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APPLICATIONS GUIDE 3

APPLICATIONS GUIDE 3
Contents

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. PRINCIPLES OF DISCRIMINATION 1
2.1. Time Discrimination 1
2.2. Current Discrimination
2.3. Time and Current Discrimination 1

3. PROTECTION ARRANGEMENTS 1

4. GRADING MARGIN 1

5. IDMT OVERCURRENT RELAYS 1


5.1. Normal Inverse Overcurrent Relay 1
5.2. Very Inverse Overcurrent Relay 2
5.3. Extreme Inverse Overcurrent Relay
5.4. Long Time Inverse Overcurrent Relay 2

6. DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAYS 2

7. HIGH SET OVERCURRENT RELAYS 2

8. IDMT OVERCURRENT WITH A.C. SERIES


TRIPPING RELAY 2

9. DELTA STAR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 2

10. RADIAL NETWORK PROTECTION 2

11. RING NETWORK PROTECTION 2

FIGURE 1 RADIAL SYSTEM 3


FIGURE 2 RING SYSTEM 3
APPLICATIONS GUIDE 3
1. INTRODUCTION proportional to the fault current these limitations can be
overcome.
Inverse time overcurrent protection was evolved for use in the
early power networks which characteristically were low 3. PROTECTION ARRANGEMENTS
voltage and simple radial or ring connected. The principle
developed was the graded overcurrent system which is a The basic protection arrangements used are 2 pole
discriminative fault protection. This protection has held its overcurrent, 3 pole overcurrent and 2/3 pole overcurrent with
place for phase fault and earth protection in the distribution earth fault.
networks where the slower speed of tripping is allowable and
where, generally, satisfactory discrimination can be attained. The 2 pole overcurrent arrangement provides phase fault
Applications in this area are on feeder circuits and small protection. In order to provide intercircuit fault coverage all
transformers in networks up to I l kV. circuits in the network should be overcurrent in the same
phases.
A second area of application is for back-up protection and this
is normally provided on feeder circuits with unit pilot wire The 3 pole overcurrent arrangement provides both phase fault
protection and similarly with high speed unit protection for and earth fault protection with the same sensitivity. This is
transformers. suitable for systems where the earth fault is approximately of
the same order as the phase fault i.e. in solidly earthed systems.
2. PRINCIPLES OF DISCRIMINATION
The 2/3 pole with earth fault arrangement is used in a resistance
The protection relays in a system should be co-ordinated to earthed system where the earth fault current is limited and may
select and isolate only the faulty section of the power network. be of the order of full load or less.
This relay co-ordination can be achieved by a variety of
discrimination methods discussed as following. These basic arrangements can be supplemented by directional
relays, and by high set overcurrent relays for specific
2.1 Time Discrimination applications i.e. ring and transformer circuits.

This method is dependent upon grading the relays with 4. GRADING MARGIN
progressively higher time settings for each successive relay back
towards the source and providing an appropriate time interval The time interval between the operation of two adjacent relays
in operating time between adjacent relays. A simple radial is comprised of several factors.
distribution system is shown in Figure 1. The relays in series
have the same current setting and all operate i.e. start timing a) Circuit breaker time - the fault must have been completely
out for a fault at F. The relay nearest the fault operates first and cleared before the relay de-energises.
all other relays reset when the fault is cleared. The scheme is
entirely time dependant since all the relays have the same b) Errors - due to the tolerances on the operating times of the
current setting. relays. Also the current transformer phase and ratio errors due
to the exciting current required to magnetise their core need to
2.2 Current Discrimination be taken into account.

This method is based on the fact that the fault current varies c) Safety margin - required to ensure that a satisfactory contact
with the position of the fault due to the variance in impedance gap remains.
values between the source and fault. Hence the current settings
of the relays are such that only the relay nearest to the fault will d) Overshoot - once the relay has been de-energised, operation
operate. may continue until any stored energy has been dissipated. The
overshoot time is defined as the time of energisation shorter
This type of discrimination scheme is not suitable for faults over than the prospective operating time for which the relay will not
100% of the line because of wide over and under reaching, due operate.
to relay errors, fault level, tolerances, variation in source
impedance and non-uniform impedance of lines. In some A total grading margin of 0.3 seconds can usually be achieved
applications where there is sufficient diversity of fault current, i.e. depending on the speed of operation of the circuit breaker
some measure of instantaneous protection can be attained and the accuracy class of the circuit breaker.
using instantaneous overcurrent protection current grading.
5. IDMT OVERCURRENT RELAYS
2.3 Time and Current Discrimination
5.1 Normal Inverse Overcurrent Relay - 2TJM10 &
The previous two methods both have limitations in their usage, 2TJM70
the time discrimination scheme clears the severe faults in the
longest operating time and the current discrimination scheme The normal inverse curve can be used for a multitude of
can only be used when there is an appreciable impedance applications.
between the relays. Thus by using an inverse time overcurrent
relay characteristic where the operating time is inversely

