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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhmt

helical tubes

Houjian Zhao, Xiaowei Li , Xinxin Wu

Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Institute of Nuclear

and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Helical tubes are widely used and there lacks friction factor equations for turbulent flows in rough helical

Received 17 July 2015 tubes. Turbulent flows in rough helical tubes were investigated theoretically in this paper. Friction factor

Received in revised form 7 December 2015 equations for transitionally and fully rough regime turbulent flows in rough helical tubes were derived

Accepted 16 December 2015

based on the logarithmic velocity distribution law. The parameters of the equations were obtained by

regression analysis of experimental data of Clancy (1949) and verified by experimental data of

McElligott (1948). The characteristics of the friction factors in rough helical tubes were discussed based

Keywords:

on the equations. Friction factors of helical tubes are influenced by Reynolds numbers, relative rough-

Helical tube

Curvature ratio

nesses and curvature ratios. The friction factors of rough helical tubes can also be divided into a transi-

Friction factor tionally rough regime and a fully rough regime according to the roughness height and the Reynolds

Relative roughness number like that for straight tubes. Roughnesses have greater effects on the transition from the transi-

Turbulent flow tionally rough regime to the fully rough regime than that of curvature ratios. Roughness effects on friction

factors increase with the increasing of the curvature ratio and the Reynolds number.

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

correlations were obtained by regression analysis of the experi-

Helical tubes are widely used in chemical, petroleum and mental data and the results showed that the critical Reynolds num-

nuclear industries due to the advantages of compact structures, ber for laminar flow to turbulent flow transition in helical tubes

high heat transfer coefficients and good thermal expansion perfor- was much greater than that in straight tubes. Yamamoto et al.

mances. In nuclear industries, helical tubes are usually used in [11] investigated flows in helical tubes with large pitches numeri-

steam generators [35], especially for gas cooled reactors. Flows cally and experimentally. Simulations agreed well with experi-

in helical tubes are more complex than those in straight tubes. Sec- mental data and showed that two vortices transformed into one

ondary flows occur in helical tubes in the cross section due to the single vortex as the pitches increase. Hart et al. [12] presented a

centrifugal force, which causes more friction losses. friction factor chart for flows in curved tubes which covered the

Since the classical works by Dean [6,7], flows in smooth curved laminar flow region and turbulent flow region and derived an

tubes have been extensively studied. Dean obtained an approxi- equation to calculate friction factors. Grundman [13] developed a

mate solution through perturbation over the Poiseuille flow in practical friction factor diagram for helical tubes which accounted

straight tubes and introduced the Dean number. Gnielinski [8] pre- for curvature ratio effects. The diagram also offered a graphic view

sented equations for laminar flows and turbulent flows to calculate of the flow conditions and other parameters. Mishra and Gupta

the friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in helical tubes. [14] investigated the pitch effects on pressure drops in helical

Results were compared with experimental data from literature tubes. Pressure drops were measured and equations for friction

and the deviations were less than 15%. Srinivasan [9] measured factors were derived using the modified Dean number. They con-

the pressure drops of water and oil in helical tubes and developed cluded that the pitch effects could be eliminated by using the mod-

equations to predict friction factors for laminar, transition and ified curvature diameter. Ito [15] measured the frictional pressure

turbulent flow regions. Ju et al. [10] evaluated the hydraulic drop of turbulent flows in smooth curved tubes with zero pitch and

derived an equation using the 1/7th power velocity distribution

law and an equation using the logarithmic velocity distribution

Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 62784825; fax: +86 10 62797136. law, which have been used widely for engineers [16].

