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CONTENTS

History of Concept
Growth of FRC Industry
Classification
Low Volume Fraction
Moderate Volume Fraction
High Volume Fraction
Mechanism
Optimization
Total Energy
Role of Fiber Size
Vebe Test On Material
Ultra High Performance fiber reinforced composite
Types of FRC
Bibliography

Retrofitting Using Fiber Reinforced Concrete


History of The Concept

Exodus 5:6,
And Pharaoh commanded the same day the
taskmasters of the people, and their officers, saying,
Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick,
as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for
themselves.

Egyptians used straw to reinforce mud bricks,but there is evidence that asbestos
fiber was used to reinforce clay posts about 5000 years ago.

Growth Industry

Even though the market


for fiber
reinforced
concrete is still small
compared to the overall
production of concrete, in North America there has been an yearly growth rate
of 20% and that the worldwide yearly consumption of fibers used
in concrete is 300,000 tons.
Classification according to volume fraction

Low volume fraction (<1%)


Moderate volume fraction (between 1 & 2%)
High volume fraction (>2%)
Low volume fraction

The fibers are used to reduce shrinkage cracking. These fibers are used in slabs
and pavements that have large exposed surface leading to high shrinkage crack.
Disperse fibers offer various advantages of steel bars and wire mesh to reduce
shrinkage cracks:

(a) the fibers are uniformly distributed in


three-dimensions making an efficient load
distribution;

(b) the fibers are less sensitive to corrosion


than the reinforcing steel bars,

(c) the fibers can reduce the labor cost of


placing the bars and wire mesh.

With an increasing load on the composite, the fibers will tend to transfer the
additional stress to the matrix through bond stresses. This process of multiple
cracking will continue until either fibers fail or the accumulated local de
bonding will lead to fiber pull-out .

Moderate volume fraction

The presence of fibers at this volume fraction increases the modulus of rupture,
fracture toughness, and impact resistance. These composite are used in
construction methods such as shot crete and in structures that require energy
absorption capability, improved capacity against delamination, spalling, and
fatigue.

The magnitude of improvement in toughness is strongly influenced by fiber


concentration and resistance of fibers to pull-out which, other factors, such as
shape or surface texture.

Plain and fiber reinforced concrete specimens with high compressive strength
were tested to obtain compressive and tensile strengths, modulus of elasticity,
drying shrinkage, and permeability. In addition, nonlinear static analyses were
performed on reinforced concrete frames to assess the benefits of high strength
materials on the systems performance. The results indicate that high strength
fiber reinforced concrete can achieve desired levels of ductility and durability
for seismic applications.

High volume fraction

The fibers used at this level lead to strain-hardening of the composites. Because
of this improved behavior, these composites are often referred as high-
performance fiber-reinforced composites (HPFRC).

In the last decade, even better composites were developed and are referred as
ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concretes (UHPFRC).

The effects of fibers are quantified based on the fiber volume and type of the
fibers. It was concluded that in addition to the above-mentioned quantifiable
properties, other properties of fibers such as strain sensing, shape, and surface
roughness are also found to be important but they cannot be quantified at this
stage. These composite are used in construction methods such as shotcrete and
in structures that require energy absorption capability, improved capacity
against delamination, spalling, and fatigue.

Toughening Mechanism
Mechanism

The composite will carry increasing loads after the first cracking of the matrix if
the pull-out resistance of the fibers at the first crack is greater than the load at
first cracking; At the cracked section, the matrix does not resist any tension and
the fibers carry the entire load taken by the composite.With an increasing load
on the composite, the fibers will tend to transfer the additional stress to the
matrix through bond stresses. This process of multiple cracking will continue
until either fibers fail or the accumulated local de-bonding will lead to fiber
pull-out.

