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Distance Vector Routing:

known also as Distributed Bellman-Ford or RIP (Routing Information
Every node maintains a routing table
all available destinations
the next node to reach to destination
the number of hops to reach the destination
Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain topology
Distance vector Table:

Distance Vector (Update):

Distance Vector (New Node):

Distance Vector (Broken Link):

Distance Vector (Loops):

Distance Vector (Count to Infinity):

DV not suited for ad-hoc networks!

Count to Infinity
New Solution -> DSDV Protocol

DSDV Protocol: C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly Dynamic

Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile
Computer, Comp. Commun. Rev., Oct. 1994, pp. 234-244.

Table-driven routing protocol

Expansion of distance vector based on Classical distributed Bellman-
Ford routing mechanism include freedom from loops in routing tables.
Main Advantage of using this protocol is that it avoid the routing loops
in a mobile network of routers.
Each node maintains a routing table of the possible destinations
within the non partitioned network and the number of routing hops /
radio hops (Hand Over Point) to each destination are recorded.
Routing information is always made readily available, regardless of
whether the source node requires a route or not.
DSDV is Destination Based
No global view of topology

DSDV is Proactive (Table Driven)

o Each node maintains routing information for all known destinations

o Routing information must be updated periodically

o Traffic overhead even if there is no change in network topology

o Maintains routes which are never used

Keep the simplicity of Distance Vector

Guarantee Loop Freeness

o New Table Entry for Destination Sequence Number

Allow fast reaction to topology changes

o Make immediate route advertisement on significant changes in

routing table

o but wait with advertising of unstable routes

(damping fluctuations)

DSDV (Table Entries):

Sequence number originated from destination. Ensures

loop freeness.

Install Time when entry was made (used to delete stale entries from

Stable Data Pointer to a table holding information on how stable a route

is. Used to damp fluctuations in network.

DSDV (Route Advertisements):

Advertise to each neighbor own routing information

Destination Address

Metric = Number of Hops to Destination

Destination Sequence Number

Rules to set sequence number information

On each advertisement increase own destination sequence number

(use only even numbers)

If a node is no more reachable (timeout) increase sequence number

of this node by 1 (odd sequence number) and set metric =

DSDV (Route Selection):

Update information is compared to own routing table

1. Select route with higher destination sequence number (This
ensure to use always newest information from destination)

2. Select the route with better metric when sequence numbers are

When X receives information from Y about a route to Z

Let destination sequence number for Z at X be S(X), S(Y) is sent from Y

If S(X) > S(Y), then X ignores the routing information received from Y

If S(X) = S(Y), and cost of going through Y is smaller than the route known
to X, then X sets Y as the next hop to Z

If S(X) < S(Y), then X sets Y as the next hop to Z, and S(X) is updated to
equal S(Y)

DSDV (Tables):

DSDV (Route Advertisement):

DSDV (Route Update) :

1. A sequence numbering system is used to allow mobile hosts to

distinguish stale routes from new ones.

2. Routing table updates are sent periodically throughout the network

to maintain table consistency.

3. It generates a lot of control traffic in the network, rendering an inefficient

utilization of network resources.
4. To minimize the routing updates, variable sized update packets
are used depending on the number of topological changes.

5. DSDV uses two types of route update packets.

Full Dump update Packet

Incremental update Packet

DSDV (New Node) :

New route broadcasts will contain

- Address of the destination node

- Number of hops to reach the destination

- Unique Sequence number :

The sequence numbers are generally even if a link is

present; else, an odd number is used.

The number is generated by the destination, and the

emitter needs to send out the next update with this

- The route labeled with the most recent sequence number (in
increasing order) is always used.

- In the event that two updates have the same sequence

number, the route with the smaller hop count is used.
Figure: DSDV(New Node)

DSDV (no loops, no count to infinity):

DSDV (Example) :
DSDV (Advantages) :

Simple (almost like Distance Vector)

Incremental updates with sequence no tag makes existing wired network

protocol adaptable to ad-hoc network.

Loop free through destination seq. numbers

No latency caused by route discovery

DSDV (Disadvantages) :

Generates a lot of control traffic in the network, rendering an inefficient

utilization of network resources.

Small network with high mobility or a large network with low mobility can
completely chock the available bandwidth.

In order to obtain information about a particular destination node., a node

has to wait for a table update message initiated by the destination node

Overhead: most routing information never used