E-mail address: lixiaowei@tsinghua.edu.cn (X. Li).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.12.035

0017-9310/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

526 H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534

Nomenclature

Notations

Cur curvature ratio (dimensionless) Greek letters

fc friction factors for curved tubes (dimensionless) a; b; c constants in the friction factor equation

Ks average wall surface roughness (m) d thickness of boundary layer (m)

M mass flow rates (kg s1) e relative roughness, e = Ks/r0 (dimensionless)

P static pressure (Pa) h angels in the cross section

r0 tube inner radius (m) l dynamic viscosity (kg s1 m1)

R helical radius (m) q density (kg m3)

Rc modified helical radius (m) u angles in the axial direction

V velocity magnitude in curved tubes (m s1)

Vr velocity magnitude in the r direction (m s1)

Subscripts

Vh velocity magnitude in the h direction (m s1) 1 at the edge of the boundary layer

Vu velocity magnitude in the u direction (m s1) c curved rough tubes

V sw =q1=2 , friction velocity (m s1) c, r helical rough tubes

Vm mean axial velocity (m s1)

c, s helical smooth tubes

y distance normal to the wall (m) rough fully rough regime

y0 distance normal to the wall where the velocity magni- str, r straight rough tubes

tude is zero (m).

trans transitionally rough regime

sw wall shear stress (N m2) w near the wall

sh wall shear stress in the h direction (N m2)

su wall shear stress in the u direction (N m2)

Flows in helical tubes also have been investigated numerically. well with others experimental data for commercial tubes. How-

Austin and Seader [17] solved the NavierStokes equation in the ever, the results deviated from the performances of commercial

stream-function form using the finite difference method to simu- tubes at moderate Reynolds number. Colebrook and White [26]

late steady, incompressible and fully developed flows in helical investigated turbulent flows in roughened straight tubes experi-

tubes. They presented a correlation for pressure drops in terms mentally and found Nikuradses [25] deviations from the commer-

of the Dean number. Soeberg [18] simulated laminar flow in helical cial tubes were due to the uniform roughness in tubes. Then

tubes based on the symmetry of the secondary flow and investi- Colebrook [27] presented an implicit equation to calculated friction

gated the velocity profile changes which were influenced by the factors in rough straight tubes. The equation was widely used to

Dean number. Liu and Masliyah [19] and Yamamoto et al. [20] sim- calculate friction factors for turbulent flow in rough straight tubes.

ulated the flows in helical tubes with finite pitches and found the Many researchers [2832] obtained explicit equations to calculate

friction factors would increase as the curvature ratios increase. the friction factors in rough straight tubes with specific limits.

However, the factors would decrease as the pitches increase. Moody [33] presented a composite friction factor chart of all flow

Yanase et al. [21] used the ForierChebyshev spectral method to regions for rough straight tubes which was widely used in engi-

analyze the stability of the two-vortex and the four-vortex solu- neering. For rough helical tubes, Clancy [1] measured the pressure

tions for flows in slightly curved tubes and found that the two- drops in rough helical tubes and straight tubes and found friction

vortex solution was stable in response to any small disturbances, factors were influenced by Reynolds numbers, helical diameters

while the four-vortex solution was unstable to asymmetric distur- and roughness heights. McElligott [2] compared friction factors

bances. Lai et al. [22] simulated turbulent flows in curved tubes in rough helical tubes and friction factors in rough straight tubes

and found that there were three vortex pairs in the cross section. with comparable roughness. The results showed that friction fac-

One was the Dean-type vortex pair. Another existed in the tube tors in helical tubes depended more on roughnesses than on curva-

core and was caused by the pressure imbalance. The third was near ture ratios.

the outer wall and was the turbulence driven secondary flow. Man- This paper describes a theoretical investigation on turbulent

lapaz and Churchill [23] simulated laminar flows in coiled tubes flows in rough helical tubes and derived friction factor equations

with a finite pitch and developed a friction factor equation for considering the roughness effects, curvature ratios and Reynolds

the laminar flow region. Ivan and Michele [24] simulated turbulent numbers. The equations can predict the friction factors accurately

flows using k e, SST kx and RSMx models. Pressure drops compared with literature data. The comprehensive effects of

were in excellent agreement with experimental data when using roughnesses and curvature ratios on the friction factor are also dis-

SST kx and RSMx models, but results were unsatisfactory cussed based on the equations.

when using k e model with wall functions.

To the authors knowledge, most previous studies did not con-

sider the roughness effects on friction factors in helical tubes. 2. Equation derivation

There are no reported equations for calculating the friction factors

in rough helical tubes. However, most helical tubes used for indus- 2.1. Physical model and mathematical description

tries are commercial tubes with different height of roughness.

