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Chapter 1 General Provisions Article 1768

The partnership has a juridical personality separate

Article 1767 and distinct from that of each of the partners, even in
By the contract of partnership two or more persons case of failure to comply with the requirements of article
bind themselves to contribute money, property, or 1772, first paragraph. (n)
industry to a common fund, with the intention of
dividing the profits among themselves. Example
Two or more persons may also form a partnership - If A and B form a partnership with X & Co., the property
for the exercise of a profession. (1665a). of X & Co. is not A & Bs property and likewise, A & Bs
property is not X & Co.s.
NOMINATE - Since X & Co is a juridical entity, it can acquire any
- There is a name given by the law property since the partners are merely agents.
- Contract of Partnership: CONSENSUAL (meaning it is - Thus the obligations of X & Co are not those of A & Bs.
perfected by both parties) - The partnership of X & Co can file against A & B and be
PERSONS sued by A & B, likewise, if a third party sues X & Co., A
- Includes not only natural persons but also JURIDICAL & B are not affected.
persons. A corporation may NOT be a partner but it may - The partnership will still be a juridical entity even without
engage in JOINT VENTURES. compliance with A1772.
BIND THEMSELVES - If X & Co. is exempted from certain things, it does not
- Must be capable and competent, meaning, the following follow that A & B are included.
may are not included: Consequences of being a Juridical Person
1. Minors - Can sue and be sued
2. Emancipated Minors - Acquire any kind of property
3. Those under civil interdiction accessory penalty of - Insolvency of a partnership does not mean that the
being convicted of crimes partners themselves are insolvent.
4. Insane persons
5. Incompetent persons (see oblicon notes) Article 1769
- HOWEVER, if the person is only a SUSPECT, he may In determining whether a partnership exists, these
still bind himself into a contract since there is no final rules shall apply:
verdict yet. (1) Except as provided by article 1825, persons who are
TO CONTRIBUTE MONEY, PROPERTY OR INDUSTRY not partners as to each other are not partners as to
- Makes the contract onerous since this is MUTAL and third persons.
ALL must give either one of the above (2) Co-ownership or co-possession odes not of itself
- Examples: establish a partnership, whether such co-owners or
1. A and B create a partnership with a promise of co-possessors do or do not share any profits made
contributing P10,000 each in cash. A gave his by the use of the property
share while B gave a check worth P10,000. Is the (3) The sharing of gross returns does not of itself
issuance a contribution of money? establish a partnership, whether or not the persons
No, unless the check is encashed. sharing them have a joint or common right or
2. Considering the same information above but with B interest in any property from which the returns are
contributing P10,000 in equivalent dollars. derived
No, the contribution must be made using the legal (4) The receipt by a person of a share in the profits of a
tender, in this case, Philippine pesos. business is prima facie evidence that he is partner
- Property contributed may be movable, immovable or in the business, but no such inference shall be
intangible property. (Ex: equipment, land, patents, etc.) drawn if such profits were received in payment:
- If the partnership did not contribute money or property, (a) As a debt by installments or otherwise;
then industry was contributed. (b) As wages of an employee or rent to a landlord
- Note: Contributions may differ for each of the partners. (c) As an annuity to a widow or representative of a
EACH OTHER (d) As interest on a loan, though the amounts of
- The primary objective of partnerships is to make profits. payment vary with the profits of the business
Sharing profits need not be equal. (e) As consideration for the sale of a goodwill of a
- Sharing ratios are determined by the partners business or other property by installments or
agreement, and if there was no agreement, then the otherwise. (n)
ratios will be based on the ratio of the partners
contributions. Provides the rule in determining partnerships
- Sharing ratios for losses will be the same as the sharing Example for (1)
ratios for profits. - If A & B say PUBLICLY that they are not partners, then
- The industrial partner shall NOT share in losses. according to A1825, if they told C that they are and C
- The industrial partner is exempt only to the partners but enters into a contract of partnership with them, then A
not to 3 parties without prejudice to his right. A1816 and B are in a PARTNERSHIP OF ESTOPPEL.
- You cant join a partnership without the consent of ALL - If A & B inherited land from their parents and
partners. subsequently leased the land out for P50,000/month,
Why? then it can be said that they share profits, but are they in
Because the partnership will need to be dissolved a partnership?
before you are admitted and a new partnership will be No, they are merely co-owners. The P50,000 profit is
made in its place. merely incidental and besides, it was not derived from
- If they bought the land for P1,000,000 each to build a Can a partnership be created orally?
house but instead opted to sell it for P2,500,000 then Yes. A partnership may be constituted in any form (as stated
they have a profit of P500,000 but are they partners? in Article 1771)
No, because even if there was a profit of P500,000, this Partnerships are not covered by the Statute of Fraud since
is merely incidental to the sale and not from business these are not necessarily required to be in writing (contract
operations of A&B. of partnership can be in any form)
- If the land was instead used to build an apartment that If immovable property and/or real rights are contributed to
is rented out? the partnership, then the contract must be in a public
Yes, because A & B share profits from RENTING, this instrument (notarized documents)
can be considered as ordinary business operations. In order to bind 3 persons, the transfer of OWNERSHIP of

Example for (3) immovable property MUST BE REGISTERED with the

- If a person owns a big tract of land for planting rice and REGISTRY OF PROPERTY in the province or city where the
entered into an agreement with a farmer that they will property is located
divide the harvest, is the farmer partners with the owner The article shows that partnerships can be perfected by
of the land? MERE CONSENT.
No because of the following reasons:
(1) The farmer had no contribution Article 1772
(2) The farmer has no say in the disposition of the land Every contract of partnership having a capital of
(3) The farmer has no say in management P3,000.00 or more, in money or property, shall appear in
(4) In case of loss, the owner shall carry the entire a public instrument, which must be recorded in the office
burden and the farmer need not pay anything of the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Example for (4) Failure to comply with the requirements of the
- A partnership borrowed P50,000 and instead of giving preceding paragraph shall not affect the liability of the
the creditor a specific amount to be repaid, they agreed partnership and the members thereof to third persons. (n)
that the creditor will receive 1% of the partnerships
annual gross profit. Is the creditor a partner? If the partnerships capital is P3, 000.00 or more (in any
No because the receipt of share in net income happens form), it must be in a public instrument, recorded with the
to be because of an existing debt. SEC and note that property referred to here is MOVABLE
To determine whether a person is a partner: since immovable property is covered by Article 1771.
(1) Required contribution Failure to comply with the requirements of Article 1772 will
(2) Say in management rd
not affect the liability of the partnership to 3 persons.
(3) Share in losses Isnt this inconsistent with Article 1358?
No, remember that in Article 1358, if the contract terms
Article 1770 exceed P500.00 then the contract must be in writing.
A partnership must have a lawful object or purpose, This is merely for purposes of convenience and not
and must be established for the common benefit or validity or enforceability of the law. Also note that
interest of the partners. according to Article 1768, the partnership will still be
When an unlawful partnership is dissolved by a valid and have a juridical entity.
judicial decree, the profits shall be confiscated in favor How do we reconcile this with Article 1358 and 1357?
of the State, without prejudice to the provisions of the Article 1358 is for purposes of convenience and not for
Penal Code governing the confiscation of the validity or enforceability of the law.
instruments and effects of a crime. (1666a) Article 1357 states that contracting parties have the right
to compel each other to place the contract into writing.
The partnership must have a lawful object or purpose Purpose of Registration:
- Lawful object refers to CAPITAL (1) Condition for obtaining a license to engage in business
- Lawful purpose refers to the BUSINESS itself and in trade
There must be common interest and benefit rd
(2) 3 persons want proof that the partnership is existent,
Unlawfulness of the partnership will cause it to be dissolved who the partners are and what the capitalization is
and profits shall be confiscated before they enter into contracts/engage in business.
Example of unlawful purpose: (3) The government requires this so that tax liabilities may
- GAMBLING not be avoided (BIR)
A & B are partners where A contributed P100,000 in Failure to comply with the Articles requirements will not
cash and B contributes gambling paraphernalia. They prevent the formation of the partnership
were raided and the gambling paraphernalia was The Statute of Fraud will only apply if there was an
confiscated. Can the P100,000 also be confiscated? agreement made by the contracting parties
No because the P100,000 was not the reason for the Example:
crime in anyway. The state is therefore required to A and B promise to contribute to their partnership money
return this amount to A. worth P10,000.00 each within one year from their
Legal effects of a Judicial Dissolution agreement. A contributes early but when the time comes for
- Partnership is considered void from the beginning B to contribute his share, he refuses to do so. Can A compel
- Profit and instrument of the crime is confiscated B to give his contribution?
- The only returnable items are those that were never No, A cannot compel B to pay his contribution to the
related to or connected with the crime committed partnership.
Article 1771 Because the contract/agreement between the two parties
A partnership may be constituted in any form, was purely ORAL and never really written, and it has already
except where immovable property or real rights are been one year since they agreed to their contract terms.
contributed thereto, in which case, a public instrument
shall be necessary (1667a)
Article 1773 (a) Universal Partnership of All Present Property
A contract of partnership is void, whenever defined in Article 1778
immovable property is contributed thereto, if an (b) Universal Partnership of All Profits defined in
inventory of said property is not made, signed by the Article 1780
parties and attached to the public instrument. (1668a) (c) Particular Partnerships defined in Article 1783
(2) As to the Liability:
Refers specifically where one or both of the parties (a) General general partners are liable PRO-RATA
contribute immovable property. The requirements are: and subsidiarily, sometimes solitarily, with their own
(1) The contract must be in a public instrument property/assets if the partnership is insolvent. (may
(2) An inventory of the immovable property must be made, include industrial partners)
signed by BOTH parties and attached to the public (b) Limited limited partners are liable only up to the
instrument, otherwise the partnership is VOIDED. extent of their contribution
Actual Case in Applying Article 1773: (3) As to Duration:
A and B agree to form a partnership engaging in a fish pond (a) At will no particular undertaking, can be dissolved
business where both partners will contribute cash; the cash at any time
is later used to buy land that is converted into a fish pond. C (b) With a Fixed Term may only be dissolved upon
comes along and points out that the partnership is void the end of its term unless continued by the partners
because no inventory of the land was made. Is the (4) As to Legality of Existence:
partnership really void? (a) De Jure complied with ALL requirements
No, the partnership is not void because according to the (b) De Facto failed to comply with ALL requirements
Supreme Court, Article 1773 need not apply since the land (5) As to Representation to Others:
was BOUGHT from the CASH CONTRIBUTION. (a) Ordinary/Real actually exists
Suppose a partnership contributes immovable property but (b) Ostensible/by Estoppel exists only to partners
does not conduct an inventory and enters into a contract with (6) As to Publicity:
A. The partnership does not fulfill its obligation to A and A (a) Secret some partners are not known to the public
sues the partnership. Was A right in suing the partnership? (b) Open/Notorious all partners are known to the
No, since the partnership was void from the beginning. A public
should instead file against the partners themselves. They (7) As to Purpose:
will be sued under the legal basis of them being partners by (a) Commercial/Trading business transactions
estoppels, as stated in Article 1825. (b) Professional/Non-Trading exercise of professions
If A wishes to be in a partnership with B and promises to Kinds of Partners:
contribute land but subsequently sells the same plot to C, (1) Under the Civil Code:
who immediately registers the transfer, who owns the land? (a) Capitalist contributes money/property
C owns the land because A never registered the transfer. (b) Industrial contributes industry
Estafa: when the owner of a property sells the same to two (c) General liability extends to personal assets
or more different persons. (d) Limited liability up to contribution only
(e) Managing manages the partnership
Article 1774 (f) Liquidating responsible during dissolution
Any immovable property or an interest therein may (g) By Estoppel not really a partner
be acquired in the partnership name. Title so acquired (h) Continuing continues business after dissolution
can be conveyed only in the partnership name. (n) (i) Surviving remains after partners death
(j) Sub-partner contracts with partners, Article 1804
Being a juridical entity, a partnership can acquire property (2) Other Classifications:
and subsequently become its owner. (a) Ostensible active, known to the public
(b) Secret active, unknown to the public
Article 1775 (c) Silent inactive, known to the public
Associations and societies whose articles are kept (d) Dormant inactive, unknown to the public
secret among members, and wherein anyone of the (e) Original member at time of organization
members may contract in his own name with third (f) Incoming about to become a member
persons, shall have no juridical personality and shall be (g) Retiring about to withdraw
governed by the provisions relating to co-ownership.
(1669) Article 1777
A universal partnership may refer to all the present
There is no juridical entity since the members can contract property or to all the profits. (1672)
with 3 persons in their own name without binding others.
In a partnership: Article 1778
(1) The partners are merely agents who cannot act alone A partnership of all present property is that in which
(2) Articles of Partnership are known to ALL partners AND the partners contribute all the property which actually
to the GENERAL PUBLIC. belongs to them to a common fund, with the intention of
dividing the same among themselves, as well as the
Article 1776 profits which they may acquire therewith. (1673)
As to its object, a partnership is either universal or
particular. Article 1779
As regards to the liability of the partners, a In a universal partnership of all present property,
partnership may be general or limited. (1671a) the property which belongs to each of the partners at
the time of the constitution of the partnership becomes
Classifications of Partnerships: the common property of all the partners, as well as all
(1) As to the Object: the profits which they may acquire therewith.
A stipulation for the common enjoyment of any If the articles of universal partnership are doubtful or unclear
other profits may also be made; but the property which then the presumption is that it is a universal partnership of all
the partners may acquire subsequently by inheritance, profits.
legacy or donation cannot be included in such - Because a universal partnership of all profits require
stipulation, except the fruits thereof. (1674a) less obligations and is less onerous since the partners
get to retain ownership over the property that they
Why is the universal partnership of all present property not contribute.
popular in the Philippines?
Property owned at the time of contribution will become Article 1782
common property of the partnership eventually because only Persons who are prohibited from giving each other
the profits acquired through the contribution will become any donation or advantage cannot enter into a universal
common property, unless there was a stipulation that says partnership. (1677)
Example: A husband and wife cannot join a universal partnership.
