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Music and color therapy Review on music & color therapy. Done by: Mina Fouad The

Music and color therapy

Music and color therapy Review on music & color therapy. Done by: Mina Fouad The purpose

Review on music & color therapy.

Music and color therapy Review on music & color therapy. Done by: Mina Fouad The purpose

Done by: Mina Fouad

Review on music & color therapy. Done by: Mina Fouad The purpose of this research is

The purpose of this research is to provide a general idea about music and color therapy to non-medical reader so it does not include in- depth details of these types of treatment. It includes only simple information about the nature and benefits of these types of treatment.

Every disease is a musical problem. Its cure is a musical solution the more rapid and complete the solution, the greater the musical talent of the doctor.


cure is a musical solution the more rapid and complete the solution, the greater the musical

To many people the linking of the words "music" and "therapy" is very obvious, especially if they have discovered other self-help uses of music besides entertainment. Music therapy provides

an opportunity for anybody to make a relationship with a trained music therapist where aspects of problems or difficulties can be addressed. In music therapy the music is not an end itself but is used as a means to an end it's trying to make contact with another human being through music.

Definitions have changed in emphasis over the years as the needs and contexts.

According to the World Federation of Music Therapy (WFMT):

Music therapy is the use of music and/or musical elements (sound, rhythm, melody & harmony) by a qualified music therapist, with a client or group, in a process designed to facilitate and promote communication, relationships, learning, mobilization, expression, organization, and other relevant therapeutic objectives, in order to meet physical, emotional, mental, social and cognitive needs. Music therapy aims to develop potentials and/or restore functions of the individual so that he or she can achieve better intra and inter-personal integration and consequently a better quality of life through prevention, rehabilitation and treatment.

profession has adapted to different

History of music therapy:
History of music therapy:

Music therapy in the USA began in the late 18th century. However, using music as a healing medium dates back to ancient times. This is evident in biblical scriptures and historical writings of ancient civilizations such as Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Today, the power of music remains the same but music is used much differently than it was in ancient times. The profession of music therapy in the United States began to develop during W.W.I and W.W. II, when music was used in Veterans Administration Hospitals as an intervention to address traumatic war injuries. Veterans actively and passively engaged in music activities that focused on relieving pain perception. Numerous doctors and nurses witnessed the effect music had on veterans' psychological, physiological, cognitive, and emotional state. Since then, colleges and universities developed programs to train musicians how to use music for therapeutic purposes.


Theoretical foundations of music therapy:

1- Vibrational Tuning theory:

The Vibratory Nature of the Human Organism : all that of which the human body is composed bone, blood, nerve, muscle is comprised of cells. Cells contain protoplasm which consists of twenty-four chemical elements combined in various compounds. The atoms of the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen constitute more than 99% of the atoms in protoplasm. Atoms, according to fundamental chemistry, are the smallest part of an element which still retain the characteristics of that element. In atoms, electrons vibrate around protons.

Vibrational medicine, which validates that everything in the Universe is in a state of vibration and the frequency at which an object or person most naturally vibrates is called resonance. Bones and organs in the body, all possess a different resonant frequency. When an organ or part of the body is vibrating out of tune or non-harmoniously, it is called "dis ease" or disease. A body is in a healthy state of being when each cell, each organ creates a resonance that is in harmony with the whole being. Vibrational medicine is based on the idea that all illness or disease is characterized by blockage in the channels on some level, either in nadis, meridians, arteries, veins, or nerves when there is a blockage, the organ in question stops vibrating at a healthy frequency and thus it results in some kind of illness. So, through sound and light, one can break up, dissolve and release these blockages.

2- Brain waves theory:

What are brain waves?

Naturally our brains produce electrical impulses that travel throughout our brains. These electrical impulses produce rhythms known as ‚brain waves.‛ Brain wave activity can be observed with a tool called an ‚EEG‛ or Electroencephalograph.