These composite are used in construction methods such as shotcrete and in


structures that require energy absorption capability, improved capacity against
delamination, spalling, and fatigue. . For example, introduction of 1.5 volume
percent steel or glass fibers to a concrete with 200 mm of slump is likely to
reduce the slum of the mixture to about 25mm, but the placeability of the
concrete and its compactability under vibration may still be satisfactory.

Fibers in Concrete
Total Energy

According to the report by ACI Committee 554 the total energy absorbed in
fiber de-bonding as measured by the area under the load-deflection curve before
complete separation of a beam is at least 10 to 40 times higher for fiber-
reinforced concrete than for plain concrete.

The magnitude of improvement in toughness is strongly influenced by fiber


concentration and resistance of fibers to pull-out which, other factors, such as
shape or surface texture.

In most environments, especially those containing chloride, surface rusting is


inevitable but the fibers in the interior usually remain uncorroded. With an
increasing load on the composite, the fibers will tend to transfer the additional
stress to the matrix through bond stresses.

These composite are used in construction methods such as shotcrete and in


structures that require energy absorption capability, improved capacity against
delamination, spalling, and fatigue.

Optimization Process

From a material and structural point of view, there is a delicate balance in


optimizing the bond between the fiber and the matrix. If the fibers have a weak
bond with the matrix, they can slip out at low loads and do not contribute very
much to bridge the cracks. In this situation, the fibers do not increase the
toughness of the system.

If the bond with the matrix is too strong, many of the fibers may break before
they dissipate energy by sliding out. In this case, the fibers behave as
non-active inclusions leading to only marginal improvement in the mechanical
properties. The effects of fibers are quantified based on the fiber volume and
type of the fibers. It was concluded that in addition to the above-mentioned
quantifiable properties, other properties of fibers such as strain sensing, shape,
and surface roughness are also found to be important but they cannot be
quantified at this stage.

Role of Fiber Size

To bridge the large number of microcracks in the composite under load and to
avoid large strain localization it is necessary to have a large number of short
fibers. The uniform distribution of short fibers can increase the strength and
ductility of the composite.

Long fibers are needed to bridge discrete Macro-cracks at higher loads;


however the volume fraction of long fibers can be much smaller than the
volume fraction of short fibers. The presence of long fibers significantly reduces
the workability
of the mix. The amount of fibers added to a concrete mix is expressed as a
percentage of the total volume of the composite (concrete and fibers), termed
"volume fraction" (Vf). Vf typically ranges from 0.1 to 3%. The aspect ratio (l/d)
is calculated by dividing fiber length (l) by its diameter (d).

Fibers with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the
calculation of aspect ratio. If the fiber's modulus of elasticity is higher than the
matrix (concrete or mortar binder), they help to carry the load by increasing the
tensile strength of the material. Increasing the aspect ratio of the fiber usually
segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix.

Fiber size
Materials

It is well known that the addition of any type of fibers to


plain concrete reduces the workability.

Since fibers impart considerable stability to a fresh concrete mass, the slump
cone test is not a good index of workability. For example, introduction of 1.5
volume percent steel or glass fibers to a concrete with 200 mm of slump is
likely to reduce the slum of the mixture to about 25mm, but the placeability of
the concrete and its compactability under vibration may still be satisfactory.
Therefore, the Vebe test is considered more appropriate for evaluating the
workability of fiber-reinforce concrete mixtures.

A new kind of natural fiber-reinforced concrete (NFRC) made


of cellulose fibers processed from genetically modified slash pine trees is giving
good results. The cellulose fibers are longer and greater in diameter than
other timber sources. Some studies were performed using waste carpet fibers in
concrete as an environmentally friendly use of recycled carpet waste.
Vebe Test
Elastic modulus, creep, and drying shrinkage

Inclusion of steel fibers in concrete has little effect on the modulus of elasticity,
drying shrinkage, and compressive creep. Tensile creep is reduced slightly, but
flexuralcreep can be substantially reduced when very stiff carbon fibers are
used.