A and B form a Universal Partnership of All Present Property - They are not allowed to donate to each other and a
and stipulate that property and profits that are acquired universal partnership essentially requires that the
during business operations will become common property partners donate to each other.
even if these were not due to their contributions and that if - They can join a particular partnership instead.
anyone inherits property, it will become common property as A partnership formed in violation of this article shall be null
well. A acquires land as part of his compensation package and void. It shall not have any legal personality either.
from AyalaLand and B inherits land from his parents. Whose Illustrative Case:
property will become common property? A, B and C form a partnership to engage in the importation,
Only As land will become common property because it was marketing and operation of automatic phonographs, radios,
essentially PAYMENT while Bs was inherited. The article television sets, amusement machines and their parts
prohibits donations to become common property, only fruits accessories, with B and C as limited partners. Subsequently,
of such can become common property. A and B got married and thereafter, C sold his share to A
In a partnership, contributions must be determinate/certain and B for a nominal amount. Was the partnership dissolved
and partners are akin to donors. Donations cannot after the marriage of A and B and Cs sale to them of his
comprehend future property but profits can be stipulated. share in the partnership?
No, the firm was not a universal partnership but a particular
Article 1780 one.
A universal partnership of profits comprises all that Pertinent Legal Provisions
the partners may acquire by their industry or work (1) Article 87: Every donation or grant of gratuitous
during the existence of the partnership. advantage, direct or indirect, between spouses during
Movable or immovable property which each of the their marriage, valid or not, shall be void except
partners may possess at the time of the celebration of moderate gifts which the spouses may give each other
the contract shall continue to pertain exclusively to on the occasion of any family rejoicing.
each, only the usufruct passing to the partnership. (2) Article 739: The following donations shall be void:
(1675) (a) Those made between persons who were guilty of
adultery or concubinage at the time of the donation
Example: (b) Those made between persons found guilty of the
Suppose A and B form a Universal Partnership of All Profits same criminal offense, in consideration thereof
and A wins in the lotto, P100,000.00. B tries to share in 50% (c) Those made to a public officer or his wife,
citing the existence of their partnership and that A used the descendants and ascendants by reason of his
partnerships money to purchase the lottery ticket. Can B office
really share in the lotto winnings?
No, B cannot since it came from CHANCE, not WORK. Article 1783
If the P100,000.00 instead came from As work in DLSU, can A particular partnership has for its object
B share in the profits of A? determinate things, their use or fruits, or a specific
Yes, because it came from WORK. undertaking, or the exercise of a profession or vocation
As long as it is PROFIT, the profit becomes common (1678)
property to the partners UNLESS there was a stipulation in
their agreement Defines what a particular partnership is
If A and B form a Universal Partnership of All Profits for a Particular partnerships are those that are:
Taxi-Cab business and both contribute vehicles that will - Neither a universal partnership for all present property
serve as the taxi, what they were actually contributing is the nor a universal partnership for all profits
USE or the RIGHT TO USE their vehicles. Upon dissolution, - Example: Those that are formed for the acquisition and
the vehicles will be returned to them since there was never a sale of property, Accounting Firms, Law Firms, etc.
transfer of ownership. - Popular because it is easy to join
Unique feature of the Universal Partnership of All Profits:
- The partners retain the title of ownership. Chapter 2 Obligations of the Partners

Article 1781 Section 1 Obligations of the Partners amongst

Articles of Universal Partnership, entered into Themselves
without specification of its nature, only constitute a Relations created by a contract of partnership
universal partnership of profits (1676) (1) Relations among the partners themselves
(2) Relations of the partners with the partnership
(3) Relations of the partnership with third persons
(4) Relations of the partners with third persons
Every partner is a debtor of the partnership for
Article 1784 whatever he may have promised to contribute thereto.
A partnership begins from the moment of the He shall also be bound for warranty in case of
execution of the contract, unless it is otherwise eviction with regard to specific and determinate things
stipulated. (1679) which he may have contributed to the partnership, in the
same cases and in the same manner as the vendor is
Partnership is perfected by mere consent and if ALL the bound with respect to the vendee. He shall also be liable
requirements are met for the fruits thereof from the time they should have
Notwithstanding the fact that the partners have not given been delivered, without the need of any demand. (1681a)
their contributions yet
Example: Article 1787
A and B agree to form a partnership that will begin on When the capital or a part thereof which a partner is
December 1 and upon the arrival of certain machinery bound to contribute consists of goods, their appraisal
needed by the business. In this situation, are A and B in must be made in the manner prescribed in the contract
already in a partnership? of partnership, and in the absence of stipulation, it shall
As long as the agreement remains executory, then A and B be made by experts chosen by the partners, and
are NOT partners therefore there is no partnership yet. according to current prices, the subsequent changes
Partners may agree to form a partnership to take effect in thereof being the account of the partnership. (n)
the future
Example: Article 1788
A and B agree to form a partnership 1.5 years later, with A partner who has undertaken to contribute a sum
contributions of P100,000.00 each. A contributes his share of money and fails to do so becomes a debtor for the
early but when the time comes for B to contribute his share, interest and damages from the time he should have
he refuses and says he no longer wants to partake in the complied with his obligation.
partnership. Can A compel B to contribute his share to the The same rule applies to any amount he may have
partnership? taken from the partnership coffers, and his liability shall
NO. Because they cannot enforce the contract since it was begin from the time he converted the amount to his own
perfected 1.5 years ago and the contract was only oral. use. (1682)
Since the contract was for 1.5 years, it was greater than 1
year and should have been written instead. Suppose A, B and C are partners. A promises to contribute a
The Statute of Fraud does not usually apply but to some RED CAR, B promises to contribute GOODS WORTH
particular cases such as the example above, it will. P50,000.00 and C promises to contribute P50,000.00 IN
If the contribution is immovable property, comply with Article CASH on October 2011. On October 2011, none of them
1773 otherwise the partnership will be void. comply. What happens?
A, B and C thus become debtors to the partnership.
Article 1785 Suppose B and C contribute their parts but A does not. Can
When a partnership for a fixed term or particular B and C ask for the recission or annulment of the contract?
undertaking is continued after the termination of such NO. If one of the partners fails to comply with his
term or particular undertaking without any express requirements, then the others can request for specific
agreement, the rights and duties of the partners remain performance with damages from the defaulting partner A.
the same as they were at such termination, so far as is What are the obligations of A before October 2011?
consistent with a partnership at will. (1) To contribute what he promised
A continuation of the business by the partners or (2) To be held liable to answer for eviction if the partnership
such of them as habitually acted therein during the term, is deprived of his contribution
without any settlement or liquidation of the partnership (3) To take care of the contribution with the diligence of a
affairs, is prima facie evidence of a continuation of the good father of a family.
partnership. (n) Suppose A leased the car out and gets it back by December
A partnership with a fixed term/particular undertaking is Then A must deliver the car and the fruits (profits from lease)
continued without express agreement to the partnership because there was a delay.
Suppose that after A contributes the car, a 3 person, D
- Rights and duties remain the same as they were at
termination. claims to the real owner of the car and is able to prove so.
Example: Then A is held liable for eviction because the partnership is
If A and B form a partnership to last until December 30, 2011 deprived for a specific thing. A is also held liable for
and A is the manager and they share profits 50-50 and after damages to BOTH the partnership and to D.
December 30, 2011 they continue with their partnership. What about B? Can the partnership determine the value of
What happens? the goods he contributed?
A and B retain their rights, meaning A is still the manager In Article 1787, it clearly states that the goods SHOULD be
and they still share profits 50-50. appraised by the partnership. If there was no
If there was express agreement for the term of existence, agreement/stipulation, then the partnership shall have the
then when the term expires, the partnership is dissolved and goods appraised by an expert.
becomes a partnership at will What if the goods appreciate/depreciate?
Continuation is when there is NO settlement/liquidation. It will be charged to the partnerships account.
There must be prima facie evidence, meaning it must be What will happen if C fails to comply with his obligation?
seen on first glance. C will be liable for his contribution plus interest and damages
from the date he was supposed to contribute. The same rule
Article 1786 will apply if the partners take money from the partnerships
funds without everyones consent. He will however, not be
charged for theft or estafa and his obligation will only be to
return the money he took plus interest and damages from the capital, except an industrial partner, to sav4e the
the time he took the money. venture, shall be obliged to sell his interest to the other
When will a partner be held criminally liable? partners. (n)
Suppose the partners set aside P10,000.00 for payment to
one of their creditors. A takes this amount from the fund and If there is an imminent loss in the partnership, the partner
is subsequently discovered to have done so. who refuses to contribute additional funds, IF HE IS
- Then A can be charged for estafa since he CAPABLE TO DO SO, shall sell his share TO THE
misappropriated the money ALREADY SET ASIDE. PARTNERS, unless he is an industrial partner.
- Imminent Loss
Article 1789 There is a need for the capitalist partners to
An industrial partner cannot engage in business for contribute additional funds to save the partnership
himself, unless the partnership expressly permits him to The industrial partner need not do so because he
do so; and if he should do so, the capitalist partners has already given 100% of his efforts
may either exclude him from the firm or avail If the capitalist partner is WILLING but NOT
themselves of the benefits which he may have obtained FINANCIALLY CAPABLE, the article will NOT apply
in violation of this provision, with a right to damages in to him because he is already insolvent
either case. (n) - Selling of interest
Refusal to contribute additional funds to save the
An industrial partner contributes his industry partnership means that the partner no longer has
- Partnership has the EXCLUSIVE RIGHT to his industry any interest in the partnership
- Prohibited from the engaging in business of ANY kind He should not be allowed to reap the benefits that
unless the partnership has expressly permitted him to the other partners have worked hard for because
do so. he had not done anything to help anyway
Example: He cannot complain of being removed from the
Suppose that a partnership is engaged in a automobile partnership because he will be paid what is due to
repair shop. A is the industrial partner (chief mechanic) and him for his share in the interest of the partnership
works only up to 5PM every working day. Can he go home - Agreement that the partner need not contribute
and work on the partnerships customers autos, even if he additional funds in cases of loss
says it to the capitalist partners EVERY DAY before he The capitalist partner will not be required since it
leaves? was in their agreement in the first place.
The law says that there must be EXPRESSED permission, Note that more contribution to the partnership
in this situation, all A has is IMPLIED permission. The capital would mean you share more in the profits
capitalist partners remedy is therefore to either: (only one) but this should be voluntary
(1) Avail of the benefits from As business Things to consider:
(2) Exclude A from the partnership and demand for (1) There must be an IMMINENT LOSS
damages (2) The partner who is unwilling to contribute must be
Capitalist partners are prohibited from engaging in SIMILAR SOLVENT/FINANCIALLY CAPABLE
businesses only. (3) There was no agreement that the partners will not have
Industrial partners have the same remedies as capitalist to contribute additional funds in cases of loss
partners. If the purpose of additional contribution is simply to raise
capital, then this article will not apply.
Article 1790
Unless there is a stipulation to the contrary, the Article 1792
partners shall contribute equal shares to the capital of If a partner authorized to manage collects a
the partnership. (n) demandable sum, which was owed to him in his own
name, from a person who owed the partnership another
The partners shall contribute to the capital of the partnership sum also demandable, the sum thus collected shall be
as per their agreement, except if there was no agreement in applied to the two credits in proportion to their amounts,
the first place, in which case, they shall contribute equally. even though he may have given a receipt for his own
Example: credit only; but should he have given it for the account
A and B decide to form a partnership and agree to contribute of the partnership credit, the amount shall be fully
to the capital in the ratio of 60:40, how much should the applied to the latter.
partners contribute to the partnership? The provisions of this article are understood to be
The partners shall contribute in the ratio of 60:40, meaning if without prejudice to the right granted to the debtor by
their partnership capital is a combined total of P10, 000.00 Article 1252, but only if the personal credit of that
then A contributed P6, 000.00 and B contributed P4, 000.00. partner should be more onerous to him. (1684)
A and B decide to form a partnership but did not say how
much the other should contribute, how much should each A and B are in a partnership where A is the managing
partner contribute to the partnership? partner. C owes A a sum of P5,000.00 and the partnership a
Since the partners did not give any sort of agreement as to sum of P10,000.00. The credit to A is due on September 1
the ratio of their capital contribution, we shall assume that while the partnerships is due on September 15, both debts
they will contribute in equal proportions, meaning if the are due and demandable. A collects from C a total of
partnership capital is a combined total of P10, 000.00, then P3,000.00 only and A subsequently issues a receipt in his
each partner contributed P5, 000.00. name. Is the partnership entitled to share in the P3,000.00?
Yes but in proportion to their respective debts so A gets
Article 1791 P1,000.00 and the partnership gets P2,000.00.
If there is no agreement to the contrary, in case of Supposing there was no mention as to who the managing
imminent loss of the business of the partnership, any partner is, will the requisites of Article 1792 still be present?
partner who refuses to contribute an additional share to
Yes, in the absence of information relating to the identity of painted RED. Damages are suffered by the partnership for
the managing partner, the assumption shall be that ALL P30,000.00 due to the repainting. Can A compensate this
partners are managing partners. loss using the profits he earned for the partnership?
If A issues a receipt on the name of the partnership instead, A cannot compensate it with the profits he earned because it
to whose credit will the P3,000.00 be put? is his obligation to bring profits in the first place. The
The entire P3,000.00 will go to the partnership. responsibility of the P30,000.00, however, may be mitigated
Supposing the credit of A carries 18% while that of the by the court if by other activities, A is able to bring about
partnership carries only 10%. C pays A and says that the unusual or extraordinary profits, meaning, he may be
P3,000.00 shall be applied to As credit. Is the partnership allowed by the courts to pay back just P15,000.00 instead.
entitled to share in the P3,000.00 still? Follows that if the partner is guilty of fraud or damages, he
No, the debtor is given the right to apply payment to shall be liable for that.
whichever debt is more onerous.
Things to remember: Article 1795
The two conditions should be both present in order for the The risk of specific and determinate things which
Article to apply, otherwise, the entire amount will go to are not fungible, contributed to the partnership so that
whoever collects payment from the debtor. only their use and fruits may be for the common benefit,
(1) 2 debts and both are due and demandable shall be borne by the partner who owns them.
(2) The one collecting should be the managing partner If the things contributed are fungible, or cannot be
kept without deteriorating, or if they were contributed to
Article 1793 be sold, the risk shall be borne by the partnership. In the
A partner who was received, in whole or in part, his absence of stipulation, the risk of things brought and
share of a partnership credit, when the other partners appraised in the inventory, shall also be borne by the
have not collected theirs, shall be obliged, if the debtor partnership, and in such case the claim shall be limited
should thereafter become insolvent, to bring to the to the value at which they were appraised. (1687)
partnership capital what he received even though he
may have given receipt for his share only. (1685a) Refers to rules as to who bears the risks made by
In this case, there is only ONE debt but 2 or more debtors, If the contribution is determinate and non-fungible but only
both of which are partners. the use is contributed, when it is lost, then the one who
Example: contributes it is liable for it.
A and B are partners and C owes the partnership a sum of If fungible things are contributed, the partnership shall be the
P10,000.00. B is the managing partner but A collects his one to shoulder the risks
share in the P10,000.00 and C pays A P5,000.00 to which A The partnership shall also be the one to bear the risk for
issues a receipt in his name. When Bs turn to collect comes, items brought for sale in inventory for appraisal for the value
C is already insolvent. What should A do? at which they were appraised.
A shall return his P5,000.00 to the partnership and split it
with B because C has already become insolvent. Article 1796
Take not that whoever collects doesnt matter as it doesnt The partnership shall be responsible to every
make a difference partner for the amounts he may have disbursed on
If you get your share early and the other parties cannot get behalf of the partnership and for the corresponding
theirs because the debtor has become insolvent, then you interest from the time the expenses are made; it shall
must return YOUR share to the partnership so that no one also answer to each partner for the obligations he may
gets more than he should have. have contracted in good faith in the interest of the
partnership business, and for the risks in consequence
Article 1794 of its management. (1688a)
Every partner is responsible to the partnership for Refers to the obligation of the partnership to the partners
damages suffered by it through his fault, and he cannot The partners are merely agents so they are not personally
compensate them with the profits and benefits which he liable except if they are at fault or if they exceeded their
may have earned for the partnership by his industry. expressed authority
However, the courts may equitably lessen this Obligations of the Partnership:
responsibility if through the partners extraordinary (1) To reimburse any amount disbursed by the partners in
efforts in other activities of the partnership, unusual behalf of the partnership
profits have been realized. (1686a) - Example:
A partnership borrows from the bank a sum of
Why compensation will not apply: P10,000.00 for additional funds but cannot pay it
Compensation will not apply because in compensation, you back when it is due to be paid back. A pays back
should be both a debtor and a creditor at the same time. the P10,000.00 using his personal funds. Should he
However, the partner here is only a DEBTOR for damages be reimbursed by the partnership?
and he cannot compensate using his profits and benefits Yes, the partnership should reimburse A for the
earned for the partnership because it IS HIS DUTY to do so sum of P10,000.00 PLUS legal interest starting
in the first place. from the date A disbursed the P10,000.00.
Responsibility may be equitably mitigated by the courts if, (2) To answer for any obligation contracted in good faith
through extraordinary efforts of the partner, unusual profits - Example:
are recognized/realized. A partnership needs office supplies so B contracts
Example: for P10,000.00 worth of supplies. Who will pay for
A partnership between A and B is engaged in an autoshop the contract price of P10,000.00?
business. A customer brought his car in to be painted The partnership shall be the one to shoulder the
YELLOW but A bought RED paint instead and the car is cost as it was made in good faith and B did not
overstep his authority.
If it was stated that the partners cannot contract for A P 30,000.00 3/6 P 7,500.00 - P 7,500.00
more than P5,000.00 worth of supplies and B still
contracts for P10,000.00, how much will the B P 20,000.00 2/6 P 5,000.00 - P 5,000.00
partnership pay?
C P 10,000.00 1/6 P 2,500.00 P 2,000.00 P 4,500.00
The partnership will only pay what was allowed,
that is, P5,000.00 and B will pay the remaining P
TOTAL P 60,000.00 6/6 P 15,000.00 P 2,000.00
balance since B overstepped his authority. 17,000.00
(3) To answer for risks in management
- Example: The same rules shall apply for losses in the partnerships
A partnership is engaged in selling goods and a operations, however the industrial partner shall not share in
customer keeps asking for discounts and an the losses as there is no way for him to retract his industry
argument ensues between the customer, C and the and in the event of losses, his efforts would have been for
partner A. A gets injured and is brought to the vain and it can thus be said that he has already shared.
hospital. Who shall shoulder the hospital bills?
What is the legal effect of having a stipulation that excludes
The partnership shall shoulder the hospital bills as it
a partner from sharing in the profits or losses?
was during As time in managing the business that
Under Article 1799, the stipulation shall be void because
he was injured.
there must be mutual sharing of profits and losses.
Article 1797 Can the partners appoint a 3rd person to designate the
division of their profits and losses?
The losses and profits shall be distributed in
Yes and they will not be allowed to question his decisions
conformity with the agreement. If only the share of each
partner in the profits has been agreed upon, the share of unless the designation of shares is manifestly inequitable.
each in the losses shall be in the same proportion. 2 cases where partners ABSOLUTELY cannot question
In the absence of stipulation, the share of each designated shares by the 3rd parties:
partner in the profits and losses shall be in proportion to (1) When a partner begins to execute the 3rd partys
what he may have contributed, but the industrial partner decision
shall not be liable for the losses. As for the profits, the (2) When complaints are raised AFTER three months from
industrial partner shall receive such share as may be the point of knowledge of the designation
just and equitable under the circumstances. If besides Can the partners designate one of themselves to distribute
his services, he has contributed capital, he shall also profits or losses?
receive a share in the profits in proportion to his capital. No, the law prohibits this situation because there may be
(1689a) disparities when it comes to the distribution of net profits.

Article 1798 Article 1800

If the partners have agreed to entrust to a third The partner who has been appointed manager in the
person the designation of the share of each one in the articles of partnership may execute all acts of
profits and losses, such designation may be impugned administration despite the opposition of his partners,
only when it is manifestly inequitable. In no case may a unless he should act in bad faith; and his power is
partner who has begun to execute the decision of the irrevocable without just and lawful cause. The vote of
third person, or who has not impugned the same within the partners representing the controlling interest shall
a period of three months from the time he had be necessary for such revocation of power.
knowledge thereof, complain of such decision. A power granted after the partnership has been
The designation of losses and profits cannot be constituted may be revoked any time. (1692a)
entrusted to one of the partners. (1690)
2 Kinds of Managing Partners:
Article 1799 (1) Appointed DURING the Constitution of the Partnership
A stipulation which excludes one or more partners from - May execute all administrative acts unless he acted in
any share in the profits or losses is void. (1691) bad faith. His power may not be revoked unless
there is a JUST and LAWFUL cause and the vote
Lays out the rules in the distribution of profits and losses of the partners with controlling interest
A, B and C are partners with the following capital - Even if there are objections as to his decisions
contributions, P30,000.00, P20,000.00 and P10,000.00 coming from the partners, his authority will prevail
respectively, where C is a capitalist-industrialist partner. For UNLESS he has acted in bad faith
one year of their operations, their partnership had earned net - Acts of administration: ordinary business and
profits of P17,000.00. How shall these profits be divided administrative transactions
among the partners? (C is entitled to receive P2,000.00 out - Why can he note be revoked for no reason?
of the entire P17,000.00) Because if you revoke his power, you are in effect
(1) In accordance with any existing agreement between the changing the terms of the contract of partnership.
partners as to how they shall share. (2) Appointed AFTER the Constitution of the Partnership
(2) If there was no agreement, then the partners shall share - May have his power revoked with or without cause
on a pro-rata basis - Decided upon by those partners who own controlling
(3) The industrial partner shall get what is JUST and interest in the partnership
EQUITABLE in the circumstances. (BONUS TO
PARTNER) Article 1801
If two or more partners have been entrusted with the
management of the partnership without specification of
their respective duties, or without stipulation that one of
PROFIT PROFITS them shall not act without the consent of the others,
each one may separately execute all acts of
administration, but if any of them should oppose the shall bind the partnership, without prejudice to
acts of the others, the decision of the majority shall the provisions of article 1801.
prevail. In case of tie, the matter shall be decided by the (2) None of the partners may, without the consent of
partners owning the controlling interest. (1693a) the others, make any important alteration in the
immovable property of the partnership, even if it
Assume that A, B, C and D are all managing partners. A may be useful to the partnership. But if the
appoints E as a secretary but B objects to this. Is the refusal of consent by the other partners is
appointment of E valid? manifestly prejudicial to the interest of the
Yes since majority votes are first counted by head. If C&D partnership, the courts intervention may be
were the ones to object, and they owned a combined total of sought. (1695a)
51% of partnership interest, then the appointment will not be
valid. However, if B was still the one who objected and he If there is no agreement as to who will be the managing
owns 51% of partnership interest, the appointment will still partners, during constitution and after constitution of the
be valid because majority votes are first counted by head. partnership, then the assumption shall be that ALL the
If the partnership cannot make a decision and ends up in a partners are managing partners, without prejudice to Article
tie (head count and interest), then the partnership is to be 1801, meaning Article 1801 will then apply to their case.
dissolved. This will be the only remedy, unless one of the The second paragraph of this article provides that the
other partners will relent. partners cannot simply alter immovable property owned by
the partnership without the consent of the other partners
Article 1802 because this is NOT an act of administration but of
In case it should have been stipulated that none of OWNERSHIP.
the managing partners shall act without the consent of Note that consent here is no qualified, so it may be
the others, the concurrence of all shall be necessary for expressed or it may be implied.
the validity of the acts, and the absence or disability of Example:
any one of them cannot be alleged, unless there is Suppose A, B, C and D are in a partnership where the
imminent danger of grave or irreparable injury to the managing partner is not specified and A decides to put up a
partnership. (1694) warehouse in a piece of land owned by the partnership
without consent of other partners because he believes it to
This is a case wherein two partners, A and B, stipulate that be useful and beneficial to the partnership. His partners
one cannot act without the consent of the other. Thus, there come over, once the warehouse is finished, to look at it and
must always be concurrence between the two before any did not object to its existence. Was this valid?
transactions may be entered into, the absence of the others Yes, since the partners did not object, then there is IMPLIED
consent shall not be used as an excuse. consent. Since consent was never qualified in the article, it is
Illustrative Case: assumed that implied consent is enough.
A sold to B, one of the managing partners of Partnership X, Suppose before A builds the warehouse, he asks for the
the other being C, a certain number of mining claims without consent of the other partners, who refuse to give it. When A
the consent of C. In an action by A to recover the unpaid tries to convince them and asks why they refuse to give
balance of the purchase price against Partnership X, C consent, they simply say that they do not want it to be there,
claims that the contract is not binding upon the partnership making their objection manifestly prejudicial, meaning, there
for the reason that under the articles of partnership, there is is really no reason for their objection, what then, is the
a stipulation that one of the partners cannot bind the firm by remedy of A in this situation?
a written contract without the consent of others. Is the A may bring the matter to court. If the court finds the other
transaction made by B binding upon the partnership? partners of having no solid reason to object, it may compel
According to the Supreme Court, the stipulation applies only the other partners to give their consent.
to B and C. A has the right to assume that B was authorized
to complete the transaction. Therefore, the partnership is Article 1804
liable, and since B violated the terms of contract between Every partner may associate another person with
himself and C, he is required to reimburse C for the amount him in his share, but the associate shall not be admitted
C will be paying A on behalf of the partnership, the reason into the partnership without the consent of all the other
being, it would be unfair to C who had no knowledge of Bs partners, even if the partner having an associate should
transaction to have to pay when he never agreed anyway. be a manager. (1696)
The only instance in which a partner may transact without
concurrence is when there is imminent danger of grave or Refers to SUBPARTNERSHIP
irreparable damage to the partnership if he does not do so. A, B and C are in a partnership wherein A is the managing
However, the party involved must be able to prove so else partner. A enters into a contract with D that states D will
he shall become liable for what he has done. receive 50% of As share in partnership profits. Can A do this
Example: even without the consent of the other partners?
A and B are in a partnership where they sell fruits, B notices Yes, because a sub-partnership will not affect the
that the fruits in the warehouse are starting to rot so, without composition of the partnership and D will not be able to
consent of A, he sells them. interfere with the partnerships management anyway.
This will be alright because if the fruits rot, then it would have When are you required to share your partnership profits with
been bad on the part of the partnership. 3 persons?
When you contract with 3 persons because perhaps in
Article 1803 some past event you needed money and they provided you
When the manner of management has not been with it, and in your contract, it was agreed upon that you will
agreed upon, the following rules shall be observed: share in the partnership profits.
(1) All of the partners shall be considered agents The 3 person can also opt to receive ALL profits.
and whatever any one of them may do alone Can D become a partner without the consent of the other
partners, if he associates with the managing partner?
No, D would need to get the consent of all partners because Example:
this would change the partnership composition. A and B are partners engaged in the operation of a cinema
business. The theater was mortgaged to C who foreclosed
Article 1805 the mortgaged debt. A, in his own behalf, redeemed the
The partnership books shall be kept, subject to any property with his own private funds. Subsequently, A files a
agreement between the partners, at the principal place petition for the cancellation of the old title of the partnership
of business of the partnership, and every partner shall and the issuance of a new title in HIS name alone. Did A
at any reasonable hour have access to and may inspect become the absolute owner of the property?
and copy any of them. (n) No, the law says that he will only hold the property as the
trustee and will be entitled to reimbursement plus interest
The partnership books shall be kept in the following places, from the time he redeemed the property.
in order:
(1) In accordance with partnership agreements Article 1808
(2) If there were no agreements, then the partnership books The capitalist partners cannot engage for their own
shall be kept in the principal place of business of the account in any operation which is of the kind of
partnership (ex: headquarters) business in any operation which is of the kind of
Each partner will have access to ALL partnership books. business in which the partnership is engaged, unless
When will the partner be allowed to access the partnership there is a stipulation to the contrary.
books? Any capitalist partner violating this prohibition shall
The partner is allowed to access partnership books during bring to the common fund any profits accruing to him
REASONABLE HOURS OF BUSINESS (8am-5pm), from his transaction, and shall personally bear all the
according to the law. The one who is keeping the partnership losses. (n)
books cannot state when it can be inspected.
The article is with regards to a capitalist partner engaging in
Article 1806 other businesses.
Partners shall render on demand true and full Is the capitalist partner allowed to engage in other
information of all things affecting the partnership to any businesses aside from the one he has with the partnership?
partner or legal representative of any deceased partner Yes, as long as the business he engages in is something
or of any partner under legal disability. (n) dissimilar or different from the of the partnerships.
What will happen if the capitalist partner violates the law
The article does not mean that the partners need wait for regarding his ability to engage in other businesses?
demands before disclosing information, when they get hold Then he shall have to bring the profits he gained from the
of the information, they should disclose it immediately, other business to the partnership and be liable for losses
although additional details may be demanded. suffered by the partnership.
If information is not disclosed and it is found out later on, the Why is the capitalist partner not allowed to engage in a
partner/s who did not disclose such will be held liable for it similar line of business?
and be charged for misrepresentation. Because he might take advantage of the information in the
Suppose A, B and C are in a partnership wherein A is sent to partnership or of their clients, resulting in a conflict of interest
inspect partnership property in Mindanao. A realizes that the between himself and the other partners.
property contains oil deposits and does not disclose this The capitalist partner can engage in a business similar to the
information to B and C. He also lies and says that the partnership if there was a stipulation in the contract of
property is completely useless for their business and offers partnership and if the business he operates exists in a
to buy B and Cs interests in the partnership. When A is the different area or place.
only one holding the business, he develops the land and
gains substantial profits from the oil deposits. B and C later Article 1809
on learn about the information A kept hidden from them and Any partner shall have the right to a formal account
demand that they be given their shares in the oil profits. The as to partnership affairs:
question now is, can B and C, after having sold their (1) If he is wrongfully excluded from the partnership
interests in the partnership, still share in the profits? business or possession of its property by his co-
Yes, they will be allowed to share in the profits because the partners
information regarding oil deposits was present when they (2) If the right exists under the terms of any
sold their share to A, just that it was hidden from them. agreement
(3) As provided by Article 1807
Article 1807 (4) Whenever other circumstances render it just and
Every partner must account to the partnership for reasonable. (n)
any benefit, and hold as trustee for it any profits derived
by him without the consent of the other partners from General Rule:
any transaction connected with the formation, conduct During existence, a partner is not required to demand for an
or liquidation of the partnership or from any use by him accounting because his interest is already protected by two
of its property. (n) Articles of the law, Article 1805 and Article 1806. But for
specific cases, the law provides that he can DEMAND for an
A partner who receives benefits or profits derived without accounting of the partnership books.
consent of others shall account for it as the partnerships. 4 Cases where a partner can demand for an accounting:
If particular property is mortgaged and foreclose, the partner (1) When he is wrongfully excluded from the partnership
who uses personal funds is able to get the property back will operations (business and property possession)
not become the new owner, he will only be its trustee. (2) If the right exists under their agreement
If the partner gets the property back after ONE year from the (3) Under Article 1807
3 party involved, then it shall become his as it was a private (4) Other circumstances which render it just and
transaction, so long as he uses his own funds. reasonable.
(1) DURING operations, the partners interest is his share in
Section 2 Property Rights of a Partner profits and losses
Article 1810 interest is in the surplus of partnership assets after all
The property rights of a partner are: debts have been cleared.
(1) His rights in specific partnership property Interest can be subject to attachment or execution because it
(2) His interest in the partnership belongs to the partner, not the partnership.
(3) His right to participate in the management. (n)
Article 1813
The partner has the following rights: A conveyance by a partner of his whole interest in
(1) Right to the ownership of partnership property the partnership does not of itself dissolve the partner,
(2) Right to his interest in the partnership or, as against the other partners in the absence of
(3) Right to participate in partnership management agreement, entitle the assignee, during the continuance
of the partnership, to interfere in the management or
Article 1811 administration of the partnership business or affairs, or
A partner is co-owner with his partners of specific to require any information or account of partnership
partnership property. transactions, or to inspect the partnership books but it
The incidents of this co-ownership are such that: merely entitles the assignee to receive in accordance
(1) A partner, subject to the provisions of this Title with his contract the profits to which the assigning
and to any agreement between the partners, has partner would otherwise be entitled. However, in case of
an equal right with his partners to possess fraud in the management of the partnership, the
specific partnership property for partnership assignee may avail himself of the usual remedies.
purposes; but he has no right to possess such In case of dissolution of the partnership, the
property for any other purpose without the assignee is entitled to receive his assignors interest
consent of his partners; and may require an account from the date only of the
(2) A partners right in specific partnership last account agreed to by all the partners. (n)
property is not assignable except in connection
with the assignment of rights of all the partners How can a partner convey his interest in the partnership
in the same property; without getting the partnership dissolved?
(3) A partners right in specific partnership rd
(1) By selling it to a 3 person
property is not subject to attachment or (2) By donating it to a 3 person
execution, except on a claim against the (3) By using it as security on a loan from a 3 person
partnership. When partnership property is Example:
attached for a partnership debt the partners, or D offers to buy As interest of P50,000.00 for P1,000,000.00
any of them, or the representatives of a and A agrees to sell his interest. What happens now?
deceased partner, cannot claim any right under D becomes the assignee and A becomes the assignor but
the homestead or exemption laws; the partnership will not be dissolved because his interest in
(4) A partners right in specific partnership profits and surplus is the one being sold. A will also continue
property is not subject to legal support under to be the partner but D will be the one to receive his profits.
Article 291. (n) This is similar to sub-partnerships, so the consent of others
is not required for interest to be conveyed.
The partners are considered co-owners of specific The assignee does not have any say in the management
partnership property Rights of the Assignee:
If A, B and C are partners who own specific property under (1) He shall get the assignors share in profits/surplus
the partnerships name, what are their rights? (2) He may avail of legal remedies of the partners in cases
(1) They can use it for partnership business purposes of fraud by the assignor
(2) They cannot use it for personal purposes WITHOUT the (3) He can demand for an accounting upon dissolution but
consent of others. only starting from the date of the last accounting
Why cant A simply assign his right with respect to the undertaken by the partnership
partnerships property? (4) Can ask for the dissolution of the partnership if it has
(1) It doesnt belong to him reached the end term or anytime if the partnership is
(2) The extent of his interest with regards to the property one at will, because he is interested in the surplus.
cannot be determined before dissolution The assignee, however, cannot become a partner without
The partnership can altogether assign a 3 party with the
the consent of the other partners because it will entail a
right to use the property for partnership business purposes. change in the partnerships composition.
The right of the partners as to the property is not subject to
attachment unless it is a claim against the partnership due to Article 1814
the reason that any one partner is not the owner of it. Without prejudice to the preferred rights of a
Under Article 291, the specific partnership property cannot partnership creditor under Article 1827, on due
be used as the subject of legal support because it does not application to a competent court by any judgment
belong to any one of the partners. creditor of a partner, the court which entered the
judgment, or any other court, may charge the interest of
Article 1812 the debtor partner with payment of the unsatisfied
A partners interest in the partnership is his share of amount of such judgment debt with interest thereon;
the profits and surplus. (n) and may then or later appoint a receiver of his share of
the profits, and of any other money due or to fall due to
The article defines what the partners interest in the him in respect of the partnership, and make all other
partnership is. orders, directions, accounts and inquiries which the
What is the partners interest in the partnership?
debtor partner might have made, or which the Any stipulation against the liability laid down in the
circumstances of the case may require. preceding article shall be void, expect as among the
The interest charged may be redeemed at any time partners. (n)
before foreclosure, or in case of a sale being directed by
As to 3 persons, ALL partners are liable pro-rata and
the court, may be purchased without thereby causing
dissolution: subsidiary, but as to each other, they are liable in proportion
(1) With separate property, by any one or more of to their capital contribution.
the partners Examples:
(2) With partnership property, by any one or more of (1) A, B and C are in a partnership where C is the industrial
the partners with the consent of all the partners partner and a sum of P26,000.00 is owed to D. A and B
whose interests are not so charged or sold contributed P15,000.00 and P5,000.00 respectively.
Nothing in this Title shall be held to deprive a How shall the debt be shared?
partner of his right, if any, under the exemption laws, as As to D, the partners will share equally in the debt left
regards his interest in the partnership. (n) after exhausting all assets (P6,000.00) so they will each
have to pay P2,000.00 regardless of C being an
Refers to a partner who obtained a loan from a 3 person
industrial partner. If C is insolvent, or if B died, or if A
and was unable to repay such. has left the country, the liability of the partners cannot
For example, PARTNER A failed to pay CREDITOR C a be increased.
sum of P50,000.00, so C files against A, knowing that A, As to each other, they are liable in proportion to their
being a partner, will receive his interest. C wins the case but capital contribution, so B and C will be reimbursed by A.
A is still unable to pay, so C asks that As interest be (2) A, B, C, D and E are sued in court but E is later cleared
attached so that it goes to C and cancels out As debt. of his charges. The court orders A, B, C and D to pay
- Done to protect Cs interest their creditor, but C moves to reconsider that all should
- Attached interest can be redeemed using the property of be charged, but this move was denied. Can A, B, C and
the partners or the partnerships property, as long as all D alone be liable for the debt?
partners consent to this, and are given reimbursement According to the Supreme Court, the 4 partners cannot
from the defaulting partner alone be liable for the debt because in excluding E, they
- Amount charged must e sufficient to pay the loan plus have increased the other partners liability and this is
legal interest prohibited by the law. The law states that the liability of
the partners cannot be increased such that they
SECTION 3 Obligations of the Partners as to 3 Persons shoulder the liability of another partner.
(3) What if there was an agreement that stated B is only
Article 1815 liable up to P5,000.00? How will A, B and C share in
Every partnership shall operate under a firm name, their liability?
which may or may not include the name of one or more The stipulation shall be void as to 3 persons, so they
of the partners. will still share pro-rata. Anyway, B and C will be
Those who, not being members of the partnership, reimbursed by A, because as among themselves, the
include their names in the firm name, shall be subject to stipulation is valid and C is an industrial partner.
the liability of a partner. (n)
Article 1818
Firm names are required for partnerships because they are Every partner is an agent of the partnership for the
juridical persons in need of separate names so that they are purpose of its business, and the act of every partner,
distinguishable from the partners and other partnerships. including the execution in the partnership name of any
The name can come from any of the partners or 3 persons. instrument, for apparently carrying on in the usual way
If a 3 persons name is used with his consent, then he shall
the business of the partnership of which he is a member
be liable as a partner without the rights of a partner because binds the partnership, unless the partner so acting has
the partnership uses his name. in fact no authority to act for the partnership in the
Partnership name must be registered with the (DTI) particular matter, and the person with whom he is
DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDSUTRY because if dealing has no knowledge of the fact that he has no
there was already such an existing name, there might be such authority.
cases of duplication. An act of a partner which is not apparently for the
You cannot choose the name of a deceased partner as his carrying on of business of the partnership in the usual
death caused the partnerships dissolution. way does not bind the partnership unless authorized by
Sample General and Limited Partnership Names: the other partners.
(1) GENERAL A & Company Except when authorized by the other partners or
(2) LIMITED A, Ltd. unless they have abandoned the business, one or more
but less than all the partners have no authority to:
Article 1816 (1) Assign the partnership property in trust for
All partners, including industrial ones, shall be creditors or o the assignees promise to pay the
liable pro-rata with all their property and after all the debts of the partnership
partnership assets have been exhausted, for the (2) Dispose of the goodwill of the business
contracts which may be entered into in the name and for (3) Do any other act which would make impossible
the account of the partnership under its signature and to carry on the ordinary business of a
by a person authorized to act for the partnership. partnership
However, any partner may enter into a separate (4) Confess a judgment
obligation to perform a partnership contract. (n) (5) Enter into a compromise concerning a
partnership claim or liability
Article 1817 (6) Submit a partnership claim or liability to
(7) Renounce a claim of the partnership (4) Land title belongs to one or more or all of the partners or
No act of a partner in contravention of a restriction a 3 person in trust for the partnership.
on authority shall bind the partnership to persons Only the equitable title will pass to D if the seller had no
having knowledge of the restriction. (n) authority to sell such to D.
(5) A, B and C ALL sell the land to D, with the land title
Qualifies the authority of partners. belonging to ALL of them.
Authority must be in the usual course of business. Title passes to D because ALL partners sell to him.
Transactions beyond a partners authority is binding if it is in
rd Article 1820
the usual course of business because the 3 person is
assumed to have no knowledge of his lack of authority. An admission or representation made by any
When are transactions not binding? partner concerning the partnership affairs within the
(1) When a transaction is not in the usual course of scope of his authority in accordance with this Title is
business and has no consent from all other partners evidence against the partnership. (n)
(2) When the 3 person had knowledge of the lack of
authority of the acting partner Anything a partner says or admits, as long as it is concerning
the partnership affairs and it is within the scope of his
Article 1819 authority, is sufficient evidence against the partnership.
Where title to real property is in the partnership This article is a rule of evidence
name, any partner may convey title to such property by In order that admission/representation made can be used as
a conveyance executed in the partnership name; but the evidence, the existence of the partnership must be
partnership may recover such property unless the established and proved first.
partners act binds the partnership under the provisions Example:
of Article 1818, or unless such property has been (1) Partner A borrows money from the bank and declares
conveyed by the grantee or a person claiming through that the money borrowed is for the partnership.
such grantee to a holder for value without knowledge This statement, made by A, is enough evidence against
that the partner, in making the conveyance, has the partnership and the bank may use this in case the
exceeded his authority. partnership does not pay back the money borrowed.
Where title to real property is in the name of the (2) A, B, and C are partners. A told D, a 3rd person, that the
partnership, a conveyance executed by a partner, in his debtor already paid his obligation to the partnership. Is
own name, passes the equitable interest of the this enough evidence against the partnership?
partnership, provided the act is one within the authority YES, since it concerns partnership affairs and the
of the partner under the provisions of Article 1818. partner has authority to say so.
Where title to real property is in the name of one or
more but not all the partners, and the record does not Article 1821
disclose the right of the partnership, the partners in Notice to any partner of any matter relating to
whose name the title stands may convey title to such partnership affairs, and the knowledge of the partner
property, but the partnership may recover such property acting in the particular matter, acquired while a partner
if the partners act does not bind the partnership under or then present to his mind, and the knowledge of any
Article 1818, unless the purchaser of his assignee, is a other partner who reasonably could and should have
holder for value without knowledge. communicated it to the acting partner, operate his
Where title to real property is in the name of one or notice to or knowledge of the partnership, except in the
more or all partners, or in a 3trd person in trust for the case of a fraud on the partnership, committed by or with
partnership, a conveyance executed by a partner in the the consent of that partner. (n)
partnership name, or in his name, passes the equitable
interest of the partnership, provided the act is one IN SHORT, notice to ANY of the partners is notice to the
within the authority of the partner under Article 1818. partnership. (You don't have to notify EVERY partner in
Where title to real property is in the names of all the relation to partnership affairs).
partners a conveyance executed by all the partners Knowledge of a partner acting in a particular manner
passes all their rights in such property. (n) (meaning the partner is a managing partner), or knowledge
of any partner who SHOULD HAVE communicated it to the
Refers to the conveyance of immovable property managing partner, is knowledge to the partnership.
Suppose A, B and C are partners engaged in the buying and This is so EVEN IF the non-managerial partner does not
selling of property, and the following situations occur: communicate the information he knows regarding
(1) A, without authority, sells land to D in the partnerships partnership affairs. The partner SHOULD have
name but D immediately sells it to E. The land title was communicated this. Non knowledge by other partners is not
originally under the partnerships name. Can the a reason to evade from obligations.
partnership recover the land? If notice is delivered to a partner, that is an effective
Title passes to D, then to E. The partnership cannot communication to the partnership, notwithstanding the failure
recover the land once it has transferred to E but if the of the partner to communicate such notice or knowledge to
land was still with D, they could have recovered it if the the other partners.
contract was not binding . Example:
(2) What if A sells the property under his name? (1) A, B, and C are partners where B is the managing
Only the equitable title passes to D. partner. D, a 3rd person, filed a case against the
(3) What if A sells the property and the land title is partners AND the partnership for some unknown
registered under his name? reason. Does D need to notify all of them?
Title passes to D because land is registered under the If this is done, D just needs to notify either A, B, or C,
partners names. This will hold true if A, B and C are co- but doesn't have to notify ALL OF THEM (imagine if
owners of the land, even if only A sold it to D. there are 100 partners, it would be burdensome and
costly to notify all 100). So if A is notified about the
case, that is considered by D as notice to EVERYONE (a) A, B, and C are partners. A made an act of
even if A is not a managerial partner (since A should omission with D as the victim. He caused
communicate this to all partners). P50,000 worth of injury to D. What can D do?
(2) Suppose D wants to sell a piece of land to the D can go to A for the full amount of P50,000
partnership and notifies B (the managing partner) about OR FROM B OR C.
it, but warns him that the land is under litigation and (b) Can D go to B for the whole e P50,000 since B
there is a possibility of the land to be claimed by E. B is the richest among the partners?
took the risk and purchased the land. Later on, E still This is allowable since the partners have a
claimed the land. Can the partners reclaim this? solidary obligation through As act of omission.
Even though ALL partners were not informed about the B will be entitled for reimbursement from the
litigation, the partnership cannot get the land anymore one responsible, A.
since B was informed about it. Notice to B, the acting - Any one of A, B, OR C, or all partners including the
partner, is already notice to the partnership. partnership can pay without prejudice to the rights
(3) Suppose before B became a partner, D was able to talk of partners to get reimbursement from the one
to him about the piece of land under litigation. Later on, responsible for the crime
B became a managing partner and purchased the land (2) A partner, within the scope of his authority, receives
D told him about a long time ago. E won the litigation money or property from a third person and misapplies it.
and was able to claim the land. Can the partnership - Example:
reclaim the land? A partnership is engaged in a pawnshop business.
The partnership cannot get it anymore. Even if D was D, a 3rd person, pawned his watch to A and A sells
not informed WHILE he was a partner, the information it. Who is liable for the watch?
was still present in his mind. The issue here would be: If All partners are solidarily liable to D since A
B can still recall the conversation he had with D before misapplies the watch received from D.
he became a managing partner. (3) The partnership, in its ordinary course of business,
(4) Suppose D informed C (who is not a managing partner) receives money or property from a 3 person and a
about the land under litigation. Later on, D sold the land partner misapplies it while in the custody of the
to B, the managing partner, without informing him that partnership.
the land was under litigation (take note: the information - Example:
was given to C). Is notice to C, a notice to B? The partnership is engaged in a pawnshop
YES, because C should have communicated the business where it received a watch from D to be
information. pawned. The watch is placed in the partnership
In cases (2), (3) and (4), the partnership can't file action VAULT. B, a partner, gets the watch from the vault
for damages against D since the "partnership had and sells it. Who is liable for the watch?
knowledge" about the litigation but the partners still took All partners are solidarily liable.
the risk of buying the land.
Article 1825
Article 1822 When a person, by words spoken or written or by
Where, by any wrongful act or omission of any conduct, represents himself, or consents to another
partner acting in the ordinary course of the business of representing him to anyone, as a partner in an existing
the partnership or with the authority of his co-partner, partnership or with one or more persons not actual
loss or injury is caused to any person, not being a partners, he is liable to any such persons to whom such
partner in the partnership, or any penalty is incurred, the representation has been made, who has, on the faith of
partnership is liable therefore to the same extent as the such representation, given credit to the actual or
partner so acting or omitting to act. (n) apparent partnership, and if he has made such
representation or consented to its being made in a
Article 1823 public manner he is liable to such person, whether the
The partnership is bound to make good the loss: representation has or has not been made or
(1) Where one partner acting within the scope of his communicated to such person so giving credit by or
apparent authority receives money or property of with the knowledge of the apparent partner making the
a third person and misapplies it; and representation or consent to its being made:
(2) Where the partnership in the course of its (1) When a partnership liability results, he is liable
business receives money or property of a third as though he were an actual member of the
person and the money or property so received is partnership;
misapplied by any partner while it is in the (2) When no partnership liability results, he is liable
custody of the partnership. (n) pro rata with the other persons, if any, so
consenting to the contract or representation as
Article 1824 to incur liability, otherwise separately.
All partners are liable solidarily with the partnership When a person has been thus represented to be a
for everything chargeable to the partnership under partner in an existing partnership, or with one or more
Articles 1822 and 1823. (n) persons not actual partners, he is an agent of the
persons consenting to such representation to bind them
In the following cases, obligation is not pro-rata or equal, but to the same extent and in the same manner as though
a solidary obligation. Any partner MAY pay for the obligation he were a partner in fact, with respect to persons who
(Unlike in article 1816, each partner should only pay for their rely upon the representation. When all the members of
SHARE): the existing partnership consent to the representation, a
(1) When by an unlawful act or omission, loss or injury is partnership act or obligation results; but in all other
caused to 3 person. cases it is the joint act or obligation of the person acting
- Example: and the persons consenting to the representation. (n)
2 things being mentioned: Personal creditors of partners have BETTER RIGHT than a
(1) PARTNERSHIP by estoppels partnership creditor with regards to PERSONAL PROPERTY
- There is an existing partnership, and partners of the partner.
misrepresent themselves together with a 3rd EXAMPLE:
person. (1) A, B, and C are partners. A OWES E P6,000.00. The
- EXAMPLE: PARTNERSHIP OWES D P28,000.00. The total
(a) Suppose there is a partnership, X, with partnership assets amount to P40,000.00. Who has
partners A, B, and C. D told E that he is a better right to the partnership property?
partner of A, B, and C. E verified from the In this case, D, the partnership creditor, has a better
actual partners of X partnership if D is really a right to the partnership property. When obligation to D
partner, A, B, and C consented. E entered in a is paid, what will be left for the partners to share is
contract with D, believing he was a partner. P4,000.00. If E, the personal creditor of A, demands
This is partnership by estoppels since A, B, to be paid out of partnership property, he will only get
and C verified D as a partner. In this case, E P4,000.00 from it since the priority is the partnership
can go after A, B, and C. creditor. The P2,000.00 will be paid out from As
(b) Suppose only A and B consented, is there a personal property.
partnership by estoppels? (2) If total partnership assets is only P28,000.00, and the
There will be no partnership by estoppels since liability of the partnership is P40,000,, how shall the
only A and B, not all partners, consented to Ds debt be paid?
misrepresentation. A, B, and C will have to pay E P6,000.00 each.
(2) PARTNERS by estoppels (3) If A only had P6,000.00 of personal property, who will
- 2 or more persons pretend to be partners in the eyes have the better right to this?
of 3 persons. As priority is his personal creditor, E. So D cannot
- Example: collect As share of P4,000.00. D cannot, also,
A, B, AND C said they were partners to D and increase the obligation of the other partners to be able
entered in a contract with the partners. When it to collect their debt.
was time for them to pay D for their obligation, they
cannot for the reason that they are not partners. Chapter 3 Dissolution and Winding Up
What is their obligation to D?
Their obligation to D will be pro rata, as if they were Article 1828
partners (since they are partners by estoppels) The dissolution of a partnership is the change in the
relation of partners caused by any partner ceasing to be
Article 1826 associated in the carrying on as distinguished from the
A person admitted as a partner into an existing winding up of business. (n)
partnership is liable for all the obligation of the
partnership arising before his admission as though he Article 1829
had been a partner when such obligation were incurred, On dissolution, the partnership is not terminated,
except that this liability shall be satisfied only out of but continues until the winding up of partnership affairs
partnership property, unless there is a stipulation to the is completed. (n)
contrary. (n)
Article 1830
A new partner admitted to an existing partnership is also Dissolution is caused:
liable to the obligations existing before he was admitted, but (1) Without violation of the agreement between the
his liability only extends to his contribution to the partnership partners:
UNLESS stipulated. (2) In contravention of the agreement between the
A new partner is liable to his separate property when the partners, where the circumstances do not
obligation was incurred when he was already a partner. permit a dissolution under any other provision
Example of this article, by the express will of any partner
A, B, and C are the original partners of the partnership X at any time;
with contributions of P10,000.00 each. X partnership owes (3) By any event which makes it unlawful for the
D P40,000.00. Later on, E entered the partnership and business of the partnership to be carried on or
contributed P4,000.00. How shall the debt be paid? the members to carry it on in partnership;
P34,000.00 will be paid to D out of the partnership assets, (4) When a specific thing, which a partner had
and the P6,000 will be paid through A, B, and Cs personal promised to contribute to the partnership,
assets. The P6,000.00 will be divided among the 3 original perishes before the delivery; in any case by the
partners pro rata. loss of the thing, when the partner who
contributed it having reserved the ownership
Article 1827 thereof, has only transferred to the partnership
The creditors of the partnership shall be preferred the use or enjoyment of the same; but the
to those of each partner as regards the partnership partnership shall not be dissolved by the loss of
property. Without prejudice to this right, the private the thing when it occurs after the partnership
creditors of each partner may ask for the attachment has acquire the ownership thereof;
and public sale of the share of the latter in the (5) By the death of any partner;
partnership assets. (n) (6) By the insolvency of any partner or of the
Partnership creditors have BETTER RIGHTS to partner (7) By the civil interdiction of any partner;
obligation WITH REGARD TO PARTNERSHIP PROPERTY. (8) By degree of court under the following article.
(1700a and 1701a)
Dissolution is usually caused by change a change of relation (1) After the termination of the specific term or
between partners. particular undertaking
If there is dissolution, no new partnership business may be (2) At any time the partnership was a partnership at
undertaken will when the interest was assigned or when the
Upon dissolution, partnership continues until winding up and charging order was issued. (n)
liquidation is completed.
CAUSES OF DISSOLUTION: When can a partnership be dissolved judicially?
(1) WITHOUT VIOLATION OF AGREEMENT (1) When a partner is DECLARED insane
(a) Termination/expiration of term or specific (2) When he becomes incapable of performing his part in
undertaking the partnership
(b) Upon express will of any partner if there is no term (3) Misconduct of a partner prejudicially to the business
or specific undertaking AS LONG AS PARTERS (4) Persistent breach of partnership agreement
ACT IN GOOD FAITH. (5) The business can only be carried out on a loss
(c) Upon the will of the partners whose interest is not (6) Other circumstances:
assigned or charged. (a) Abandonment of the business
- Example: (b) Fraud
A sold his interest to E, and Bs interest is (c) Refusal to render an accounting
charged to F because he borrowed P50,000 (7) On application of 3 parties (who purchased or have
from him. C and D are the only ones who can charged a partners interest) right as per Articles 1813
ask for dissolution since their interest is not and 1814
assigned or charged.
(d) Expulsion bona fide of a partner (a partner is Article 1832
expelled in good faith in accordance with Except so far as may be necessary to wind up
agreement. partnership affairs or to complete transactions begun
(e) Expulsion has the effect of decreasing the # of but not then finished, dissolution terminates all
partners. authority of any partner to act of the partnership:
(2) IN VIOLATION OF THE AGREEMENT (1) With respect to the partners
- Example: (a) When the dissolution is not by the act,
A, B, and C agreed that the term of their insolvency or death of a partner
partnership is only until Dec. 31, 2011. A goes to (b) When the dissolution is by such act,
premature resignation (resigns early from insolvency or death of a partner, in cases
partnership). No one can prevent A from resigning, where Article 1833 so requires
but the partners can ask for damages for not (2) With respect to persons not partners, as
staying with the agreement. declared in Article 1834
(3) When it becomes unlawful for a partnership to carry on
the business or partner to carry on his role General Rule:
(4) When specific thing is contributed, and before deliver, it When partnerships are dissolved, partners cannot engage in
is lost. new business transactions because their authority to do so
- If it is lost after delivery, partnership is not dissolved. terminates upon the occurrence of dissolution.
