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A Technical Seminar Report

On

SATELLITE RADIO
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Academic requirements for the award
of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology

in

Electronics & Communication Engineering


Submitted by

SURAPUREDDY MADHU (13W91A04G0)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION


ENGINEERING

Malla Reddy Institute of Engineering &


Technology
(Sponsored by Malla Reddy Educational Society)
An ISO 9001-2015 Certified institution and Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad
Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (post via Hakim pet), SecBad-500 014.
Phone: 040-65969674, Cell: 9348161223
(NBA Accredited)
2016-17
Malla Reddy Institute of Engineering &
Technology
(Sponsored by Malla Reddy Educational Society)
An ISO 9001-2015 Certified institution and Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad
Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (post via Hakim pet), SecBad-500 014.
Phone: 040-65969674, Cell: 9348161223
(NBA Accredited)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION


ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Technical Seminar report entitled SATELLITE
RADIO is a bonafide work done by SURAPUREDDY MADHU
(13H51A04G0) of IV B.Tech ECE, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics &
Communication Engineering, submitted to the Department of Electronics &
Communication Engineering, Mallareddy Institute of Engineering & Technology,
Hyderabad during the Academic Year 2016-17.

Mr.R.RAJA KISHORE
&
Mr.U SRAVAN KUMAR
Dr.RAJESHA.N
Assistant Professor (HOD,department of ECE)
(Coordinator)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very much thankful to Dr. K.E BALACHANDRUDU, Principal


MRIET for his support in the course of this work.

I am very much thankful to Dr. RAJESHA N, PhD. Professor and Head of


department, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, MRIET
for his constant encouragement and moral support.

I would like to thank our technical seminar coordinators


Mr.RAJAKISHORE & Mr. SRAVAN KUMAR, Assistant Professor of Electronics
and Communication Engineering, for his constant encouragement and moral
support. They has been a source of valuable guidance, suggestions and kindness
during the period of technical seminar.

Finally I would like to thank all teaching & non- teaching staff members of
the department, for their cooperation and support throughout the duration of our
course.

I own all our success to our beloved parents, whose vision, love and
inspiration has made us to reach out for these glories.

SURAPUREDDY MADHU

(13W91A04G0)
ABSTRACT

Satellites are one of the greatest achievements of mankind. They have been
used for various applications like communication, military application, weather
forecasting and so on. They play a big role in the case of television channels and
other entertainment networks. One of the latest applications of satellites is the
satellite radio.

Satellite radio is a subscriber based radio service that broadcast directly


from satellites. It is an advanced form of mobile radio service where one can
receive compact disc quality music and other entertainment channels. Even if the
person is miles away from the radio station, the quality of the program is not
affected. The paper deals with the basic structure of the satellite radio and its
transmission and reception procedures.
CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1

2. BASIC COMPONENTS OF SATELLITE RADIO 3


2.1. SATELLITES 4
2.11 XM Satellite radio 4
2.12 Sirius Satellite radio 5
2.13 World space Satellite radio 6
2.2. GROUND REPEATERS 8
2.3. RADIO RECEIVETRS 9

3 TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION 12


3.1 Generation of DAB signal 13
3.2 Reception of DAB signal 14
3.3 Frequency of operation 15
3.4 Multipath interference 15

4 SATELLITE RADIO VS. OTHER FORMATS 16

5 ADVANTAGES OVER ANALOG RADIO 19

6 CONCLUSION 20

7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 21
SATELLITE RADIO 1

1. INTRODUCTION

We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car radios,
flipping between them as we drive to and from work, on errands and around town.
But when travel too far away from the source station, the signal breaks up and fades
into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30 or 40 miles from their source.
On long trips that find you passing through different cities, you might have to change
radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in and out.

Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than
22,000 miles (35,000 kill) away and then come through on your car radio with
complete clarity without ever having to change the radio station.

Satellite Radio or Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS) is a subscriber based


radio service that is broadcast directly from satellites. Subscribers will be able to
receive up to100 radio channels featuring Compact Disk digital quality music, news,
weather, sports. talk radio and other entertainment channels.

Satellite radio is an idea nearly 10 years in the making. In 1992, the U.S.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the "S" band
(2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of satellite-based Digital Audio Radio Service
(DARS).. In 1997. the FCC awarded 8-year radio broadcast licenses to two
companies, Sirius Satellite Radio former (CD Radio) and XM Satellite Radio (former
American Mobile Radio). Both companies have been working aggressively to be
prepared to offer their radio services to the public by the end of 2000. It is expected
that automotive radios would be the largest application of Satellite Radio.
SATELLITE RADIO 2

The satellite era began in September 2001 when XM launched in selected


markets. followed by full nationwide service in November. Sirius lagged slightly,
with a gradual rollout beginning _n February, including a quiet launch in the Bay
Area on June 15. The nationwide launch comes July 1.

To the average user, these systems will look very similar to conventional
AM/FM .radio systems, whether they are used in the home, office, or on the road.
However. the real difference is in what the listener won't see. Rather than receiving a
signal from a tower antenna of a local radio station, these new radios will receive
signals from a set of satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Programming will be up
linked from ground stations to the satellites and then broadcast back to large
geographic areas.

The programming will be up linked to the three geostationary orbit satellites


and then rebroadcast directly to radios in the vehicles of CD Radio subscribers.
Ground based repeaters will be used in urban areas to provide a clear and
uninterrupted radio signal.

Fig. 1 The satellite station


SATELLITE RADIO 3

2. BASIC COMPONENTS OF SATELLITE RADIO

Each company has a different plan for its broadcasting system, but the systems
do share similarities. Here are the key components of the three satellite radio systems:

SATELLITES
GROUND REPEATERS
RADIO RECEIVERS

At this time, there are three space-based radio broadcasters in various stages of
development:

XM Satellite Radio launched commercial service in limited areas of the United


States on September 25, 2001. (They were originally going to launch service
September 12. but postponed the event because of the terrorist attacks on the United
States.)

Sirius Satellite Radio is now operational in the United States, with its official
launch on July I, 2002.

WorldSpace is already broadcasting in Africa and Asia, and will begin


broadcasting in South America sometime soon.

XM Satellite radio and Sirius Satellite Radio have both launched such a
service. Satellite radio, also called digital radio, offers' uninterrupted, near CD-quality
music beamed to the radio from space.
SATELLITE RADIO 4

Taking a closer look, you will see slight variances in the three satellite radio
companies' systems. In the next three sections, we will profile each of the companies
offering satellite radio services.

2.1 SATELLITES

2.1.1 XM SATELLITE RADIO

XM Radio uses two Boeing HS 702 satellites, appropriately dubbed "Rock"


and "Roll," placed in parallel geostationary orbit, one at 85 degrees west longitude
and the other at 115 degrees west longitude. Geostationary Earth orbit (GED) is about
22.223 miles (35,764 km) above Earth, and is the type of orbit most commonly used
for communications satellites. The first XM satellite, "Rock," was launched on March
18.2001, with "Roll" following on May 8. XM Radio has a third HS-702 satellite on
the ground ready to be launched in case one of the two orbiting satellites fails.

XM Radio's ground station transmits a signal to its two GED satellites. Which
bounce the signals back down to radio receiver son the ground. and the downlink will
be in the 2.33-2.34 GHz frequency range. A spare satellite will be kept on the ground
for emergencies. The radio receivers are programmed to receive and unscramble the
digital data signal, which contains up to 100 channels of digital audio. In addition to
the encoded sound, the signal contains additional information about the broadcast.
The song title, artist and genre of music are all displayed on the radio. In urban areas,
where buildings can block out the satellite signal, ground transmitters supplement
XM's broadcasting system.
SATELLITE RADIO 5
2.1.2 SIRIUS SATELLITE RADIO

Unlike XM, Sirius does not use OED satellites. Instead, its three SS/L-1300
satellites form an inclined elliptical satellite constellation. Sirius says the elliptical
path of its satellite constellation ensures that each satellite spends about 16 hours a
day over the continental United States , with at least one satellite over the country at
all times. Sirius completed its three-satellite constellation on November 30, 2000. A
fourth satellite will remain on the ground, ready to be launched if any of the three
active satellites encounter transmission problems.

The Sirius system is similar to that of XM. Programs are beamed to one of the
three Sirius satellites, which then transmit the signal to the ground where the radio
receiver picks up one of the channels within the signal. Signals are also be beamed to
ground repeaters for listeners in urban areas where the satellite signal-can be
interrupted.

While XM offers both car and portable radios, Sirius is concentrating on the
car radio market. The Sirius receiver includes two parts -- the antenna module and the
receiver module. The antenna module picks up signals from the ground repeaters or
the satellite. Amplifies the signal and filters out any interference. The signal is then
passed on to the receiver module. Inside the receiver module is a chipset consisting of
eight chips. The chip set converts the signals from 2.3 gigahertz (GHz) to a lower
intermediate frequency. Sirius also offers an adapter that allows conventional car
radios to receive satellite signals.
SATELLITE RADIO 6

2.1.3 WORLDSPACE

So far, WorldSpace has been the leader in the satellite radio industry. It put
two or its three satellites, AfriStar and AsiaStar, in geostationary orbit before either of
the other two companies launched one. AfriStar and AsiaStar were launched in
October 1998 and March 2000, respectively. AmeriStar, which will offer service to
South America and parts of Mexico, is not yet scheduled for launch. Each satellite
transmits three signal beams carrying more than 40 channels of programming, to three
overlapping coverage areas or about 5.4 million square miles (14 million square km)
each. Each of WorldSpace satellites' three beams can deliver over 50 channels of
crystal clear audio and multimedia programming via the 1,467- to 1,492- megahertz
(MHz) segment of the L-band spectrum. which is allocated for digital audio
broadcasting.

AfriStar is positioned in a 210 East geosynchronous orbit and is controlled by


the WorldSpace Operations Center located in Washington, DC. The prime contractor
for the satellite is Alcatel Space Industries, and Matra Marconi Space built the
EuroStar 2000+ satellite bus. The uplink frequencies are 7.025-7.075 GHz, and the
downlink frequencies are 1.452-1.492 GHz. Each AfriStar downlink spot beam has
capacity for ninety-six 16 kbit/s mono-AM-quality signals that can be combined for
fewer channels of higher audio quality. The downlink signals in each spot beam are
combined into two Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) carriers. Uplink signals
can be. accepted as TDMA signals from control stations or, individually, as Frequency
Division Multiple Access (FDMA) signals from originating program locations.
SATELLITE RADIO 7

WorldSpace also launched AsiaStar in March 2000, a DBS radio satellite that
currently covers Asia(1050 East orbit). In late 2000, WorldSpace plans to launch
AmeriStar (950 West orbit) to cover Latin America.

The United States is not currently part of WorldSpace's coverage


area The company has invested in XM Radio and has an agreement
with XM to share any technological developments . WorldSpace is
going beyond one nation and eyeing world domination of the radio
market. That might be overstating the company's intent a bit. But
WorldSpace does plan to reach the corners of our world that most
radio stations cannot . There are millions of people living in
WorldSpace's projected listening area who cannot conventional radio

station. WorldSpace says it has a potential audience of about 4.6 billion listeners
spanning five continents.

Fig 2 WoridSpace will be able to broadcast to the majority of the


world's population when its AmeriStar satellite is launched.

WorIdSpace broadcasters uplink their signal to one of the three satellites


through a centralized hub site or an individual feeder link station located within the
global uplink beam. The satellite then transmits the signal in one, two or all three
beams on each satellite. Receivers on the ground then pick up the signal
SATELLITE RADIO 8
and provide CD-quality sound through a detachable antenna.

Fig. 3 World space integrated solution

2.2 GROUND REPEATERS

Satellite radio reception, poses threats from weather, tall building_ and
mountains that can potentially interfere with broadcasts.

To avoid the interference caused by tall structures, both Sirius and XM Radio
are supplementing their satellite coverage with terrestrial transmitters, called ground
repeaters. If the satellite radio antenna is blocked by a skyscraper, it should pick up
signals from one of the ground repeaters.

Getting signals from a satellite to receivers in cars or in the home is a tall


order. Although the microwaves the satellites rely on are able to penetrate the
atmosphere from space, they need a "direct line of sight" and can only reach their
target if unimpeded by obstacles such as trees, houses, or
SATELLITE RADIO 9

thunderstorms. Therefore, ground-based repeaters are needed to prevent service


interruption in cities where tall buildings otherwise would block the line of sight
between radio receivers and the satellites. XM has employed more than 1,000 of these
terrestrial repeaters, which have been strategically placed throughout the continental
United States to receive the XM signal directly from the satellites, and then retransmit
it to XM radios in cars and homes. These repeaters have been installed in densely
populated cities, on the roofs of buildings, and in mountainous areas where line of
sight can be difficult to maintain.

2.3 THE SATELLITE RADIO RECEIVER

Existing AM/FM car radio will not be able to receive satellite radio
broadcasts. Two options are available. Replacement of the radio with a 3-band
capable receiver (AM, FM, Sirius or XM Satellite). Radios can be purchased as a
dealer option or can be directly purchased at consumer retail stores, mail order and
Internet stores. All major manufactures are prepared to provide radios capable of
satellite radio reception.

A second option is the purchase an adaptor for existing AM/FM radios. The
adaptor will contain the satellite receiver, along with display and control functions.
Sirius and XM have developed slightly different technologies which mean that you
can purchase a radio capable of receiving satellite broadcasts from one company or
the other. but not both.. You need a receiver, about the size of squashed shoe box,
which goes under a car in the trunk, along with a fist-sized antenna that sits on the
roof or trunk lid.

The receiving end is virtually the same for both companies, but the satellite
configurations are different: XM Radio will use two satellites, and Sirius will use a
combination three. These receivers, somewhat akin to AM/FM tuners, are made up of
two parts: an "active" antenna and a receiving module.
SATELLITE RADIO 10

XM and Sirius Radio will work similarly. Each will beam a combination of
original and syndicated programming to orbiting communications and terrestrial
satellites which will send out signals to the satellite radio receivers. These receivers,
somewhat akin to AM/FM tuners, are made up of two parts: an "active" antenna and a
receiving module.

The antenna is active because it basically looks for available signals to pick up
from. Satellites it recognizes. When it finds them, it amplifies them, filters out any
accompanying noise and interference, and then sends them to the receiver, where
most of the real work is done. En route to the receiver, the signals are converted from
analog to digital. Once in the digital realm, they are analyzed for quality, and then
processed and combined to produce the best digital "image" of the sound. The
receiver also decrypts the signals and finally converts them back to analog audio,
which can be sent to the radio' s speakers so one can hear it.

The receiver connects to your existing car radio through a device called an FM
modulator that puts the signal on an unused portion of the FM band. Or you can buy a
car radio -- called a "head unit" by industry insiders -- that's "satellite ready" to make
a direct wired connection for maximum audio quality.

On the open road, the receivers pick up a signal from orbiting satellites. Sirius
and XM have also built repeater stations on the ground in major metropolitan areas to
maintain reception when the satellites are blocked by buildings or other large
structures.
SATELLITE RADIO 11

One receiver utilizes a vehicles existing FM radio. A small flat 2" disk antenna
is attached to the outside of the vehicle, a processing unit is placed in the trunk or
dashboard and a display and control screen mounted next to the vehicle's FM radio.
The display screen indicates the selected channel number, channel name, song title
and artist.

Each receiver contains a proprietary chipset. XM began delivering chipsets to


its XM radio-manufacturing partners in October 2000. The chipset consists of two
custom integrated circuits designed by ST Microelectronics. XM has partnered with
Pioneer. Alpine, Clarion, Delphi Deleo, Sony and Motorola to manufacture XM car
radios. Each satellite radio receiver uses a small, car-phone-sized antenna to receive
the XM signal. General Motors has invested about $100 million in XM, and Honda
has also signed an agreement to use XM radios in its cars. OM began installing XM
satellite radio receivers in selected models in early 2001.

WorldSpace satellite receivers are capable of receiving data at a rate of 128


kilobits per second (Kbps). The receivers use the proprietary StarMan chip set,
manufactured by STMicroelectronics, to receive digital signals from the satellites
SATELLITE RADIO 12

3. TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION

Digital radio works by combining two digital technologies to produce an


efficient and reliable radio broadcast system.

Firstly, an audio compression system, called MPEG, reduces the vast amount
of digital information required to be broadcast. It does this by discarding sounds that
will not be perceived by the listener - for example, very quiet sounds that are masked
by other louder sounds - and hence not required to be broadcast, and efficiently
packages together the remaining information.

