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Submitted To: Zahid Meer

Submitted By: M. Majid

Satellite communications is the use of satellite technology in the field of
communications. The services provided by satellite communications are voice and
video calling, internet, fax, television and radio channels.

Satellite communications can provide communication capabilities spanning long

distances and can operate under circumstances or conditions which are inoperable
for other forms of communication.

Communication satellite:
An orbiting vehicle, which relays signals between communications stations there are two types:

Active communications satellite

A satellite that receives, regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations

Passive communications satellite

A satellite which reflects communications signals between stations. Also called COMSAT
ventures led to a greater use and acceptance of satellite broadcasting. By the
1990s, satellite communications would be the primary means of distributing TV
programs around the world


Pakistans first communication satellite was launched on 12 Aug 2011. The satellite was
developed and launched by the China Great Wall Industry Corporation (CGWIC). The satellite is
located at the 38 degrees East orbital slot. The service life of the satellite is 15 years. The
commercial services of the satellite were inaugurated by the Prime Minister of Pakistan on 05
Nov 2011 from the satellite ground station located near Lahore. The satellite is providing
satisfactory services to a broad spectrum of national and international customers.

Arthur C. Clark wrote the first well-known article on communication satellites. "Extra-Terrestrial
Relays" was published in Wireless World in 1945. In the article, Clark discussed geosynchronous
earth orbit and the possibility of covering the earth with three satellites.

The actual journey into space began October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik
1, the world's first orbital spacecraft, which orbited the world for three months. A month later the
Soviets launched Sputnik 2 and its passenger Laika a dog who has the distinction of being the
first known living creature to escape earth and enter outer space. The space race was on, and in
February of 1958, the United States launched Explorer 1.

The first communication satellite was launched on December 18, 1958. Signal Communication
by Orbital Relay (SCORE), which broadcasted a Christmas message from President Eisenhower
- "Peace on Earth, Good will toward men" - orbited the earth for 12 days until the batteries
failed. The main purpose of the SCORE project was to prove that an atlas missile could be put
into orbit.

Combined, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. launched six satellites in 1958, 14 satellites in 1959, 19 in 1960
and 35 in 1961. In 1962, the United Kingdom and Canada launched satellites of their own, along
with the 70 satellites launched by the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

On August 12, 1960, the United States launched Echo 1, a passive reflector satellite with no
amplification possibilities. Echo 1 could only reflect the radiation back to earth. At the time of its
launch, it was thought that passive reflector satellites could serve a purpose in communications,
but the technology was soon abandoned.

Bell Telephone Laboratories assisted in the Echo 1 project. Knowledge gained working on Echo
1 helped Bell to develop Telstar, an experimental satellite that relayed television signals. Telstar
was launched into medium earth orbit in 1962. In the six months following the launch, stations in
the United States, Britain and France conducted about 400 transmissions with multichannel
telephone, telegraph, facsimile and television signals, and they performed over 250 technical
tests and measurements.

Near complete Earth coverage (excluding polar areas) was achieved with the development of
Intelsat and the launching of satellites into geosynchronous earth orbit over the Atlantic (1965),
Pacific (1967), and Indian oceans (1969). A combination of more than 130 governments and
international organization control Intelsat. Intelsat, along with Inmarsat, which is used in
international shipping, is open to use by all nations. The Intelsat consortium owns the satellites,
but each nation owns their own earth stations. In 1997 Intelsat had 19 satellites in geostationary
NASA led the new wave of communication satellite technology with the launch of Advanced
Communications Technology Satellites (ACTS) in 1993. ACTS pioneered the use of spot beams,
on-board storage and processing, and all digital transmission, which combined made a successful
communication satellite constellation more feasible. Each of these innovations serve a certain
technological purpose that makes and internet in the sky more likely.

Spot beams subdivide a satellite's footprint which allows the satellite to use its portion of
the spectrum more efficiently

On-board storage and processing allows for inter-satellite communication and the caching
of information until a spot beam finds its target

All-digital transmission allows a satellite to incorporate error codes into its signal which
helps to overcome rain fade.

Following the breakthrough, several corporations decided to get invest in broadband satellites. In
1997 the FCC gave permission to 13 companies to use a portion of the sky and a portion of the
electromagnetic for their satellites systems and their signals. Among the companies was Hughes,
Loral, Motorola, EchoStar and Teledesic, a company with the backing of Bill Gates and Craig

Not all of these companies will be able to make it in space, and Motorola has already failed with
their 66 satellite system, Iridium, which was supposed to provide mobile telephone service. But
if they succeed, accessing to their internet will be possible no matter where you are.

Satellite Communication Basics

The basic elements of a satellite communications system are shown
in Figure 1 below. The process begins at an earth station--an
installation designed to transmit and receive signals from a satellite
in orbit around the earth. Earth stations send information in the form
of high powered, high frequency (GHz range) signals to satellites
which receive and retransmit the signals back to earth where they
are received by other earth stations in the coverage area of the
satellite. The area which receives a signal of useful strength from
the satellite is known as the satellite's footprint. The transmission
system from the earth station to the satellite is called the uplink,
and the system from the satellite to the earth station is called the
Figure 1: Satellite Communication Basics
Satellite Frequency Bands
The three most commonly used satellite frequency bands are the C-
band, Ku-band, and Ka-band. C-band and Ku-band are the two most
common frequency spectrums used by today's satellites. To help
understand the relationship between antenna diameter and
transmission frequency, it is important to note that there is an
inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength--when
frequency increases, wavelength decreases. As wavelength
increases, larger antennas (satellite dishes) are necessary to gather
the signal.

C-band satellite transmissions occupy the 4 to 8 GHz frequency range. These

relatively low frequencies translate to larger wavelengths than Ku-band or Ka-band.
These larger wavelengths of the C-band mean that a larger satellite antenna is required
to gather the minimum signal strength, and therefore the minimum size of an average
C-band antenna is approximately 2-3 meters in diameter as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: C-band Satellite Antenna

Ku-band satellite transmissions occupy the 11 to 17 GHz frequency
range. These relatively high frequency transmissions correspond to
shorter wavelengths and therefore a smaller antenna can be used to
receive the minimum signal strength. Ku-band antennas can be as
small as 18 inches in diameter, as commonly seen in the RCA
DSS and Sony DSS systems. Figure 3 below shows the Ku-band
antenna of the Sony DSS system.

Applications of satellites:
Satellites that are launched in to the orbit by using the rockets are called man-made satellites or
artificial satellites. Artificial satellites revolve around the earth because of the gravitational force
of attraction between the earth and satellites. Unlike the natural satellites (moon), artificial
satellites are used in various applications.

The various applications of artificial satellites include:

1. Weather forecasting

2. Navigation

3. Astronomy

4. Satellite phone
5. Satellite television

6. Military satellite

7. Satellite internet

8. Satellite radio.

1. Weather forecasting
Weather forecasting is the prediction of the future of weather. The satellites that are used to

predict the future of weather are called weather satellites.

2. Navigation
Generally, navigation refers to determining the geographical location of an object. The satellites

that are used to determine the geographic location of aircrafts, ships, cars, trains, or any other

object are called navigation satellites.

3. Astronomy
Astronomy is the study of celestial objects such as stars, planets, galaxies, natural satellites,

comets, etc. The satellites that are used to study or observe the distant stars, galaxies, planets, etc.

are called astronomical satellites

4. Satellite phone

Satellite phone is a type of mobile phone that uses satellites instead of cell towers for

transmitting the signal or information over long distances.

5. Satellite television
Satellite television or satellite TV is a wireless system that uses communication satellites to

deliver the television programs or television signals to the users or viewers.

6. Military satellite
Military satellite is an artificial satellite used by the army for various purposes such as spying on

enemy countries, military communication, and navigation.

7. Satellite internet
Satellite internet is a wireless system that uses satellites to deliver the internet signals to users.

High-speed internet is the main advantage of satellite internet. Satellite internet does not use

cable systems, but instead it uses satellites to transmit the information or signal.

8. Satellite radio
Satellite radio is a wireless transmission service that uses orbiting satellites to deliver the

information or radio signals to the consumers. It is primarily used in the cars.


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