Many investigations have been done on flows in rough straight Fig. 1 shows a helical tube schematic with the main parameters

tubes which can be taken as the bases for investigation on rough and a secondary flow illustration. The helical radius is defined as R,

helical tubes. Nikuradse [25] experimentally investigated turbu- the tube inner radius is defined as r 0 and the helical pitch is defined

lent flows in rough straight tubes by roughening the tubes with as b. When the helical pitch is small compared with the helical

uniform sand grains. At high Reynolds numbers, the results agreed diameter, torsion effects can be neglected at moderate Reynolds

H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534 527

Fig. 1. Schematic of a helical tube and secondary flow in the cross section.

Fig. 2. The curved tube and velocity vectors in the orthogonal coordinates.

number [19]. Moreover, the effects of pitch on friction factors can section, h denotes the angle between r and the symmetry of the

be eliminated if the helical radius is modified by Eq. (1) [14]. cross section, and u denotes the angular distance from a fixed cross

" 2 # section. V r , V h and V u are taken as the velocity magnitudes in

b directions of r, h and u. The continuity and momentum equations,

Rc R 1 1

2pR Eqs. (2)(5), are obtained based on the following assumptions:

(1) The helical tubes are simplified to be curved tubes with zero

be a helical tube with zero pitch as shown in Fig. 2(a). The toroidal

pitch.

orthogonal coordinate system shown in Fig. 2(b) is adopted, where

(2) The flows are incompressible and steady.

r denotes the distance from the center of the tube in the cross

528 H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534

Z Z Z

(3) The flows are fully developed, so, Vr, Vh and Vu are indepen- 1 r0

@ r0 V 2u sin h r0

1 @P

dent of u. V 2h dr V h V r rr00 d dr dr

r0 r0 d @h r 0 d R r0 d qr0 @h

(4) The helical radius is much larger than the tube radius, i.e. r

@V h 0

R r0. m 8

@r r0 d

@V r V r 1 @V h

0 2 According to Ito [36],

@r r r @h

@P r0

q V 2u1 sin h

2

@V r V h @V r V 2h V u cos h @h R

Vr

@r r @h r R

V r V h 0 r r0

1 @P m @ @V h V h 1 @V r

3

q @r r @h @r r r @h @V h

V h1 0 r r0 d

2

@r 1

@V h V h @V h V h V r V u sin h

Vr where V u1 and V h1 are the velocity magnitudes at the edge of the

@r r @h r R

boundary layer in u direction and h direction, respectively. Then

1 @P @ @V h V h 1 @V r

m 4 Eq. (8) is reduced to,

qr @h @r @r r r @h

Z Z

! @ d

dr 0 2 r0 d

@V u V h @V u 1 @P @ V u 1 @V u 1 @ V u @h 0 R u1 R 0

Vr m 2 5

@r r @h qR @ u @r 2 r @r r @ u2 where y is the distance normal to the wall near the wall region.

As the velocities in r direction in the boundary layer are

According to Adler [34], the boundary layer will become thinner

neglected. The velocities in the curved tubes are composed by

when the Dean number increases. The friction factor equation is

velocities in axial direction, V u , and velocities in circumferential

derived based on the boundary layer approximation method. This

method divides the cross section of curved tubes into two regions, direction, V h . Then the velocities are assumed to be:

the central core in the central region and the thin boundary layer V KV

near the wall region. The detailed information of the boundary

Vu 1=2

Vh 1=2

10

1 K 2 1 K 2

layer is shown in Fig. 3.

In the boundary layer, the viscous effect is significant. The thick- where K is the ratio of V h and V u . V is the velocity magnitude in

ness of the boundary layer is denoted as d. The axial velocities, V u , curved tubes.

