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Major Personality Theorist Theory Theory Personality

Application
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic Theory Freud would say that I am too
personality is formed through kind in many unkind
conflicts among 3 situations because I have a
fundamental structures of the strong superego
human mind: the id, ego, and
superego
Carl Jung Collective Jung would say that I often
Unconscious/Archetype refer to the big bad wolf to
ancient memory traces and describe bad people because
symbols that are passed on by it is part of our collective
birth and are shared by all unconsciousness.
peoples in all cultures.
Alfred Adler Superiority v. Inferiority/ Adler would say that I do not
Inferiority Complex - humans have the inferiority complex
are motivated by social urges because I know my strengths
and that each person is a and weaknesses, and do not
social being with a unique cower or feel inferior to those
personality. Adler suggested better/higher than me, but
that we are aware of our rather be inspired and strive
motives and goals and have to be better!
the capacity to guide and plan
our futures..
Karen Horney 3 Ways to relate Moving Horney would say that I
towards, against, or away would relate moving towards
from; Womb envy Men are my family and friends
jealous of women because because I love them
they cannot give birth
Nancy Chodorow The male and female id; Chodorow would say that I
children are born bisexual want a man like my father
and that a mother is a child's because he was technically
first sexual object; Male my first love.
children identify with their
fathers and detach from their
mothers, while female
children often struggle more
to form an independent
identity. They tend to struggle
with their eroticized love for
the father and their alignment
with the mother.
Carl Rogers/Abraham Maslow believed in the Rogers and Maslow would
Maslow hierarchy of needs (that we say that I have good
all seek self-actualization personality because I have a
which comes forth after all good self concept
needs are met) It goes:
physiological, safety, love
and belonging, esteem, self-
actualization. Carl Rogers
believed in unconditional
personal regard; total
acceptance, people can help
nurture human growth, also
by being empathetic. They
both believed that self-
concept, which is all our
thoughts/feelings about
ourselves, is a feature of
personality
William Sheldon He said that peoples body Sheldon would say that I am
types were related to their quiet of fragile because I am
personality. He split these off more skinny than anything
into what he calls somatypes: else.
endomorph - a large bone
structure tends to have an
outgoing and more relaxed
personality, mesomorph - a
more muscular body-typed
person is more active and
aggressive, ectomorph - A
slim or scrawny person with
thin muscles is usually
characterized as quiet or
fragile
Gordon Allport/Raymond They believed in the trait Allport would say that I have
Cattell theory: Emphasizes a good personality because
measuring and identifying my cardinal traits include,
differences among giving back, helping people,
personalities. Allport staying organized, etc., also
concluded to describe because my central traits are
personality in terms of loyalty, kindness, honesty,
fundamental traits - a etc., and because my
characteristic pattern of secondary traits may include
behavior or a disposition to going off on people who do
feel and act, as assessed by the wrong thing to me or my
self-report inventories and loved ones.
peer reports. He split all these
personality traits into three
groups: Cardinal traits a
persons ruling passions,
Central traits basic building
blocks that shape most of our
personality, Secondary traits
explains why someone may
exhibit behaviors that are
incongruent with their usual
behavior.
Costa &McCrae Said that personality is Costa and McCrae would say
organized into only 5 basic that on the higher end of
factors: Agreeableness - Soft- agreeableness because I am
hearted versus ruthless soft-hearted, trusting, and
Trusting versus suspicious helpful. They would also say
Helpful versus uncooperative, that I am on the higher end of
conscientiousness - conscientiousness because I
Organized versus am organized, careful, and
disorganized disciplined, and on the higher
Careful versus careless end of openness, extraversion
Disciplined versus impulsive, and neuroticism because I am
openness - Imaginative imaginative, have a
versus practical preference for variety,
Preference for variety versus independent, sociable, fun-
preference for routine loving, affectionate, secure,
Independent versus and self-satisfied.
conforming
Extraversion - Sociable
versus retiring
Fun-loving versus sober
Affectionate versus reserved
Neuroticism - Calm versus
anxious
Secure versus insecure
Self-satisfied versus self-
pitying
Eyesneck and Eyesneck 2 primary, genetically Eyesneck and Eyesneck
influenced dimensions would say that I have an
will explain normal extravert personality because
individual variations: I can be loud and I am very
extraversion- outgoing. They would also
introversion and say that I am neurotic
emotional stability- because I am very emotional.
instability. Extraverts are
commonly known as being
loud and outgoing while
introverts are often thought of
as quiet and reserved. The
emotional stability vs.
neuroticism scale explores
qualities like impulse control
and predictability of emotions
with traits like anxiety,
nervousness, and reactivity,
also known as neuroticism.
People who demonstrate
emotional stability are calm
and relaxed. People who are
neurotic experience emotions
intensely and are excitable.

Julian Rotter Rotter believed that Rotter would say that I have
personality represents an an external locus of control
interaction of the individual because I believe God is
with his or her environment; watching over me and that
Internal locus of control my life is in hands. He is
believing that one controls determining my future and
their own fate and destiny. everything that is me.
External locus of control
believing that outside forces
and the randomness of chance
determine your destiny and
fate.
Albert Bandura Said we are not only driven Bandura would say that I am
by inner forces and the friendly, respectful and kind
environment, but also because of the interactions I
expectations about how those have had with my
actions will affect other environment and the people
people, the environment and around me. I know how I
ourselves. This theory is expect people to treat me so I
called reciprocal determinism treat people that same way,
- behavior as influenced by causing their actions towards
the interactions between me to be good.
persons and their social
context.
B.F. Skinner Skinner said that personality Skinner would say that I act
changes according to your differently around different
environment. groups of friends or family
members because they are all
in different enviroments