The second technology, COFDM (Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplex) ensures that signals are received reliably and robustly, even in
environments normally prone to interference. Using a precise mathematical
relationship, the digital data signal is split across 1,536 different carrier frequencies,
and also across time. This process ensures that even if some of the carrier frequencies
are affected by interference. or the signal disturbed for a short period of time, the
receiver is still able to recover the original sound.

The interference which disturbs FM reception, caused by radio signals


"bouncing" off buildings and hills (multipath) is eliminated by COFDM technology. It
also means that the same frequency can be used across the entire country, so no re-
tuning of sets is necessary when traveling, or taking a portable receiver to a different
area.

Instead of having a different frequency for each radio station, digital radio
combines several services together in what is called a multiplex.
SATELLITE RADIO 13

The multiplex has a gross capacity of 2,300,000 bits. which are used for
carrying audio, data and an in-built protection system against transmission errors. Of
these about half the bits are used for the audio and data services. Throughout the day,
the data capacity allocated to each service can be varied by the broadcaster.

The UK Government has allocated seven multiplexes on the radio spectrum


217.5 230.0 MHz, which will be used for BBC and Commercial Radio for national.
regional and local services. Each multiplex can carry a mixture of stereo and mono
audio Services and data services too; the number of each dependent on the quality
required.

3.1 GENERATION OF THE DAB SIGNAL

How each service signal is coded individually at source level, error protected
and time interleaved in the channel coder is shown in Figure 3.1. Then the services
are multiplexed in the Main Service Channel (MSC), according to a pre-determined,
but adjustable, multiplex configuration. The multiplexer output is combined with
Multiplex Control and Service information, which travel in the fast Information
Channel (FIC), to form the transmission frames in the Transmission Multiplexer. Fig
3.1 Finally, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is applied to shape
the DAB signal, which consists of a large number of carriers. The signal is then
transposed to the appropriate radio frequency band, amplified and transmitted.
SATELLITE RADIO 14

Fig 4 Generation of DAB signal

3.2 RECEPTION OF A DAB SIGNAL

Figure 3.2 demonstrates a DAB receiver. The DAB ensemble is selected in the
analogue tuner, the digitized output of which is fed to the OFDM demodulator and
channel decoder to eliminate transmission errors. The information contained in the
FIC is passed to the user interface for service selection and is used to setup the
receiver appropriately. The MSC data is further processed in an audio decoder to
produce the left and right audio signals or in a data decoder (packet Demux) as
appropriate.
SATELLITE RADIO 15

User Interface
Fig. 5 DAB receiver

3.3 FREQUENCY OF OPERATION

Digital radio is operated in a frequency range of between 215 - 230 MHz


(Mega Hertz). This part of the radio spectrum is sometimes called Band III, or VHF,
and was previously used for some television transmissions and by the military. The
central frequency for the BBC National Multiplex is 225.648MHz.

3.4 MULTI PATH INTERFERENCE

Multipath interference occurs when radio waves bounce off buildings, hills, or
other obstacles. This means the waves reach the set at different times, causing
interference. This is a particular problem in the car. Digital radio sets have processors
which filter out interference and correct errors, such as those caused by multipath, so
no interference. In fact, digital radio is designed to use multipath to its advantage.
SATELLITE RADIO 16

4. SATELLITE RADIO VS. OTHER FORMATS

Satellite radio differs from AM or FM radio and digital television radio


(or DTR) in the following ways. The table applies primarily to the United
States.

Radio format Satellite radio AM/FM Digital television


radio (DTR)
Monthly fees US$6.95 and up None Very low
DTR represents a
small portion of
the total monthly
television fee.

Portability Available Prominent None a typical


set consists of a
stereo attached to
a television set-
top box (the
primary function
of the set top-box
is normally
designed for
cable or satellite
television
viewing).

Listening Very high a Low to moderate Very high


availability satellite signal's implementation of FM
footprint covers service requires
millions of moderate to high
square population densities
kilometres. and is thus not practical
in rural and/or remote
locales; AM travels
great distances at night

.
Sound quality Varies AM: Usually very low, Varies
but can be the highest
FM: Usually Moderate,
but can be very high.
SATELLITE RADIO 17

Variety and Highest Variable highly Variable -


depth of dependent upon dependent on the
programming economic/demographic satellite
factors television
provider and the
various packages
they provide and
on the user's
subscription.

Frequency of None to high - Highest None to low -


programming mostly dependent on the
interruptions dependent on provider;
(by DJs or the channels, however, it is
commercial some of which common that
advertising) have DJs; most some stations
channels are will have DJs.
advertisement- Usually no
free because of advertisements
the paid (DirecTV and
subscription Dish Network
model of both claim to
satellite radio. provide
advertisement-
free content).
Governmental Yes Yes significant Low to none
regulation governmental
regulations regarding
content

The sound quality with both satellite radio providers and DTR providers
varies with each channel. Some channels have near CD-quality audio, and
others use low-bandwidth audio suitable only for speech. Since only a certain
amount of bandwidth is available within the licenses available, adding more
channels means that the quality on some channels must be reduced. Both the
frequency response and the dynamic range of satellite channels can be superior
to most, but not all AM or FM radio stations, as most AM and FM stations clip
the audio peaks to sound louder; even the worst channels are still superior to
most AM radios, but a very few AM tuners are equal to or better than the best
SATELLITE RADIO 18

FM or satellite broadcasts when tuned to a local station, even if not capable of


stereo. AM does not suffer from multipath distortion or flutter in a moving vehicle
like FM, nor does it become silent as you go behind a big hill like satellite radio.

Some satellite radio services and DTR services act as in situ repeaters for
local AM/FM stations and thus feature a high frequency of interruption.

Nonprofit stations and public radio networks such as CBC/Radio-Canada,


NPR, and PRI-affiliated stations and the BBC are commercial-free. In the US, all
stations are required to have periodic station identifications and public service
announcements.

In the United States, the FCC regulates technical broadcast spectrum only.
Program content is unregulated. However, the FCC has tried in the past to expand its
reach to regulate content to satellite radio and cable television, and its options are still
open to attempt such in the future. The FCC does issue licenses to both satellite radio
providers (XM and Sirius) and controls who holds these licenses to broadcast.

Degree of content regulation varies by country; however, the majority of


industrialized nations have regulations regarding obscene and/or objectionable
content.
SATELLITE RADIO 19

5. ADVANTAGES OVER ANALOG RADIO

Conventional analog radio cannot meet this standard, simply because of the
technology used and the transmission environment in which it is broadcast.

As well - unlike AM and FM - digital radio reception is virtually immune to


interference, which means there are no static growls or 'multi path' echoes (caused by
signal reflections off buildings or topographical features) to make listening
unpleasant. at home, or in the car, In short, digital radio eliminates the noise that
creeps into analog radio transmission and reception

The reason digital radio is so reliable is because it employs a 'smart' receiver.


Inside each digital radio receiver there is a tiny computer: a computer capable of
sorting through the myriad of reflected and atmospherically distorted transmissions
and reconstructing a solid, usable signal for the set to process.

In contrast, an un-intelligent analog receiver cannot differentiate the useful


information from the useless noise. It reproduces the entirety of whatever signal it is
tuned to: static, 'multipath' echoes, and all.

The XM satellites have been allocated 12.5 MHz of frequency spectrum-over


sixty times the bandwidth of a single FM radio station. In contrast, a commercial FM
radio station has only 200 kHz of bandwidth. Also, in FM radio, the modulation
signal is limited to frequencies below 15.000 Hz, whereas the satellite radio audio
signal is able to extend to above 20,000 Hz.
SATELLITE RADIO 20

6. CONCLUSION

For the listener, digital radio will be more than just 'the best sound on the
airwaves', it will be an intelligent communications device that will offer more services
and conveniences than can be provided by conventional analog technology.

For the broadcaster, digital radio is not just a way to stay competitive with
other forms of digital sound, but one that offers numerous new business opportunities
as well.

It is a bright future for listeners and broadcasters alike: a future that truly
promises to provide 'the best sound on the airwaves' for the world.
SATELLITE RADIO 21

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. D. Prabakaran, WORLD SPACE- Satellite digital audio broadcast


service. Electronics For You. Nov 2001, Volume 33, No:11.
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