will gradually fall to zero when approaching the wall because of According to the relationship between velocities and wall

the no slip wall conditions. Then V h and V u are comparable in stresses,

the boundary layer. Order-of-magnitude analysis was done to

@V u @V h

reduce Eqs. (2)(5). Similar to the boundary layer theory for plates su l sh l 11

@r w @r w

[35], we know that in the boundary layer, Vh O(1), Vu O(1),

Vr O(d), @=@r Od1 , and d r0. In the boundary layer, the Then wall stresses in u direction and h direction can be written

value of r is approximate to r0. Then Eqs. (2) and (4) are reduced to, as,

@V r 1 @V h sw K sw

0 6 su sh 12

@r r 0 @h 1 K 2 1=2

1 K 2

1=2

@V h V h @V h V u sin h 1 @P @2V h

Vr m 2 7

@r r 0 @h R qr0 @h @r Vm

Y 13

V

The pressure gradient in h direction in Eq. (7) is set as indepen-

dent of r and equal to the pressure gradient at the edge of the where V m is the mean axial velocity magnitude and V is the friction

boundary layer. Eq. (7) is integrated by using Eq. (6). velocity magnitude, which is defined by,

H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534 529

r

sw 2.3. Friction factor equation in the fully rough regime

V 14

q

In fully rough regimes, y0 jK s , where j is constant [35]. y0 in

As K is the ratio of V h and V u , we can get,

Eq. (24) is replaced to give,

Vu Vm V h kV m 15 V u1

B ln d=K s C 25

Eq. (13) is combined with Eqs. (12) and (14) to get, V

where B and C are constants.Eq. (25) is then combined with Eqs.

qV 2m K qV 2m

su sh 16 (13) and (15), we can obtain the relationship between Y and d=K s .

Y2 Y2

d eY K s 26

The pressure gradient in u direction is,

Z p The order-of-magnitude of each term in Eq. (9) is obtained after

@P 2R divided by qV 2m r 0 .

su dh 17

@u pr0 0 R R

d

q @h@ 0d V 2h dy sh r0 q drR0 V 2u1 sin h q rR0 sin h 0 V 2u dy

Eq. (16) is combined with Eq. (17) to get, 27

qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0

@P RqV 2m

18

@u r0 Y 2 K 2 eY K s K eY K s eY K s

r0 2 R R

The friction factor of a helical tube, f c is defined by,

Y

Each term must have the same order-of-magnitude. Comparing

@P 1 R

f c qV 2m 19 K 2 eY K s =r0 with eY K s =R gives,

@u 2 2r 0

K r 0 =R1=2 28

Substitute Eq. (19) into Eq. (18) to get the relationship between Y

and f c . Define e, e K s =r0 as the relative roughness. Comparing K=Y 2

2 Y

with K e K s =r0 , we can get that,

f c Y2 20

1

Define that, Y 2 eY 29

Ke

A The relationships in Eqs. (28) and (29) can be rewritten as,

fc 21

Y2 r 1=2

0

KD 30

where A is constant. R

E

2.2. Logarithmic law for turbulent flow near walls Y 2 eY 31

Ke

The logarithmic velocity distribution law used in this analysis is where D and E are constants.

Prandtls velocity-distribution law which was derived from the Eq. (31) can be solved to get Y,

mixing length theory [35]. It is widely accepted and used for wall

E

turbulence, usually it is called law of the wall. The law can be writ- Y ln ln K eY 2 ln E 32

ten as, K eY 2

Eq. (32) can be rewritten by using Eqs. (21) and (30).

V aV ln y b

1 Ge

where V is the velocity magnitude, a and b are constants, V is the 1=2

F ln r 0 =R1=2 33

fc fc

friction velocity and y is the distance from the wall.

Then for the boundary layer in the helical tube, we can get, where F and G are constants. r 0 =R is defined as the curvature ratio.

V 1 V aV ln d=y 22

2.4. Friction factor in the transitionally rough regime

where V 1 is the velocity magnitude at the edge of the boundary

layer in the cross section. According to Colebrook [27], in the transitionally rough regime,

For rough helical tubes, the velocity magnitude is zero at a

y0 HK s Il=qV 34

point, just like that for the straight rough tubes near the wall.

The distance normal to the wall at this point is set to be y0 [35]. where H and I are constants.