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3 APPLICATIONS GUIDE

5.2 Very Inverse Overcurrent Relay - 2TJM20 9. DELTA STAR TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

The very inverse curve is suited to networks where there is a The grading of overcurrent relays on the HV side of
significant reduction in fault current as the distance from the transformers should consider the reflected values of fault
source increases. The operating time is shorter for large fault current for LV faults. A phase to phase fault on the LV side of a
currents and increases at a greater rate as the fault current delta star transformer produces a 2-1- I distribution of fault
decreases. This permits the use of the same time multiplier current in the 3 phases of the HV line. In the case of 2 pole
setting for several relays in series. overcurrent on the HV side, the relays will see 0.5 per unit
current for one of the three LV interphase fault conditions and
5.3 Extreme Inverse Overcurrent Relay - 2TJM30 tripping will be slower for this condition. A 3 pole protection
scheme operates in the same time for each condition, giving
The extreme inverse curve is particularly suitable for grading improved protection.
with fuses and applications where short duration transient
overcurrents occur e.g. motor starting or re-acceleration. 10. RADIAL NETWORK PROTECTION

5.4 Long Time Inverse Overcurrent Relay - 2TJM60 In order to determine the relay current and time multiplier
settings at each relay location information about fault levels, CT
The curve is used for standby earth fault on resistance earthed ratios, and characteristics of other types of protection with
neutrals. The curve, 30 seconds at 5 times setting matches the which the relays must be graded is required. The smallest time
usual 30 second rating of the earthing resistor. setting must grade with the protection on the HV side of the
substation transformers. A minimum time setting of 0.4
6. DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT RELAYS seconds at maximum fault current is usually adequate to grade
with instantaneous or fused overcurrent protection or LV fuses
The relay needs to have directional control elements when the and dashpots.
fault current can flow in both directions through the relay
location. The relay measures the system voltage and fault Where motor circuits are fed from the LV side of substations,
current through its associated instrument transformers. The the incoming circuit overcurrent protection must grade with
directional characteristic is defined by the relay angle and the the motor protection relay of the largest motor. i.e. overload
voltage connection is important to ensure the correct and short circuit protection, and starting / re-acceleration
directional response under all fault conditions where voltage current.
and current angles change at the relay point.
11. RING NETWORK PROTECTION
Analysis and usage shows that the 45 lead, 90 connection
relay is most suitable for all fault conditions on solid earthed Where ring-network circuits in parallel are fed from a single
systems and this relay is standard for such applications. The source they cannot be discriminatively protected by non-
unity pf relay 30 connection has limitations in the 2 pole directional overcurrent protection because for alternative fault
arrangement for plain feeder applications. For resistance positions the same chain of relays require a different grading
earthed system the 12.5 earth fault relay is required. time sequence. Correct discrimination can be achieved by using
directional relays at each relay location looking in the direction
7. HIGH SET OVERCURRENT RELAYS of the feeder (away from each busbar) as shown in fig. 2. The
procedure is to grade the relays with one supply circuit breaker
Instantaneous high set overcurrent elements can supplement open in turn i.e. as two radial systems. The relay with the
the IDTML protection to provide fast tripping where there is a highest time setting can be of the non-directional type. The first
diversity of fault current when the source impedance is small in step relays can be set to operate in about 0.2 seconds because
comparison with the protected circuit impedance. This occurs these relays do not grade with other relays. Relays at the source
on the HV side of transformers and at the source infeed where are non- directional. Relays are graded as shown in fig. 2., relay
long feeders emanate from the source busbars. High set number 1 being the first to operate (e.g. 0.2s or less) and the
elements can also provide high speed protection over a large highest number is the longest time (and non-directional).
section of the circuit if the source impedance remains constant.

8. IDMTL OVERCURRENT WITH A.C. SERIES


TRIPPING

The series trip relay is used when the power system circuit
breaker does not have an available voltage source or a d.c. trip
coil. The series trip relay is provided with the main 2TJM
element and an auxiliary relay hand reset type with heavy duty
contacts. Under normal conditions the heavy duty contacts
short circuit the breaker trip coil. When a fault occurs the
auxiliary relay is energised and it's contacts open, thus allowing
the C.T. secondary current to flow through the trip coil of the
circuit breaker.

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APPLICATIONS GUIDE 3

X X

X
3 1

Figure 1 Radial System

Ring Network
Source

* *
X

X
5 Non-directional 5 Non-directional

1 1
X

X
X

3 3

2 2
X

* One circuit breaker normally open but system


discriminates also with ring closed

Figure 2 Ring System