- If use is contributed, it is lost before or after delivery (it 2 Cases with are Contrary to the General Rule:
doesnt matter when it was lost), partnership is (1) During the WINDING UP of Business
dissolved. - Transactions relating to the winding up of business
- If what is to be contributed is generic, and it is lost, such as the liquidation of partnership assets can be
there is no dissolution. entered into because the partners authorities to do
so shall continue.
Article 1831 (2) To complete unfinished transactions during dissolution
On application by or for a partner, the court shall - Example:
decree dissolution whenever: A and B are in a partnership where they have
(1) A partner has been declared insane in any contracted with C to deliver goods in two
judicial proceeding or is shown to be of unsound installments. B resigns after the first delivery is
mind; made, thus dissolving the partnership. Can A and B
(2) A partner becomes in any other way incapable of cease to continue with their obligation?
performing his part of the partnership contract; NO. A and B must continue on with their obligation
(3) A partner has been guilty of such conduct as to complete unfinished transactions.
tends to affect prejudicially the carrying on of the If dissolution is not by an act, insolvency or death, the
business; authority of partners as among themselves is terminated.
(4) A partner willfully or persistently commits - Example:
breach of the partnership agreement, or A partnership was dissolved due to the expiration of the
otherwise so conducts himself in matters term. If C transacts with D after this and he defaults, he
relating to the partnership business that it is not will be the only one liable AS TO THE PARTNERS. If A
reasonably practicable to carry on the business & B are to pay D, C shall reimburse them.
in partnership with him;
(5) The business of the partnership can only be Article 1833
carried on at a loss Where the dissolution is caused by the act, death or
(6) Other circumstances that will render dissolution insolvency of a partner, each partner is liable to his co-
equitable partners for his share of any liability created by any
On the application of the purchaser of a partners partner acting for the partnership as if the partnership
interest under Article 1813 or 1814: had not been dissolved unless:
(1) The dissolution being by act of any partner, the act is appropriate for winding up partnership
partner acting for the partnership had affairs; or
knowledge of the dissolution (2) Where the partner has become insolvent; or
(2) The dissolution being by death or insolvency of (3) Where the partner had no authority to wind up
a partner, the partner acting for the partnership partnership affairs; except by a transaction with
had knowledge or notice of the death or one who
insolvency (a) Had extended credit to the partnership prior
to dissolution and had no knowledge or
If dissolution is caused by an act, insolvency or death, then notice of his want of authority; or
each partner shall share in the liability of the partnership due (b) Had not extended credit to the partnership
to the actions of a partner, unless he had knowledge of an prior to dissolution, and, having no
act, insolvency or death, or notice of the insolvency or death. knowledge or notice of his want of
Example: authority, the fact of his want of authority
(1) B told A that he is resigning TODAY. The partnership is has not been advertised in the manner
thus dissolved. Should A enter into a contract with D, provided for advertising the fact of
who shall be liable? dissolution in the first paragraph, No. 2 (b).
As among themselves, only A because he had Nothing in this article shall affect the liability under
knowledge of Bs resignation, thus knowing that they are article 1825 of any person who after dissolution
no longer in a partnership. represents himself or consents to another representing
(2) If B texts his resignation to A because A is in Mindanao him as a partner in a partnership engaged in carrying on
and A contracts with D, was his authority terminated business (n)
when the text arrived?
No, As authority was not terminated as he has only Partners may still bind the partnership to transactions even
received a NOTICE. Mere notice cannot terminate the after dissolution if the transactions are with respect to the
authority of partners because the grounds are BY AN winding up or the completion of unfinished transactions.
ACT, and because of this it should be PERSONALLY The transaction will be binding if:
KNOWN by the acting partner. (1) Credit was extended without knowledge of the
(3) If C texts A that B had died, does their authority dissolution before the dissolution
terminate once A gets the text message? (2) No credit was extended but there was knowledge of the
Their authority is terminated because in this case, the partnerships existence and none of the dissolution
cause of dissolution is death. Mere notice is sufficient to The partnership is required to have the dissolution be
terminate authority if the grounds are due to the announced in general circulation newspapers of the place of
insolvency or to the death of a partner. operations. As long as they do this, then it is sufficient notice
to all third persons. (If you dont read broadsheets, thats
Article 1834 your fault, not the partnerships)
After dissolution, a partner can bind the Liabilities shall be satisfied out of partnership assets alone if
partnership, except as provided in the third paragraph of the partner being dealt with is a DORMANT partner.
this article: Upon dissolution, the partnership is no longer bound by
(1) By an act appropriate for winding up transactions :
partnership affairs or completing transactions (1) When it becomes unlawful to carry on the business
unfinished at dissolution (2) Insolvency of a partner
(2) By any transaction which would bind the (3) Unauthorized winding up, except when
partnership is dissolution had not taken place, (a) Credit was extended and there was no knowledge
provided the other party to the transaction: of the lack of authority
(a) Had extended credit to the partnership prior (b) No credit was extended and there was no
to dissolution and had no knowledge or knowledge of the dissolution because there was no
notice of the dissolution; or advertisement of such
(b) Though he had not so extended credit, had In the case wherein A still represents himself as a partner
nevertheless known of the partnership prior even if the partnership has already been dissolved, then he
to dissolution, and, having no knowledge or is a PARTNER BY ESTOPPEL.
notice of dissolution, the fact of dissolution
had not been advertised in a newspaper of Article 1835
general circulation in the place (or in each The dissolution of the partnership does not of itself
place if more than one) at which the discharge the existing liability of any partner.
partnership was regularly carried on. A partner is discharged from any existing liability
The liability of a partner under the first paragraph, upon dissolution of the partnership by an agreement to
No. 2, shall be satisfied out of partnership assets alone that effect between himself, the partnership creditor and
when such partner had been prior to dissolution: the person or partnership continuing the business; and
(1) Unknown as a partner to the person with whom such agreement may be inferred from the course of
the contract is made; and dealing between the creditor having knowledge of the
(2) So far unknown and inactive in partnership dissolution and the person or partnership continuing
affairs that the business reputation of the the business.
partnership could not be said to have been in The individual property of a deceased partner shall
any degree due to his connection with it be liable for all obligations of the partnership incurred
The partnership is in no case bound by any act of a while he was a partner, but subject to the prior payment
partner after dissolution: of his separate debts. (n)
(1) Where the partnership is dissolved because it is
unlawful to carry on the business, unless the Dissolution does not discharge the partnership and/or the
partners from existing liabilities
EXAMPLE: manner indemnify him against all present or
Suppose A, B and C are in a partnership (X & Co.) and owe future partnership liabilities.
D a sum of P 26,000.00. Total partnership assets equate to (3) A partner who has caused the dissolution
a sum of P 20,000.00. wrongfully shall have:
(1) What if C dies and his total assets are worth P2,000.00? (a) If the business is not continued under the
The law says that Cs individual property shall be used provisions of the second paragraph, No. 2,
to clear his liabilities when he was still alive. In all cases, all the rights of a partner under the first
the PERSONAL CREDITOR has priority. paragraph, subject to liability for damages
(2) What if A resigns? Can he ask to be discharged from his in the second paragraph, No. 1 (b), of this
obligation to pay D? article.
A can only be discharged from his obligation to pay D (b) If the business is continued under the
the sum of P2,000.00 if it was agreed upon by all second paragraph, No. 2, of this article, the
concerned parties. Agreement can be EXPRESSED or right as against his co-partners and all
IMPLIED, based on our interpretation of the law. claiming through them in respect of their
interests in the partnership, to have the
Article 1836 value of his interest in the partnership, less
Unless otherwise agreed, the partners who have not any damage caused to his co-partners by
wrongfully dissolved the partnership or the legal the dissolution ascertained and paid to him
representative of the last surviving partner, not in cash, or the payment secured by a bond
insolvent, has the right to wind up the partnership approved by the court, and to be released
affairs, provided, however, that any partner, his legal from all existing liabilities of the
representative or his assignee, upon cause shown, may partnership; but in ascertaining the value of
obtain winding up by the court. (n) the partners interest the value of the
goodwill of the business shall not be
Who can wind up partnership affairs? considered. (n)
(1) Whoever is so assigned by the agreement
(2) Partners who did not wrongfully cause the dissolution Suppose there is a situation wherein A, B and C are in a
(3) Legal representatives of the last surviving partner (who partnership, X & Co., with total assets of P 26,000.00 and
is not insolvent) liabilities to D amounting to P 20,000.00. If the partnership is
(4) The court in a judicial winding up of partnership affairs. dissolved WITHOUT VIOLATION OF ANY AGREEMENTS,
naturally, the liability will be cleared because the partnership
Article 1837 assets are more than enough, and the surplus will be given
When dissolution is caused in any way, except in to each of the partners in proportion to their interest in the
contravention of the partnership agreement, each partnership or as per their agreement.
partner, as against his co-partners and all persons What if the partnership was dissolved due to EXPULSION?
claiming through them in respect of their interests in the Suppose that A was the one expelled from the partnership,
partnership, unless otherwise agreed, may have the then he can only get a share in the NET PROCEEDS of the
partnership property applied to discharge its liabilities, surplus that would have originally been his.
and the surplus applied to pay in cash the net amount What if the partnership was dissolved due to VIOLATION
owing to the respective partners. But if dissolution is OF AGREEMENTS?
caused by expulsion of a partner, bona fide under the Determine the rights of the INNOCENT and GUILTY parties.
partnership agreement and if the expelled partner is Suppose that in this situation, A was the one guilty of
discharged from all partnership liabilities, either by violating an agreement. Then B and C will be allowed the
payment or agreement under the second paragraph of following rights:
Article 1835, He shall receive in cash only the net (1) Apply partnership assets to partnership liabilities and
amount due him from the partnership. distribute the cash surplus amongst themselves.
When dissolution is caused in contravention of the (2) To be indemnified for the damages that A has caused.
partnership agreement the rights of the partners shall be (3) To continue the business up to the agreed term.
as follows: (4) To possess partnership property.
(1) Each partner who has not caused dissolution While A will have the following rights:
wrongfully shall have: (1) Partners decide not to continue the business
(a) All the rights specified in the first (a) Right to claim his share in the cash surplus, but
paragraph of this article, and only the net proceeds of such meaning, the cash
(b) The right, as against each partner who surplus less damages.
caused the dissolution wrongfully to (2) Continue the business
damages for breach of the agreement (a) Ascertain his interest in the business.
(2) The partners who have not caused the (b) Freedom from existing and future liabilities of the
dissolution wrongfully, if they all desire to partnership.
continue the business in the same name either
by themselves or jointly with others, may do so, Article 1838
during the agreed term for the partnership and Where a partnership contract is rescinded on the
for that purpose may possess the partnership ground of the fraud or misrepresentation of one of the
property, provided they secure the payment by parties thereto, the party entitled to rescind is, without
bond approved by the court, or pay to any prejudice to any other right, entitled:
partner who has caused the dissolution (1) To a lien on, or right of retention of, the surplus
wrongfully, the value of his interest in the of the partnership property after satisfying the
partnership at the dissolution, less any partnership liabilities to third persons for any
damages recoverable under the second sum of money paid by him for the purchase of
paragraph, No. 1 (b) of this article, and in like
an interest in the partnership and for any capital (b) Those owing to partnership creditors
or advances contributed by him; (c) Those owing to partners by way of
(2) To stand, after all liabilities to third persons contribution (n)
have been satisfied, in the place of the creditors
of the partnership for any payments made by Considers the case of liquidation and the distribution of
him in respect of the partnership liabilities; and partnership assets
(3) To be indemnified by the person guilty of the Liquidation is when all the assets of the partnership is
fraud or making the representation against all converted to cash.
debts and liabilities of the partnership. (n) Total assets will include GOODWILL as well as the original
CONTRIBUTIONS of the partners.
Considers a case wherein a partner was induced to join the Order of payment during liquidation:
partnership by means of fraud or misrepresentation rd
(1) 3 persons/outside creditors
The victim can ask for the recision or restitution of the (2) Partner creditors (partners who have claims)
contract of partnership (return of all his contributions) (3) Normal partners (all partners)
He has the right to the surplus for certain purposes (a) In accordance with the agreement
He has the rights of a 3 person or a subrogated creditor
(b) In proportion to their contribution
after the liabilities have already been paid to recollect what
he paid when he entered into the partnership. Article 1840
He is entitled to be indemnified for all debts and liabilities In the following cases, creditors of the dissolved
that he paid for during his time in the partnership. partnership are also creditors of the person or
partnership continuing the business:
Article 1839 (1) When any new partner is admitted into an
In settling accounts between the partners after existing partnership, or when any partner
dissolution, the following rules shall be observed, retires and assigns (or the representative of the
subject to any agreement to the contrary: deceased partner assigns) his rights in
(1) The assets of the partnership are: partnership property to two or more of the
(a) The partnership property partners, or to one or more of the partners and
(b) The contributions of the partners necessary one or more third persons, if the business is
for the payment of all the liabilities continued without liquidation of the partnership
specified in No. 2 affairs;
(2) The liabilities of the partnership shall rank in (2) When all but one partner retire and assign (or
order of payment, as follows: the representative of a deceased partner
(a) Those owing to creditors other than assigns) their rights in partnership property to
partners the remaining partner, who continues the
(b) Those owing to partners other than for business without liquidation of partnership
capital and profits affairs, either alone or with others;
(c) Those owing to partners in respect of (3) When any partner retires or dies and the
capital business of the dissolved partnership is
(d) Those owing to partners in respect of continued as set forth in Nos. 1 and 2 of this
profits article, with the consent of the retired partner or
(3) The assets shall be applied in the order of their the representative of the deceased partner, but
declaration in No. 1 of this article to the without any assignment of his right in
satisfaction of the liabilities partnership property;
(4) The partners shall contribute, as provided by (4) When all the partners or their representatives
Article 1797, the amount necessary to satisfy assign their rights in partnership property to
the liabilities one or more third persons who promise to pay
(5) An assignee for the benefit of the cr4editor or the debts and who continue the business of the
any person appointed by the court shall have dissolved partnership;
the right to enforce the contributions specified (5) When any partner wrongfully causes a
in the preceding number. dissolution and the remaining partners continue
(6) Any partner or his legal representative shall the business under the provisions of Article
have the right to enforce the contributions 1837, second paragraph, No. 2, either alone or
specified in No. 4, to the extent of the amount with others, and without liquidation of the
which he has paid in excess of his share of the partnership affairs;
liability. (6) When a partner is expelled and the remaining
(7) The individual property of a deceased partner partners continue the business either alone or
shall be liable for the contributions specified in with others without liquidation of the
No. 4 partnership affairs.