V 1 can be expressed as, Eq. (24) can be rewritten as,

V 1 aV ln d=y0 23 d

V u1 AV ln 35

HK s Il=qV

At the edge of the boundary layer, V h1 0 and V 1 V u1 . Eq. (23)

can be rewritten as, Eq. (35) is combined with Eqs. (13) and (15),

V u1 aV ln d=y0 24 d eY HK s Il=qV 36

The relationships between y0 and the mean roughness, K s , in the Each side of Eq. (36) is divided by r 0 ,

fully rough regime and the transitionally rough regime are differ-

d LeY Y

ent. The following analysis will be divided into two sections, fric- JeY e 37

r0 Re

tion factors in the fully rough regime and friction factors in the

transitionally rough regime. Re 2qV m r0 =l; is the Reynolds number. J and L are constants.

530 H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534

The order-of-magnitude of each term in Eq. (9) is obtained after decreasing when the Reynolds number increased, the flows were

divided by qV 2m r0 , in transitionally regime. The parameters in Eq. (43) can be obtained

R R by the regression analysis of experimental data.

d

q @h@ 0d V 2h dy sh r0 q drR0 V 2u1 sin h q rR0 sin h 0 V 2u dy The differential pressures were measured by water manometer

38

qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0 qV 2m r0 at low flow rates and by mercury manometer at high flow rates.

Flow rates were obtained by weighting a mass of water during a

d 2 K d d specific time interval. The experimental errors were not presented

K in reference [1]. The relative errors for pressure drops are set as 2%

r0 Y2 R R

based on the minimum calibration of 1 mm. The maximum relative

Comparing d=R and dK 2 =r0 , we can get the relationship shown in errors for mass flow rates and length are set as 2% and 0.1%, respec-

Eq. (39), which is the same as Eq. (28). tively, based on the significant digits of the experimental data. The

relative errors are calculated by the following equations.

K r0 =R1=2 39 s

2 2 Du Xn @ ln u2

Comparing dK =r 0 with K=Y , we can get, Dxi 2 45

u i1 @xi

d 1

40

r 0 KY 2

DP D 2DP D5 p 2

f q 46

Then substitute Eq. (37) into Eq. (40), we can get, 0:5qV 2m L M2 L 4

LeY Y 1 s

2 2 2

JeY e 41

Re KY 2 Df 1 2 2 2 5 2 1 2

DDP DM DD DL

f DP M D L

Eq. (41) can be rewritten as,

47

Y LeY Y M

Je e 42 The experimental errors for friction factors are below 5%, which

Re KY 2 is calculated by Eq. (47).

where M is constant.

The friction factor equation is obtained by solving Eq. (42), 3.2. Determination of the equation parameters

using Eqs. (21) and (30),

" # As Eq. (43) is a multiple parameter equation and the friction fac-

1 be r0 1=2 c r0 1=2 tor is in implicit expression. Eq. (43) is transformed to Eq. (48) for

1=2

a ln 3=2 Re 43

fc fc R fc R regression analysis to get the parameters.

," 1=2 #

where a, b and c are constants.

be e1=a=f c

c

Re 3=2 48

2.5. Equation compatibility for different flow regimes fc fc r 0 =R1=2

The thickness of the viscous sub-layer decreases as the

helical tubes for different curvature ratio and different roughness.

Reynolds number increases. The roughness will dominates the wall

stresses when the roughnesses are all out of the viscous sub-layer. The Reynolds number varied from 1 103 to 1 105 . The experi-

Turbulent flows in the transitionally rough regime will transform mental data for each tube are defined as one group of data and is

to the fully rough regime. With very high Reynolds numbers, marked by the tube number. As the equation is derived based on

Eq. (43) can be written as Eq. (44) by eliminating the term includ- the logarithmic velocity distribution law, the friction factors in

ing the Reynolds number. the laminar flow region should not be used. The critical Reynolds

number is calculated by Eq. (49) [15].

