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Enviro Division

WET SCRUBBERS
For Particulate Control and Acid Gas Absorption
Cleaning the air for better returns
Improving your business
is our business
Thermax Ltd., India and AirPol Inc.,
USA : A strategic tie-up to draw on
Thermax offers products, mutual strengths
systems and solutions in energy
In keeping with its business
and environment engineering to
philosophy of Improving your
industrial and commercial Business is our Business,
establishments around the world. Thermax has, over the years,
Its business expertise covers forged business and technology
heating, cooling, waste heat alliances with leading
recovery, captive power, water international corporations to
treatment & recycling, air pollution make the best available to its
control & waste management and customers. One such tie-up has
performance chemicals. Thermax been the license agreement
entered into by the Enviro
brings to customers extensive
Division of Thermax Limited
experience in industrial
with AirPol Inc. - a subsidiary of MPM Technologies Inc. (USA) - in 2002. As per
applications, and expertise through this agreement, AirPol Inc. will make its proprietary wet scrubber technologies and
technology partnerships and know-how available to Thermax for sales and supply to the latter's customers. This
strategic alliances. is one synergy that brings together the experiences of two leading organizations in a
Operating from its headquarters in wide range of industries and for a host of applications.
Pune (Western India), Thermax
has built an international sales &
service network spread over South AirPol - Global Leaders
East Asia, Middle East, Africa,
l 34 year old company with Air Pollution Control as main line of business
Russia, UK and the US. It has a full
l Instrumental in developing the modern day Venturi Scrubber from the original prototype -
fledged manufacturing set up that the AirPol Venturi is now used the world over in all kinds of industries, especially for
is certified for ISO 9001:2000, ISO removal of sub-micron particulates with very high efficiency
14001 and safety management l Wide range of scrubbers that include both standardised systems as well as innovative,
according to OSHAS (ISO 18000). high quality, tailor-made
scrubbing systems
Enviro Division was conceived l Wide experience and application
database - designed over 1400
with a belief that pollutants are
wet scrubbing systems for every
inevitable but pollution is not. An conceivable application that
acknowledged leader in Air include more than 300 for acid
Pollution Control and Purification gas scrubbing
business, it offers a wide range of l The largest single stage
particulate scrubber installation
flange-to-flange products,
for Blast Furnace application in a
customised systems and value- steel plant and the largest single
added services. Thermax-Enviro is scrubber in tower construction
present in most industries and l Patent holders for several
application segments therein, viz. processes, including the Dilute
cement, steel, non-ferrous Dual Alkali Process

metallurgical, power plants,


fertilisers, tyres, paper, chemicals,
petrochemicals and textiles.
Flue Gas Desulfurization System for an Aluminum Pot
Line Designed to Treat a Gas Volume of 8,79,000 m3/hr
Themax - already a household name for scrubbers
l Thermax Enviro, in the scrubber business ever since its inception, has more than 100 installations already in the field. A sampler :
l Particulate-cum-gas scrubbing systems - including the largest in the country for this application handling silica dust and HCl / chlorine
fumes for a large optical fibres major
l Dust extraction and gas scrubbing systems and tail gas scrubbers - for several fertiliser plants including one at the world's largest DAP /
NPK unit
l Flue gas desulphurisation system (FGD) - for a sanitaryware major handling particulates and SO2 from a large glass furnace exhaust
l Utility based scrubbers - for the food and hospitality industries covering DG sets, boilers and hot water generators (handling high sulphur
content fuels)
l Gas cleaning plants (GCPs) - for several blast furnaces
l Scrubber based air pollution control systems - for hazardous waste incineration

Pollution control systems on common Scrubbing system installed at a Fertiliser Complex


Hazardous Waste Incineration Facility

Turnkey Scrubbing System (Caustic based) in the


Sulphuric Acid Plant (2 X 1000 MTPD)

Scrubbing system for acid fume and particulate removal in an Optic Fibre Plant
The Thermax - AirPol C-V Cyclonic Scrubber
How it works....
The contaminated gas is brought into
intimate contact with curtains of liquid
spray directed at right angles to the gas
flow after it enters the involute section.
The scrubbed gases proceed along the
involute where the bulk of the liquid is
separated. The remainder of entrained
droplets are removed when the
accelerated gases enter the spin zone.
The liquid moves by gravity to the
bottom cone drain, and the cleaned
gases leave the scrubber at the top
outlet.

