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The Principles

of Design
Learn how to create and introduce graphic designs in terms
of graphic design principles.
For feedback, communications or questions feel free to contact via

Abanoub M. Nassief
Alexandria, Egypt

E-mail: abanoubcs@gmail.com
LinkedIn: http://eg.linkedin.com/in/abanoubmelad/
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EngineeroBono
Elements
of Design
Elements Of Design Definition

The elements of design are the things


that make up a design.

1) Line 4) Size
2) Shape 5) Texture
3) Direction 6) Color
Elements Of Design - Line

Line
The linear marks made with a pen or brush
or the edge created when two shapes
meet.
Elements Of Design - Shape

Shape
A shape is a self contained defined area ex.
Squares, circles, free formed shapes or
natural shapes.
Elements Of Design - Shape

Shape
A positive shape automatically creates a negative
shape.
Elements Of Design - Shape

Shape
A positive shape automatically creates a negative
shape.
Elements Of Design - Shape

Shape
A positive shape automatically creates a negative
shape.
Elements Of Design - Shape

Shape
A positive shape automatically creates a negative
shape.
Elements Of Design - Direction

Direction
All lines have direction Horizontal, Vertical
or Oblique.
Horizontal suggests calmness, stability and
tranquility.
Vertical gives a feeling of balance, formality
and alertness.
Oblique suggests movement and action
Elements Of Design - Size

Size
Size is simply the relationship of the area
occupied by one shape to that of another.
Elements Of Design - Texture

Texture
Texture is the surface quality of a shape -
rough, smooth, soft hard glossy etc.
Elements Of Design - Color

Color
Color is light reflected off objects.
Color has three main characteristics:
hue or its name (red, green, blue, etc.)
value (how light or dark it is)
intensity (how bright or dull it is).
Principles
of Design
Principles Of Design Definition

The Principles of design are what we do


to design elements. How we apply the
principles of design determines how
successful the design is.

1) Balance 4) Repetition
2) Proximity 5) Contrast
3) Alignment 6) Space
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance
Balance in design is similar to balance in
physics. A large shape close to the center
can be balanced by a small shape close to
the edge.
Balance provides stability and structure to
a design.
Its the weight distributed in the design by
the placement of your elements.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance

Is the design
balanced ?
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance

Balance in graphic
design can be
achieved by
adjusting the visual
weight of each
element, in terms
of scale, color,
contrast, etc.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance

balance in
graphic design
can be divided
to two types.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance - Symmetrical balance

occurs when the visual weight of design elements


evenly divided in terms of horizontal, vertical, or
radial. This style relies on a balance of two similar
elements from two different sides.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance - Symmetrical balance


Principles Of Design Balance

Balance - Asymmetrical balance


occurs when the visual weight of design elements
are not evenly distributed in the central axis of the
page.
This style relies on visual games such as scale,
contrast, color to achieve a balance.
We often see a design with the big picture offset by
the small but visible text balanced because of the
visual games.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance - Asymmetrical balance


Principles Of Design Balance

Balance before & after


Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by value

occurs when a small area with


bright/high value colors is
combined with a large area
with a dark/low value color.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by value

a man and a dog that has a high value (solid black)


with a broad area that has a lower value (gray).
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by shape

Created through field of


complex composition
with a flat field.
Complex/more detailed
field will appear in
balance with the flat area
in the opposite side.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by texture

Small area with an interesting


texture looks balanced when
combined with a large flat
area (no texture).

Rippling water has a water


texture which attracts the
focus, appears balanced with
a wider area but not textured.
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Proximity creates relationship between
elements.
It provides a focal point.
Proximity doesnt mean that elements
have to be placed together, it means they
should be visually connected in someway.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by position

another example of Asymmetric balance, where a


large object on one side balanced by putting the
smaller objects on the other side.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by position
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by eye direction

help guide the eye and mind movement of the viewer.


They can also bind the work into a single entity.
Principles Of Design Balance

Balance by eye direction

Can also occur when we lead


the reader's eyes to the main
content.
The objects are used as "tools"
to guide the reader's eyes
composed with a larger area,
while the main content
displayed in a smaller area.
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Proximity

Proximity
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Allows us to create order and
organization.
Aligning elements allows them to
create a visual connection with each
other.
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Alignment

Alignment
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Repetition strengthens a design by
tying together individual elements.
It helps to create association and
consistency.
Repetition can create rhythm (a
feeling of organized movement).
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Repetition

Repetition
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast
Contrast is the juxtaposition of opposing
elements (opposite colors on the color
wheel, or value light / dark, or direction -
horizontal / vertical).
Contrast allows us to emphasize or
highlight key elements in your design.
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast
Simply contrast tells the viewer where to look first
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast
Some types of contrast to keep in mind are the
relative darkness (called value in color theory),
weight, form, placement, quantity, texture, and
scale.
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in size
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in value
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in quantity
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in weight
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in placement
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast in texture
Principles Of Design Contrast

Contrast
Without contrast, a designed piece may appear
static, uninteresting, and hard for the reader to
access because it is not immediately clear what to
look at first.
Principles Of Design Contrast

Space
Space in artrefers to the distance or area
between, around, above, below, or within
elements.
Bothpositive and negative spaceare
important factors to be considered in every
design.
Principles Of Design Space

Space
Principles Of Design Space

Space
Principles Of Design Space

Space
Principles Of Design Space

Space
Thank You