Sie sind auf Seite 1von 40

International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),

Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016, ISSN 2548-0960, Turkey,
DOI: Your DOI number

INVESTIGATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELLING AVAILABILITY


TAKEN PHOTOGRAPH OF THE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE; SAMPLE OF
KANLIDIVANE CHURCH

Ulvi, A., 1* Toprak, A.S.,2

1 SelcukUniversity, Hadim Vocational Schools of Higher Education, Konya, Turkey


(aliulvi@selcuk.edu.tr)
2 KOP Administration , Konya, Turkey (ahmetsuadtoprak@gmail.com)

*Corresponding Author, Received: 01/06/2016, Accepted: 15/07/2016

ABSTRACT: Cultural heritages due to have different natural characteristics, have different sizes, and heir complicated
structure should be measured and requires a more sophisticated measurement tools and techniques to documentation. One
of them aerial photos taken by UAV pictures to use in architectural photogrammetry.In this study, Photogrammetric
study was conducted in the ancient church next to the pothole. The study was completed with photographs taken from the
air with UAV and close range photogrammetry. The images obtained from both methods adjusted in photogrammetric
software and obtained a three-dimensional model of the church. Photography by UAV has proved to be a technical
supporters of close range photogrammetry. Also coordinates of the reference points on the images obtained through
photogrammetric software and compared with terrain coordinates. Point position accuracy of points mxyz = 2.1 cm were
found. In order to protect the world heritage of cultural heritage IHA help to be sensitive enough to measure derived from
aerial photographs taken, can be used as a base to work from different professional disciplines, The UAV was concluded
in anywhere near the height can be used for photogrammetric.

Keywords: UAV Photogrammetry, Precision,3D model

1
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

1. INTRODUCTION located 3 km north of Ayas. The first settlement on the


ruins of the old name Kanytelleis BC It was built in the
In many of cultural heritage documentation work could late 3rd century. A tower of the period to the Hellenistic
not be registered for reasons such as the lack of, cost, city has kept its existence until the 11th century."Kanl-
technology insufficieny, qualified staff and time Bloody Divane", the pothole within the city, former
constraints. (Hunt et al from., 2014).Although Turkey is offenders, among the people because of the belief that
an important country in terms of archaeological and gnawed by wild animals, as is known. The church is
cultural heritage, the lack of efficient work in the field next to the pothole (Figure 1).
work or be very limited,of the studies can not always be
carried out with sufficient accuracy and lack of
documentation however, due to a misunderstanding of
the scope,not being able pass on to future generations is
in danger. This troubled situation of new technologies in
order to produce solutions in this area in order to prove
the availability of terrestrial laser scanning technology
and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is used in this
context. Cultural heritage of different natural features,
are required to have a different size and detail can be
measured due to the complex and sophisticated
measuring tools and techniques to document. One of
them is the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
technology.

1.1 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) Figure 1. Kanldivane Church overview

UAV's can be defined as fixed and rotary wing aircraft


3.MATERIAL METHOD
which is on the fly without a human being (Eroglu,
2013). These vehicles by remote control, semi-
3.1. Pre-work preparation
automatic, automatic, or have all of these capabilities
(EISENBEISS, 2009). The academic resources were Used in the application H (Figure 2), digital camera
analyzed, we come across dozens of similar statements (figure 3), total station (Figure 4) and a ground control
about the UAV. They are also considering unmanned plates used in the evaluation of the photograph obtained
aerial vehicles (UAVs) could make the definition as from the UAV (Figure 5), paper targets affixed to the
follows: Which can be controlled from the ground, flight wall (Figure 6) and the image transmission system,
planning capabilities which, with fixed or rotary wing, (Figure 7) are provided.
military and used in civilian areas on a pilot system for
non Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is called

1.2 UAV Benefits

Against manned system,The biggest advantage of


UAVs; UAV in risky situations without risking human
life and inaccessible areas of the low-altitude flight
profile and it is close to the ends of the object and can
not be used in place manned system.

For example, natural disaster areas, mountainous and


volcanic areas, flood plains, earthquake and accident
scenes and desert areas, areas that are difficult to enter,
are used. (Ulvi A., 2015) Figure 2. DJI Phantom UAV

In addition to these advantages, the mapping activities


and architectural applications, and are also used
frequently in archaeological sites.

2.STUDY AREA

Kanldivane is in the rural area of Erdemli district,


which is a part of Mersin Province. It is 18 km (11 mi)
to Erdemli and 55 km (34 mi) to Mersin. Its altitude is
approximately 230 m (750 ft). It is close to the Figure 3. Canon PowerShot A810
town Kumkuyu at the coast and just few hundred meters
to anak rock tombs.Kanytelleis-Kanldivane ruins
Mersin-Silifke highway since the 50th km, the resort is

2
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

3.2. Field study

Ground control points have been established as a


homogeneous field in the application (Figure 8).In this
application 8 Ground control points has been
installed.While for establishment of ground control
points, point of care has been taken to distribute to
completely cover the work area and to see each other.

Figure 4.Total Station Topcon GPT 3007

Figure 8. Distribution of ground control points in field

Georeferencing operation of ground control points were


made by Topcon GPT 3007 reflectorless total station
Figure 5.Graund Control Point (Figure 9).
Around of applications, making closed traverse was
calculated coordinates of ground control points.ground
control and coordinates of the feature point is measured
in the local system (Figure 10).

Figure 6.Target

Figure 9. Surveying with Topcon GPT 3007

Figure 7. FatShark

3
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

Figure 10. Measuring point operations, and UAV Figure 13. Flying with UAV
Ground Control Points overview
After the flight the UAV, the aerial photography work
After measurement and rectification process, UAV flight has been completed. Aerial photographs obtained is
madefinal checks have been completed (Figure 11-12- exemplified below (Figure 14-15).
13).

Figure 14.Taken photograph with UAV

Figure 11. UAV, FPV control and image transfer system

Figure 15.Taken photograph with UAV


Figure 12. performed the final pre-flight checks
After this process is completed, work has started on the
office using data obtained..

4
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

After the drawing, the sensitivity study was conducted


3.3.Office work on thirty points determined on the church. Coordinates
obtained from the land of this point, been accepted as
The coordinates of the traverse used for field absolute coordinates. The coordinates of the reference
measurement is shown in Table 1. point on the adjusted images, obtained through
photogrammetry software and compared with terrain
Table 1. traverse coordinates coordinates.

Point position accuracy of points mxyz = 2.1 cm were


N.N. Y X Z
found (Table 2).
P.1 1000.000 1000.000 1000.000
P.2 1000.000 1021.225 1001.583
4. RESULTS
P.3 1035.587 1027.236 1005.679
P.4 1052.584 1014.728 1002.668
Especially in the field of architecture photogrammetry,
UAV usage began to hold an important place,
P.5 1026.608 1007.357 1001.568 increasingly widespread, providing significant
P.6 1028.650 1019.729 1001.710
advantages in terms of cost time,and effort. for users.
In order to protect the world heritage of cultural
heritage, with the help of UAV Aerial photographs
Photos taken from the ground, and obtained from the
taken, the measurement obtained
UAV photos was combined in Photomodeler
photogrammetry software and adjustedand made ready
-sufficient accuracy as in,
for drawing (Figure 16).
-can be used as a base to work from different
professional disciplines,

-UAVs can be used for photogrammetric anywhere near


heights

It concluded has been reached.

For documenting the historical and cultural heritage, the


use of close range photogrammetry together with the
UAV is considered to give a new impetus to the work
done in this area.
In addition, this model of UAV 's help made using
photogrammetric techniques, photographing
opportunities increase, and with reason, allows
documentation to be more comprehensive and realistic
Figure 16. Regulation of photographs obtained in the (Toprak AS, 2014)
field and to be ready drawings

3D drawing of the church through adjusted images is


completed (Figure 17).

Figure 17. 3D drawing of church

5
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

Table 2. Comparison of point coordinates and


differences
Vy(cm) Vx(cm) Vz(cm) VyVy(cm) VxVx(cm) VzVz(cm)

Araziden Elde edilen Resimlerden elde edilen Farklar 1.4 0.9 1.4 2.0 0.8 2.0

(Kesin Koordinatlar) Koordinatlar 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2

N.N Y X Z Y X Z Y(m) X(m) Z(m) 1.2 0.2 0.7 1.4 0.0 0.5

1 1022.155 1012.437 1002.439 1022.141 1012.428 1002.425 0.014 0.009 0.014 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.4 1.7

9 1023.585 1024.625 1003.644 1023.574 1024.614 1003.633 0.011 0.011 0.011 0.8 -0.9 -1.1 0.6 0.8 1.2

16 1005.794 1025.177 1001.568 1005.782 1025.175 1001.561 0.012 0.002 0.007 0.4 -1.3 1.5 0.2 1.7 2.2

28 1013.200 1003.236 1002.686 1013.190 1003.224 1002.673 0.010 0.012 0.013 -0.7 -0.6 1.2 0.5 0.4 1.4

29 1013.426 1011.582 1001.702 1013.418 1011.591 1001.713 0.008 -0.009 -0.011 0.7 1.1 -1.2 0.5 1.2 1.4

30 1011.285 1010.104 1001.703 1011.281 1010.117 1001.688 0.004 -0.013 0.015 0.9 1.3 1.3 0.8 1.7 1.7

33 1014.052 1024.595 1001.635 1014.059 1024.601 1001.623 -0.007 -0.006 0.012 2.0 1.3 1.2 4.0 1.7 1.4

37 1012.413 1028.761 1001.638 1012.406 1028.750 1001.650 0.007 0.011 -0.012


1.3 -1.2 1.5 1.7 1.4 2.2

39 1008.660 1036.831 1001.754 1008.651 1036.818 1001.741 0.009 0.013 0.013


1.4 0.8 -1.3 2.0 0.6 1.7

40 1013.754 1036.155 1001.723 1013.734 1036.142 1001.711 0.020 0.013 0.012


1.1 -0.7 1.4 1.2 0.5 2.0

41 1010.803 1042.134 1001.667 1010.790 1042.146 1001.652 0.013 -0.012 0.015


1.3 -1.2 0.8 1.7 1.4 0.6

42 1018.076 1029.970 1001.713 1018.062 1029.962 1001.726 0.014 0.008 -0.013


-1.4 0.7 1.1 2.0 0.5 1.2

45 1018.132 1047.474 1003.755 1018.121 1047.481 1003.741 0.011 -0.007 0.014


1.4 1.2 -1.2 2.0 1.4 1.4

46 1013.834 1019.238 1003.808 1013.821 1019.250 1003.800 0.013 -0.012 0.008


1.8 1.2 -1.6 3.2 1.4 2.6

47 1018.445 1019.955 1003.266 1018.459 1019.948 1003.255 -0.014 0.007 0.011


-1.1 -1.6 0.7 1.2 2.6 0.5
53 1026.290 1041.783 1005.373 1026.276 1041.771 1005.385 0.014 0.012 -0.012
1.0 1.2 -1.4 1.0 1.4 2.0
56 1005.509 1018.912 1001.218 1005.491 1018.900 1001.234 0.018 0.012 -0.016
1.1 1.4 0.5 1.2 2.0 0.2
300 1017.743 1013.358 1009.448 1017.754 1013.374 1009.441 -0.011 -0.016 0.007
1.4 -1.3 1.2 2.0 1.7 1.4
301 1013.415 1014.301 1009.440 1013.405 1014.289 1009.454 0.010 0.012 -0.014
0.9 -0.9 1.5 0.8 0.8 2.2
302 1013.518 1018.706 1011.609 1013.507 1018.692 1011.604 0.011 0.014 0.005
1.1 -1.4 1.6 1.2 2.0 2.6
303 1013.137 1018.776 1007.152 1013.123 1018.789 1007.140 0.014 -0.013 0.012
1.6 -0.5 1.6 2.6 0.3 2.6
304 1007.322 1019.947 1007.128 1007.313 1019.956 1007.113 0.009 -0.009 0.015
1.2 0.2 1.0 1.4 0.0 1.0
305 1009.922 1019.425 1004.038 1009.911 1019.439 1004.022 0.011 -0.014 0.016

-1.1 -0.3 1.3 1.2 0.1 1.7


306 1011.838 1019.024 1004.046 1011.822 1019.029 1004.030 0.016 -0.005 0.016

-1.0 1.4 1.4 1.0 2.0 2.0


307 1015.085 1018.335 1003.434 1015.073 1018.333 1003.424 0.012 0.002 0.010

1.1 1.2 -1.7 1.2 1.4 2.9


308 1016.427 1018.039 1003.436 1016.438 1018.042 1003.423 -0.011 -0.003 0.013

1.3 -1.2 1.3 1.7 1.4 1.7


309 1014.619 1018.466 1008.562 1014.629 1018.452 1008.548 -0.010 0.014 0.014

1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.7 1.4


310 1015.557 1018.242 1008.565 1015.546 1018.230 1008.582 0.011 0.012 -0.017

[VV]= 43.4 35.7 48.7


311 1014.587 1018.444 1006.723 1014.574 1018.456 1006.710 0.013 -0.012 0.013

312 1015.556 1018.242 1006.739 1015.546 1018.229 1006.727 0.010 0.013 0.012

1.2 1.1 1.3

mxyz = 2.1

6
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 1-7, December, 2016,

REFERENCES

Avdan, U., Glen, F. F., Ergincan, F. vemert, R.


(2014). Arkeolojik Alanlarda Ta Planlarnn UlviA.,2015, Metrik Olmayan Dijital Kameralarn Hava
karlmasnda nsansz Hava Aralarnn Kullanlmas Fotogrametrisinde Yakn Resim almalarda (Yere
(Anavarzarnei). Mhendislik lmeleri Yakn Yksekliklerde) Kullanlabilirlii zerine Bir
Sempozyumu, 15-17 Ekim 2014, Hititniversitesi, alma, DoktoraTezi
orum.
Toprak A.S.,2014, Fotogrametrik Tekniklerin nsansz
Eisenbeiss, H., 2009, UAV Photogrammetry Doctor of Hava Aralar le Mhendislik Projelerinde
Kullanlabilirliinin Aratrlmas Yksek LisansTezi.
Sciences.
Erolu O., 2013, nsansz Hava Aralarnda Arazi
Verilerine Dayal UuYn Snrlamasz Copyright International Journal of Engineering and
Konumlandrma Sistemi Benzetim almas Geosciences (IJEG). All rights reserved, including the
YksekLisansTezi. making of copies unless permission is obtained from
the copyright proprietors.

