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10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Embodied Energy per Stiffness 40 Dr. DENİZ
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Embodied Energy per Stiffness
40
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The Purpose Of The Aggregates • Large
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The Purpose Of The
Aggregates
• Large aggregates:
– provide density (fill space)
– provide strength
• Fine aggregates:
– fill small voids between large
aggregates
– Increases strength of the
cement binder
41
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Hydration • Portland cement becomes cementitious
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Hydration
• Portland cement becomes cementitious when
mixed with water
• This reaction is referred to as hydration.
• During hydration, a crystalline structure grows
to form bonds
• Hydration begins as soon as water meets
cement
• Rate of hydration increases with increased
cement fineness
42
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT In Fact……. • Concrete does not gain
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
In Fact…….
• Concrete does not gain strength by
“drying out”
• Concrete must have continuous free
access to water to achieve its ultimate
strength!!
43
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 44 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
44
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 2013 Savar building collapse On 24 April
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
2013 Savar building collapse
On 24 April 2013, an eight-story commercial building,
Rana Plaza, collapsed in Savar, a sub-district in the
Greater Dhaka Area, the capital of Bangladesh.
The search for the dead ended on 13 May with
the death toll of 1,127. Approximately 2,500
injured people were rescued from the building
alive.
It is considered to be the deadliest garment-factory
accident in history, as well as the deadliest
accidental structural failure in modern human
history.
The building contained clothing factories, a bank,
apartments, and several other shops. The shops
and the bank on the lower floors immediately
closed after cracks were discovered in the
building.Warnings to avoid using the building after
cracks appeared the day before had been ignored.
Garment workers were ordered to return the
following day and the building collapsed during the
morning rush-hour.
45
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 46 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
46
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Improperly consolidated Concrete 47 Dr. DENİZ
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Improperly consolidated Concrete
47
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 48 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
48
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 49 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
49
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 50 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
50
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 51 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
51
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 52 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
52
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 53 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
53
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 54 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
54
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 55 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
55
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 56 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
56
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 57 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
57
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 58 Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY – YILDIZ TECHNICAL
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
58
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Concrete Curing  Must be kept Moist
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Concrete Curing
 Must be kept Moist
 Moisture Needed for:
Hydration
(Development of Strength)
59
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Slump Test **Concrete sample is placed into
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Slump Test
**Concrete sample is placed into a 12”
sheet metal cone using 3 equal volumes.
**Each layer is tamped 25 times with a
bullet-nosed 5/8” by 24” rod.
**Last layer is leveled off with the top of the
cone.
**Cone is removed
**The vertical distance from the top of the
metal cone to the concrete is measured
60
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Compressive Strength Test  Comply with ASTM
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Compressive Strength Test
 Comply with ASTM C39
 Basic steps:
 # of samples taken vary (no less than 3)
 3 layers of concrete placed in a cardboard
cylinder 6” in diameter and 12” high.
 Each layer is rodded 25 times with a 5/8”
steel rod
 Samples are cured under controlled
conditions
 Test ages vary but usually done after 7, 14,
and 28 days
 Sample removed from cardboard and placed
in testing apparatus which exerts force by
compressing the sample until it fails (breaks)
61
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Slump test Özellikle bina sektöründe beton
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Slump test
Özellikle bina sektöründe beton işçiliğinde bilinç ve eğitim düzeyi düşük
olduğundan taşı ma, yerleştirme ve mastarlama işlemlerinin kolaylı ğ ı aç ı sı ndan 18
- 22 cm çökmeli, çok ak ı c ı k ı vaml ı beton kullanma, bu amaçla da şantiyede hazı r
betona su verme eğilimi çok yüksektir. Bu eğilimin mukavemet düşürücü zararl ı
sonucunu yok etmek için Türkiye Haz ı r Beton Birliği Yönetim Kurulu bir karar
alarak üyelerine şantiye teslimi beton kı vam ı nı K4 düzeyinde (çökme >19 cm)
tutmaları nı tavsiye etmiş, bunu yaparken su/çimento oranı na (dolay ı sı yla
mukavemete) dikkatlerini çekmeyi de ihmal etmemiştir. Bu konuda bilgilenen ve
bilinçlenen müşteriler K4 k ı vaml ı beton sipariş vermektedir.
K ıvam Sın ıfı
Çökme (mm)
K1
K2
K3
K4
0 < çökme<50
50 < çökme<100
100 < çökme<160
160 < çökme<220
K5
220 < çökme
Tablo 2. Birim ağ ı rl ı klarına göre betonlar ı n s ı nı fland ı r ı lmas ı
Beton Sı nı f ı
Kıvam
Çökme (Slump) (cm)
K1
KURU
0≤çökme<5
K2
PLASTİK
5≤çökme<10
K3
AKICI
10≤çökme<16
K4
ÇOK AKICI
16≤çökme<22
K5
YAYILAN
22≤çökme
62
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Tablo 3. Karakteristlik Bası nç Dayan ı
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Tablo
3.
Karakteristlik
Bası nç
Dayan ı mları na
göre
betonları n
s ı nı fland ı r ı lmas ı
Beton
Karakteristlik Silindir Bası nç
Karakteristlik Küp Bası nç
S
ı n ıf ı
Dayan ı mı (N/mm 2 )
Dayan ım ı (N/mm 2 )
C14
14
16
C16
16
20
C18
18
22
C20
20
25
C25
25
30
C30
30
37
C35
35
45
C40
40
50
C45
45
55
C50
50
60
C55
55
67
C60
60
75
C70
70
85
C80
80
95
C90
90
105
C100
100
115
63
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Materials Used to Make Concrete  Portland
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Materials Used to Make
Concrete
 Portland Cement – 5 types
 Should conform to ASTM C150
 Type 1 – standard; widely used; columns, floor slabs,
beams
 Type 2 – has a lower heat of hydration; used in massive
pours; e.g. Dam construction
 Type 3 – high early strength; suitable for cold weather
 Type 4 – termed low heat; used in massive pours to
diminish cracking
 Type 5 – sulfate resistant; used in sewage treatment plants
& concrete drainage structures
64
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Air-Entraining Portland Cement  Produces
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Air-Entraining Portland
Cement
 Produces billions of tiny bubbles
 Greatly reduce segregation of mix
 Less water needed to produce a
“workable” mix
 Has a better resistance to freezing
and thawing
 Classified as Type 1A, 2A, 3A
65
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Aggregate  2 classes  Fine –
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Aggregate
 2 classes
 Fine – sand; < 1/4 “ large
 Coarse – gravel or crushed stone
 Grading should conform to ASTM C33
 Sieve analysis test (ASTM C136) and
analyses for organic impurities (ASTM
C40) often done
 Represent 60-80% of the concrete
volume
66
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 5 Aggregate Types  Natural – sand
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
5 Aggregate Types
 Natural – sand and gravel
 By-Product – blast-furnace slag or
cinders
 Lightweight – materials heated and
forced to expand by the gas in them
 Vermiculite – a type of mica that will
greatly expand
 Perlite – a type of volcanic rock which
expands
67
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The Critical Role of Water in Mix
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
The Critical Role of Water
in Mix
 Hydration – chemical reaction caused by
mixing the water with cement
 Too much – prevents proper setting
 Laitance (bleeding) – white scum or light
streaks on the surface of concrete which
are very susceptible to failure
 Too little – prevents complete “chemical
reaction” from occurring
68
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Proportioning of Mix  1: 2: 4
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Proportioning of Mix
 1: 2: 4 – concrete consisting of :
 1 volume of cement
 2 volumes of fine aggregate
 4 volumes of coarse aggregate
 Emphasis now on “Water-Cement”
ratio methods of proportioning
69
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Admixtures  Materials added into the standard
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Admixtures
 Materials added into the standard
concrete mixture for the purpose of
controlling, modifying, or impacting
some particular property of the
concrete mix.
 Properties affected may include:
 Retarding or accelerating the time
of set
 Accelerating of early strength
70
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Transporting Concrete  Method selected depends
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Transporting Concrete
 Method selected depends on
quantity, job layout, and equipment
available
 Chutes
 Wheelbarrows/Buggies
 Buckets
 Pneumatically forcing through a
hose (shotcrete)
 Pumps
71
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Placing Concrete  Temperature  Optimum
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Placing Concrete
 Temperature
 Optimum temperature for curing is 75 degrees F; may
have problems curing if temperature below 50 degrees F. If
temperature is lower or higher than normal curing ranges
special provisions must be made.
 Forms
 Wood and metal commonly used (reused)
 Clean and sufficiently braced to withstand the forces of the
concrete being placed
 Concrete weighs 135 – 160 pcf; if lightweight then 85 – 115
pcf; often in estimating the figure 150 pcf is used
72
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Construction and the Environment In the United
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Construction and the Environment
In the United States, buildings account for:
36% of total energy use
(65% of electricity consumption)
30% of greenhouse gas emissions
30% of raw materials use
30% of waste output (136 million tons/year)
12% of potable water consumption
-US Green Building Council (2001)
73
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Structural Steel - Characteristics Elasticity:
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Structural Steel - Characteristics
Elasticity:
Ability of metal to return to its original shape after loading and
subsequent unloading
Fatigue:
Cycling loading and unloading stresses material above its endurance
limit and leads to failure
Ductility:
Deformation without fracture beyond the elastic limit (ineleastic
behavior)
High Ductility
Toughness: Combination of strength and ductility - High toughness
Maintenance:
Susceptible to Corrosion when exposed to air and water
Use paints, or weathering steels
Fireproofing:
Strength reduces with increased temperature -
required
Fireproofing
74
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Elastic Limit: Transition from elastic to
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Elastic Limit:
Transition from elastic to inelastic
behavior
Yield Point:
Stress Fy at the elastic limit
Elastic Modulus:
Slope of elastic part of curve
E~29,000 ksi (200,000 Mpa)
75
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete 76 Dr. DENİZ
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete
76
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Reinforced Concrete Corrosion 77 Dr. DENİZ
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Reinforced Concrete Corrosion
77
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Corrosion of RC  In the United
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Corrosion of RC
 In the United States, the overall costs of
reinforcing steel corrosion have been
estimated at more than $150 billion per year.
 A particular problem for highway bridges
due to de-icing salts
78
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Corrosion Prevention of RC  Simplest method:
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Corrosion Prevention of RC
 Simplest method: Maintain concrete in
compression and provide greater cover of
concrete over rebar
 More complicated and more expensive:
- Protect steel (with epoxy coating) or by using
stainless steel rebar
- Use non-metallic reinforcing, such as carbon or
kevlar, but these materials are expensive and
energy-intensive
79
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT DONATININ RİSKLERİ Korozyon önlemek için:
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
DONATININ RİSKLERİ
Korozyon önlemek için:
•Kalın paspayı
•Çelik koruma: epoksi kaplama veya paslanmaz çelik kullanımı
•Özel donatı kullanımı (karbon esaslı, pahalı ama kalıcı bir çözüm)
*Asıl önemli olan tasarım aşamasından başlayarak yapıya gelen suyu izole
etmektir (yer altı suyu, yağmur suyu ve tesisatlardan sızan sular). Böylece
beton ve çeliğin dolayısı ile yapının ömrü uzamış olur.
80
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MALZEME KATSAYILARI: • Uygulamada ortaya çıkan
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MALZEME KATSAYILARI:
• Uygulamada ortaya çıkan belirsizliklerden dolayı hesaplamalarda malzeme
dayanımı olarak kullanılan dayanımlar belli parametrelere bölünerek
karakteristik dayanımlardan daha düşük değerler dikkate alınır.
Karakteristik dayanımların bölündüğü katsay ılara emniyet katsayıları denir.
Belirsizlikler ne kadar fazlaysa emniyet katsayıları o kadar fazladır.
f, Gerilme
• TS500’e göre hesap dayan ımları aşağ ıdaki şekilde bulunur.
fu
• fcd=fck/mc
fctd=fctk/mc
fyd=fyk/ms
fyd
• mc=1.5 (Yerinde dökme beton)
mc=1.4 (Prefabrike beton)
• mc=1.7 (Şantiyede hazı rlanan beton ) ms=1.15 (Çelik çubuk için)
fck: Betonun karakteristik bas ınç dayanımı (characteristic compressive strength of concrete)
fctk:Betonun karakteristik çekme dayanımı (characteristic tensile strength of concrete)
fyk:Çeliin karakteristik akma dayanımı (characteristic yield strength of reinforcement steel)
fcd:Betonun hesap basınç dayanımı (design compressive strength of concrete)
fctd:Betonun hesap çekme dayanımı (design tensile strength of concrete)
fyd:Çeliin hesap akma dayanımı (design yield strength of reinforcement steel)
, Şekil
Değiştirm
akma
kopma
Hesap
BÇ I
BÇ III
BÇ IV
Akma
S220
S420
S500
Gerilmesi
Hesap Dayan ım ı
(MPa)
C14
C16
C20
C25
C30
C35
C40
C45
C50
(MPa)
50 fyk
220
420
500
fck
14
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
33 fyd
191
365
435
fcd
9.5
11
13
17
20
23
27
30
fctd
0.85
0.90
1.0
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.45
1.55
1.65
81
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY

10/3/2014

FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Structural Steel - Properties Elastic Limit:
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Structural Steel - Properties
Elastic Limit:
Transition from elastic to inelastic
behavior
Yield Point:
Stress Fy at the elastic limit
Elastic Modulus:
Slope of elastic part of curve
E~29,000 ksi (200,000 Mpa)
82
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Structural Steel - Properties Residual Strain:
FATIH UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Structural Steel - Properties
Residual Strain:
Permanent deformation after
unloading
83
Dr. DENİZ GÜNEY
– YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY - ISTANBUL - TURKEY