However, in most studies, because of the low volume the fibers simply acted as
rigid inclusions in the matrix, without producing much effect on the
dimensional stability of the composite.

HPFRC claims it can sustain strain-hardening up to several percent strain,


resulting in a material ductility of at least two orders of magnitude higher when
compared to normal concrete or standard fiber-reinforced concrete. HPFRC also
claims a unique cracking behavior. When loaded to beyond the elastic range,
HPFRC maintains crack width to below 100 m, even when deformed to
several percent tensile strains. Field results with HPFRC and The Michigan
Department of Transportation resulted in early-age cracking.
Durability

When well compacted and cured, concretes containing steel fibers seem to
possess excellent durability as long as fibers remain protected by
the cement paste.

In most environments, especially those containing chloride, surface rusting is


inevitable but the fibers in the interior usually remain uncorroded. Long-term
tests of steel-fiber concrete durability at the Battelle Laboratories in Columbus,
Ohio, showed minimum corrosion of fibers and no adverse effect after 7 years
of exposure to deicing salt.

Research on the durability of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete


(SFRSCC) is still scarce, particularly in the aspects of corrosion resistance,
which did not yet demonstrate clearly whether the corrosion of steel fibers may
or may not lead to cracking and subsequent spalling of the surrounding
concrete. For conventional concrete, without steel fibers, there are some
widespread used durability indicators, which applicability to SFRSCC.
Glass Fibers

Ordinary glass fiber cannot be used in Portland cement mortars or concretes


because of chemical attack by the alkaline cement paste.

Zirconia and other alkali-resistant glass fibers possess better durability to


alkaline environments, but even these are reported to show a gradual
deterioration with time.

Similarly, most natural fibers, such as cotton and wool, and many synthetic
polymers suffer from lack of durability to the alkaline environment of
the portland cement paste. There are a number of differences between structural
metal and fiber-reinforced composites. For example, metals in general exhibit
yielding and plastic deformation, whereas most fiber-reinforced composites
are elastic in their tensile stress-strain characteristics. However, the dissimilar
nature of these materials provides mechanisms for high-energy absorption on a
microscopic scale comparable to the yielding process. Depending on the type
and severity of external loads, a composite laminate may exhibit gradual
deterioration in properties but usually does not fail in a catastrophic manner.
Mechanisms of damage development and growth in metal and composite
structure are also quite different.
Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Composites

There is a new generation of high performance fiber-reinforced composites. In


many of these materials the strength, toughness, and durability are significantly
improved.
Compact Reinforced Composites (CRC)

Researchers in Denmark created Compact Reinforced Composites using metal


fibers, 6 mm long and 0.15 mm in diameter, and volume fractions in the range
of 5 to 10 %. High frequency vibration is needed to obtain adequate
compaction. These short fibers increase the tensile strength and toughness of the
material.

The increase of strength is greater than the increase in ductility, therefore the
structural design of large beams and slabs requires that a higher amount of
reinforcing bars be used to take advantage of the composite.

The short fibers are an efficient mechanism of crack control around the
reinforcing bars. The final cost of the structure will be much higher than if the
structure would be made by traditional methods, therefore the use of compact
reinforced composites is mainly justified when the structure requires special
behavior, such as high impact resistance or very high mechanical properties.
Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Investigators in France by adding metal fibers, 13 mm long and 0.15 mm in


diameter, with a maximum volume fraction of 2.5%. This composite uses fibers
that are twice as long as the compact reinforced composites therefore, because
of workability limitations, cannot incorporate the same volume fraction of
fibers.

The smaller volume fraction results in a smaller increase in the tensile strength
of the concrete. Commercial versions of this product have further improved the
strength of the matrix, chemically treated the surface of the fiber, and added
microfibers.