1 be r 0 1=2

1=2

a ln 44 r 0:32

fc fc R 0

Recri 2 104 49

R

Eq. (44) is the same as Eq. (31), which shows that the derived

friction factor equations for transitionally and fully rough regimes Several groups of data are used for the regression analysis. The

are compatible.

data with Reynolds number below 1 104 are not used. Then

about 5 points in each group are left. The total points used are

3. Equation parameter determination about 30. The curvature ratios and the relative roughnesses are

set as constant in Eq. (48) for each group. The results of the regres-

Friction factor equations for transitionally and fully rough sion analysis are shown in Table 1 and the confidence level is 95%.

regime turbulent flows have been derived. However, the constants The values of a, b and c shown in Table 1 are averaged, then

in Eqs. (33) and (43) need to be determined using experimental gives,

data.

a = 0.923033

3.1. The experiments of Clancy b = 0.104455

c = 1.142495

The experimental data from Clancy [1] are used to approximate

the derived equations. Fig. 4 shows a schematic diagram of the test Then Eq. (43) can be expressed as,

apparatus of Clancy [1]. The pressure drops in helical tubes were " #

measured with the curvature ratio varied from 0.056 to 0.063, 1 0:104e r0 1=2 1:142 r 0 1=2

0:923 ln 3=2 50

mean roughness varied from about 0.64 lm and Reynolds num- 1=2

fc fc R f c Re R

bers varied from 1 103 to 1 105 . As the friction factors kept

H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534 531

Table 1 Table 2

Regression analysis results. Equation verification.

Tube number 2 3 4 5 9 10 Re Relative roughness Experiment Eq. (50) Relative error (%)

a 0.92589 0.92879 0.91636 0.92058 0.92567 0.92091 5 3 0.0257 0.025916 0.8

1 10 0:315 10

b 0.10158 0.09756 0.09101 0.12272 0.09693 0.11693 1 105 0:2849103 0.0247 0.024705 0.01

c 1.19671 1.18591 0.98235 1.19694 1.11030 1.18276

2 104 0:315 103 0.035 0.034533 1.3

Relative roughness 0.00016 0.00018 0.00013 0.00010 0.00013 0.00011

Curvature ratio 0.06214 0.06101 0.06115 0.06186 0.06101 0.06158 2 104 0:302 103 0.033 0.032989 0.03

Adj. R-square 0.99877 0.99915 0.99411 0.99840 0.99858 0.99750 2 10 4

0:284 103 0.0324 0.032957 1.7

enough, the turbulent flows in the transitionally rough regime will

convert to the fully rough regime. Influence of Re will diminishes,

left only the relative roughnesss influence. We set c as zero in Eq.

(50). The equation for the fully rough regime is obtained.

1 0:104e r 0 1=2

1=2

0:923 ln 51

fc fc R

of experimental data with random roughnesses. But the uniform

roughness effects and random roughness effects on friction factors

are different [26,27]. Then coefficients of the equations to predict

friction factors in uniform roughened helical tubes [3740] in the

transitionally rough regime and fully rough regime will be

different.

become equivalent to that for smooth tubes. We will discuss this

McElligott [2]. In Ref. [2], the Reynolds numbers are 2 104 and

in Section 4.1. Eq. (50) shows that the friction factors of rough heli-

1 105. The relative roughnesses are from 0.284 103 to

cal tubes are influenced by the combined effects of the Reynolds

0.315 103 which are different from those of Ref. [1]. Friction fac-

number, the curvature ratio and the relative roughness. We will

tors measured in the experiments, factors calculated by Eq. (50)

discuss these effects in Sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4.

and the relative errors are shown in Table 2 and Fig. 5, which

shows a good prediction by using Eq. (50).

4.1. Compatibility with Itos equations

tigation on turbulent flows in smooth curved tubes. Ito [15] inves-

A good friction factor equation for rough helical tubes should be tigated turbulent flow pressure drops in smooth curved tubes

compatible with that for smooth helical tubes, which means when experimentally and theoretically. Two equations are derived based

the roughness diminishes, the equation for rough tubes should on the 1/7th power velocity distribution law and the logarithmic

532 H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534

(52) and (53). The equations for smooth tubes have been widely

used.

1=2

R 0:316

fc h

i1=5 52

r0 2

Re rR0

" 1=2 #

1 3=2 R

1=2

2:11log10 Ref c 0:23 53

fc r0

friction factors in smooth helical tubes to see whether the equation

is consistent with Itos equations. Friction factors are also calcu-

lated by Eqs. (52) and (53) with the same curvature ratio and the

same Reynolds number. The results are shown in Fig. 6. The rela-

tive errors are less than 4%. The curvature ratios are 0.1 and 0.01.