Brainwave Frequency Chart Listing

Gamma brain waves

cycling at 40 Hz are associated with problem solving in both adults and children. Gamma brain waves are known to aid you in learning and mental acuity.

High beta brain waves

are associated with fear, anxiety, excessive thinking, rapid thinking


Beta brain waves

are considered your ‚fast brain wave‛ activity. Each time you focus, analyze, perform calculations, or think about your external environment, beta waves are at work.

Alpha brain waves

are associated with meditative states, visualization, and idleness of your optical system. Each time you daydream, relax, or close your eyes, alpha activity increases.


Theta brain waves

are commonly linked to enhanced levels of creativity, and emotions.Allow us to recover our long-term memories , repressed memories / repressed emotions, and improve our spiritual connection.

Delta brain waves

are commonly associated with deep sleep patterns and are the dominant brain-wave pattern among infants.


Research has shown that music with a strong beat can stimulate brainwaves to resonate in sync with the beat, with faster beats bringing sharper concentration and more alert thinking, and a slower tempo promoting a calm, meditative state. Also, research has found that the change in brainwave activity levels that music can bring can also enable the brain to shift speeds more easily on its own as needed, which means that music can bring lasting benefits to your state of mind, even after you’ve stopped listening. Alterations in brainwaves change other bodily functions governed by the autonomic nervous system, such as breathing and heart rate, can also be altered by the changes music can bring. Music Therapy can help counteracting or preventing the damaging effects of chronic stress because it can activate the relaxation response, slowing the breathing and heart rate and then promoting not only relaxation but health.


3-Chakra theory:

this explanation is based on the concept of energy centers in the body according to Ayurveda medicine which says that that there are seven centers, each called "Chakra". The word comes from the Sanskrit cakra meaning "wheel" or "circle "and sometimes also referring to the "wheel of life". The chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. Each of these seven major chakras is associated with a specific color, shape,

sense organ, natural element, and mantra. (Mantra is a sacred syllable that makes you vibrate at the

chakra frequency, if you use the corresponding mantra.) All «chakras» have a certain frequency related to musical scale and this disrupted by the disease and music therapy to restore their natural frequency.

The chakras are thought to vitalize the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are considered loci of life energy, which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadis. The function of the chakras is to spin and draw in this Universal Life Force Energy to keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance.

The Seven basic chakras:

health of the body in balance. The Seven basic chakras: Sahasrara crown chakra -Sahasara meaning thousand

Sahasrara crown chakra

Sahasrara crown chakra -Sahasara meaning thousand fold. -mantra for this chakra is OM. - located at

-Sahasara meaning thousand fold. -mantra for this chakra is OM. - located at the top of the head. -is said to be the chakra of consciousness, the master chakra that controls all the others. Its role would be very similar to that of the pituitary gland, which secretes hormones to control the rest of the endocrine system, and also connects to the central nervous system via the hypothalamus. Symbolized by a lotus with a thousand petals. Its color is Violet

to the central nervous system via the hypothalamus. Symbolized by a lotus with a thousand petals.



Ajna The third eye

-Ajna meaning to perceive or to command -mantra for this chakra is SHAM.



located in the center of the forehead above the eyebrows.

  is linked to the pineal gland. Ajna is the chakra of time and awareness and

is linked to the pineal gland. Ajna is the chakra of time and awareness and of light. The pineal gland is a light sensitive gland that produces the hormone melatonin, which regulates the instincts of going to sleep and awakening. It has been conjectured that it also produces trace amounts of the psychedelic chemical dimethyltryptamine. Symbolized by a lotus with two petals.



Vishuddha Throat chakra

-Vissudha meaning purification

- mantra of this chakra is HAM.

- located in the throat

- is said to be related to communication and growth, growth being a

- is said to be related to communication and growth, growth being a

expression. This chakra is paralleled to the thyroid, a gland that is al throat, and which produces thyroid hormone, responsible for growth

maturation. Symbolized by a lotus with sixteen petals

Anahata heart/emotions chakra

-located in the center of the chest.


mantra :chanting an OM

is related to love, equilibrium, and well-being. It is related to the thymus, This organ

is related to love, equilibrium, and well-being. It is related to the thymus, This organ is part of the immune system, as well as being part of the endocrine system. Symbolized by a lotus with twelve petals.





- Manipura meaning city of jewels


solar plexus chakra

- mantra to resonate with this chakra is RAM.


- is related to energy, assimilation and digestion, and is said to

  correspond to the roles played by the pancreas and the outer adrenal glands, the adrenal

correspond to the roles played by the pancreas and the outer adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex. These play a valuable role in digestion, the conversion of food matter into energy for the body. Symbolised by a lotus with ten petals.



- located in the groin

- Mantra for this is YAM.

- Mantra for this is YAM.

-related to emotion, sexuality and creativity.

This chakra is said to correspond to the testicles or the ovaries



Symbolised by a lotus with six petals.


Muladhara Root Chakra

Muladhara Root Chakra -Mula means root and adhara means is also the man conn earth.

-Mula means root and adhara means is also the man conn earth. - located at the base of the spine. -is related to security, survival and also to basic human potentiality. center is located in the region between the genitals and the anus. Although no endocrine organ is placed here, it is said to relate to the inner adrenal glands, the adrenal medulla, responsible for the fight and flight response when survival is under threat. In this region is located a muscle that controls ejaculation in the sexual act. -mantra : UH

survival is under threat. In this region is located a muscle that controls ejaculation in the

4- Endorphin theory:

Endorphins are peptide chains of five amino acids, which are endogenous opiates produced by the body.

They have a "widespread behavioral regulatory role". They have been found to be connected with feeding, drinking, sexual behavior, attention and motivation, normal and abnormal cell and tissue growth, and have been associated with various mental illnesses, e.g. schizophrenia and depression

It is believed that the music stimulates endorphin levels and provides a distraction from pain and anxiety .

levels and provides a distraction from pain and anxiety . Categorization of the place of music

Categorization of the place of music therapy in the field of medicine: (Dileo-Maranto) Music therapy may relate to the medical treatment of the patient in a variety of ways:

A) Supportive to medical treatment (e.g. the use of music listening during kidney dialysis) B) As an equal partner to medical treatment (e.g. the use of singing in conjunction with medication as a treatment for respiratory disorder) C) As a primary intervention for a medical condition (e.g. the use of music listening to directly suppress pain


Models and methods of music therapy:

1- Improvisational Music Therapy Method:

The improvisational model often includes Nordoff-Robbins or other types of improvisational styles. The basic philosophy of improvisational music therapy is that these techniques elicit a client's response from every level. It develops contact with the client within the context of the musical experience. The role of a music therapist in this model often works supportively, creating a musical emotional environment that accepts and enhances the client's responses. This method provides experiences for socialization, communication, and expression of feelings and

emotions among group participants. The most common instruments used for this method are rhythm instruments and Orff instruments. The music therapist can also integrate movement, speech, and drama in this model.

Nordoff-Robbins: approach to music therapy developed from the pioneering work of Paul Nordoff and Clive
Nordoff-Robbins: approach to music therapy developed from
the pioneering work of Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins in the
1950s/60s. It is grounded in the belief that everyone can
respond to music, no matter how ill or disabled. The unique
qualities of music as therapy can enhance communication,
support change, and enable people to live more resourcefully
and creatively. There are several Nordoff-Robbins centres
Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins

2- Singing and Discussion Method Singing and discussion is a typical music therapy method that can be used for adolescent populations as well as for the elderly. The music stimulates clients responses to the lyric parts. Sometimes the music itself encourages the expression of thoughts and feelings associated with the songs. Typical procedures of this method are as follows: The therapist usually opens the session by singing songs familiar to the clients. After singing several songs, the therapist leads a discussion related to the themes of the songs. Once each client has expressed and discussed his or her own


thoughts, feelings, and ideas, the therapist improvises a song with the words from the clients.This can be a very positive conclusion to the session (in fact, the therapist makes a song to be positive) so that each client might carryover his or her feelings and emotions in productive ways.

3- Guided Imagery and Music GIM:

The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) is a music-assisted therapy used to explore one's own inner world and help clients to work on significant life issues, for instance, disturbing old memories, losses, traumata, bothering health conditions, and relationship issues.

While being guided, strong emotions are released and the client finds helpful resolutions. Helen L. Bonny, the founder of GIM, has created specific music programs, which a trained

facilitator can use to guide a client.

Theoretical background: images give a face to emotions and tend to personalize them. Disturbing imagery left in the unconscious can lead to emotional and physical difficulties. The more one is able to bring images to consciousness, the more healing occurs.

It has been found especially effective for clients seeking help with :anxieties, grief, and loss relationship and divorce related issues, career changes and stages of transition in life, stress and

burnout situations, trauma and sexual abuse, old and burdening memories that need to be resolved.

Each GIM session consists of five stages and follows a certain structure. The five stages are as follows:

a. Pre-session and music selection :

Each session begins with a discussion about a possible goal for the session. Both traveler and guide agree upon a focus, intention, or key image the client wants to work on. The intention is like a steering wheel: it gives purpose and meaning to the journey as it engages the traveler to explore the inner landscape. The chosen intention enables the guide to choose the appropriate music for the session, matching the energy and the mood level of the client .


4- Clinical Orff Schulwerk Method:

This approach, utilizing the method of music education developed by Carl Orff for German school children, has been specially adapted for mentally retarded and autistic children in the United States. COS or Clinical Orff Schulwerk offers an effective groundwork for these children because of their pre-disposition toward rhythm, order and repetition. Specially-designed percussion instruments permit the participation of even the most severely disturbed or handicapped child. Through "successive approximation", specific tasks are taught in a concrete step-by-step approach. Learning is affected through modeling (imitation) and behavior shaping, reinforced by behavioral techniques.With groups of autistic children, considerable attention is given to language development through the use of sign language, which is seen as enhancing speech. The significant value of COS is that it helps the child become invested in a meaningful group experience.

5- Rhythmic Entrainment Intervention (REI THERAPY):

Entrainment is a natural phenomenon that causes two or more vibrating bodies to become synchronized in their rhythm. This has been documented in many areas of human function. For example, respiration and heart rates can be modified through auditory input.

Rhythmic entrainment intervention (REI) is a music-medicine program that is based on the principle of entrainment, and is used primarily for children with developmental and learning problems, such as autism spectrum disorders and ADHD. Following an assessment of the child’s unique cognitive and behavioral characteristics, the REI provider develops two personalized CD percussion recordings, with rhythms selected to address specific areas of concern, such as communication skills, attention span, self-stimulatory behavior, aggression, or anxiety. Through the process of entrainment, the auditory rhythms chosen for the child are believed to stimulate the central nervous system and ultimately to improve brain function. The recording is played once per day for a period of eight to twelve weeks, and proponents believe that the effects can be long lasting. REI therapy has not been subjected to rigorous scientific review, and is therefore considered an unproven intervention.


Music therapy uses:

-Promote wellness. -Manage stress and anxiety. -Alleviate pain -Express feelings -Enhance memory and retrieval -Improve communication -Decrease frequency and duration of aggressive or agitated behaviors -promote physical rehabilitation. -Increase self-awareness. -Motivate change and personal growth -Reinforce self-identity and self-worth -Alter mood -Encourage meaningful social interaction and emotional intimacy -Empower individuals and decrease feelings of helplessness -Foster successful experiences and a sense of control over life.

Health problems for which Music therapy have been shown to help:

1-Music therapy and anxiety following surgery:

It is well known that many patients become stressed and anxious prior to and after surgery. However, a report indicated that one means of helping reduce anxiety in patients is to incorporate music in in the Surgical Holding Area . In the study, one group of patients listed to music while a second group did not. The researchers observed that patients who listened to music while in the Surgical Holding Area had significantly less stress and anxiety than did those who did not listen to music. Both groups spent similar lengths of time in the Surgical Holding Area.The researchers concluded that the ‚results strongly suggest that if music were available to all patients in the Surgical Holding Area, most would select this option, and they would experience less anxiety.‛


Color Therapy


Sometimes called color therapy, colorology or cromatherapy, is an alternative medicine method. It is claimed that a therapist trained in chromotherapy can use color and light to balance energy wherever a person's body be lacking, be it physical, emotional, spiritual, or mental. The practice has been labelled pseudoscientific by its critics.Color therapy is unrelated to light therapy.

History of color therapy:

Interest has grown in color therapy steadily since. Today there are hundreds of practitioners using a wide variety of color-related therapeutic techniques in the US. Today, color therapy is

a well-accepted technique in complementary medicine. Color and light have been used for

healing since the beginning of recorded time. Ancient Egyptians built solarium-type rooms with colored panes of glass. The sun would shine through the glass and flood the patient with

color. Some people use colored silk cloths which are placed on the body and then flooded with sunlight. Early color and light healers in the modern world used colored gels and sheets of glass to apply light to the body. Others used color infused water and color meditations to send healing rays to the person. In Europe and the U.S., interest in the therapeutic use of color developed during the second half of the 19th century. In 1878, Dr. Edwin Babbitt published "The Principles of Light and Color," in which he recommended various techniques for the use of color in healin g. In 1933,

a definitive work on color therapy called "The Spectro Chrometry Encyclopedia" was written

by an Indian scientist Dinshah Ghadiali. This was a landmark publication and laid the foundation for most of modern color therapy. Around the same time a form of color therapy, known as "Syntonics," was developed in the U.S. by Dr. Harry Riley Spitler. He found that he could produce profound physiological and psychological changes in his patients by altering the color of light entering their eyes.


Color Chart:
Color Chart:


Healing properties: Brings warmth, energy and stimulation, therefore good for energy, fatigue, colds, chilly and passive people. Red energizes heart and blood circulation, it builds up the blood and heightens a low blood pressure. Energizes all organs and the senses hearing, smell, taste, vision and touch. Increases sexual desire and activity. Stimulates ovulation and menstruation. Never treat cancer with red, because this color will stimulate cell growth! Red links with and stimulates the root chakra, at the base of the spine, causing the adrenal glands to release adrenalin. This results in greater strength. Red causes hemoglobin to multiply, thus increasing energy and raising body temperature. It is excellent for anemia and blood-related conditions. It loosens, opens up clogs, releases stiffness and constrictions. It is excellent for areas that have become stiffened or constricted.


Healing properties: Healing properties: Orange is warm, cheering, non-constricting. Orange has a freeing action upon the body and mind, relieving repressions. Orange shows new possibilities and other options in life. Stimulates creative thinking and enthusiasm, and helps assimilate new ideas.It is also helpful in dealing with excess sexual expression. Orange stimulates the lungs, the respiration and the digestion. Increases the activity of the thyroid. Reliefs muscle cramps and spasms. Increases the amount of mother milk. Finally, orange links very strongly with the sacral chakra.


Healing properties: Yellow helps strengthen the nerves and the mind. It helps awaken mental inspiration and stimulates higher mentality. Thus, it is an excellent color for nervous or nerve-related conditions or ailments. It also energizes the muscles. Dark yellow soothes pains in the nerves (shooting pains)Yellow can be used for conditions of the stomach, liver, and intestines. Speeds up the digestion and assimilation, and the stool. It helps the pores of the skin and aids scarred tissue in healing itself. Yellow links with and stimulates the solar plexus, or psychic center. It can be used for psychic burnout or other psychic-related conditions or ailments. Activates and cheers up depressed and melancholic people. Gives lust for life.