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is the generic name for a class of cementious
composite materials developed by the technical division of Bouygues, in the
early 1990s. It is characterized by extremely good physical properties,
particularly strength and ductility. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was
developed in France in the early 1990s and the worlds first Reactive
Powder Concrete structure, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Canada, was erected
in July 1997.
Bridge of Fiber Reinforced
Another view
Slurry-Infiltrated-fibered concrete (SIFCON)

The processing of this composite consists in placing the fibers in a formwork


and then infiltrating a high w/c ratio mortar slurry to coat
the fibers.

Compressive and tensile strengths up to 120 MPa and 40 MPa, respectively


have been obtained. Modulus of rupture up 90 MPa and shear strength
up to 28 MPa have been also reported.In direct tension along the direction of the
fibers, the material shows a very ductile response. This composite has been used
in pavements slabs, and repair. Recently, a procedure has been developed
wherein steel fiber contents up to 20 volume percent have been provided. Slurry
Infiltrated Fiber Concrete (SIFCCN) composites possess outstanding strength,
ductility, and crack/spall resistant properties. Equally:important, the ability to
construct with SIFCON has been demonstrated.
SiFCON
(Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete)
SIFCON
Engineered Cementitious Composite (EEC)

The ultra high-ductility of this composite, 3-7%, was obtained by optimizing the
interactions between fiber, matrix and its interface. Mathematical models were
developed so that a small volume fraction of 2% was able to provide
the large ductility.

The material has a very high stain capacity and toughness and controlled crack.
ECC, unlike common fiber reinforced concrete, is a family
of micromechanically designed material.[2] [3] As long as a cementitious material
is designed/developed based on micromechanics and fracture mechanics theory
to feature large tensile ductility, it can be called an ECC. Therefore, ECC is not
a fixed material design, but a broad range of topics under different stages of
research, development, and implementations. The ECC material family is
expanding. The development of an individual mix design of ECC requires
special efforts by systematically engineering of the material at nano, micro,
macro and composite scales.ck propagation.
Engineered Cementitious Composite (EEC)

The manufacturing of ECC can be done by normal casting or by extrusion. By


using an optimum amount of superplasticizer and non-ionic polymer with steric
action, it was possible to obtain self-compacting casting.

Experimental results with extruded pipes indicate that the system has a plastic
yielding behavior instead of the typical brittle fracture exhibited when plain
concrete is used. also called bendable concrete, is an easily molded mortar-
based composite reinforced with specially selected short random fibers,
usually polymer fibers.

Unlike regular concrete, ECC has a strain capacity in the range of 3


7%, compared to 0.1% for ordinary portland cement (OPC). ECC therefore acts
more like a ductile metal than a brittle glass (as does OPC concrete), leading to
a wide variety of applications. CC has a variety of unique properties, including
tensile properties superior to other fiber-reinforced composites, ease of
processing on par with conventional cement, the use of only a small volume
fraction of fibers (~ 2%), tight crack width, and a lack of anisotropically weak
planes.
Engineered Cementitious Composite (EEC)
Multiscale-Scale Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (MSFRC)

Researchers the Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees (France) proposed


to combine short and long fibers to increase the tensile strength, the bearing
capacity, and the ductility).With this blend, good workability was achieved with
fiber volume fractions up to 7%.

One typical combination of fibers is 5% straight drawn steel fibers, 5-mm long
and 0.25 mm in diameter, and 2% hooked-end drawn steel fibers, 25-mm long
and 0.3 mm in diameter.
Bibliography

Sources are Google.com, Wikipedia.


Concrete Technology and CiviL Engineering materials.
Data from IS codes for retrofitting and Earthquake resistance design of
buildings.
Articles from sciencedirect.com and concrete.com

Seminar Report
On

RETROFITTING USING FRC

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

Civil Engineering

2015-2016

Submitted by: Himanshu Bhati Submitted to: Er. R.P Singh


12EAYCE042 H.O.D Civil Engineering Dept.

. CIVIL VIII SEMESTER ACERC

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH CENTRESP-40, RIICO

INDUSTRIAL AREA, KUKAS, JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN