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Sedimentary rocks are formed from particles of sand, shells, pebbles, and other fragments of material. Together, all these particles are
called sediment. Gradually, the sediment accumulates in layers and over a long period of time hardens into rock. Generally,
sedimentary rock is fairly soft and may break apart or crumble easily. You can often see sand, pebbles, or stones in the rock, and it is
usually the only type that contains fossils.

Metamorphic rocks are formed under the surface of the earth from the metamorphosis (change) that occurs due to intense heat and
pressure (squeezing). The rocks that result from these processes often have ribbonlike layers and may have shiny crystals, formed by
minerals growing slowly over time, on their surface.Examples of this rock type include gneiss and marble.
Igneous rocks are formed when magma (molten rock deep within the earth) cools and hardens. Sometimes the magma cools inside the
earth, and other times it erupts onto the surface from volcanoes (in this case, it is called lava). When lava cools very quickly, no
crystals form and the rock looks shiny and glasslike. Sometimes gas bubbles are trapped in the rock during the cooling process,
leaving tiny holes and spaces in the rock.


Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks are crystalline solids which form directly from the cooling of magma. This is an exothermic process (it loses heat) and
involves a phase change from the liquid to the solid state. The earth is made of igneous rock - at least at the surface where our planet is
exposed to the coldness of space. Igneous rocks are given names based upon two things: composition (what they are made of) and
texture (how big the crystals are).

Sedimentary Rocks

In most places on the surface, the igneous rocks which make up the majority of the crust are covered by a thin veneer of loose
sediment, and the rock which is made as layers of this debris get compacted and cemented together. Sedimentary rocks are called
secondary, because they are often the result of the accumulation of small pieces broken off of pre-existing rocks. There are three main
types of sedimentary rocks:

Clastic: your basic sedimentary rock. Clastic sedimentary rocks are accumulations of clasts: little pieces of broken up rock which have
piled up and been "lithified" by compaction and cementation.

Chemical: many of these form when standing water evaporates, leaving dissolved minerals behind. These are very common in arid
lands, where seasonal "playa lakes" occur in closed depressions. Thick deposits of salt and gypsum can form due to repeated flooding
and evaporation over long periods of time.

Organic: any accumulation of sedimentary debris caused by organic processes. Many animals use calcium for shells, bones, and teeth.
These bits of calcium can pile up on the seafloor and accumulate into a thick enough layer to form an "organic" sedimentary rock.

Metamorphic Rocks

The metamorphics get their name from "meta" (change) and "morph" (form). Any rock can become a metamorphic rock. All that is
required is for the rock to be moved into an environment in which the minerals which make up the rock become unstable and out of
equilibrium with the new environmental conditions. In most cases, this involves burial which leads to a rise in temperature and
pressure. The metamorphic changes in the minerals always move in a direction designed to restore equilibrium. Common
metamorphic rocks include slate, schist, gneiss, and marble.

Biological Sedimentary Rocks
1. coal
Coal represents the accumulation of decomposed plant materials. Coal is sorted
by the degree of alteration and compaction of the original organic materials. The
least altered material is peat, followed by lignite, then bituminous coal, and finally
anthracite. In peat, you can still see an abundance of the original organic materials.
Lignite is called soft, brown coal. Bituminous coal is black, and somewhat waxy-looking.
Anthracite is hard, black coal. Peat has the lowest level of carbon content and anthracite
has the highest. Coal is less dense than normal rocks.

Coal is composed of organic matter in the form of plant fragments. Coal can be:

Lignite is black and has a crumbly consistency.

Bituminous coal can be dull to shiny and black.. Anthacite is usually considered metamorphic

What is Coal?

Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually
in a swamp environment. Coal is a combustible rock and along with oil and natural gas it is one of the three most
important fossil fuels. Coal has a wide range of uses; the most important use is for the generation of electricity.
Coal is less dense than normal rocks.

2. A kind of metamorphic rock

-has formed under the surface of the earth from the metamorphosis (change) that occurs due to intense heat and pressure (squeezing).

- rocks that result from these processes often have ribbonlike layers and may have shiny crystals, formed by minerals growing slowly
over time

Amphibolite is a rock composed mostly of amphibole minerals. Usually it's a hornblende schist
like this as hornblende is the commonest amphibole.
Medida, Flemarie Magne G. Sept. 06, 2013

2PHL 2012045131


Gemstones: Blue Diamond

Blue topaz Zircon Torquiose Tanzanite