Theories for color therapy:

Colors are visible light energy of certain wavelengths. Photoreceptors in the retina, called cones, translate this energy into colors. The retina contains three kinds of cones: one for blue, one for green, and one for red. We perceive other colors by combining these colors.

theories for color therapy includes:

1-vibrational medicine:

as music therapy. 2-chakra theory :

as music therapy 3-pineal body :

Color therapy is based on the fact that physiologic functions respond to specific colors. Exactly how does this happen? Attached to the brain are pineal glands, which control the daily rhythms of life. When light enters through the eyes (or the skin) it travels neurological pathways to these pineal glands. Different colors give off different wavelength frequencies and these different frequencies have different effects on physical and psychological functions.

Color therapy techniques:
Color therapy techniques:

1-Incorporating Colors Into Your Life:

You can do simple technique to derive the benefits of color for your mind, body and spirit. Here are few suggestions:

-Clothes and Decoration The color of the clothes we wear can alter the way we feel .You can also decorate your home to take advantage of color -Use colored lamps. Place colored glass over light bulbs. -Use soft lights instead of fluorescent or neon. -Use full-spectrum lights in the winter (when there is less sunlight) to alleviate seasonal affective disorder. -Paint with colors -Take advantage of natural colors. Nature's own colors are the most beneficial, nourishing and


mind before and during his meditation. Aura:

In parapsychology and many forms of spiritual practice, an aura is a field of subtle, luminous

radiation supposedly surrounding a person or object.


The Aura-Soma remedies are a collection of small 'balance' bottles, each containing a layer of colored essential oil on top of a layer

of colored spring water containing herbal

extracts. Most contain two colors, and there are about 90 combinations in all.

two colors, and there are about 90 combinations in all. You will be asked by your

You will be asked by your therapist to pick out the four bottles that most appeal to you, and then to splash the mixtures onto your skin every day. There is no set length of time for treatment. You continue to do it as long as the therapy appears to be doing you good.

6-Illumination Therapy:

A computer-controlled color therapy machine directs colored light at the patient as he or she

sits or lies in a darkened room. The main treatment color is alternated with its complementary color and each dose is precisely timed.

7- Monochromatic Red Light Therapy:

Monochromatic red light therapy involves red light to stimulate acupoints to treat various illnesses. In some cases, the treatment is followed by gentle massage of the area. Monochromatic red light therapy is used to treat a range of problems, including shoulder pain; Monochromatic red light therapy is also useful for headaches (applying the light across the brow), arthritis, allergies, sore throats, sinus problems, stress reduction, and wound healing. The red light is also applied to sites of localized pain.


Clinical application of color therapy:


Color therapists may use a combination of blue, green and orange light to treat arthritis. Blue is soothing. It is used for rheumatism. Green is calming to both mind and body; it cools and soothes. Green is the color of hope and energy. Orange combines the healing power of red and yellow light. It is used in gout, rheumatism and other conditions involving abnormal growths in the body. Orange releases energy in the body and encourages a general sense of well-being.

2-Natural Immune System Strengthening:

Radiate the following colors daily, one after the other, until condition improves:

Orange-fifteen minutes. Green-fifteen minutes. Yellow- fifteen minutes.

3- Infertility female:

The color used depends on the condition to be treated:

-Wear oranges if you suspect hormonal imbalance at adrenal gland level -Wear reds to give energy and vitality if the problem is ovarian, and -Wear violets if the pituitary gland is implicated.

4- Menopause:

Blue is a cooling, soothing color used to increase vitality and energy. It helps relieve menstrual difficulties and nervous irritability. Yellow, the color of joy, helps to soothe the emotions and relieve depression. It is used for mental fatigue and for stimulating activity. Green is the color of energy and youth. It stimulates the nervous system and soothes the emotions. It is used to treat exhaustion, irritability, sleeplessness and nervous disorders.