...and the advantages


l Higher efficiency due to Involute Gas Inlet - concentrated spray
zone assures more efficient scrubbing than the conventional
cyclonic design
l Low equipment costs because of reduced height - positive
entrainment separation in involute section reduces scrubber
height and space requirements
l Trouble-free operation as there are no internals - no internal
baffles, plates or vanes to separate entrained droplets from gas
stream; C-V Scrubber creates positive centrifugal action to spin
droplets from gas
l Minimal maintenance because of wall mounted sprays - wall
mounting of large orifice non-clogging nozzles offer trouble-
free operation. Spray nozzles have individual shut off valves for
servicing without interruption of scrubber operation
l Low pressure drop design - typically operates at 75 to 150 mm
WG

Typical applications
l Bagasse and other bio-mass fired boilers
l Fertilizer plants
l Woodworking operations
l Driers and coolers
l Rock products operations
l Non-ferrous metals processing
l Pulp and paper processing sewage sludge (incineration)
l Pelletizing - crushing and screening
The Thermax - AirPol Open Spray Tower
How it works...
The Open Spray Tower is a vertical vessel with a number of spray zones. At the bottom of the tower is a
liquid reservoir, from which recycle pumps supply liquid to each spray zone.
Above the upper spray header is a mist eliminator that removes all liquid droplets from the gas. The mist
eliminator is provided with a fresh water wash spray that removes previous build up of reaction salts.

...and the advantages


l Very high absorption efficiency
l Low pressure drop
l No scaling or build up of solids
l No nozzle plugging
l Can accommodate high gas temperatures
l Tolerates high dust loadings Typical spray patterns
l High mist elimination
l Wide variety of reagent options - sodium, magnesium, lime,
high - mag lime, dual alkali etc.

Typical applications
l SO2 absorption from boiler flue gas
Typical header arrangement
l Acid gas absorption
l HF absorption in the aluminium industry

The Thermax - AirPol Counter Current Packed Tower Scrubber


How it works...
The AirPol Counter Current Packed Tower Scrubber effectively absorbs
acid mists, odours and gaseous compounds through the counter-
current flow of gases and scrubbing liquid over a packed bed. The
action provides intimate contact needed for efficient, thorough
absorption and chemical reaction required for a wide range of Support grid for packing
industrial processing operations. material

...and the advantages


Being a counter content packed tower scrubber, this outperforms any
scrubber available in the market today. Some of the main reasons being
l Higher collection efficiency for low cost operation
l Lower pressure drop for economical energy use
l Widest variety of packing to suit requirements
Liquid distribution
l Constructed of corrosion-resistant materials like reinforced- arrangement (top)
fiberglass, stainless steel etc.
l No moving parts or high velocity areas assuring low maintenance and trouble-free operation
l Gas channeling is prevented by proper spacing of internal elements resulting in increased efficiency
l Built-in standard features like access doors, lifting lugs, holddown lugs, mist eliminator with self wash
arrangement etc.

Typical applications
l Incineration l Sulphur dioxide gases l Chemical processing
l Fluorine gases l Hydrogen sulfide gases l Plating operations
l Aluminium potlines l Hydrogen chloride gases l Steel pickling
Industries & Applications
INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS

Chemical & Pharmaceutical Acrylonitrile manufacturing, HCl removal / recovery, heavy metal removal from liquid incineration, solid & liquid
hazardous waste incineration, fluidised bed incinerators etc.