7
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016, ISSN 2548-0960, Turkey,
DOI: Your DOI number

THE PROPOSAL OF THE BUILDING APPLICATION FOR MORE BENEFITING


FROM SOLAR LIGHT

Erdem, N., 1* Ince, H.,2

Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatic Engineering, 80000 Osmaniye,
Turkey, (nurierdem@osmaniye.edu.tr);

Trakya University, Edirne Technical Sciences Vocational School, 22020 Edirne, Turkey, hince@trakya.edu.tr

*Corresponding Author, Received: 08/06/2016, Accepted: 09/07/2016

ABSTRACT: There is a proverb, that emphasizes the importance of sunlight for human health, which is Where the sun
does not enter the physician enters. It is one of the most important elements to see the sunlight of the buildings for both
healthy life and energy saving. The positioning may be desirable to take the advantage of the morning and evening
sunlight of the buildings to be constructed in the housing area. Indeed, in 1985 constructed blocks of buildings in
Eskisehir Yenikent in public housing projects, designed and applicated according to the this principle. This study was
made with the purpose of the application and to be designed to see the sunlight during the day of the blocks will be the
method of discrete structures in accordance with the development plan will be built the individual or collective housing
project in the Eastern Mediterranean. At the beginning of this study, the azimuth angles were calculated in the sunrise and
sunset in four provinces forming region, baseline, throughout the year and annual sun graphics arranged, by
meteorological data help received from meteorological stations in the region. Information of sun tanning about the
province of Adana was found sufficient to represent the region according to the results of the evaluation. It describes the
inning information building design and application in accordance with the principles for provinces in the region at the end
of the study.

Keywords: Solar Energy, Urban Design, the Building Application.

8
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

1. INTRODUCTON energy, we dont benefit enough from solar energy. In


terms of the solar energy potential due to its
As a necessary factor of production and an essential of geographical location, our country is very fortunate
public welfare, energy is one of the basic inputs of compared to other countries. Monthly average solar
economical and sociological growth. To meet the human potential of Turkey is given in Table 1 (URL-3).
needs and to maintain its sustainable and healthy
development, energy is needed and it has many areas of In Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia Region has the
usage like industry, buildings, transport and agriculture maximum field of solar energy, followed by
(Ko, 2008). Mediterranean Region. Regional distribution of solar
energy potential of Turkey and sunshine durations are
What kind of a residence we live in, in what kind of given in Table 2.
structures we continue our lives? What is the cost of this
living to us, to our region, our country? What are the Table 1. Monthly Average Solar Potential of Turkey
construction and utilization methods that make our lives (URL-3).
easier, increase our quality of life and production, and
allow us to save energy? For example; a housing in Monthly Total Solar
Sunshine
Ankara requires 4.5 times more energy to live as Months
Energy
Duration
against a housing in Berlin (Erengezgin, 2016). (Kcal/cm (kWh/m2- (hours /month)
2
-month) month)
In this study, information about the sunshine durations, January 4,45 51,75 103,0
solar energy potential and solar angles of our provinces February 5,44 63,27 115,0
March 8,31 96,65 165,0
in Eastern Mediterranean Region have been given, and
April 10,51 122,23 197,0
azimuth angles of every month of the year and several
May 13,23 153,86 273,0
days have been calculated. Taking the advantage of June 14,51 168,75 325,0
these solar angles; the azimuth angle needed for July 15,08 175,38 365,0
positioning the structure determined and in the fields, it August 13,62 158,40 343,0
is examined how to applique these angles to the corners Septembe
of the building that will be made, application made on 10,60 123,28 280,0
r
the subject, and the findings have been presented in the October 7,73 89,90 214,0
results section. Novembe
5,23 60,82 157,0
r
2. HEALTH BENEFITS OF THE SUN December 4,03 46,87 103,0
Total 112,74 1311 2640
The effects of weather conditions and other factors on 308,0 3,6
Average kcal/cm2- kWh/m2- 7,2 hours/day
which life depends, on human psychology is very large,
day day
especially sunlight. Sunshine also effects our mental
health. If there is no sun, there is depression. Experts
However, it was found through later studies that these
warn those who want to get a home: "Prefer sun-exposed
values are lower than the true potential of Turkey. Since
buildings." Indicating that living in a dark environment
1992 EE and DM make evaluations in order to get
makes it easier to fall into depression, the darkness
more healthy results about solar energy. As a result of
narrowing the imaginary world and people without sun
these evaluations in progress, these values of solar
couldnt look forward to life and could become more
energy potential of Turkey are expected to increase
aggressive and angry, experts add "Sunlessness reduce
further 20-25% more than the old results (URL-3).
peoples energy, leading them to introversion, making
them unhappy." (URL-1).
Table 2. Regional Distribution of Solar Energy Potential
of Turkey (URL-3).
"Hazelnut-sized pineal gland in our brain produces the
hormone melatonin. In a dark environment, the gland
Total Solar Sunshine
increases the production of its hormones. The hormone
Region Energy Duration
melatonin slows the physical movement of people,
(kWh/m2-year) (hours/year)
which makes them sleepy and exhausted. Being able to
fall asleep in the dark is an indicator of this. Light Southeaster
1460 2993
reduces the production of melatonin and contrary n Anatolia
symptoms begin to format. Person starts to cheer up and Mediterrane
1390 2956
becomes more active." According to researches, suicidal an
tendencies are at an increasingly higher rate and people Eastern
1365 2664
become more depressed in the Nordic countries (i.e. Anatolia
Sweden, Norway) (URL-2). Central
1314 2628
Anatolia
3. SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN TURKEY Aegean 1304 2738
Marmara 1168 2409
Nowadays, it is known that solar radiation energy has Black Sea 1120 1971
many benefits such as heating, hot water and air
conditioning (Aknctrk, 1999a). Although our country In our day, applications are performing to make the best
is located in a region called sunbelt which is rich in solar of the sunshine in the buildings that will be constructed

9
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

in collective housing areas. Thus in Eskiehir Yenikent


district, building blocks that are located in the
development area which has been constructed in 1985
for 1860 dwellers, are positioned to take advantage of
sunlight during the day. As in this Eskiehir Yenikent
housing estate example, it is necessary to position
buildings in housing estates according to the sunlight to
save energy, to produce hot water and heating in our
country (Aknctrk, 1999b; nce, 2005).

4. AZIMUTH

While positioning the structures to benefit from sunlight,


incidence direction angles of sun rays (azimuth angles)
being utilized. Azimuth angle of the sun consist of the
latitude of the construction site (), the declination angle
of the sun for a particular day of the year () and the
angle of the sunrise and sunset according to local noon. Figure 1. Schematic of the Sun Zenith Angle, Elevation
These angles are called azimuth (Deri, 1975; Aksoy, and Azimuth Angle, at the Spherical Triangle from the
1975; Kl ve ztrk, 1980). Point on Earth of N (nce, 2005).

Latitude (angle) : It is the angle of the line which Zenith angle (z): It is the angle of direct sun rays with
combines the aboveground N point to the centrosphere, the normal of horizontal plane (Figure 2). At sunrise and
with the equatorial plane. It is marked with a (+) from sunset z=90o. Zenith angle is obtained from the below
the Equator to north and with a (-) to south (nce, 2005). formula (Aksoy, 1975).

Hour Angle (h) : It is the angle between the line which cos z= cos cos cos h + sin sin
combines the longitude of the taken into account point (2)
on earth with the centrosphere and the longitude
indicated by the sun rays. Hour angle is calculated from Solar elevation angle (y): It is the angle of the
sun noon, when the longitude of the sun and the horizontal rays of the sun. As seen on Figure 1, z+y
longitude of the point which is being taken into account =90o. Solar elevation angle is obtained from the formula
are the same. The difference is marked with a () for (nce, 2005): y=90 - z.
before the local noon, and with a (+) for after the local
noon. Every one hour time difference is considered as a Solar azimuth angle () : This angle represents the
hour angle of 15o (nce, 2005). deviation of sun rays rotation compared to the clockwise
direction of north (Figure 1). as follows (nce, 2005);
Declination Angle () : It is the angle of the sun rays to
the equatorial plane (Figure 1). This angle results from Before the local noon (in degrees) =180o -o, (or in
23o 27 degree which is between the rotational axis of grade =200 -G )
the world and the normal of the orbital plane. Absolute (3)
value in solstices is maximum (June 21 summer solstice
= +23O.45, December 22 winter solstice = -23o,45). After the local noon (in degrees) =180o +o, (or in
Declination angle is obtained from the equation of (nce, grade =200+G )
2005): (4)
= 23o,45 sin (360 n 284 ) (1)
365 cos= cos cos cosh sin cos (5)
Here, n is the number of days. cos y

5. PRESENTATION OF APPLICATION AREA

Eastern Mediterranean Region containing Adana,


Mersin, Hatay and Osmaniye provinces have been
chosen for application. Sunshine duration is the time
between the sunrise and the sunset on sunny days. From
the relevant researches, in the provinces of Eastern
Mediterranean Region (Figure 2) , sunshine duration by
months, number of overcast and foggy days have been
investigated and given as an abstract below.

10
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

of Meteorology, annual average temperature is 18.8C,


highest temperature is 45.6 C, and lowest temperature is
8.4C. Due to the climatic conditions of this region, sun
can be seen in every season (URL-5).

Figure 2. Locations of Hatay, Adana, Mersin and


Osmaniye provinces which are located in Eastern
Mediterranean Region (URL-4).

5.1. Hatay Province

The annual sunshine duration of Hatay and its Figure 4. Sunshine duration of Adana Province (URL-
surrounding areas is around 2600-3000 hours. The 3).
annual monthly average sunshine duration has been
determined as 7.15 hours/day (Figure 3). Annual 5.3. Mersin Province
temperature average is of 18C. Maximum temperature
recorded in August as 34.0, the minimum is recorded in According to the measurements, annual number of days
December and January as of 2,0C. Lowest temperature with overcast weather is 25,3. Majority of the year
ranges between -4,-10C below zero in high and inlands. passes sunny and with some clouds. Mersin is one of the
The annual average temperature of Hatay and its provinces with the highest sunshine duration in our
districts are determined as 16C and more. Average country (Figure 5). Average daily sunshine duration is
relative humidity is around 67%. Annual average of 7,4 hours and this can change up to 8-10 hours on
foggy days is between 1-50 days (Erarslan, 2012). summer days (URL-3).

Figure 3. Sunshine duration of Hatay Province (URL-3). Figure 5. Sunshine duration of Mersin Province (URL-
3).
5.2. Adana Province
The average annual temperature in Mersin is 18,7C.
The number of summer days which the temperature rises Being detected in the 50-years long observation, the
to or above 25C is 179. Adana has fair weather. The highest temperature is 40C (21.06.1942), and the
annual average of sunshine duration in 2015 is 7.13 lowest temperature is -6,6C (06.02.1950). Average
hours (Figure 4), and the annual average of daily temperature of summer days ranges between 25- 33C.
sunshine duration is determined as 345.92 cal/cm/min. In winter the average temperature ranges between 9
Days of the overcast weather is 49,2. Lowland and 15C. Some years, the temperature goes below 0C.
seaside daily average of sunshine duration is 8,60 hours. Snowfall can not be seen in coastal areas. However,
Sunshine duration is at its maximum at July, and it is at there are varying amounts of snow at the Toros
its minimum at December and January. Relative Mountains piedmonts in winter days. Annual average of
humidity average is around 65%. According to the 67 relative humidity is 69%, and ranges between 65% -
years of annual measurements by Regional Directorate 75% through months. As a result of 50-years long

11
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

observations, there were snow cover of 2 cm thickness 1- As declination angle of the sun for a perscrutation
only in 01.01.1950 in city centrum. In the last 10-year values of 1. and 15. days of every months and June 21
period, a total of 27 days with fog incident have occured. and December 22 are calculated with relation no (1).
The annual average number of foggy days is
approximately 2 days (URL-6). 2- Eastern Mediterranean Region is between 32o 56
36o 42 longitudes and 35o 52 38o 00 latitudes. 36o,
5.4. Osmaniye Province 37o and 38o considered as latitudes, on an examination
of an example (Table 11), it has been seen that the
Since there arent any researches on annual average acquired solar azimuth angles are in a close range,
solar radiation and the annual total amount of solar thereby the mean for the region used as =37o.
energy have been made in this province, State
Meteorology General Directorate and Osmaniye 3- When sun is on the longitude of the considered point,
Directorate of Meteorology Station were not able to in other words in local noon, hour angle is zero. The
grant us any information. Highest temperature in 2007 differences between the local noon and the sunrise and
was recorded in May 29 is 42.5 (C), the lowest sunset are calculated as hour angles at sunrise and sunset
temperature is recorded in December 31 is -4.0C. (nce, 2005). Information about hour angles of sunrise
Maximum daily temperature difference is not recorded. and sunset of Eastern Mediterranean Region provinces
Annual average of sunshine duration is 7.45 hours (Adana, Hatay, Osmaniye and Mersin) are obtained
(Figure 6). Only the measured ones of the from the calendars showing the relevant time. In Table
meteorological elements like numbers of snowy, snow 3, the time of sunrise, sunset and noon in Adana, Hatay,
covered, foggy, frosty days and the highest snow cover Osmaniye and Mersin at June 21 and the hour angles
thickness in 2013 have been examined (Dolgun et al., and solar azimuth angles calculated from them have
2013). been given.

Table 3. The time of sunrise, sunset and noon in Adana,


Hatay, Osmaniye and Mersin at June 21 and the hour
angles and solar azimuth angles.

