real time application
6, December 2008.
like as environment monitor, Agriculture application, Fire
[16] Dimitrios Zorbas, Christos Douligeris, “Connected
detection Disaster management and health care. Energy
Coverage in WSNs based on critical targets,” Elsevier,
efficiency is important issues in wireless sensor networks. In
2011.
this paper present overview of energy efficiency connected
[17] M. N A Shaon, K B Amir and M A Matin, “Power-
target coverage algorithm used to reduce energy
Saving Scheduling Algorithm for Multiple Target
consumption and to improve network lifetime.
Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE, 2-5,
October, 2011.
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