Fertiliser Particulate-cum-gas scrubbing systems for granulators, coolers, dryers, material handling circuits, tail gas scrubbing

Iron & Steel Gas cleaning plants (GCPs) for blast furnaces, basic oxygen furnaces, coke ovens, iron ore pelletisers, scarfing
machines etc.

Non Ferrous Metallurgical GCPs, smelters, aluminium potlines, anode bake ovens etc.

Power Generation for Particulate removal from coal / agrowaste / bio-mass fired boilers, diesel generator (DG) sets; flue gas
industrial & captive use desuphurisation (FGD) systems for high sulphur content, solid / liquid fuel fired boilers / DG sets

Public Utility Medical wastes, hazardous solid & liquid waste, sewage sludge etc.

Pulp & Paper Recovery boilers, power boilers, lime sludge kilns, dissolving tanks, slakers, bleach plants

Wood Products Particle board dryers, VOC control, wood combustors etc.

Typical Process Flow Diagrams


Caustic based flue gas desulphurization system for off gases from 2x4.2 MW D.G. sets

PROCESS WATER

FROM DG SET-1 TREATED GAS

TREATED GAS
FROM DG SET-2

A1 BLEED TO ETP

FROM CAUSTIC TANKER

CAUSTIC CAUSTIC OXIDATION OXIDATION BLEED TANK BLEED PUMPS CHIMNEY


STORAGE TANK DOSING PUMPS TANK BLOWER
SOx SCRUBBER CIRCULATION PUMPS SOx SCRUBBER

Lime based flue gas desulphurization system for off gases from glass furnace

TREATED GAS
PROCESS WATER I. D. FANS
MIST ELIMINATOR

BLEED
TREATMENT
FURNACE FLUE GAS

SATURATOR
HYDRATED LIME SOLID OXIDATION
M M BLOWER
SO2 SCRUBBER

SCRUBBER RECYCLE TANK CHIMNEY


LIME LIME RECIRCULATION
SLURRY TANK SLURRY TANK LIME DOSING PUMPS PUMPS
The Thermax - AirPol Scrubber Range
Particulate Scrubbers Acid Gas Absorbers
l Venturi Scrubber l Packed Towers
l Cyclonic Scrubber l Tray Towers
l Open Spray Towers

The Thermax - AirPol Venturi Scrubber


How it works...
The raw gas (dust laden) enters axially from the venturi top, while the scrubbing liquid is fed in tangentially through straight pipes. The liquid
swirls with a dentist bowl effect (thereby preventing particulate build-up and erosion) with additional liquid entry at throat level for complete
coverage therein. The mixture now proceeds downward into the throat forming a collision zone.
The pressure drop (gas velocity) in the venturi throat determines collection efficiency, a damper in the throat being provided for fluctuating gas
volumes. The diverging section helps in pressure drop regain.
The gas/liquid mixture enters the separator spin zone. Clean gas swirls upward to gas exit at the separator top. Liquid (with entrapped
particulates) drains via bottom cone to the pump for recycle back to venturi and to bleed for disposal.

...and the advantages


l No spray nozzles or jets
m hence no plugging or wear problems, can accept recycled slurry
m low pressure requirement at header, hence power saving
l Adjustable throat helps in maintaining constant pressure drop (and hence constant removal efficiency) at fluctuating gas volumes
l Long diverging section in venturi below throat promotes extended contact between particulates and liquid and increases pressure drop
regain
l Liquid reservoir in the flooded elbow at venturi bottom prevents abrasion of metal surfaces
l Anti - spin baffles provided in the separator - stops gas spin and straightens the
flow before it enters the stack
l Wide variety of options with suitable materials of construction - can withstand
corrosion or abrasion by suitable selection such as carbon steel, alloy steel,
rubber-lined steel, FRP, brick lining, etc.