Cur means the curvature ratio. Fig. 7. Comparison of friction factors in helical tubes with different roughnesses

and the same curvature ratios.

effects on the transition progress. Fig. 8 shows that the curvature

Friction factors are calculated using Eq. (50) for the same curva-

ratio has little effect on the transition. Roughness dominates the

ture ratio but different relative roughnesses. The Reynolds num-

transition process, like that in straight tubes.

bers varies from 1 104 to 6 105. The relative roughness varies

from 4 104 to 8 103 . The curvature ratio is 0.1, where the 4.4. Combined effects of roughness and curvature ratio on friction

helical radius is 50 mm and the tube inner radius is 5 mm. The factors

results are shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 7 shows that the friction factors

decrease as the Reynolds numbers increase in a range of Re with Eq. (50) shows that the roughness effects on friction factors are

relatively low values. The range is different for tubes with different influenced by Reynolds numbers and curvature ratios. The factors,

roughness, like the transitionally rough regime in Moody chart. In f c;s , in smooth helical tubes are calculated by Eq. (50) with the rel-

the transitionally rough regime, the factors depend both on the

ative roughness set as zero. The friction factors, f c;r , in rough helical

roughness and the Reynolds number. When Re is high enough, fric-

tubes are calculated by Eq. (50) with the relative roughness set as

tion factor keeps unchanged as Reynolds numbers increase, like

0.004 and the Reynolds number varies from 1 105 to 6 105. The

the fully rough regime in Moody chart.

ratio, f c;r =f c;s reflects the roughness effects on the friction factors in

4.3. Roughness and curvature ratio effects on the transition helical tubes. f c;r =f c;s is calculated with different curvature ratio

and the results are shown in Fig. 9.

Friction factors in the transitionally rough regime, ftrans, are cal- The results in Fig. 9 shows that f c;r =f c;s increases as the curva-

culated by Eq. (50) and friction factors in fully rough regime, f rough , ture ratio increases or the Reynolds number increases. That means

are calculated by Eq. (51). The curvature ratios are 0.1 and 0.05. roughness effects on friction factors increase with increasing cur-

The relative roughnesses are 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004 for each curva- vature ratios and Reynolds numbers. When the curvature ratios

increase or the Reynolds numbers increase, the centrifugal force

ture ratio. Re varies from 1 104 to 6 105 . Ratios, f trans =f rough are

increases and the secondary flow intensities increase, which will

calculated and the results are shown in Fig. 8. When the flows in

cause more pressure drops in the helical tube.

the transitionally rough regime transfer to the fully rough regime,

Eq. (50) also shows that the curvature ratio effects on friction

the ratio approaches to unit. The trends of the ratio as the Reynolds

factors are influenced by relative roughness and the Reynolds

number increases reflect the curvature ratio effects and roughness

Fig. 8. Comparison of f trans =f rough with different curvature ratios and different

Fig. 6. Comparison of friction factors calculated by Eqs. (50), (52) and (53). roughnesses.

H. Zhao et al. / International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 95 (2016) 525534 533

parameters in the equations are determined by regression analysis

of experimental data of Clancy [1] and verified by experimental

data of McElligott [2]. The influences of curvature ratio, relative

roughness and the Reynolds number on friction factors in rough

helical tubes are analyzed. The main conclusions are,

friction factors for turbulent flows in rough helical tubes.

One is for the transitionally rough regime and the other is

for the fully rough regime. The friction factors are influenced

by the Reynolds number, curvature ratio and the relative

roughness.

(2) The parameters of the equations are obtained by regression

analysis of experimental data.

(3) The roughness has similar effects on friction factors for tur-

bulent flow in rough helical tubes as that in rough straight

Fig. 9. Comparison of f c;r =f c;s with different curvature ratios. tubes. When the roughness and the Reynolds number are

high enough, the friction factors become independent of

the Reynolds number.

(4) For turbulent flow in rough helical tubes, the roughness

effects on friction factors increase as the curvature ratio

increases. The roughness effects and curvature ratio effects

increase as the Reynolds number increase.

Acknowledgments

Science Foundation of China (51576103) and the National S&T

Major Project (Grant No. ZX06901).

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