(8) When partnership property and the individual The liability of a third person becoming a partner in
properties of the partners are in possession of a the partnership continuing the business, under this
court for distribution, partnership creditors article, to the creditors of the dissolved partnership
shall have priority on partnership property and shall be satisfied out of the partnership property only,
separate creditors on individual property, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary.
saving the rights of lien or secured creditors When the business of a partnership after
(9) Where a partner has become insolvent or his dissolution is continued under any conditions set forth
estate is insolvent, the claims against his in this article, the creditors of the dissolved partnership,
separate property shall rank in the following as against the separate creditors of the retiring or
order: deceased partner or the representative of the deceased
(a) Those owing to separate creditors partner, have a prior right to any claim of the retired
partner or the representative of the deceased partner
against the person or partnership continuing the Who can demand to know how much his interest is in the
business, on account of the retired or deceased partnership and from whom?
partners interest in the dissolved partnership or on All involved parties can demand to know how much his
account of any consideration promised for such interest interest is. He can demand to know these from the
or for his right in partnership property. SURVIVING, CONTINUING and WINDING UP partners.
Nothing in this article shall be held to modify any
right of creditors to set aside any assignment on the CHAPTER 4 LIMITED PARTNERSHIP
ground of fraud.
The use by the person or partnership continuing the Article 1843
business of the partnership name, or the name of a A limited partnership is one formed by two or more
deceased partner as part thereof, shall not of itself make persons under the provisions of the following article,
the individual property of the deceased partner liable for having as members one or more general partners and
any debts contracted by such person or partnership. (n) one or more limited partners. The limited partners as
such shall not be bound by the obligations of the
Explains the rights of the creditor in case of partnership partnership.
dissolution because of membership changes and the
business is continued without liquidation. Defines what a limited partnership is.
The membership changes include RETIREMENT, It is sufficient that there is 1 general and 1 limited partner in
EXPULSION, DEATH or ADDITION. a limited partnership.
Note that the creditor of the OLD partnership will still be the The reason for the existence of a limited partnership is to
creditor of the NEW partnership if there is still an old address the needs of all those who wish to join a partnership
partner/original partner with the NEW partnership. (debt will without the risk of losing any personal property.
not be cleared or discharged) Characteristics:
The creditor will continue to be the creditor of the (1) Comply with the statutory requirements of Article 1824
remaining/new partnership in all cases except when: (2) General partners control the partnership and are
(1) Rights are assigned to other people (no old partners) personally liable for partnership debts.
(2) Unless there is a promise to pay debt from the new (3) Limited partners contribute capital and are not liable
partners or if the creditor can set aside the right of the personally for partnership debts.
new partners on the ground of fraud.
Article 1844
Article 1841 Two or more persons desiring to form a limited
When any partner retires or dies, and the business partnership shall:
is continued under any of the conditions set forth in the (1) Sign and swear to a certificate, which shall state
preceding article, or in Article 1837, second paragraph, (a) The name of the partnership, adding thereto
No. 2, without any settlement of accounts as between the word Limited
him or his estate and the person or partnership (b) The character of the business
continuing the business, unless otherwise agreed, he or (c) The location of the principal place of
his legal representative as against such person or business
partnership may have the value of his interest at the (d) The name and place of residence of each
date of dissolution ascertained, and shall receive as an member, general and limited partners being
ordinary creditor an amount equal to the value of his respectively designated
interest in the dissolved partnership with interest, or, at (e) The term for which the partnership is to
his option or at the option of his legal representative, in exist
lieu of interest, the profits attributable to the use of his (f) The amount of cash and a description of
right in the property of the dissolved partnership; and the agreed value of the other property
provided that the creditors of the dissolved partnership contributed by each limited partner
as against the separate creditors, or the representative (g) The additional contributions, if any, to be
of the retired or deceased partner, shall have priority on made by each limited partner and the times
any claim arising under this article, providing by Article at which or events on the happening of
1840, third paragraph. (n) which they shall be made
(h) The time, if agreed upon, when the
Suppose that A retires but B and C continue the business contribution of each limited partner is to be
without liquidation. What are the rights of A? returned
The rights of A are as follows: (i) The share of the profits or the other
(1) That his interest be ascertained as of dissolution date compensation by way of income which
(2) Collect his interest in the partnership plus interest or each limited partner shall receive by reason
profits by the use of his right to these as a creditor of his contribution
If A dies, and the same situation occurs (he did not retire), (j) The right, if give, of a limited partner to
then his legal representatives have the same rights as substitute an assignee as contributor in his
mentioned above. place, and the terms and conditions of the
Article 1842 (k) The right, if given, of the partners to admit
The right to an account of his interest shall accrue additional limited partners
to any partner, or his legal representative as against the (l) The right, if given, of one or more of the
winding up partners or the surviving partners or the limited partners to priority over other
person or partnership continuing the business, at the limited partners, as to contributions or as to
date of dissolution, in the absence of any agreement to compensation b way of income, and the
the contrary. (n) nature of such priority
(m) The right, if given, of the remaining general If the certificate contains a false statement, one who
partner or partners to continue the suffers loss by reliance on such statement may hold
business on the death, retirement, civil liable any party to the certificate who knew the
interdiction, insanity or insolvency of a statement to be false:
general partner (1) At the time he signed the certificate
(n) The right, if given, of a limited partner to (2) Subsequently, but within a sufficient time
demand and receive property other than before the statement was relied upon to enable
cash in return for his contribution him to cancel or amend the certificate, or to file
(2) File for record the certificate in the Office of the a petition for its cancellation or amendment as
Securities and Exchange Commission. provided in Article 1865.
A limited partnership is formed if there has been
If there are false statements in the certification and 3
substantial compliance in good faith with the foregoing
requirements. persons should suffer loss due to these, then he can hold
liable all those who had knowledge of the false statement at
Two requirements in a limited partnership: the time certification was signed.
(1) Sign and swear to a certificate containing the data The same shall apply if the partners concerned had sufficient
mentioned in the article (a) to (n) time to have the certificate cancelled but did not do so.
(2) Have the certificate recorded with the SEC
Can a limited partnership be formed orally? Article 1848
No. A limited partnership contract is not perfected by mere A limited partner shall not become liable as a
agreement as it requires formal proceedings. general partner unless, in addition to the exercise of his
Partnership must SUBSTANTIALLY comply with the rights and powers as a limited partner, he takes part in
requirements. the control of the business.
What if the partnership does not comply with the
requirements? Will it be void? The limited partner who, aside from his powers, participates
No, it will only become a GENERAL PARTNERSHIP. in the management of the partnership becomes liable as a
Why is it that the certificate must be registered? general partner.
Registration is the notice, to all 3 persons who will be
dealing with or are dealing with the partnership, that there Article 1849
are partners with limited liability. After the formation of a limited partnership,
The presumption is that when a partnership deals with a 3
rd additional limited partners may be admitted upon filing
person, the partnership is a GENERAL partnership. an amendment to the original certificate in accordance
with the requirements of Article 1865.
Article 1845
The contributions of a limited partner may be cash Suppose that in a limited partnership, there are only 2
or other property, but not services. general partners and 1 limited partner. Can you add another
limited partner?
Limited partners can only contribute cash or other property, Yes, amend the certificate under Article 1865 and do so.
not services because if he does so, then he shall become a
Contribution must be given immediately. If he has promised A general partner shall have all the rights and
additional contribution, then it should be given on the date powers and be subject to all the restrictions and
promised or agreed upon. liabilities of a partner in a partnership without limited
partners. However, without the written consent or
Article 1846 ratification of the specific act by all the limited partners,
The surname of a limited partner shall not appear in a general partner or all of the general partners have no
the partnership name unless: authority to:
(1) It is also the surname of a general partner (1) Do any act in contravention of the certificate
(2) Prior to the time when the limited partner (2) Do any act which would make it impossible to
became such, the business had been carried on carry on the ordinary business of the
under a name in which his surname appeared partnership
A limited partner whose surname appears in a (3) Confess a judgment against the partnership
partnership name contrary to the provisions of the first (4) Possess partnership property, or assign their
paragraph is liable as a general partner to partnership rights in specific partnership property, for other
creditors who extend credit to the partnership without than a partnership purpose
actual knowledge that he is not a general partner. (5) Admit a person as a general partner
(6) Admit a person as a limited partner, unless the
The surname of the limited partner should not appear except right to do so is given in the certificate
if it is also the surname of a general partner or if at the time (7) Continue the business with partnership
of his admission, it was already being used. property on the death, retirement, insanity, civil
If the limited partner allows that his surname be used, then interdiction or insolvency of a general partner,
he shall be held liable as a general partner as to 3 persons unless the right to do so is given in the
who extended credit not knowing he was a limited partner. certificate
If the creditor has knowledge of his being a limited partner,
then this rule shall not apply. Refers to the power, liabilities and limitations of general
partners in a limited partnership.
Article 1847 A general partner has the same rights, powers and
limitations in a limited partnership as when he would have
been in a general partnership.
A general partner, without written consent from ALL limited Suppose A, B and C form a limited partnership, with C being
partners, cannot: the limited partner with a contribution of P20,000.00. The
(1) Do any act in contravention of the certificate certificate that they sign says that C is a general partner.
(2) Do any act which would make it impossible to carry on What, then, if C, believing himself to be a limited partner,
the ordinary business of the partnership begins to exercise his rights as such?
(3) Confess a judgment against the partnership C cannot be held liable, as a general partner, if upon his
(4) Possess partnership property, or assign their rights in realization of the error, he promptly renounces his
specific partnership property involvement with the partnership, except:
(5) Admit a person as a general partner (1) If he participates in the management of the partnership
(6) Admit a person as a limited partner, unless the right to (2) If his surname is used in the partnership name
do so is given in the certificate Consider the situation above, but this time, Cs name is not
(7) Continue the business with partnership property on the mentioned at all. What happens then?
death, retirement, insanity, civil interdiction or insolvency If that is the case, then there is no limited partnership
of a general partner, unless the right to do so is given in because there is no limited partner mentioned .
the certificate The law anticipates a situation where in the person is a
If there are 100 general partners and 1 dies, the partnership limited partner but his name is not mentioned as such or not
will be dissolved. However, this rule will not apply in the case mentioned at all in the certificate.
of limited partners. If there are 5 limited partners and 1 dies,
then the partnership will still continue. Article 1853
A limited partnership will continue (not dissolve) even in A person may be a general partner and a limited
cases of the death of a limited partner as long as there is still partner in the same partnership at the same time,
ONE surviving limited partner in the partnership. provided that this fact shall be stated in the certificate
provided for in Article 1844.
Article 1851 A person who is a general, and also at the same
A limited partner shall have the same rights as a time a limited partner, shall have all the rights and
general partner to: powers and be subject to all the restrictions of a general
(1) Have the partnership books kept at the principal partner; except that, in respect to his contribution, he
place of business of the partnership, and at a shall have the rights against the other members which
reasonable hour to inspect and copy any of he would have had if he were not also a general partner.
(2) Have on demand true and full information of all A partner can be a limited and general partner at the same
things affecting the partnership, and a formal time provided that this fact is STATED IN THE
account of partnership affairs whenever CERTIFICATE that he signs.
Who are they to 3 persons then?
circumstances render it just and reasonable
(3) Have dissolution and winding up by decree of They are general partners as to 3 persons but as amongst
court the partners themselves, they are seen as limited partners
A limited partner shall have the right to receive a with regards to their contribution.
share of the profits or other compensation by way of
income and to the return of his contribution as provided Article 1854
in Articles 1856 and 1857. A limited partner also may loan money to and
transact with other businesses with the partnership,
This Article is important as far as the limited partner is and, unless he is also a general partner, receive on
concerned as it shows them what rights they have. account of resulting claims against the partnership, with
A limited partner is given the same rights as the general general creditors, a pro rata share of the assets. No
partner, that is: limited partner shall in respect to any such claim:
(1) They can require that the partnership books be kept at (1) Receive or hold as collateral security any
the principal place of business. partnership property
(2) Inspect and copy partnership books. (2) Receive from a general partner or the
(3) Demand true and full information regarding all matters partnership any payment, conveyance, or
concerning the partnership. release from liability, if at the time the assets of
(4) Demand for legal winding up or dissolution the partnership are not sufficient to discharge
(5) Share in profits, other compensation by way of income partnership liabilities to persons not claiming
and the return of contributions. as general or limited partners.
The receiving of collateral security, or a payment,
Article 1852 conveyance or release in violation of the foregoing
Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 1848, provisions is a fraud on the creditors of the partnership.
a person who has contributed to the capital of a
business conducted by a person or partnership Provides that a limited partner can extend credit or transact
erroneously believing that he has become a limited with partnerships that he is part of.
partner in a limited partnership, is not, by reason of his He is also entitled to partnership assets pro rata to creditors
exercise of the rights of a limited partner, a general but it cannot be used as collateral from the partnership.
partner with the person or in the partnership carrying on Suppose X & Co. owes D a sum of P20,000.00 and C, a
the business, or bound by the obligations of such limited partner, P20,000.00. The total assets of the
person or partnership, provided that on ascertaining the partnership is P50,000.00. How shall these be settled?
mistake he promptly renounces his interest in the Both C and D can simultaneously collect from the
profits of the business, or other compensation by way of partnership as partnership assets are sufficient to cover
income. BOTH. However, if partnership assets are only P20,000.00,
C cannot share in it because it would prejudice Ds claim.
Refers to a failure to create a limited partnership.
Article 1855 partner, irrespective of the nature of his contribution,
Where there are several limited partners the has only the right to demand and receive cash in return
members may agree that one or more of the limited for his contribution.
partners shall have a priority over other limited partners A limited partner may have the partnership
as to the return of their contributions, as to their dissolved and its affairs wound up when:
compensation by way of income, or as to any other (1) He rightfully but unsuccessfully demands the
matter. If such an agreement is made, it shall be stated return of his contribution
in the certificate, and in the absence of such a (2) The other liabilities of the partnership have not
statement, all the limited partners shall stand upon been paid, or the partnership property is
equal footing. insufficient for their payment as required by the
first paragraph, No. 1, and the limited partner
Suppose that there are three limited partners. These would otherwise be entitled to the return of his
partners can agree (because there are more than 1) that one contribution.
of them can have priority over the others provided that such
SHOULD BE STATED IN THE CERTIFICATE. What are the requisites for the limited partner to be entitled
to the return of his contribution?
Article 1856 (1) When, after deducting partnership liabilities, partnership
A limited partner may receive from the partnership assets are sufficient to do so.
the share of the profits or the compensation by way of (2) If he has the consent of all partners unless the right can
income stipulated for in the certificate; provided, that be demanded.
after such payment is made, whether from the property (3) The certificate must be amended to reflect the return of
of the partnership or that of a general partner, the his contribution.
partnership assets are in excess of all liabilities of the When may a limited partner rightfully demand the return of
partnership except liabilities to limited partners on his contribution?
account of their contributions and to general partners. (1) During dissolution
(2) Upon arrival of the date of return of his contribution
The limited partner is entitled to share in payment by share (3) After he has given 6 months notice, WRITTEN, and
in profits or other compensation by way of income provided there was no date of return nor dissolution
that the partnership assets are sufficient to meet such. The limited partner is only entitled to the return of his
To determine total liability, do not deduct contributed capital. contribution, IN CASH, except:
Liabilities owed to general partners are not considered part (1) If it was agreed upon
of the partnerships total liabilities. (2) He has the consent of all the partners
The ability of the limited partner to share is based on the When can a limited partner ask for dissolution?
total liability, which must be known. (1) He rightfully but unsuccessfully demanded the return
Suppose that A, B and C are in partnership wherein C is the (2) If he was entitled to receive his contribution and the
limited partner and total assets are P50,000.00. They owe D certificate was already amended but partnership assets
a sum of P10,000.00, C P15,000.00 and A P50,000.00, is C are not sufficient to pay off partnership creditors.
still entitled to share in the surplus after clearing liabilities?
Yes, because total liabilities in this case is only P25,000.00 Article 1858
and the assets are still sufficient to pay out the surplus. A limited partner is liable to the partnership:
(1) For the difference between his contribution as
Article 1857 actually made and that stated in the certificate
A limited partner shall not receive from a general as having been made
partner or out of partnership property any part of his (2) For any unpaid contribution which he agreed in
contribution until: the certificate to make in the future of the time
(1) All liabilities of the partnership, except liabilities and on the conditions stated in the certificate
to general partners and to limited partners on A limited partner holds as trustee for the
account of their contributions, have been paid partnership:
or there remains property of the partnership (1) Specific property stated in the certificate as
sufficient to pay them contributed by him, but which was not
(2) The consent of all members is had, unless the contributed or which has been wrongfully
return of the contribution may be rightfully returned
demanded under the provisions of the second (2) Money or other property wrongfully paid or
paragraph conveyed to him on account of his contribution
(3) The certificate is cancelled or so amended as to The liabilities of a limited partner as set forth in this
set forth the withdrawal or reduction article can be waived or compromised only by the
Subject to the provisions of the first paragraph, a consent of all members; but a waiver or compromise
limited partner may rightfully demand the return of his shall not affect the right of a creditor of a partnership
contribution: who extended credit or whose claim arose after the
(1) On the dissolution of a partnership filing and before a cancellation or amendment of the
(2) When the date specified in the certificate for its certificate, to enforce such liabilities.
return has arrived When a contributor has rightfully received the
(3) After he has given six months notice in writing return in whole or in part of the capital of his
to all other members, if no time is specified in contribution, he is nevertheless liable to the partnership
the certificate, either for the return of the for any sum, not in excess of such return with interest,
contribution or for the dissolution of the necessary to discharge its liabilities to all creditors who
partnership. extended credit or whose claims arose before such
In the absence of any statement in the certificate to return.
the contrary or the consent of all members, a limited
Suppose A promises to contribute P20,000.00 but only pays (2) If the limited partner is empowered by the certificate to
P15,000.00. What is his obligation to the partnership? constitute a substituted limited partner, and the
Then A must pay the P5,000.00 difference NOW. certificate is amended under Article 1865
Suppose C, the limited partner, promises to contribute What are the rights of a substituted limited partner?
P20,000.00 more. What should be done? He has all the powers, limitations and liabilities as his
It should be paid on the date he promised to pay it. assignor except those which he was ignorant of at the time
When can a limited partner be held as trustee? he became a limited partner and those that could not be
(1) When he promises specific things but does not follow ascertained from the certificate.
through with the promise of delivery What about the assignor?
(2) In circumstances of wrongful returns The assignor is still liable for false statements and claims
(3) In cases of money and/or property that is wrongfully before the admittance of a substitute limited partner, as in
conveyed Articles 1847 and 1858.
Can the partnership waive the difference of contributions?
(EX: the first situation) Article 1860
Yes, as long as it will not affect creditors who had extended The retirement, death, insolvency, insanity or civil
credit before the waiver of such. interdiction of a general partner dissolves the
Can the partnership reclaim the returns if it is needed? (EX: partnership, unless the business is continued by the
Cs contribution was already returned but the partnership remaining general partners:
needs it to finish paying off D, a creditor) (1) Under a right so to do stated in the certificate
Yes, as long as the claim came into existence before the (2) With the consent of all the members
return of contribution.
Again, this does not apply to limited partners because as
Article 1859 long as there is ONE limited partner still living, then the
A limited partners interest is assignable. partnership is continued.
A substituted limited partner is a person admitted to General partners can only continue the business if:
all the rights of a limited partner who has died or has (1) The right was stated in the certificate
assigned his interest in a partnership. (2) All partners consent to such.
An assignee, who does not become a substituted
limited partner, has no right to require any information Article 1861
or account of the partnership transactions or to inspect On the death of a limited partner, his executor or
the partnership books; he is only entitled to receive the administrator shall have the rights of a limited partner
share of the profits or other compensation by way of for the purpose of settling his estate, and such power as
income, or return of his contribution, to which his the deceased had to constitute his assignee a
assignor would otherwise be entitled. substituted limited partner.
An assignee shall have the right to become a The estate of a deceased limited partner shall be
substituted limited partner if all the members consent liable for all his liabilities as a limited partner.
thereto or if the assignor, being thereunto empowered
by the certificate, gives the assignee that right. The executor/administrator has the power to settle the dead
An assignee becomes a substituted limited partner partners estate and those to constitute his assignee as a
when the certificate is appropriately amended in substituted limited partner, if the limited partner originally had
accordance with Article 1865. the power to do so, or was allowed such.
The substituted limited partner has all the rights and The estate of a limited partner will pay for all his liabilities as
powers, and is subject to all the restrictions and a limited partner.
liabilities of his assignor, except those liabilities of
which he was ignorant at the time he became a limited Article 1862
partner and which could not be ascertained from the On due application to a court of competent,
certificate. jurisdiction by any creditor of a limited partner, the court
The substitution of the assignee as a limited partner may charge the interest of the indebted limited partner
does not release the assignor from liability to the with payment of the unsatisfied amount of such claim,
partnership under Articles 1847 and 1858. and may appoint a receiver, and make all other orders,
directions, and inquiries which the circumstances of the
The interest of a limited partner can be assigned. His interest case may require.
is his share in profits, other compensation by way of income The interest may be redeemed with the separate
or his return. property of any general partner, but may not be
A substituted limited partner is the person admitted and has redeemed with partnership property.
all the rights of a limited partner who dies or has assigned The remedies conferred by the first paragraph shall
his interest. not be deemed exclusive of others which may exist.
What if the person is not qualified to be a substituted limited Nothing in this Chapter shall be held to deprive a
partner? limited partner of his statutory exemption.
Then he shall remain an assignee with the following rights
and limitations: Similar to Article 1814 for general partnerships.
If a 3 person files a case against the limited partners for
(1) Receive share in profits, other compensation by way of
income or return of contribution non-payment or non-compliance with their contract, he can
(2) Cannot demand information on partnership activities nor ask for the partners interests to be attached.
inspect partnership books. The attached interest may be redeemed using separate
When will the assignee become a substituted limited general partners property but not partnership property
partner? UNLESS all partners have consented to such.
(1) If consent from all other partners was given
Article 1863
In settling accounts after dissolution, the liabilities (1) Upon DISSOLUTION
of the partnership shall be entitled to payment in the (2) When ALL limited partners cease to be such
following order: When should the certificate be amended?
(1) Those to creditors, in the order of priority as In all cases other than those that will cause the certificate to
provided by the law, except those to limited be cancelled.
partners on account of their contributions, and
to general partners Article 1865
(2) Those to limited partners in respect to their The writing to amend a certificate shall:
share of the profits and other compensation by (1) Conform to the requirements of Article 1844 as
way of income on their contributions far as necessary to set forth clearly the change
(3) Those to limited partners in respect to the in the certificate which it is desired to make
capital of their contributions (2) Be signed and sworn to by all members, and an
(4) Those to general partners other than for capital amendment substitution a limited partner or
and profits adding a limited or general partner shall be
(5) Those to general partners in respect to profits signed also by the member to be substituted or
(6) Those to general partners in respect to capital added, and when a limited partner is to be
Subject to any statement in the certificate or to substituted, the amendment shall also be
subsequent agreement, limited partners share in the signed by the assigning limited partner.
partnership assets in respect to their claims for capital, The writing to cancel a certificate shall be signed by
and in respect to their claims for profits or for all members.
compensation by way of income on their contribution A person desiring the cancellation or amendment of
respectively, in proportion to the respective amounts of a certificate, if any person designated in the first and
such claims. second paragraphs as a person who must execute the
writing refuses to do so, may petition the court to order
Who has priority over distribution of assets in a limited a cancellation or amendment thereof.
partnership? If the court finds that the petitioner has a right to
(1) Creditors, including limited partners who have a claim have the writing executed by a person who refuses to do
against the partnership. so, it shall order the Office of the Securities and
(2) Limited partners share in profits Exchange Commission where the certificate is recorded,
(3) Limited partners return of capital contribution to record the cancellation or amendment of the
(4) General partners who have claims against the certificate; and when the certificate is to be amended,
partnership the court shall also cause to be filed for record in the
(5) General partners share in profits said office a certified copy of its decree setting forth the
(6) General partners return of capital contribution amendment.
The difference of this with general partnerships is that in a A certificate is amended or cancelled when there is
general partnership, capital contributions are returned filed for record in the Office of the Securities and
BEFORE profits from surplus are shared. Exchange Commission where the certificate is recorded:
(1) A writing in accordance with the provisions of
Article 1864 the first or second paragraph
The certificate shall be cancelled when the (2) A certified copy of the order of court in
partnership is dissolved or all limited partners cease to accordance with the provisions of the fourth
be such. paragraph
A certificate shall be amended when: (3) After the certificate is duly amended in
(1) There is a change in the name of the accordance with this article, the amended
partnership or in the amount or character of the certificate shall thereafter be for all purposes
contribution of any limited partner the certificate provided for in this Chapter.
(2) A person is substituted as a limited partner
(3) An additional limited partner is admitted What are the requisites for certificates to be amended or
(4) A person is admitted as a general partner cancelled?
(5) A general partner retires, dies, becomes (1) It must be in writing
insolvent or insane, or is sentenced to civil (2) It must be signed AND sworn by ALL concerned parties
interdiction and the business is continued (3) It must be registered with the SEC
under Article 1860
(6) There is a change in the character of the Article 1866
business of the partnership A contributor, unless he is a general partner, is not
(7) There is a false or erroneous statement in the a proper party to proceedings by or against a
certificate partnership, except where the object is to enforce a
(8) There is a change in the time as stated in the limited partners right against or liability to the
certificate for the dissolution of the partnership partnership.
or for the return of a contribution
(9) A time is fixed for the dissolution of the A limited partner is a mere contributor, meaning, he is
partnership, or the return of a contribution, no practically a stranger. This is because he has no
time having been specified in the certificate participation in management and control and is only liable to
(10) The members desire to make a change in any the partnership, not to 3 persons and if he is filed against
other statement in the certificate in order that it as a general partner, he can file a counterclaim for wrongful
shall accurately represent the agreement inclusion.
among them. 2 exceptions to this rule:
(1) To enforce his right against the partnership
When should a certificate be cancelled?
(2) If he refuses to restore his contribution when the
partnership assets are not sufficient to pay creditors

Article 1867
A limited partnership formed under the law prior to
the effectivity of this Code, may become a limited
partnership under this Chapter by complying with the
provisions of Article 1844, provided the certificate sets
(1) The amount of the original contribution of each
limited partner and the time when the
contribution was made\
(2) That the property of the partnership exceeds
the amount sufficient to discharge its liabilities
to persons not claiming as general or limited
partners by an amount greater than the sum of
the contributions of its limited partners.
A limited partnership formed under the law prior to
the effectivity of this Code, until or unless it becomes a
limited partnership under this Chapter, shall continue to
be governed by the provisions of the old law.

This is a transitory law.

Articles 145 to 150 of the Code of Commerce used to govern
limited partnerships.
What happens to a limited partnership existing before the
Civil Code?
The partnership must first comply with the following
requirements before they can become a limited partnership
under the Civil Code:
(1) State the amount of contribution and the time it was
(2) After paying off all liabilities, the total assets of the
partnership must be greater than the contribution of all
limited partners, otherwise, it will continue to be
governed by the Code of Commerce.