A venturi for every application


l Basic - general purpose, used for a number of applications
l Flooded Wall - for applications with high dust loadings or difficult dust
l Boiler - with double-bladed throat damper specifically developed for boilers or
other applications with wide fluctuations in gas flow, yet requiring constant
efficiency
l Blast Furnace - specially developed to handle the high gas temperatures and and
extremely high and abrasive dust loads in steel plant blast furnaces
l Basic Oxygen Furnace - specially developed to handle very large gas volumes
(up to 17,00,000 m3/hr)
l Impactor - a compact unit using multiple scrubber principles with lower pressure
drop, primarily used for smelt dissolving tank vents on recovery boilers in the
pulp & paper industry
l Lime Slaker - a special venturi, mounted on top of a pulp mill lime slaker, which
uses the green liquor slaker feed as scrubbing medium and returns it to the
slaker tank
l Combination Systems - Venturi scrubber systems are often combined with a Venturi
subsequent acid gas absorber, either in the form of a separate vessel or as a
section of the separator, a reasonably good acid gas absorption efficiency being
Separator
obtained just by adding a reagent to the scrubbing liquid in the venturi
Sustainable Solutions in
Energy & Environment

Enviro Division
FGD for copper smelter and FGD System for a DG-Set PMT Complex, Behind PCMC Building,
Mumbai - Pune Road, Pimpri, Pune - 411018. India
convertor off-gases based Power Plant Tel. : 020-5612 2999, Fax : 020-2742 6532
E-mail : dbhanja@thermaxindia.com

Customer Speak AHMEDABAD


Tel. : (079) 2657 5408 / 5341 / 7073
Fax : (079) 2657 7270
E-mail : ahmedabad@thermaxindia.com
BANGALORE
Tel. : (080) 2346 7761 - 64
Fax : (080) 2346 7760
E-mail : bangalore@thermaxindia.com
CHENNAI
Tel. : (044) 2435 3831 - 34
Fax : (044) 2435 3841
E-mail : chennai@thermaxindia.com
HYDERABAD
Tel. : (040) 2339 6820, 2331 0254
Fax : (040) 2331 2335
E-mail : hyderabad@thermaxindia.com
KOLKATA
Tel. : (033) 2282 6711/2/3
Fax : (033) 2282 6796
E-mail : kolkata@thermaxindia.com
MUMBAI
Tel. : (022) 2204 5391/324
Fax : (022) 2204 0859
E-mail : mumbai@thermaxindia.com
NEW DELHI
Tel. : (011) 2614 5319/5701
Fax : (011) 2614 8679
E-mail : psupport@thermaxindia.com
VADODARA
Total Solutions in Air Pollution Control Tel. : (0265) 231 4802, 234 5442
Fax : (0265) 231 0051
E-mail : pbaroda@thermaxindia.com
Air Pollution Control
www.thermaxindia.com
l Multiclones, High Efficiency Cyclones & Spray l Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) Systems
Cyclones l Coal and Petcoke Preparation Plants Overseas Offices
Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, China, Hong Kong,
l Bagfilters and Baghouses l Pushing Emission Control Systems for Coke Indonesia, Kenya, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,
l Electrostatic Precipitators - Dry & Wet Ovens Malaysia, Nigeria, Phillippines, Russia, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, UAE, United Kingdom, USA
l Scrubbers - Particulate and Gaseous l Retrofit and Rebuild
l De-dusting and Fume Extraction Systems

Air Purification Systems Thermax Business Portfolio


l Purafil range - Chemical Air Filters for removal of corrosive, toxic and odorous gases - equipment
and media
Air Pollution Control
The division also undertakes turnkey projects to offer complete technology on air pollution control.
Absorption Cooling

Boilers & Heaters

In view of our constant endeavour to improve the quality of our products, we reserve the right to alter or change specifications without prior notice. Captive Power
All photographs shown in this publication are representative in purpose, and to be used for reference only. For actual details and specifications,
please refer to Thermax offer document.
Chemicals

Water & Waste Solutions