Sunrise Sunset
Provinces
and Hour Azimuth Hour Azimuth
Latitudes Angle Angle Angle Angle
(h) () (h) ()
12.48- 20.11-
Adana
5.12=7.36 57 g,6796 12.48=7.23 335g,1951
37 o
-114. 00 110 o.75
12.47- 20.07-
Osmaniye
o 5.09=7.38 59 g,4092 12.47=7.20 335 g,9738
37
-114,50 110 o,00
Figure 6. Sunshine duration of Osmaniye Province 12.48- 20.05-
Hatay
(URL-3). o 5.12=7.36 58 g,5893 12.48=7.17 335 g,4981
36
-114.00 109 o,25
It is concluded that in Eastern Mediterranean Region 12.54- 20.13-
annual sunshine duration is at its maximum on summer Mersin
o 5.16=7.38 59 g,0572 12.54=7.19 336 g,0029
months, at its minimum on winter months, number of 36
-114.50 109 o,75
foggy days is rather high in November, December,
January and February, number of the days with overcast In the examination at Table 3, it has been seen that there
weather is in its minimum in July and August. is only a 5 or 6 minutes of difference with every other
four provinces sunrise, sunset and noon times, and it has
6. CALCULATING THE SOLAR AZIMUTH not effected the solar azimuth calculation results
ANGLE IN EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN significantly. In this respect, to easily calculate the solar
REGION AND DETERMINING THE SUITABLE azimuth angle for Eastern Mediterranean Region; angles
LOCATION FOR THE HOUSINGS of sunset and sunrise of Adana -which is located in the
middle of the region- have been used and the obtained
6.1- Calculating the Solar Azimuth Angle in Eastern results have been given in Figure 7.
Mediterranean Region

Solar azimuth angle consists of the declination angle of


the sun (), latitude of the place (), hour angle of the
sun (h) and elevation angle of the sun (y). These factors
that is being used to determine the solar azimuth angle
are obtained through;

12
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

Figure 7. Solar azimuth angles calculated with sunset


and sunrise hour angles for Eastern Mediterranean
Region in some days of the year (it is arranged from Figure 8. Location of a building between its solar
nce, 2005). azimuth angles of maximum sunrise and minimum
sunset (nce, 2005).
6.2. Determining the Suitable Location for the
Housings If a building is located as its C corner is applicated to the
ground in compliance with AB and AD, the building
For a housing in Eastern Mediterranean Region to would benefit from the sunlight to the utmost. If corners
benefit from solar energy through sunrise to sunset all of the building will be applicated through polar method
year long at maximum, the maximum value of azimuth (Figure 8), application elements, netcad, eghas, geocad...
angle at sunrise, and the minimum value at sunset should etc. can be obtained with computer-aided mapping
be taken into consideration. If we are to examine Figure programs. According to the application elements that
7; we can see that on December 22, sunrise is at its have been calculated with rectangular coordinate
maximum azimuth angle (133G,4796), and sunset is at method, building corners should be sketched with
its minimum azimuth angle value (264G,4051). computer-assisted cartography to the related building
blocks and thereby the coordinates of these corner points
A building that has been considered with a rectangular should be obtained. From the building corner points that
default structure can be located as shown in Figure 5; have been calculated with benchmark, polar applique
between its maximum sunrise azimuth angle value (GD) elements of the building should be calculated and polar
and minimum sunset azimuth angle value (GB). In application should be done (nce, 2005).
Figure 7, December 22 GD=Sunrise azimuth angle
(133G,4796), GB =Sunset azimuth angle (264G,4051). In Eastern Mediterranean Region, before the application
between GB and GD obtained from the formula (nce, of the buildings to the property, in the related building
2005): block; it is determined how many buildings will be
constructed in the field considering the size of the area,
=GB - GD =130G,9255 (6) determined building type, size of the buildings, TAKS,
KAKS and the garden distances (Yldz, 1999). And
In Figure 8, between the facades that are crossing at the related building corner application elements calculated
corner A of the building, there is usually a right angle with rectangular coordination method (Tde, 1995).
(=90o=100G). If the AB jamb of the building diverted
from the left of GD direction, and the AD jamb of the 6.3-Calculation of the Application Elements that are
building diverted from the right of GB with an angle of Necessary for the Application of the Building
, considering , the azimuth angles of AB and AD is Corners to the Field
(nce, 2005):
In Eastern Mediterranean Region, before the application
=( - )/2=15G,4628, (7) of the buildings to the property, in the related building
(AB)= GD +=148G,9424, (8) block; it is determined how many buildings will be
(AD)= GB -=248G,9423 (9) constructed in the field considering the size of the area,
determined building type, size of the buildings, TAKS,
Approximately, (AB)=150G, (AD)=250G can be KAKS and the garden distances (Yldz, 1999). Later,
considered to ease the application. related building corner application elements calculated
with rectangular coordination method (Figure 9) or polar
method (Tde, 1995).

13
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

HC=YBM+DC (19)
L CB=CB=CB*cos(+50G) (20)
BB=CB*sin(+50G) (21)
BB=BM+BB (22)
HB=HC+CB (23)

Obtained with above relations.

If the application of the building corner points with polar


method is wanted; first, the coordinations of corner
points:

YA=YH+HA*sin(HJ)+AA*sin[(HJ)+300G]
XA=XH+HA*cos(HJ)+AA*cos[(HJ)+300G]
YB=YH+HB*sin(HJ)+BB*sin[(HJ)+300G]
XB=XH+HB*cos(HJ)+BB*cos[(HJ)+300G]
YC=YH+HC*sin(HJ)+CC*sin[(HJ)+300G]
XC=XH+HC*cos(HJ)+CC*cos[(HJ)+300G]
YD=YH+HD*sin(HJ)+DD*sin[(HJ)+300G]
J XD =XH+HD*cos(HJ)+DD*cos[(HJ)+300G]

are obtained with above relations (nce, 2000), then H


Figure 9. The application of building corner points to a point being the station, J being the junction, application
building block with prismatic method (nce, 2005). elements of building corner points from H, considering
the coordinates of the points, calculated with geodetic
Necessary application elements for application of a basic relations (Table 4).
building to a block corner point with prismatic method is
calculated with below relations (Figure 6). Table 4. Necessary application elements for a buildings
corner points that will be located to benefit from
In Figure 9; CC=Front Yard Distance (BM), sunlight at most
DD=Side Yard Distance (YBM). First, the azimuth
angle (HJ) is calculated using H and J coordinates (YH, D.N. B.N. Y X Horizontal Azimuth Horizontal
XH; YJ, XJ) with this relation: Distance Angle Angle
H YH XH
(HJ)=arctan(YHJ/XHJ) J YJ XJ HJ (HJ) 0.0000
A YA XA HA (HA) (HA)-(HJ)
In Figure 6; and angles; B YB XB HB (HB) (HB)-(HJ)
C YC XC HC (HC) (HC)-(HJ)
(HJ)>150G
D YD XD HD (HD) (HD)-(HJ)
=(HJ)-100G
=100G-(50G+)
7. QUANTITATIVE APPLICATION
stated as per above, then using DAA, DCD and CBB
An empty building block from Osmaniye Municipalitys
right-angled triangles, frontage of the building (CD=AB)
building site that has not yet any constructions made has
and the depth (DA=CB) taken into consideration,
been chosen for quantitative application (Figure 10).
elements needed for the application of the building
According to the zoning data from the zoning plan, for
corner points with prismatic method;
the buildings that will be made in this building block in
the order of discrete structures; TAKS=0.35,
AA=Right extent of the buildings A corner
KAKS=1.75. According to the Planned Area
BB=Right extent of the buildings B corner
Regulations which is in use for the building areas in our
CC=Right extent of the buildings C corner =BM
country;
DD=Right extent of the buildings D corner
In this building block, minimum facades should be 9 m,
HA=Right-foot length of the buildings A corner
side yard distance should be 5.00 m, front yard distance
HB=Right-foot length of the buildings B corner
should be 5.00 m, total building floor =KAKS/TAKS =
HC=Right-foot length of the buildings C corner
5, adjacent yard distance should be 3.50 m, back yard
HD=Right-foot length of the buildings D corner
distance=building eaves height/2= (0.50+5*3)/2=7.75
m. obtained.
DC=DC=CD*cos (10)
DD=CD*sin (11)
HC=YBM+DC (12)
DD=CC+DD=BM+DD (13)
DA=DA*cos (14)
AA=DA=DD+DA (15)
AA=DA=DA*sin (16)
HA=YBM+DA (17)
HD=DD=YBM (18)

14
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

HA=AA=5.00 m
HD=HA+AD=6.737 m
HCHD+DC=26.433 m
HB=HC-CC=24.696 m

values are obtained.

Because the buildings prismatic applique elements of


A, B, C, D corners and the coordinate of H is located in
the left side of the HJ azimuth angle;
(PP)=(HJ)+300=61.1134 values taken into
consideration;

YA=YH+5.00*sin(HJ)+14.848*sin61.1134=520785.888
m
XA=XH+5.00*cos(HJ)+14.848*cos61.1134=4103406.67
9m

YB=YH+24.696*sin(HJ)+18.322*sin61.1134=520800.03
J 0m
XB=XH+24.696*cos(HJ)+18.322*cos61.1134=4103392.
Figure 10. Osmaniye Municipality construction plan 537 m
example.
YC=YH+26.433*sin(HJ)+8.474*sin61.1134=520792.959
Since the terminal points (H, J) of south-west side of the m
building block are not apparent, frontal lines of the XC=XH+26.433*cos(HJ)+8.474*cos61.1134=4103385.4
indicated building block has been made by crossing the 66 m
lines and quantitative results of the coordinates have
been given in Table 5. YD=YH+6.737*sin(HJ)+5.000*sin61.1134=520778.817
m
Point Y X XD=XH+6.737*cos(HJ)+5.000*cos61.1134=4103399.60
H 520770.857 4103402.259 8m
J 520820.798 4103330.930
Table 5. Coordinates of H and J points. And for the calculation of corner parcel E, F and G
coordinates;
Availing from the coordinates of the H and J points,
with geodetic basic relations, azimuth angle (HJ) is HE=HC+3.50=29.933 m.

(HJ)=161.1134. Assuming the EF is perpendicular to HJ, considering the


distance of the backyard, with the values of
With a building that will be constructed as two EF=BB+7.75=32.446 m ve HG=EF, these results were
departments on the base, for every department 100 m2 obtained:
space and facade DC=AB= 20 m., depth of
building=DA=BC=10 m. designed. YE=YH+29.933*sin(HJ)=520788.025 m
XE=XH+29.933*cos(HJ)=4103377.739 m
According to the design in Figure 6, for the building that
will be applicated in the corner parcel of building block, YF=YH+29.933*sin(HJ)+32.446*sin61.1134=520814.60
4m
=(HJ)-100G=61G.1134 XF=XH+29.933*cos(HJ)+32.446*cos61.1134=4103396.
=(HJ)-150G=11G.1134 348 m

above values have been found, then as prismatic YG=YH+0.00*sin(HJ)+32.446*sin61.1134=520797.436


application elements; m
XG=XH+0.00*cos(HJ)+32.446*cos61.1134=4103420.86
AA=YBM=5.00 m 8m
DD=BM=5.00 m
For the applique of the corners of the building that will
AD=BC=10.00*cos=9.848 m be constructed in the HGFE block corner point parcel
DD=AD=10.00*sin=1.737 m with polar method; considering H as the station and the J
DC=DC=20.00*cos=19.696 m as the junction point, necessary applique elements are
CC=20.00*sin=3.474 m calculated with geodetic basic linkage pursuant to the
coordinates, the results have been given in Table 6.
AA=BM+AD=14.848 m
CC=BM+CC=8.474 m
BB=CC+BC=18.322 m

15
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

Table 6. Application elements calculated from the H north side of the building and the corner which is
station point, for the applique of A, B, C, D, E, F, G located to its right side corner point should be
points with polar method. 150G, and the azimuth angle of the line that
connects the top corner to its left side corner point
Horizont Azimut Horizont should be 250G. The building can be applicated
D.N B.N
Y X al h al after the calculation of the applique elements that
. .
Distance Angle Angle belongs to the building corner points has been
H done using rectangular coordinate method or polar
161.113 coordinate method considering the garden
J 0.0000 distances of the building blocks, frontage length
4
A 15.667 81.7928 320.6794 and depth of the building.
120.478 6- If the corners of the building will be applicated
B 30.750 359.3653 using the polar method, necessary applique
7
141.363 elements should be gathered after their sketching
C 27.758 380.2504 on housings with computer, or after the calculation
8
120.466 of coordinates of the building corners.
D 8.390 359.3531 7- For the buildings that will be constructed in the
5
161.113 area, if the front of the development blocks
E 29.933 0.0000 planned as north-west or south-east, it will be
4
much more easier to applique the parcels and the
108.550
F 44.144 347.4367 corners of the buildings that will be constructed
1
on. Thereby the south side of the building can
G 32.446 61.1134 300.0000
benefit from the sunlight all year long much more
efficiently. It is suitable to locate active working
8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
areas and living areas in south.
8- Because the solar energy is not taken into
The contribution of buildings being able to see the sun to
consideration, buildings facing to all directions
our countrys economy would be much higher than
started to emerge while we create our cities. This
annuity value of the land that the building in question be
is why while creating the new city blocks, new
found. In the study, it has been seen that the Eastern
systems should be designed to make an efficient
Mediterranean Region is located between the latitudes of
use of solar energy.
36o-38o, while it is not making major differences in solar
9- Annual air conditioning expenses can be lowered
azimuth angle calculations, calculations have been made
in new housing areas with this research in Eastern
with mean latitude value (37o). At the summer solstice
Mediterranean Region with its mean latitude of
of the year, the effect of the local noon and sunrise (and
37o and with a high solar energy potential. Also, it
sunset) time differences (thus hour angles) of Adana,
will provide a big economical gain, and the effects
Hatay, Osmaniye and Mersin provinces are not
of the combustion of typical fossil fuel gases and
important in the context of azimuth angle calculation,
other waste materials would be minimized.
thereby the calculations have been made with the hour
10- Humankinds biological clock is adjusted to the
angles of Adana for the region. Overall assessment of
sunlight. Inadequate natural lighting in an
the research results are summarized as follows:
environment of working and living can cause:
Drowsiness, laziness and depressive feelings. The
1- To be focused on the sun should not be considered
solution is to direct the buildings to the sun while
only as an energy based requirement. Because the
constructing them.
sun is not only an energy source, it is the source of
the life itself, unlike other energy sources.
REFERENCES
2- To make the housings in Eastern Mediterranean
Region benefit from the solar energy
Aknctrk, N., 1999a. Gne Inmlarnn Yapdaki
preeminently; the values of solar azimuth angle
Yararl Etkilerinin ncelenmesi, YT, Yap Fizii
should be at its maximum at sunrise, and its
Fiziksel evre Denetimi Kongresi, 18-19 Kasm,
minimum at sunset.
stanbul.
3- The researches about the sunshine duration in
Aknctrk, N., 1999b. Konutlarda Is Kaybnn
Eastern Mediterranean Region have showed us
Yaltmla Azaltlmasnn Enerji Tketimindeki
that the annual sunshine duration is at its
Olumlu Etkilerinin ncelenmesi, Enerji ve Tabii
maximum when it is summer, and at its minimum
Kaynaklar Bakanl, 17. Enerji Haftas
when is winter. And the number of sunny days in a
Etkinlikleri, Enerji Sempozyumu Kitab, YT, 9-
year is approximately 90%.
17 Ocak, stanbul.
4- The hour angle in solar azimuth angle calculation
Aksoy, A., 1975. Jeodezik Astronominin Temel Bilgileri
is zero at local noon time. Information about hour
(Kresel Astronomi), M. T. Basmevi, stanbul.
angles at sunrise and sunset are all obtained from
Deri, N., 1979. Gne Enerjisi Scak Su ile Istma
the calendars that indicates the time of noon and
Teknii, Sermet Matbaas, stanbul.
the time of the sunrise and sunset (nce, 2005).
Dolgun, A., ve dierleri, 2013, Osmaniye l evre
5- To make a building that will be constructed in
Durum Raporu, T.C. Osmaniye Valilii l evre
Eastern Mediterranean Region benefit from
ve Orman Mdrl, Osmaniye.
sunlight all year long, it is determined that the
azimuth angle of the line that connects the upper

16
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 8-17, December, 2016,

Erarslan, C., 2012. Hatay l evre Durum Raporu, T.C. URL-2;


Hatay Valilii l evre ve Orman Mdrl, http://www.tavsiyeediyorum.com/psikolog_4683_t
http://www.hartay-cevreorman.gov.tr, Hatay. unc_ tataker. htm, Nisan 2008.
Erengezgin, ., Gne Evi, URL-3; http://www.eie.gov.tr/index.html, Mays 2016.
http://www.mmo.org.tr/resimler/dosya_ekler/fcce0 URL-4; http://www.hgk.mil.tr, Mays 2016.
621b49c983_ek.pdf, Austos, 2016. URL-5; Adana l evre ve Orman Mdrl, l evre
Kl, A., ztrk, A., 1980. Gne Enerjisi, T Mak. Durum Raporlar Rehberi, T.C. evre ve Orman
Fak., Kipa Datmclk, stanbul. Bakanl, http://www.adana-cevreorman.gov.tr,
Ko, E., 2008. Osmaniyenin Sosyo-Ekonomik ve 2012, Adana.
Kltrel Yaps, ISBN: 978-9944-0426, Mart, URL-6; 2013 Yl Mersin l evre Durum Raporu, T.C.
Osmaniye. Mersin Valilii l evre ve Orman Mdrl,
nce, H., 2000. Kk Nokta Hesabnda Yeni Bir Mersin.
Yntem, T, Bilimsel Aratrmalar Dergisi Fen Yldz, F., 1999. mar Bilgisi Planlama Uygulama
Bilimleri B Serisi, s.18-22, Edirne. Mevzuat, Nobel Yayn Datm, Ankara.
nce, H., 2005, Trakya Blgesinde Toplu Konut
Alanlarnda Yaplacak Binalarn Gn Boyu Gne
Indan Yaralanmas in Bir Tasarm nerisi,
4. Planl Dnemde Trakyada Sanayileme ve
evre Sempozyumu TMMOB Makine Copyright International Journal of Engineering and
Mhendisleri Odas Bildiriler Kitab, Sayfa 371- Geosciences (IJEG). All rights reserved, including the
380, 14-15 Ekim, Edirne. making of copies unless permission is obtained from
Tde, T., 1995. Aplikasyon, KT Mh. Mim. Fak. the copyright proprietors.
Yayn, Trabzon.
URL-1; Memory Center, http://www.mcaturk.com,
Temmuz, 2016.

17
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016, ISSN 2548-0960, Turkey,
DOI: Your DOI number

EVALUATION OF RECENT GLOBAL GEOPOTENTIAL MODELS BY


GNSS/LEVELLING DATA: INTERNAL AEGEAN REGION

Yilmaz, M., 1* Turgut, B., 1 Gullu, M., 1 Yilmaz, I., 1


1 Afyon Kocatepe University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatic Engineering, TR-03200 Afyonkarahisar,
Turkey (mustafayilmaz, bturgut, mgullu, iyilmaz@aku.edu.tr)

*Corresponding Author, Received: 11/06/2016, Accepted: 18/07/2016

ABSTRACT: Global geopotential models of spherical harmonic coefficients are used to determine the external
gravitational field of the Earth. These coefficients are derived from satellite orbit perturbations, terrestrial gravity
anomalies and altimeter data. Hundreds of thousands of coefficients and standard deviation values for these coefficients
are estimated from millions of observation. Measurement amount, homogenous distribution of the measurements of
global scale, different measurement types reflecting the different frequencies of the gravity signal and measuring-
assessment techniques affect the model accuracy directly. Starting from 1960s and lasts to the present day and also
gaining new acceleration with the satellite gravity field missions, every outcome of the studies related to the
determination of the global Geopotential model is experienced by a series of validation tests. Accuracy of the model can
either be determined from the estimated error degree variances concerning the coefficients (interior validation) or
comparison of geoid heights, gravity anomalies, gravity disturbances and components of vertical deflection calculated
from the model with terrestrial measurements directly (outer validation). In this paper, recent global geopotential models
are primarily explained. Global geopotential models are compared with GNSS/levelling data of the study area. The
objective of this comparison is to determine the best fit global geopotential model which will contribute to the study of
Turkish geoid determination.

Keywords: Geoid, Geopotential model, GNSS/levelling.

18
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016,

Internal Aegean Region study area were used to quantify


1. INTRODUCTION the GGMs accuracy in order to find the geopotential
model that best fits the study area for further geoid
The geoid surface serves as a reference for most determination at regional and national scales.
applications that require a datum for determining
topographic heights or ocean depths. The improvements 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
derived from recent satellite gravity missions have
significantly improved earth gravity field knowledge, 2.1. GNSS/Levelling
such that global geopotential models (GGMs)
representing the Earth's gravity field have acquired Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-derived
greater importance to the geosciences. ellipsoidal heights refer to a reference ellipsoid, while
orthometric heights refer to an equipotential reference
The technological and scientific developments in surface determined through levelling. When these
satellite techniques and computation algorithms provide heights are collocated at the same benchmark, their
significant improvements in the determination of the difference can be used to determine geoid height through
global gravity field models. Since the launch of the a geometrical approach. The GNSS/Levelling geoid
CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), Gravity heights are computed by the following equation
Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), and (Heiskanen and Moritz, 1967):
Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation N hH (1)
Explorer (GOCE) missions (2000, 2002, and 2009
respectively), numerous GGMs have become available where N is the geoid height, h is the ellipsoidal height
to the scientific community through the public domain computed from GNSS and H is the orthometric height
(http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM). Especially, the computed from levelling (Fig. 1). Geoid heights have
releases of the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 been computed based on the known ellipsoidal and
(EGM2008) by the US National Geospatial Intelligence orthometric heights (Banarjee et al., 1999). Eq. (1) is not
Agency (Pavlis et al., 2008) and European Improved exact due to the ignorance of the deflection of the
Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques (EIGEN- vertical (). Nevertheless, it is accurate enough for most
5C) by the GFZ-GRGS cooperation (Frste et al., 2008) practical applications, because has a negligible
are significant achievements in the determination of the influence (sub mm-order) on the orthometric height
Earths mean gravity field. These high-degree models (Tenzer et al., 2005).
lead to significant improvement of our knowledge of the
long wavelength part of the Earths static gravitational
field, and thereby of the long wavelengths of the geoid.
Therefore, corresponding improvements are expected for
precise regional geoid model determination because
regional geoid models typically include a GGM as
underlying geopotential representation (Erol et al.,
2009).

The geodesy community engaged in comprehensive


efforts for the comparison and validation of GGMs using
several techniques and independent data sets that were
not used for the development and evaluation of these
GGMs. To improve local geoid models, it is essential to
select the best GGM for the studied area. In the selection Figure 1. The relationship between the height systems
of a GGM for geoid determination, published error
estimates for GGMs are frequently not used to judge 2.2. Global Geopotential Model
which GGM is best for a certain region. This is because
the published quality estimates may be too optimistic For a better determination of orbits and height systems
and/or presented as global averages and thus not in science and engineering, it is necessary to
necessarily representative of the performance of the significantly improve our knowledge of the gravity field
GGM in a particular region. Hence, the user of a GGM of the Earth, both in terms of accuracy and spatial
should perform his own accuracy and precision resolution (Rummel et al., 2002). The GGM is used to
verifications (Kiamehr and Sjberg, 2005). determine the long wavelength part of the earths gravity
field and comprises a set of fully-normalized, spherical
Continuous developments in the acquisition, modelling harmonic coefficients that are obtained from
and processing of GPS data have provided geodesists geopotential solutions (Mainville et al., 1992). These
with highly reliable and precise external control to coefficients are determined from the incorporation of
evaluate global and regional models for the Earths satellite observations, land and ship-track gravity data,
gravity field (Kotsakis, 2008). The main objective of this marine gravity anomalies derived from satellite radar
study is comparing EGM2008, EIGEN-6C4, GOCE and altimetry and airborne gravity data (Rapp, 1997).
EGM2008 COmbined model (GECO), The Combined
Gravity Models (GGM05C and GOCO05C). Geoid The geoid height (N) can be represented by a set of
heights determined from GNSS/Levelling over the spherical harmonic coefficients (in spherical

19
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016,

approximation) with the following equation (Heiskanen Ellipsoidal heights at 87 points have been determined
and Moritz, 1967): using dual-frequency GNSS receivers and
antennas with respect to TNFGN (aligned to ITRF96)

P lm (sin )C lm cos m S lm sin m


lmax l (reference epoch 2005.00) and orthometric heights at
N ( , ) R these points have been determined through spirit
l 2 m 0 levelling with respect to the Turkish National Vertical
(2) Control Network (fixed to local mean sea level of the
Antalya tide gauge). Geoid heights at 87 TNFGN points
where (, ) co-latitude and longitude of the have been computed according to the Eq. (1) based on
computation point, R is the mean radius of the Earth, the known ellipsoidal and orthometric heights above.
Pm is the associated Legendre polynomials, C m and 3.2. GGMs and Model Evaluation
S m are the spherical harmonic coefficients for degree l
and order m, respectively. Earth Gravitational Model 2008
EGM2008 is a spherical harmonic model of the Earths
gravitational potential, developed by a least squares
3. STUDY AREA, DATA ACQUISITION, AND
combination of the ITG-GRACE03S gravitational model
GGMS
and
3.1. Study Area and Source Data its associated error covariance matrix, with the
gravitational information obtained from a global set of
The area is located in the internal Aegean region of area-mean free-air gravity anomalies defined on a 5 arc-
Turkey within the geographical boundaries: 370.3083 N minute equiangular grid. This grid was formed by
400.4417 N; 280.4833 E 320.7167 E defining merging terrestrial, altimetry-derived, and airborne
a total area of gravity data. Over areas where only lower resolution
133000 km2 (350 km x 380 km) with a rough gravity data were available, their spectral content was
topography (Fig. 2). All our GGM evaluation tests based supplemented with gravitational information implied by
on geoid height refer to the 87 points that belong to the topography. EGM2008 is complete to degree and
Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network (TNFGN) order 2159, and contains additional coefficients up to
(Fig. 3). degree 2190 and order 2159 (Pavlis et al., 2012). The
national geoid model for Turkish territory, Turkish
Hybrid Geoid 2009 (THG-09) (Kilicoglu et al., 2011)
was computed depending on EGM2008

The Latest Combined Global Gravity Field Model


Including GOCE Data up to Degree and Order 2190
EIGEN-6C4 is a static global combined gravity field
model up to degree and order 2190. It has been
elaborated jointly by GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse
and contains the following satellite and ground data:
- LAGEOS (degree 2 - 30): 1985 - 2010
- GRACE RL03 GRGS (degree 2 - 130): ten years 2003
- 2012
- GOCE-SGG data.
- DTU12 ocean geoid data and an EGM2008 geoid
height grid for the continents (max degree 370).
Figure 2. The topography of the study area The combination of these different satellite and surface
data sets has been done by a band-limited combination
of normal equations (to max degree 370), which are
generated from observation equations for the spherical
harmonic coefficients. The resulted solution to degree
and order 370 has been extended to degree and order
2190 by a block diagonal solution using the DTU10
global gravity anomaly data grid (Frste et al., 2015).

The Global Gravity Model by Locally Combining


GOCE Data and EGM2008
GECO is a global gravity model, computed by
incorporating the GOCE-only TIM R5 solution into
EGM2008. The input data of GECO:
- EGM2008 spherical harmonic coefficients and
corresponding error standard deviations
- EGM2008 global grid of geoid error standard
deviations (5' x 5' resolution)
Figure 3. Geographical distribution of 87 TNFGN points - GOCE TIM R5 spherical harmonic coefficients
- GOCE TIM R5 block-diagonal coefficient error
covariance matrix.

20
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016,

EGM2008 geoid undulations are computed on a global In GGM evaluation, geoid heights based on GNSS-
spherical grid of resolution 0.5 x 0.5 by making a derived ellipsoidal heights and spirit levelled
synthesis from EGM2008 coefficients up to degree 359. orthometric heights at discrete points provide an
The GOCE geoid on the same grid are computed by estimated accuracy of the GGMs. The usual and
making a synthesis from the TIM R5 coefficients up to accepted practice is to adopt for a reference model that
degree 250. Two geoid grids are merged by least- GGM that is a best fit to the geoid height point estimates
squares adjustment. Finally, the GECO spherical determined from the GNSS/levelling. The evaluation of
harmonic coefficients are computed by making an GGMs focuses on the correspondent geoid height
analysis of the combined global geoid grid. The analysis differences between the GGMs and GNSS/levelling
is performed up to degree 359 (consistently with the 0.5 using the equation below:
x 0.5 resolution). From degree 360 to degree 2190 the N N GNSS / Lev N GGM
GECO coefficients are the same of EGM2008. The (3)
GECO coefficient errors are computed as a weighted where N is the geoid height residual, NGNSS/Lev is the
average of the coefficient errors of EGM2008 and the geoid height estimated from GNSS/levelling , and NGGM
TIM R5 solution (Gilardoni et al., 2016). is the geoid height estimated from GGMs. For the
statistical analysis of geoid height differences, minimum
The Combined Gravity Model GGM05C and maximum values of N are determined and the
GGM05C was estimated to spherical harmonic degree overall performance of GGMs is assessed through
and order 360 from a combination of GRACE and RMSE accuracy measure defined by:
GOCE gravity information (based on GGM05G) and
n
( N ) 2
surface gravity anomalies from DTU13. The 2 minute 1
resolution anomalies were used, assuming that they were RMSE (4)
n k 1
classical gravity anomalies (i.e., defined on the
ellipsoid). The first step was a low pass filter applied to where n is the number of the points used for the
the DTU13 global anomaly field. This was followed by accuracy verification and k refers to the residual
a spherical harmonic analysis of the gravity anomaly set sequence.
on the ellipsoid, where the coefficients were analytically
transformed to degree 540, but only the coefficients up 4. CASE STUDY
to degree 360 were used. Rather than reprocess the
surface gravity data, the full covariance from GGM03C For the evaluation process, the geoid heights based on
was adopted as apriori. The covariance was then GGMs are interpolated from the closest grid points using
modified so that, below degree 240, the terrestrial software obtained from International Centre for Global
information was severely downweighted in order to Earth Models (ICGEM) web page <http://icgem.gfz-
preserve the accuracy of the GRACE and GOCE gravity potsdam.de/ICGEM> using the Kriging interpolation
contribution. This artificial covariance was used to method and refer to the reference system World
combine the surface gravity information with GGM05G Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84).
to obtain the GGM05C solution (Ries et al., 2016).
The differences between GNSS/levelling based geoid
The Combined Gravity Model GOCO05C heights and GGM-based geoid heights may be affected
GOCO05C is a static global combined gravity field by datum inconsistencies. In order to minimize these
model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal offsets (i.e. bias and tilt) a 4-parameter transformation is
equation systems (more than 500000 parameters). It has used. The geoid heights obtained from GGMs are
been elaborated by the Gravity Observation compared with discrete geoid heights based on
Combination (GOCO) Group. GOCO05C is a GNSS/levelling data after fitting the tilt. The statistical
combination model based on the satellite-only gravity values of the height data sets that were used for GGM
field model GOCO05S and several gravity anomaly evaluation are given in Table 2.
datasets (Arctic, Australia, Canada, Europe, Oceans,
South America, USA), constituting a global 15'x15' data Std.
Height Min. Max. Mean
Dev.
grid. For the remaining land areas (Central America,
Asia, Africa, Antarctica) fill-in datasets (NIMA96, h 203.7893 1865.7583 1040.7602 308.9833
GOCO05S, RWI_TOIS2012) were used (Fecher et al., H 168.5663 1827.3193 1003.7240 308.8989
2016). NGNSS/Lev 32.1204 38.9270 37.0362 1.3207
NEGM2008 27.8353 40.1786 36.2804 2.1706
GGMs that are compared over the study area are listed NEIGEN6C4 27.8693 40.2083 36.2854 2.1619
in Table 1 with model characteristics. NGGM05C 27.8477 39.9013 36.2882 2.1506
NGOCO05C 27.9391 40.0077 36.2864 2.1600
Model Year Degree Data NGECO 27.9349 40.1837 36.2879 2.1605
EGM2008 2008 2190 S (GRACE), G, A Table 2. Statistics of height datasets over the study area
EIGEN-6C4 2014 2190 S (GOCE, GRACE, (units in m.)
LAGEOS), G, A
GECO 2015 2190 S (Goce), EGM2008 The graphical representations have been adopted for the
GGM05C 2016 360 S (GRACE, GOCE), G, A comparative evaluation of GGMs by producing a
GOCO05C 2016 720 S, G, A
residual map for each GGM (Fig. 4-8) that indicates the
Table 1. GGMs used for the evaluation occurrence and magnitude of geoid height differences.
(S: Satellite tracking, G: Gravity, A: Altimetry)
The residual maps are produced by the Surfer 13
software before fitting the tilt.

21
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016,

Figure 8. GOCO05C residual map (height differences in


Figure 4. EGM2008 residual map (height differences in m.)
m.)
COMPARATIVE RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

The visual analysis of the geoid height residual maps


shows that EGM2008 has a better terrain approximation
than the other GGMs. It is visible from Fig.4 that the
deviation of EGM2008 based geoid heights from
GNSS/levelling based geoid heights is reduced for most
parts of the study area ( -0.8 m. before fitting the tilt).

Global statistics of geoid height residuals based on


GGMs are presented in Table 3. When the statistics
summarized in Table 2 are evaluated, the following
conclusions can be drawn based on this study: (i)
Figure 5. EIGEN-6C4 residual map (height differences EGM2008, EIGEN6C4, and GECO has better results
in m.) because of their higher frequency content. (ii)
EGM2008 provides more accurate results than other
GGMs.

From the statistical values of NGNSS/Lev NGGM, RMSEs


were used to infer the best fit of the GGMs to the
GNSS/levelling data for model evaluating because any
gravimetric determination of the geoid is deficient in the
zero and first-degree terms. Obviously, EGM2008 fit the
GPS/levelling data better than other GGMs over the
study area.

Table 3. Statistics of NGNSS/Lev - NGGM over the study


area after fitting the tilt (units in m.)
Model Min. Max. Range Mean RMSE
Figure 6. GECO residual map (height differences in m.) EGM2008 -0.7735 -0.1703 0.6032 -0.3050 0.2803
EIGEN6C4 -0.7837 -0.1762 0.6075 -0.3228 0.3282
GECO -0.7963 -0.1563 0.6400 -0.3251 0.3318
GGM05C -0.9326 0.0282 0.9608 -0.3479 0.3677
GOCO05C -1.4371 -0.6374 0.7997 -0.3509 0.3501

The results of GGM evaluation in this study have


indicated the outstanding of EGM2008 to the other
GGMs. EGM2008 better statistics than the other GGMs
and fits best to the THG-09 at 0.2803 m. agreement
despite the coefficient errors and GNSS/levelling dataset
that can not be considered as an entirely errorless. From
our GGM evaluation results we can conclude that
EGM2008 can be used as a reference earth geopotential
model for further geoid determinations at regional and
Figure 7. GGM05C residual map (height differences in
national scales.
m.)
Due to advancements and improvements in
instrumentation, software, processes, applications, and
understanding, high resolution GGMs (e.g. up to degree
and order 2190) are major steps to represent the gravity
field of the Earth with a high accuracy. Nowadays global

22
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 18-23, December, 2016,

gravity field models, mainly derived from satellite


measurements, become more and more detailed and Kiamehr, R., Sjberg, L.E. (2005). Comparison of the
accurate. These gravity field models should be combined qualities of recent global and local gravimetric geoid
with terrestrial gravity anomalies) and GNSS/levelling- models in Iran. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 49,
derived or altimetry-derived geoid heights. Furthermore, 289-304.
an important task of geodesy is to make the gravity field
functionals available to other geosciences. For all these Kilicoglu, A., Direnc, A., Yildiz, H., Bolme, M., Aktug,
purposes, it is necessary to calculate the corresponding B., Simav, M., Lenk, O. (2011). Regional gravimetric
functionals as accurately as possible or, at least, with a quasi-geoid model and transformation surface to
well-defined accuracy from a given global gravity field national height system for Turkey (THG-09). Studia
model. Therefore, in order to achieve major Geophysica et Geodaetica, 55, 557-578.
improvements for the future high-accuracy gravimetric
geoid models in Turkey, further and future analysis of Kotsakis, C. (2008). Transforming ellipsoidal heights
high resolution GGMs and geoid undulations between different geodetic
(e.g. GOCE-based GGMs) will be needed. reference frames. Journal of Geodesy, 82, 249-260.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Mainville, A., Forsberg, R., Sideris, M.G. (1992).


Global positioning system testing of geoids computed
This study was supported by Afyon Kocatepe University from geopotential model and local gravity data: a case
Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department study. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (B7),
(Project No: 15.HIZ.DES.91). 11137-11147.

REFERENCES Pavlis, N.K., Holmes, S.A., Kenyon S.C., Factor J.K.


(2008). An earth gravitational model to degree 2160:
Banarjee, P., Foulger, G.R., Satyaprakash, Dabral, C.P. EGM2008. General Assembly of the European
(1999). Geoid undulation modelling and interpretation at Geosciences Union, 13-18 April, Vienna, Austria.
Ladak, NW Himalaya using GPS and levelling data.
Journal of Geodesy, 73, 79-86. Pavlis, N.K., Holmes, S.A., Kenyon, S.C., Factor, J.K.
(2012). The development and evaluation of the Earth
Erol, B., Sideris, M.G., Celik, R.N. (2009). Comparison Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008). Journal of
of global geopotential models from the champ and grace Geophysical Research, 117, B04406, doi:
missions for regional geoid modelling in Turkey. Studia 10.1029/2011JB008916.
Geophysica et Geodaetica, 53, 419-441.
Rapp, R.H. (1997). Past and future developments in
Fecher, T., Pail, R., Gruber, T. and the GOCO Project geopotential modelling, in: Forsberg, R, Feissl, M.,
Team. (2016). The combined satellite gravity field Dietrich, R. (Eds.) Geodesy on the Move, Springer,
model GOCO05C. EGU General Assembly, 17-22 Berlin, pp. 58-78.
April, Vienna, Austria, Geophysical Research Abstracts,
18 (EGU2016-7696). Ries, J., Bettadpur, S., Eanes, R., Kang, Z., Ko, U.,
McCullough, C., Nagel, P., Pie, N., Poole, S., Richter,
Frste, C., Flechtner, F., Schmidt, R., Stubenvoll, R., T., Save, H., Tapley, B. (2016). The combined gravity
Rothacher, M., Kusche, J., Neumayer, K.H., Biancale, model GGM05C.
R., Lemoine, J.-M., Barthelmes, F., Bruinsma, S., http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/icgem.2016.002.
Knig, R., Meyer, U. (2008). EIGEN-GL05C - A new
global combined high-resolution GRACE-based gravity Rummel, R., Balmino, G., Johannessen, ., Visser, P.,
field model of the GFZ-GRGS cooperation. Geophysical Woodworth, P. (2002). Dedicated gravity field missions-
Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-03426, SRef- principles and aims. Journal of Geodynamics, 33, 3-20.
ID: 1607-7962/gra/EGU2008-A-03426, 2008.
Tenzer, R., Vanicek, P., Santos, M., Featherstone, W.E.,
Frste, C., Bruinsma, S.L., Abrikosov, O., Lemoine, J.- Kuhn, M. (2005). The rigorous determination of
M., Marty, J.C., Flechtner, F., Balmino, G., Barthelmes, orthometric heights. Journal of Geodesy, 79, 82-92.
F., Biancale, R. (2015). EIGEN-6C4 The latest
combined global gravity field model including GOCE
data up to degree and order 2190 of GFZ Potsdam and
GRGS Toulouse.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5880/icgem.2015.1.

Gilardoni, M., Reguzzoni, M., Sampietro, D. (2016). Copyright International Journal of Engineering and
GECO: a global gravity model by locally combining Geosciences (IJEG). All rights reserved, including the
GOCE data and EGM2008. Studia Geophysica et making of copies unless permission is obtained from
Geodaetica, 60, 228-247. the copyright proprietors.

Heiskanen, W.A., Moritz, H. (1967). Physical


Geodesy.W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.

23
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016, ISSN 2548-0960, Turkey,
DOI: Your DOI number

VARIABILITY AND DECADAL EVOLUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND


SALINITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA SURFACE

Nacef, L., 1* Bachari, N.E.I.,1 Bouda, A.,2 and Boubnia, R.,2

1Seluk University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatic Engineering, Konya, Turkey


(yakar/etusat/orhanosman@selcuk.edu.tr);
1 Department of Ecology and Environment, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Houari Boumediene University of Science
and Technology (USTHB), B.P 32 El-Alia 16111, Algiers, Algeria. (nacef_l, bachari10@yahoo.fr);
2 cole Nationale Suprieure des Sciences de la Mer et de l'Amnagement du Littoral (ENSSMAL), Campus
universitaire de Delly Ibrahim, Bois des Cars, B.P. 19, 16320, Algiers, Algeria. (abderbouda, rboubnia@yahoo.fr)

*Corresponding Author, Received: 08/06/2016, Accepted: 20/07/2016

ABSTRACT: Based on the Med-Atlas 20002 database data at Mediterranean Sea surface, analysis of spatial and
temporal variations of temperature and salinity, as well as, the search of its possible trends are the main goals of this work.
The used statistical techniques allowed us to obtain various climatological fields of temperature and salinity, on a period
of 45 years (1955-1999). Spatial and temporal analysis of those fields shows that the north-south gradient is weaker than
the east-west gradient. The strongest variability in both mean fields is sharper in downwelling areas than anywhere else,
showing the colder and less saline surface waters. Warmer and saltiest water surface are located in southeast of the
Levantine basin. The eastern Mediterranean Sea is generally more saline than the western basin. The temperature
seasonal cycle is more marked than the salinity seasonal cycle. The summer-winter thermal and saline fields are
completely contrasted, especially in the northern Adriatic Sea. The largest positive peak of inter-annual temperature
variability is encountered in 1994, the largest negative peak in 1992. Whereas those related to salinity observed in 1983
and in 1997 respectively. The decadal variations indicate a cooling of Mediterranean Sea surface in 1970s and a
northward warming since 1980s that accelerated in 1990s. The eastern Mediterranean Sea exhibits a higher warming rate
as compared to the western basin, but the average increase is about 0.2 C/decade. The Salinity rising corresponds to the
cooling periods and the decreasing is associated with the warming ones.

Keywords: Mediterranean Sea surface, Temperature, Salinity, Spatio-temporal/Interannual/decadal variability.

24
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

efficient tool that can define the accuracy requirements,


1. INTRODUCTION determine the sampling conditions and the precision with which
the parameter can be determined. Thus, improving our
The climate of the earth is extremely complex due to knowledge of Mediterranean water masses characteristics,
interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, particularly the surface temperature and salinity, and their
biosphere and cryosphere. Moreover, the exchange of energy, of variability is a daunting challenge for the scientific community
matter and moisture between these environmental spheres are in the field of measurements and modelling in Mediterranean
the main mechanisms that govern the climate system (Simmons region. Obtain accurate estimates of these parameters is
& Bengtsson, 1984; Beniston, 2004; IPCC, 2007). important for understanding the circulation and Mediterranean
climate as well as their evolution in the context of climate
The global atmospheric and oceanic circulations are change. Furthermore, systematic assessments of variability of
strongly interdependent and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity) in
is the link between the two (Gill, 1982). Among others, ocean relation to climate and to changes in biogeochemical processes
circulation depends on characteristics of the different water and biodiversity are crucial to understand the mode of
masses. A water mass acquires its basic characteristics that are response/functioning of the marine ecosystem.
the SST and the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) under the effect of
exchanges with the atmosphere. The thermohaline circulation In this study, we took advantage of the MEDAR/MEDATLAS
assigned particularly by surface salinity that will determine the 2002 database release to build different climatologies of
threshold in temperature beneath which surface water will temperature and salinity at various spatial and temporal scales.
plunge. In the same way as temperature and pressure, salinity Use these climatologies to assess the spatio-temporal variability
modulates the distribution of heat in the oceans and affects the and to infer the decadal change in the fields of temperature and
density of seawater that is a fundamental parameter ocean salinity at Mediterranean Sea surface. We focus our effort on
circulation (Pickard & Emery, 1964). Changes in temperature study of variations and decadal trends. We will be expecting
and salinity can reduce the deep-water masses formation, that this quantitative description improves measurement
affecting the duration, frequency and intensity of this process. accuracy and increases our understanding of the Mediterranean
This could ultimately have an impact on biodiversity, due to the processes.
local climate change (Pusceddu et al., 2010).
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
The Mediterranean Sea behaves as a downscaled ocean where
the main processes that affect the global ocean are present 2.1. Data description
(Bthoux et al., 1999; CIESM, 2002; Lejeusne et al., 2010).
Considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchange water Data from 1889 to 2000 of temperature and salinity profiles,
with Atlantic Ocean through the Gibraltar Strait and heat with contained in MEDAR/MEDATLAS (Fichaut et al., 2003; Medar
atmosphere through its surface. Mediterranean basin shows an group, 2002), are the main source of data in this study. On the
excess of evaporation over the freshwater input and heat loss 19002000 period, we chose to extract only data collected with
through the ocean-atmosphere interactions. These losses of bottles and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth "CTD", data
fresh water and heat are compensated by two exchange layers in collected with Mechanical-Bathy-Thermographs "MBT" and
the Strait of Gibraltar: a top layer, towards the Mediterranean eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs "XBT" are inherently less
including a relatively warm and fresh water inflow and accurate. The quality control procedures of the data already
underlying relatively colder and saltier layer towards the made by the MEDAR/MEDATLAS group allow us to extract the
Atlantic (Bryden et al., 1994; Tsimplis & Bryden, 2000). data at Mediterranean Sea surface level that have successfully
passed the tests.
Mediterranean Sea circulation is determined by heat exchanges,
through the SST and freshwater, that depend on weather On the investigated period, temporal and spatial distribution of
conditions and ocean characteristics (Tsimplis et al., 2005). The extracted data shows that the largest number of data refers to the
water flux and SST are crucial in dense water formation, and 19462000 period. Density of observations is weaker in winter
thus in the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (Bthoux et months. The highest density cover the gulf of Lyons, the
al., 1999; Barnier et al., 2006). Consequently, they affect the Ligurian Sea, the North Adriatic Sea and the Alboran Sea.
characteristics of Mediterranean water masses (temperature, Southern Levantine basin and the coasts of Tunisia and Libya
salinity and density) and can potentially affect the Atlantic suffer from a severe lack of data. This heterogeneity is the result
Ocean circulation by changing the Mediterranean outgoing of weather conditions and the tendency to make more
waters properties (Potter & Lozier, 2004; Tsimplis et al., 2005; investigations for specific processes (e.g., in the Gulf of Lions
Millot et al., 2006). SST in the Mediterranean can also influence for tracking the deep waters formation). Several Mediterranean
the atmosphere properties at lower levels and occurrence of areas, mainly its southern parts, are widely under-sampled due
episodes of heavy coastal rainfall (Castellari et al., 1998; Li, to historical-political difficulties, as well as to financial and
2006; Lebeaupin et al., 2006). In the Mediterranean, logistic constraints. This is a serious limit which makes the
oceanographic and physical aspects of climate change are interpretation of data more difficult (Millot & Briand, 2002) and
described in many reports and scientific studies, but there are prevents reliable trend detection (Millot & Taupier-Letage,
still uncertainties about the extent of physical and chemical 2005).
expected changes at regional and local scales (Lionello, 2012).
2.2. Data processing
Despite a great progress in measuring and understanding data
errors, the performed SST and SSS climatologies from different For achieving different climatologies at various spatial and
data sets in the Mediterranean show a wide range of temporal scales, we needed to construct complete data series
discrepancies that we are still struggling to reduce them (Hewitt where data availability is the first limitation one can expect.
& Griggs, 2004; Sanchez Gomez et al., 2008, 2009). To Therefore, the data processing aims at interpolating the
overcome some of these gaps, the SST and SSS variability is an available information on the required time and space scales.
25
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

Here, we describe the main steps in our approach. changes heavily in the range of 13 to 27 C and increases from
As a first step, we adopted the 29 boxes defined by north to south and from west to east. While monthly salinity
MEDAR/MEDATLAS 2002. The choice of this zonation is changes more softly with values between 36 and 39 and
supported by the use of such areas in the quality control and increases eastwards, except for of Adriatic Sea surface.
regional parameterization of MEDATLAS data. These areas
represent the spatial grid with which one can filter the most Mean annual values of SST and SSS averaged spatially for the
details of ocean circulation characteristics and properties of the eighteen zones and corresponding limits are illustrated in figure
Mediterranean surface. We applied a variance-based analysis to 2. It shows that the mean surface temperature of Mediterranean
the temperature and salinity data from these 29 boxes. This waters ranges from 18 C (Z01: Western Alboran in the western
analysis helps to aggregate the dependant areas. The results of basin) to over 22.1 C (Z18: Levantine Basin in eastern basin).
this analysis allowed us to identify 18 independent zones (Fig. The warmest area is the Levantine Basin, with 22.1C. The
1). This grid is used for subsequent binning of the data and in coolest areas are the Gulf of Lions, the Ligurian Sea and
remaining processing and analysis. Data for each variable are northern Adriatic Sea, with a mean SST of 17.5 C (Fig. 2a).
then averaged monthly for all 18 zones for the period running
from January 1955 to December 1999. We note that before The surface salinity of the Mediterranean Sea softly increases
1955 and during 2000, the data are too scarce to be interpolated. from Gibraltar to Ligurian Sea (from about 37.4 in the western
Alboran to 38.5 in Ligurian Sea) with a decline in the Gulf of
Lions (about 37.2). From Sardinia Strait to northern Ionian Sea,
salinity shows a relative stability around 38.3. It strongly
decreases in the Adriatic Sea (about 36.8) and then rises to 39
and upwards in the eastern basin (Fig. 2b). Furthermore, figure
2 shows that these fields vary reasonably between the superior
and inferior regional limits.

Figure 3 shows the SST and SSS annual cycles for


Mediterranean Sea and these three sub-basins (WMS, CMS and
EMS). Annual cycles of temperature showed a clear seasonal
cycle at all spatial scales, from minimum values in the range of
13.8-16.4 C during February to the maximum values 22.8-25.6
C during August. The WMS and EMS are in the same
magnitude order, from December to April. However, difference
grows from April to reach its maximum (about 2.5 C) in
Figure 1. Study area, defined by a grid of 18 spatial points (each August.
point represents a subregion of the Mediterranean Sea surface).

For spatial interpolation, we used linear regressions between a


variable in a given zone and the same variable located in
adjacent zones to fill in missing values. Only regressions with a
high correlation coefficient (r 0.9) were applied in this
process. For temporal interpolation, we used the binned and
spatially interpolated database to construct 3- and 5-month
moving averages. When the one-binned datum is missing, the 3-
or 5-binned one replaces it.

At this stage, our database is a monthly climatology of each


variable over the 18 zones and covering the period from January
1955 to December 1999. We constructed the average SST and
SSS monthly climatologies at 18 zones scale to compare with
the upper and lower regional limits. We constructed the average
annual and their standard deviation fields to characterize spatial
variations and detect areas of high variability. The mean
seasonal contrast fields (summerwinter) to study seasonal
variations. The mean annual cycles on a global scale (whole
Mediterranean Sea) and regional (three sub-basins: occidental
"WMS", Central "CMS" and Oriental "EMS") in order to
analyse typical annual cycle and establish regional differences.
The annual anomalies series to describe inter-annual variations.
In order to detect trends in fields, we constructed the average for
4 decades (1958-1969, 1970-1979, 1980-1989 and 1990-1999).

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Figure 2. Mean annual SST (a) and SSS (b) at eighteen zones
3.1. Annual variability and corresponding limits.

Monthly climatologies spatially averaged over the whole Annual cycles of salinity show a minimum between two peaks
Mediterranean Sea surface show that the monthly temperature values, with salinities are subject to almost linear
26
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

increase/decrease between the periods of these extreme values.


The two salinity peaks values observed in November and
February, while in the WMS basin observed in August and
February. The minimum salinity values are observed in June,
except that the EMS exhibits this minimum in April. The lowest
salinities generally confined at 37.1-37.4 interval and the
highest ones confined at 37.6-37.9 interval, except that the EMS
exhibits higher salinities (about 1). The EMS is generally more
saline than the WMS, by about 1 (Fig. 3b). The surface salinity
increase is in phase with the temperature decrease during
February.

Figure 4. Spatial distribution of temperatures (a) and salinities


(b) seasonal contrasts in Mediterranean Sea surface, averaged
over 1955-1999 period.

3.2. Spatial variability

Figure 5 depicts the spatial variability of surface temperature at


Mediterranean Sea based on the mean annual field and its field
of average standard deviations. It shows that the north-south
temperature gradient (3 C) is weaker than the west-east
gradient (4 C). The highest SST variability observed in the
Gulf of Lions, south of the Aegean Sea. These areas own also
the coldest surface water. By cons, the warmer surface waters
are in the southeast Levantine Basin. The minimum variability
observed in the Alboran Sea and in the central part of the basin,
particularly the Sicilia strait and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea.
The WMS surface shows an average temperature of 18 C. The
north-south thermal gradient is slightly stronger than west-east
gradient. The coldest water surfaces are located in the northwest
(minimum of 17.3 C in the Gulf of Lions) and warmer waters
are in the southern Algeria basin with a maximum of 18.8 C.
Areas with strong variability and lower temperatures occupy the
northwest, whereas the most stable areas and warmer occupy
the southern part of this basin. The CMS surface shows an
average temperature of 18.9 C, except that the Adriatic Sea
Figure 3. Mean annual cycle of SST (a) and SSS (b) over whole surface exhibits an average temperature of 17.7 C. The north-
Mediterranean Sea and these three basins, for 1955-1999 period. south thermal gradient is stronger than the west-east gradient.
Surface temperatures decrease southeastern (20.5 C in the Gulf
The mean seasonal thermal contrast field at Mediterranean of Syrte) to the northwesterly (17.5 C in the north Adriatic).
surface (Fig. 4a) shows that it undergoes higher summer (June- The SST field is relatively stable. Areas with strong variability
August) temperatures than winter (December-February). The and lower temperatures occupy the northern Adriatic. The
lowest seasonal gap is located in western Alboran Sea and the southern Ionian Sea records the strongest surface temperatures.
Gulf of Lions while the strongest difference is located in the The EMS surface shows an average temperature of over 20 C
Adriatic notably its northern part. The mean seasonal and can reaches 22.2 C in the extreme southeast, except that
differences field in salinity (Fig. 4b) shows that the surface the Aegean Sea surface shows an average temperature varies
waters of the northern boundaries of the Mediterranean are less between 19 and 20 C. Three sectors are distinguished: the first
salty in summer compared to winter, notably in the northern is the Aegean Sea that shows a clear positive southward
Adriatic. gradient. The second is the Crete passage and area located
between Crete and Cyprus that shows an increase of SST from
west to east. The third one is the southern Cyprus that confines
the highest temperatures of whole Mediterranean Sea. To north
of Crete, the strong and low variability varies in the same sense.
The highest spatial thermal variability and the lowest
temperatures occupy the surface of the southern Aegean Sea.

27
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

Figure 6. Spatial distribution of salinities and its mean standard


deviations in Mediterranean Sea surface, averaged over 1955-
1999 period.

3.3. Inter-annual/decadal variability

The annual SST anomalies chronology (Fig. 7a) shows that the
largest positive peak of inter-annual SST variability is
encountered in 1994, the largest negative peak in 1992.
Whereas those related to salinity are observed in 1983 for the
largest positive and in 1997 for the largest negative peak (Fig.
Figure 5. Spatial distribution of temperatures and its mean 7b).
standard deviations in Mediterranean Sea surface, averaged over The solid line (Fig. 7a) represents the 5-year running mean,
1955-1999 period. which highlights trends. It indicates a general cooling trend over
19631971 period and a general warming trend over 19721999
Concerning the salinity, Figure 6 shows that the continuous period. A more thorough examination of the time series
increase from Alboran Sea (37.2) to the southeast of Levantine reveals a very small SST cooling trend in the early nineties
basin (38.9) is the more remarkable characteristic, except that (1992-1993) and then a strong warming trend throughout the
the northern Adriatic Sea exhibits an averaged salinity of 36.5. rest of the record. Related to salinity (Fig. 7b), it shows a
The north-south gradient (0.3) is weaker than the west-east general rising trend in salinity over the whole 1963-1985 period
gradient (1.7). The relative increase shaped of an anticyclonic then a strong decreasing trend throughout the rest of the record.
cell (38) covers the southwestern Ligurian Sea and the The rising trend period is disconnected by a decreasing
northwest Tyrrhenian Sea. The less salty waters occupy the trend during the 1974-1979 period.
north Adriatic surface, with a net cyclonic cell (36.5). The
southern Aegean Sea surface maintains a salinity level
exceeding the 38, with a configuration relatively similar to that
of SST.
The less salty WMS surface waters are located in western
Alboran Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. This latter area also
exhibits the strongest variability. The most salty surface waters
and less variable occupy the southwest of Ligurian Sea. In this
basin, the north-south gradient is weaker than the west east one.
In CMS surface, the north-south salt gradient is stronger than
the west-east one. Saltiest surface waters occupy the Gulf of
Syrte. By cons, the less salty waters are located in the northern
Adriatic. The northern Adriatic holds also strongest variability.
The saltiest EMS surface waters and most stable are in the
southern Levantine basin. While, surface waters less salty and
strongest variables are located in the southern Aegean Sea, with
a maximum of 1.7. The north-south gradient is weaker than the
west-east one, exception for the northern Crete.

Figure 7. Annual anomalies chronology of SST (a) and SSS (b)


in whole Mediterranean Sea, over the 1958-1999 period.
Solid lines represents the 5-year running mean.

28
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

a no stationary picture of the basin dynamic and significant


biogeochemical differences between regions that have
The right panels of figure 8 depicts the decadal SST averages consequences on the local dynamic.
from the 1960s (Fig. 8a) to the 1990s (Fig. 8d). It shows that the
Mediterranean Sea surface sustained a cooling in the 1970s and The various climatologies constructed indicate some main
an acceleration of the warming in the 1990s. This is particularly features that deserve to be discussed. Surface thermal field
true for Gulf of Lions, the Ligurian Sea, the Adriatic and the reveals a clear north-to-south and the west-to-east gradients.
Aegean Sea where SST increase is northwards. The average Salinity field increases eastwards from Gibraltar to eastern basin
increase in sea surface temperature is about 0.2 C/decade, (Fig. 2). The warmest and saltiest area is Levantine Basin.
although the higher warming rate in the eastern basin. During While, the coolest and less salty areas are the Gulf of Lions and
1960s (Fig.8a), the warmest area is the Levantine Basin with the Ligurian Sea. The principal atmospheric and ocean
SST values between 21.4 and 22.2C. The coolest area is the circulation forcing mainly support those gradients, regional
Gulf of Lions with SST values less than 17.4C. SST decreases features such as Atlantic Ocean or river run-off influence on the
clearly from the south to the north in WMS. While in EMS, it occidental basin. Temperature seasonal cycle is more marked
increases from the west to the east, especially in Levantine with respect to the salinity seasonal cycle (Fig. 3) which related
Basin. The basin-average SST decrease during the 1970s (Fig. especially to the solar radiation seasonal cycle. The EMS
8b) which is particularly pronounced in the northern parts of exhibited higher temperatures ( 2 C) than those at WMS,
WMS, of Adriatic and of Aegean Sea. During 1980s (Fig. 8c), especially in winter (Fig 3a). The EMS is generally more saline
there is a gradual increase of SST but with a higher warming than the WMS ( 1) that is related to the climate induced by the
trend in the western basin than in the Levantine basin. During intense evaporation from the eastern basin resulting in
this decade, only the northernmost Adriatic Sea surface Levantine Intermediate Water formation. At the surface, three
remaining with temperature of 17.5 C. During the 1990s (Fig. major factors driven salinity dynamics: the input in marginal
8d), there is an acceleration of the warming in the western basin seas (terrestrial input from the Po and other Italian rivers and
and the SST warming rate becomes larger in the eastern than in from the Dardanelles), the effect of evaporation in the eastern
the western sub-basin. During this decade, temperature is higher basin and the influx of the low-salinity Atlantic water. The
than 17 C in the entire Mediterranean Sea surface, with the thermohaline basin-wide circulation modulates the intensity and
SST increasing northward in the WMS and eastward in the the patterns of the spatial gradients.
EMS.
The average seasonal thermal contrast field (Fig. 4a) indicates a
The left panels of figure 8 illustrates the decadal salinity weaker contrast located in western Alboran Sea and the Gulf of
averages from the 1960s (Fig. 8e) to the 1990s (Fig. 8h). It Lions. In the Gulf of Lions, this contrast can be explained by the
indicates that there is a discernible trend of increased salinity upwelling phenomenon, most active during the spring that
corresponds to the cooling periods. Conversely, the decreased reduces the temperature deviation between summer and winter
salinity is associated with the warming periods; this is in this zone. In the Alboran Sea, the low contrast can be
particularly true for the western part of WMS, for Adriatic Sea explained by the nature of surface waters which originated from
and for Levantine basin during 1990s. During 1970s, surface the Atlantic and that have a relatively homogeneous temperature
salinity shows a general increasing trend, except that for the throughout the year, by the air flux from the southwest
northern Adriatic and the western of Alboran that exhibit a established by the displacement to the south of the Azores
decreasing (Fig. 8f). The inverted situation during 1980s, except anticyclone, during the summer. This flux brings relatively cool
that for the northern Adriatic Sea that continued in its air masses from Atlantic that reduce the surface temperature in
decreasing salinity trend (Fig. 8g). During this decade, the Alboran Sea surface, during this season. The strongest
increasing trend concerns all Mediterranean surfaces located seasonal contrast is located in the Adriatic Sea, notably its
south of 40 degrees. During 1990s (Fig. 8h), surface salinity northern part. It can be explained by the cold winter winds (the
shows an acceleration of decreasing trend for all Mediterranean Bora, Tramontane) that cool surface waters in these regions. In
surfaces, except for Levantine Basin that exhibits a relatively the rest of Mediterranean surfaces, we can explain this thermal
increasing trend. contrast by the displacement of Hadley Cell northwards during
summer, by the Sirocco in the southern Mediterranean and by
3.4. Discussion the Etesian in the Aegean Sea. These factors further may warm
surface waters in these regions and, therefore, amplify the
In the present study, we used 18 identified zones (Fig. 1). This summer-winter temperature contrast in the Mediterranean.
partition does not take into account the biogeochemistry and The average seasonal contrast in salinity (Fig. 4b) indicates that
ecology features of the Mediterranean Sea. More recently, the surface waters of Mediterranean northern boundaries are
several studies have attempted to partition the basin either using less salty in summer compared to winter, notably in the northern
abiotic parameters (Gabri et al., 2012) or biotic parameters Adriatic.
(DOrtenzio & D'Alacala, 2009). These studies have confirmed

29
Figure 8. Averaged SST (left panels) and SSS (right panels) in the Mediterranean Sea over the (a e) 1960s, (b f) 1970s, (c g)
1980s, and (d h) 1990s.

30
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

In the Adriatic and the the abrupt decrease of both. This NAO variability
northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the surface salinity probably contributed to the change in the SST spatio-
contrast can be explained by the freshwater inputs from temporal variability pattern and it is associated with the
rivers (Rhone, Po) after the late spring merger of the change in the direction of the SST spatial increasing
reliefs snow (Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines). In the Aegean tendency in the Mediterranean Sea (i.e. from the
Sea, it can be explained by the water exchange between westward to the eastward direction).
Black Sea and Aegean Sea, also by the evaporation
increases in summer. The increase in surface salinity is The observed increase, since 1980s, in surface
in phase with the decrease in temperature during temperature is generally higher in northern than in
February that explains the downwelling of surface southern Mediterranean Sea, with a rapid warming since
waters denser in late winter. Thus, the seasonal the mid-1990s. Surface cooling along with the combined
differences in salinity and surface temperature clearly salt content increase of the Eastern Mediterranean
reflected the forcing that induces the vertically induced by increased net evaporation during this period
circulation in Mediterranean Sea. These findings are may gradually decrease stratification in the Aegean Sea
consistent with observations and modelling studies of resulting in larger deep-water formation rates favouring
the Mediterranean climate variability (Coll et al., 2010; the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). Those
Woodruff et al., 2008; Somot, 2005; Levitus et al., 2005, findings are consistent with recent observations (Russo
2009). et al., 2002) and the AtmosphereOcean Regional
Spatial distribution of both fields reveals a weaker north- Climate Models (Somot et al., 2008; Skliris et al., 2007).
south gradient than the east-west one and the strongest The strong negative anomaly salinity decrease observed
variability is sharper in downwelling areas than during 1996-1997 period, can probably reduce the
anywhere else. The external surface water masses input Aegean Dense Water Formation (DWF) efficiency and
mainly determines this spatial variability, also the spatial led to a long-term decay phase for the EMT. In general,
variability of air-sea heat fluxes and the upward vertical the temperature has fluctuated from cold conditions
transports of intermediate water due to turbulent mixing through the 1960s and 1970s to recent warming that
and/or upwelling processes (Mariotti, 2010). Our results commenced in the 1980s. These events are thought to be
highlight favourable areas for the existence of predominantly a consequence of climate change
convective processes in the Mediterranean Sea and the (Solomon et al., 2007; Hoegh-Guldberg & Bruno, 2010).
production of dense water masses with low temperature The long-term surface warming may have an impact on
and high salinity characteristics, and are consistent with the future thermohaline circulation of the Mediterranean
the existing knowledge and major experiments that led Sea. A significant increase of SST may diminish the
to the discovery of the sub-basin scale circulation and its dense water formation rates in the various
mesoscale features (Bergamasco & Malanotte-Rizzoli, deep/intermediate water formation sites of the basin and
2010). thus may slow down the thermohaline circulation.
The observed increasing warming of the Mediterranean Changes in the temperature and salinity of the
Sea surface can be related to the East Atlantic pattern outflowing Mediterranean water through the Gibraltar
index variability that seems to follow the global strait may influence the general circulation in the
warming trend, accelerated after the early 1990s. The North Atlantic, which is a major site of deep-water
SST yearly anomalies can be related to the Atlantic formation controlling the global thermohaline
Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index yearly mean circulation.
variability. Our results are consistent with the study of
Mariotti and DellAquila (2011) who found a high
correlation between AMO and the Mediterranean SST 4. CONCLUSION
throughout the year over the period 18702009. The
brief surface cooling period occurred during the early Thanks to MEDATLAS 2002 database release, which we
1990s can be associated with a more prolonged cooling used to construct the various climatological fields of
in the Atlantic area west of Gibraltar. After the early temperature and salinity at Mediterranean Sea surface.
1990s, the SST warming rate becomes larger in the These climatology fields served as tools for spatio-
eastern than in the western basin. This behaviour can be temporal. The climatological characteristics can serve as
explained by the local ocean processes such as the heat benchmark for carrying out further analysis of the
horizontal advection (from the western basin) and/or changes in the oceanographic properties that may have
vertical mixing which probably control the accelerated occurred during the last years in the Mediterranean Sea.
surface warming in the eastern basin. Climatologies thus realized can contribute to improve
The enhanced variability shift observed in the ocean-atmosphere interactions at local scales,
Mediterranean SST in the early 1990s may be explained understanding the mechanisms causing interannual
partly by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index downwelling variations in the Mediterranean and
variations. The high positive NAO phase is associated improving the constraints for the ocean-atmosphere
with warmer conditions over the western sub-basin and coupled models.
cooler conditions over the eastern sub-basin, while the The Mediterranean Sea surface hydrology characteristics
contrary occurs during negative NAO phases. (temperature, salinity) show a high interannual
Atmospheric conditions seem to control the net airsea variability as well as long-term trends over the last
heat flux and SST variations. In particular, the large SST decades. During 19801990, there is a significant SST
increase in the western basin during the late 1980s rise in the western basin following a large warming of
seems to follow closely both NAO index and the net air the inflowing surface Atlantic waters and a long-term
sea heat flux increase. In the early 1990s, a large increase of the NAO index, whereas SST slowly
atmospheric variability shift occurred as evidenced by increased in the eastern basin. After a brief cooling

31
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

period in the early 1990s D'Ortenzio F. and M. Ribera D'Alcal, 2009. On the
for both sub-basins and a change from a high positive to trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite
a low NAO phase, the Mediterranean mean warming analysis. Biogeosciences, 6, pp. 139-148.
rate accelerated while its spatial increasing tendency Fichaut M, Garcia M. J., Giorgetti A., Iona A.,
changed from the westward to the eastward direction. Kushmaro A. et al., 2003. MEDAR/MEDATLAS 2002: a
The increasing trend in temperature encountered in the Mediterranean and Black Sea database for the
MEDAR/MEDATLAS 2002 data from the 1960s to the operational Oceanography. Proceedings of the third
1990s has to be confirmed by other datasets and/or if International Conference on Euro-GOOS, December
more recent data become available (e.g. 2000s and 2002, Athens, Greece. Oceanography Series 69, pp. 645-
2010s). If this trend persisted, it would most likely have 648.
had an impact on the future thermohaline circulation of
the Mediterranean Sea and a significant effect on the Gabri C., Lagabrielle E., Bissery C., Crochelet E.,
Mediterranean Sea marine ecosystems, as well as on the Meola B., Webster C., Claudet J., Chassanite A.,
marine biogeochemical cycles. Marinesque S., Robert P., Goutx M. and C. Quod, 2012.
The study identified a clear effect of sea surface Statut des Aires Marines Protges en mer Mditerrane.
warming on marine ecosystems favouring and Med PAN Collection, 260 pp.
accelerating the settlement of new alien species at an Gill A.E., 1982. Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Int.
unexpectedly rapid rate. The rate of entrance of the new Geophys. Ser., Academic Press, 30, New York and
invaders is greater than the temperature rate itself, London, 662 pp
presenting an important warning for the future of Hewitt C.D. and D.J. Griggs, 2004. Ensembles Based
Mediterranean Sea biodiversity. This might have Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts. EOS,
profound consequences for marine biodiversity, (85), 566 pp.
restructuring the whole ecosystem with potential
Hoegh-Guldberg O. and J.F. Bruno, 2010. The impact of
consequences for ecosystem functioning and services.
climate change on the world's marine ecosystems.
From the preceding analysis, a number of research needs
Science, 328, pp. 1523-1528.
can be identified. These include the identification and
further analysis of historical data to describe past Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),
Mediterranean climate and ecosystem development, and 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
a better understanding of biogeochemical fluxes, food Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.
web dynamics and ecosystem functioning, including Lebeaupin C., Ducrocq V. and H. Giordani, 2006.
feedback mechanisms, under current predictions of Sensitivity of Mediterranean torrential rain events to the
climate change. Sea Surface Temperature based on high resolution
numerical forecasts. Journal of Geophysical Research,
111 (D12), 12110 10.1029/2005JD006541
REFERENCES Lejeusne C., P. Chevaldonn, C. Pergent-Martini, C.F.
Boudouresque and T. Prez, 2010. Climate change
Barnier B., Brodeau L. and T. Pendu, 2006. Ocean effects on a miniature ocean: the highly diverse, highly
surface forcing and surface fields. Mercator Ocean impacted Mediterranean Sea. Trends Ecol. Evol., 25, pp.
Quaterly Newsletter, pp. 4-7. 250-260.
Beniston Martin, 2004. The Climate System, In Climatic Levitus S., Antonov J. I. and T. P. Boyer, 2005.
Change and Its Impacts. Advances in Global Change Warming of the World Ocean, 19552003. Geophys.
Research, 19, pp. 27-52. Res. Lett., 32, L02604, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021592
Bergamasco A. and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, 2010. The Levitus S., Antonov J. I., Boyer T. P., Locarnini R. A.,
circulation of the Mediterranean Sea: a historical review Garcia H. E. and A.V. Mishonov, 2009. Global ocean
of experimental investigations. Advances in heat content 19552008 in light of recently revealed
Oceanography and Limnology, 1(1), pp. 11-28. instrumentation problems. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36,
Bthoux J. P. Gentili B, Morin P., Nicolas E., Pierre C. L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155
and D. Ruiz-Pino, 1999. The Mediterranean Sea: a Li L., 2006. Atmospheric GCM response to an idealized
miniature ocean for climatic and environmental studies anomaly of the Mediterranean Sea surface temperature.
and a key for the climatic functioning of the North Clim. Dyn., Doi: 10.1007/s00382-006-0152-6
Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography, 44, pp. 131-146.
Lionello P., 2012. The climate of the Mediterranean
Bryden H.L., Candela J., T. H. Kinder, 1994. Exchange region: From the past to the future. Elsevier Edit, 584 pp
through the strait of Gibraltar. Progress in
Oceanography, 33, pp. 20-248. Mariotti A. and A. DellAquila, 2011. Decadal climate
variability in the Mediterranean region: roles of large-
Castellari S, Pinardi N. and K. Leaman, 1998. A model scale forcing and regional processes. Clim Dyn., doi:
study of air-sea interactions in the Mediterranean Sea. 10.1007/s00382-011-1056-7
Journal of Marine Systems, (18), pp. 89-114.
Mariotti A., 2010. Recent changes in the Mediterranean
CIESM, 2002. Tracking long-term hydrological change water cycle: a pathway toward long-term regional
in the Mediterranean Sea, CIESM Workshop Series, 16, hydroclimatic change. Journal of Climate, 23, pp. 1513-
134 pp 1525.
Coll M., Piroddi C. and al., 2010. The biodiversity of the MEDAR Group 2002. MED-ATLAS 2002 database:
Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns and threats. PLoS Mediterranean and Black Sea database of temperature
ONE, 5 (8), e11842. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011842 salinity and biochemical parameters. Climatological

32
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1 , Issue; 01, pp. 24-33, December, 2016,

Atlas. IFREMER. general circulation models, their design and use for
Millot C. and F. Briand, 2002. Executive summary in climate studies. In The Global Climate, Cambridge
Tracking Long-Term Hydrological Change in the University Press, 211 pp
Mediterranean Sea. CIESM Workshop Series, 16, pp. 7- Skliris N., Sofianos S. and A. Lascaratos, 2007.
14. Hydrological changes in the Mediterranean Sea in
Millot C. and I. Taupier-Letage, 2005. Circulation in the relation to changes in the freshwater budget: a numerical
Mediterranean Sea. The Handbook of Environmental modelling study. J. Mar. Syst., 65, pp. 400-416.
Chemistry, K, doi: 10.1007/b107143, pp. 29-66. Solomon S., Qin D., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B.,
Millot C., Candela J, Fuda J. L. and Y. Tber, 2006. Tignor M. and H.L. Miller, 2007. Contribution of
Large warming and salinification of the Mediterranean Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of
outflow due to changes in its composition. Deep-Sea the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Res., 53 (4), pp. 656-666. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Pickard G. L. and W.J. Emery, 1964. Descriptive Somot S., Sevault F., Dqu M. and M. Crpon, 2008.
physical oceanography. Butterworth Heinemann, 21st century climate change scenario for the
Oxford. Mediterranean using a coupled atmosphere-ocean
regional climate model. Glob. Planet. Change, 63, pp.
Potter R. and S. Lozier, 2004. On the warming and 112-126.
salinification of the Mediterranean Outflow waters in the
North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01202, doi : Somot S., 2005. Modlisation climatique du bassin
10.1029/2003GL018161 mditerranen : Variabilit et scnarios de changement
climatique. Ph.D. thesis. Spec. Phys. du Clim., Univ.
Pusceddu A, Mea M, Gambi M, Bianchelli S, Canals M, Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France, 333 pp.
Sanchez-Vidal A et al., 2010. Ecosystem effects of
dense water formation on deep Mediterranean Sea Timplis M., Zervakis V., Josey S., Peneva E.L., Struglia
ecosystems: an overview. Advances in Oceanography M.V., Stanev E., Teocharis A., Lionello P., Malanotte
and Limnology, 6(1), pp. 67-83. Rizzoli P., Artale V, Tragou E. and T. Oguz, 2005.
Changes in the Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea
Romanou A., Tselioudis G., Zerefos C.S., Clayson C., and their Link to Climate Variability. Ed. Elsevier, pp.
Curry J.A. and A. Andersson, 2010. Evaporation- 226-281.
precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and the
Black Seas from satellite and reanalysis estimates. Timplis M., and H.L. Bryden, 2000. Estimation of the
Journal of Climate, 23, pp. 5268-5287. transport through the strait of Gibraltar. Deep Sea
Research, 47 (1), pp. 2219-2242.
Russo A., Rabitti S. and M. Bastianini, 2002. Decadal
climatic anomalies in the Northern Adriatic Sea inferred Woodruff S.D., Diaz H.F., Kent E.C., Reynolds R.W.
from a new oceanographic data set. PSZNI Mar. Ecol., and S.J. Worley, 2008. The evolving SST record from
23, pp. 340-351. ICOADS, in Climate Variability and Extremes during
the Past 100 Years. Advances in Global Change
Sanchez Gomez E, Somot S. and A. Mariotti, 2009. Research, 33, pp. 65-83.
Future changes in the Mediterranean water budget
projected by an ensemble of Regional Climate Models.
Geophys. Res. Lett.
Sanchez-Gomez E, Somot S and M. Dqu, 2008. Copyright International Journal of Engineering and
Ability of an ensemble of regional climate models to Geosciences (IJEG). All rights reserved, including the
reproduce weather regimes over Europe-Atlantic during making of copies unless permission is obtained from
the period 19612000. Clim. Dyn., 10, 1007/s00382- the copyright proprietors.
008-0502-7
Simmons A. J. and L. Bengtsson, 1984. Atmospheric

33
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 34-38,Decemberh, 2016, ISSN 2548-0960, Turkey,
DOI: Your DOI number

ACCURACY OF 3D (THREE-DIMENSIONAL) TERRAIN MODELS IN


SIMULATIONS

Yemenicioglu, C., 1* Kaya, S.,1 Seker, D.Z.,1

1Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Department of Geomatics Engineering, 34469, Istanbul,
Turkey (yolcucanan@gmail.com, kayasina@itu.edu.tr, seker@itu.edu.tr)

*Corresponding Author, Received: 05/06/2016, Accepted: 023/07/2016

ABSTRACT: The usage of realistic three-dimensional (3D) polygon terrain models with multiple levels of detail (LOD)
is becoming widespread in popular applications like computer games or simulations, as it offers many advantages. These
models, which represent an actual location in the world, are essential for the simulation-based training of military
vehicles like planes, helicopters or tanks. Because training scenarios on this kind of simulations are used to observe or to
hit a target on the modeled location. In addition to that, driving the behavior of terrestrial vehicles is influenced by the
terrain properties like slopes, ramps, hitches, etc. because of the direct interaction with the ground. For this reason, the
terrain models in the simulation scene should not only display the textures realistically, but also represent an accurate
morphology; meaning the terrain altitudes should be modeled as correct as possible. Such terrain representations can be
created by using Digital Terrain Model (DTM) for the geometry and satellite images for texturing. The geometry models
are in the form of polygonal meshes through the triangulation methods. However, the accuracy is influenced by some
parameters. Using insufficient (under-refined) triangles during the 3D modeling causes missing of some altitude vertices.
That means these points will not be present in the model. Consequently, it can be thought that the number of triangles
should be increased for a better geometrical fidelity. Nevertheless, it is not always correct as the usage of too much (over-
refined) triangles can also cause errors, especially in terrains with almost vertical faces (like cliffs). In addition to that, the
performance of the system deteriorates drastically through the increase in the number of triangles, as the computational
complexity is also getting higher.

Keywords: 3D, Accuracy, Simulation Model, Digital Terrain Model, Real Time Rendering

34
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 34-38,Decemberh, 2016,

1. INTRODUCTION
UTM projection coordinates have been selected for the
The convergence to the reality of 3D terrain models, outputs and WGS 84 ellipsoid has been taken as the
which could be created quickly with the help of satellite horizontal reference, therefore all data has been
images and DTMs, depends on not only the graphical converted to this system before utilizing.
quality but also the geometrical detail level of the
surface. The altitude information in the DTMS is used in The models have been created in three LODS. The
order to create triangular surface geometries during the number of the triangles for the LODs are given in
3D modeling with software tools (Smelik et al., 2009). Table1.
The terrain model can be produced with several sub-
models with different quality levels, which are called Table 1. Number of triangles for LODs
LODs (Level of Detail). The visual scene is switched
between these LODs to ease the representation of the
graphical environment (Pregasis, 2016a). There are Level of Detail
Triangle amount
different numbers of triangles in every LOD. The (LOD)
number and form of the triangles influence the surface Low (1) 121
structure, so the geometrical accuracy is affected by Middle (2) 527
them (Tariq, 2009). High (3) 7250
To display these influences, an example terrain from
Istanbul Bosporus area has been modeled as 3D using
three different level of details. In the study, ASTER
DTM with a 15m resolution for the altitude data and
Quickbird satellite images for surface texturing have
been used. Ground control points are selected for 3D
model and DTM data and the altitude differences are
measured in order to calculate Root Mean Squared
Error (RMSE) of 3D model LODs. The least error
measurement is gathered in the middle level of detail (2.
LOD). The interpretation of the error sources at every Figure 1. ASTER DTM data from the selected model
level has been provided at the conclusion. Presagis Terra surface and modeling process in Terra Vista software
Vista (Pregasis, 2016b), Creator (Pregasis, 2016a) and tool
Global Mapper (Blue Marble Geographics, 2016)
software tools have been used for the modeling and
analysis in this study.

In the study, realistic 3D terrain models with three LODs


in a simulation scene are examined and accuracy of
altitudes and root mean squared errors (RMSE) are
calculated for every detail level. After the examination
of the relationship between the triangle amount and
RMSE, it was seen that the lowest inaccuracy (best
representation) occurs in the intermediate detail level
(2.LOD). In conclusion, two methods are introduced to
determine the amount of the triangles. The first one is
the comparison of the altitudes with the real values after
the interpolation, which is the traditional way. The
second method is to compare the vertical areas between
the vertices instead of altitudes. In this study, software
tools, Presagis-Terra Vista for modeling applications Figure 2. Different perspective views of the resulting
and Global Mapper for GIS applications, are used. model.

11 ground control points, which are spread in different


positions on the 3D model, have been selected for the
2. METHODOLGY AND APPLICATION RMSE of the LODs Hata! Bavuru kayna
bulunamad.). They are chosen from the most and least
For the application, the modeling has been done with sloping positions to show the triangulation errors as a
ASTER DTM data in 15m resolution and texturing has result of the modelling.
been applied to the models from Quickbird satellite
images. The surface of the model between the
coordinates 41 9.43977' K - 41 10.87128' K and 29
5.22732' D - 29 6.29880' D has been examined for the
error analysis (Figure 1). The models have been
produced with Terra Vista software tool of Presagis
(Pregasis, 2016b) (Figure 2).

35
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 34-38,Decemberh, 2016,

Figure 4. Altitude values of ground control points in


LODs and DTM (lower right)

The RMSE results of the LODS in the model has been


Figure 3. The distribution of ground control points given in Table 2.Hata! Bavuru kayna bulunamad.
As seen in the table above, the least error has been
The measurements of the altitude for ground control gathered from the middle LOD (2.LOD). The error
points for each of the LODs in the model and their sources, which are different at every level, has been
corresponding points on the DTM has been shown in discussed in the next section.
Figure 4. Hata! Bavuru kayna bulunamad.

Table 2. RMSE results of the LODs in the 3D model

3D 3D 3D
3D 3D 3D Model Model Model
Model Model Model Source Aster Error 1 Error 2 Error 3
Ground control points
LOD2 LOD2 LOD3 DTM Z (m) LOD 1- LOD 2- LOD 3-
Z Z Z DTM DTM DTM
(m) (m) (m)
N1 109.13 53.64 53.64 66.28 42,85 -12,64 -12,64
N2 53.85 154.26 154.26 163.26 -109,41 -9 -9
N3 31.20 33.20 31.20 40.46 -9,26 -7,26 -9,26
N4 47.27 175.40 188.32 180.9 -133,63 -5,5 7,42
N5 19.10 155.10 166.31 163.505 -145 -8 3
N6 72.86 81.80 71.80 78.32 -5,46 3,48 -6,52
N7 164.84 160.52 166.85 168.77 -3,93 -8,25 -1,92
N8 150.99 132.00 128.00 134.62 16,37 -2,62 -6,62
N9 41.30 49.09 48.80 55.78 -14,48 -6,69 -6,98
N10 27.29 25.30 24.50 33.94 -6,65 -8,64 -9,44
N11 53.00 87.99 78.00 91.36 -38,36 -3,37 -13,36

54669,70 612,17 795,78


(Ln Dn) ^ 2
603 1125 6425

4969,97 72,34
55,65
(Ln Dn) ^2 /n 3275 422045
19205

RMSE
( ( (Ln-Dn) ^2 /n ) 70,5 (m) 7,5 (m) 8,5 (m)

from the corresponding points on the DTM during the


3. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS automatic triangulation. Other than that, the amount of
triangles influences the error amount as explained in the
Each of the error amounts can be associated with following.
different causes. Essentially, the vertical correctness in
the terrain models is related closely with the DTM 3.1. Under-refined triangles/polygons
resolution, because altitudes of vertices are gathered

36
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 34-38,Decemberh, 2016,

Under-refined triangles are one of the sources in the low


level of detail (1.LOD). Terrain projection algorithms,
which instantiate the data on the height map, encounters
this problem at most. The number of triangles/polygons
to model the terrain should be increased to gather better
quality, however, the vertex selections are defined in
similar height values. For example, if high-frequency
height maps (raster format DTM) are considered, the
difference of the altitudes for two adjacent points should
be calculated. It is not possible to obtain any quality
improvement when these points have the same height
value. However, there might be some points on the
surface which are not regarded (Blue Marble Figure 6. Division of the edge between v0 and v1 points
Geographics, 2016).
As the problem takes place on the meshes of a low-
The surface, which lays on the red line in the figure, resolution height map, the best solution is to abort the
cannot be represented on the terrain as the peak point optimization process as no new data can be gathered. In
represented by the bright white pixel was not taken into every loop of the calculation, the resolution of the
account, and the calculation assumes no height surface mesh is doubled, because the distance between
difference in the model. A pre-scanning on the height vertices is halved. When is the resolution of the height
map can be made to check the frequencies and mesh map and is the initial resolution of the mesh, the
resolution can be adjusted to decrease this kind of error. number of calculation loops can be found as;
It is also mostly enough to select the triangle vertices
carefully aware of this problem. Like if one of the
vertices was selected in the middle of the v0-v1 line in
. =

Figure 5, such problem would not occur. = (1)


= ( )

If the number of optimization loops is more than the n


number, the resolution of the mesh in the model is more
than the source resolution and it is not necessary to
continue with the optimization. However, it is not
always trivial to avoid over-refined triangulation.
Especially, this problem occurs on cliff-like sloping
terrain structures and other similar almost vertical faces.
Every vertex assignment on the edge should be done
considering the error increase. Considering the position
Figure 5. The surface between v0 and v1, which is not
function : " for the vertices on the global
regarded.
coordinates, the equation can be written for two vertex
3.2. Over-refined triangles/polygons points , and a constant height error :

Over-refined triangles are the reason of the error in the ( )+( ) +


high LOD (3.LOD). This error happens during the ( ) < (2)

elimination of extreme height differences in the DTM.
When optimization algorithm (automatic triangulation) If the assigned vertex point does not decrease the
try to divide an edge, the situation in takes place. convergence error more than value, it is not necessary
to make the assignment. But in a situation like in Figure
The optimization algorithm in the figure above tries to 7, it is not possible to correct assignment points with the
assign new vertices on the edge between v0-v1 points to interpolation. New vertices are created in every
improve the accuracy of the modeling for the height optimization loop as a result, which results in a
differences. In this example, the resolution of the height continuous execution without an end and distorted
map is relatively low, there is no new data to gather and surfaces correspondingly.
optimization process continues till the same height value
is gathered from the pixel on the height map (Figure 6).

Figure 7. Over-refined triangle error on keen vertical


faces

37
International Journal of Engineering and Geosciences (IJEG),
Vol; 1; , Issue; 01, pp. 34-38,Decemberh, 2016,

There are two ways to avoid such surface defections. height maps are also an essential factor. Further
The first solution is to measure the resulting area after researches might be useful to find out the influence of
the optimization instead of the height difference. In such elements.
Figure 7, the dashed surface shows area before and after
assignment of the vertex . Vertex assignment reduces REFERENCES
the area, so the error lessens. However, this method
increases the amount of calculations and affects the Blue Marble Geographics, 2016. Global Mapper TM,
projection performance drastically. http://www.bluemarblegeo.com/products/global-
mapper.php. (Accessed 30 April 2016).
If performance is significant for the application,
reducing the error constant and limiting the number of Presagis, 2016a. Creator 15,
optimization loops provide a good solution, as it is the http://www.presagis.com/products_services/products/mo
second way to reduce the error (Schmiade, 2008). deling-simulation/content_creation/creator/#features.
(Accessed 15 April 2016).
4. CONCLUSION
Presagis, 2016b. Overview,
The terrain models in simulation applications should http://www.presagis.com/products_services/products/mo
display the textures realistically, and represent accurate deling-simulation/visualization/vega_prime#overview.
morphology, as these properties are essential for user (Accessed 2016 April 5).
perception and success of the simulation training. The
realistic visualization of 3D terrain models, which are Schmiade, T., 2008. Adaptive GPU-based terrain
generated through satellite images and DTMs, is based rendering, U. o. Siegen, Ed., Master's Thesis Computer
on the graphical quality and the geometrical detail level Graphics Group.
of the surface (LOD). There are different numbers of
triangles in every LOD. Smelik R. M., De Kraker, K. J., Tutenel, T., Bidarra R.
and S. A. Groenewegen, S.A., 2009. A survey of
A terrain model from the coordinates 41 9.43977' K - procedural methods for terrain modelling, Proceedings
41 10.87128' K and 29 5.22732' D - 29 6.29880' D of the CASA Workshop on 3D Advanced Media In
has been examined to analyze the effect of LOD to the Gaming And Simulation (3AMIGAS).
accuracy. The RMSE results of the LODS in the model
have shown that the best results have been gathered Tariq, S., 2009. D3D11 tessellation, in Game
from the 2. LOD (medium quality). There are two Developers Conference. Session: Advanced Visual
causes for that. The rough modelling has the problem of Effects with Direct3D for PC.
under-refined triangulation, and the fine modelling is
affected by the phenomena of the over-refined
triangulation. These effects should be taken into Copyright International Journal of Engineering and
consideration for successful modelling.
Geosciences (IJEG). All rights reserved, including the
making of copies unless permission is obtained from
This paper has primarily researched the triangulation-
related issues affecting the quality of the terrain models. the copyright proprietors.
It should be forgotten that that is not the only parameter
for the realistic representation. For example, source

38