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2
Table of contents
Table of contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Objective of this manual.................................................................................... 1
1.2 Overview of Advanced Nonlinear Solution ...................................................... 2
1.2.1 Choosing between Solutions 601 and 701.................................................. 4
1.2.2 Units ........................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Structure of Advanced Nonlinear Solution ....................................................... 7
1.3.1 Executive Control....................................................................................... 7
1.3.2 Case Control ............................................................................................... 9
1.3.3 Bulk Data.................................................................................................. 11
1.3.4 Terminology used in Advanced Nonlinear Solution ................................ 13
2. Elements ................................................................................................................ 14
2.1 Rod elements ................................................................................................... 21
2.1.1 General considerations ............................................................................. 21
2.1.2 Material models and formulations............................................................ 22
2.1.3 Numerical integration............................................................................... 22
2.1.4 Mass matrices ........................................................................................... 22
2.1.5 Heat transfer capabilities .......................................................................... 23
2.2 Beam elements ................................................................................................ 23
2.2.1 Beam geometry and crosssections ........................................................... 24
2.2.2 Beam element formulations....................................................................... 28
2.2.2.1 Kinematics......................................................................................... 28
2.2.2.2 Linear formulation............................................................................ 30
2.2.2.3 Materiallynonlinearonly formulations ........................................... 30
2.2.2.4 Large displacement formulation....................................................... 31
2.2.2.5 Mass matrices ................................................................................... 33
2.2.2.6 Elastic beam element........................................................................ 35
2.2.2.7 Elasticplastic beam element ............................................................ 36
2.2.3 Heat transfer capabilities .......................................................................... 41
2.2.4 Beam element modeling hints ................................................................... 41
2.3 Shell elements.................................................................................................. 42
2.3.1 Basic assumptions in element formulation............................................... 44
2.3.2 Material models and formulations............................................................ 51
2.3.3 Shell nodal point degrees of freedom....................................................... 51
2.3.4 Composite shell elements (Solution 601 only)......................................... 58
2.3.5 Numerical integration............................................................................... 61
2.3.6 Mass matrices ........................................................................................... 62
2.3.7 Heat transfer capabilities .......................................................................... 63
2.3.8 Selection of elements for analysis of thin and thick shells....................... 65
1. Introduction
1.1 Objective of this manual
This Theory and Modeling Guide serves two purposes:
ref. KJB The implicit method can use much larger time steps since it is
Section 9.2 unconditionally stable. However, it involves the assembly and
solution of a system of equations, and it is iterative. Therefore, the
computational time per load step is relatively high. The explicit
method uses much smaller time steps since it is conditionally
stable, meaning that the time step for the solution has to be less
than a certain critical time step, which depends on the smallest
element size and the material properties. However, it involves no
matrix solution and is noniterative. Therefore, the computational
time per load step is relatively low.
Note that the explicit solution provided in Solution 701 does not
use reduced integration with hourglassing. This technique reduces
the computational time per load step. However, it can have
detrimental effect on the accuracy and reliability of the solution.
Since the explicit time step size depends on the length of the
smallest element, one excessively small element will reduce the
stable time step for the whole model. Massscaling can be applied
to these small elements to increase their stable time step. The
implicit method is not sensitive to such small elements.
1.2.2 Units
SOL 601,N
SOL 701
Output related
SET Set definition
DISPLACEMENT Displacement output request
VELOCITY Velocity output request
ACCELERATION Acceleration output request
STRESS Element stress/strain output request
SPCFORCES Reaction force output request
GPFORCE Nodal force output request
GKRESULTS Gasket results output request
TITLE Output title
SHELLTHK Shell thickness output request
THERMAL Temperature output request
FLUX Heat transfer output request
Contact related
BCSET Contact set selection
BCRESULTS Contact results output request
Notes:
The Bulk Data section contains all the details of the model.
Advanced Nonlinear Solution supports most of the commonly used
Bulk Data entries. In many cases, restrictions are imposed on some
of the parameters in a Bulk Data entry, and in some other cases,
different interpretation is applied to some of the parameters to
make them more suitable for nonlinear analysis. Several Bulk Data
entries are also specific to Advanced Nonlinear Solution.
Element Connectivity
CBAR CMASS1 CPLSTS3 CQUADX CTRAX3
CBEAM CMASS2 CPLSTS4 CQUADX4 CTRAX6
CBUSH CONM1 CPLSTS6 CQUADX8 CTETRA
CBUSH1D CONM2 CPLSTS8 CROD RBAR
CDAMP1 CONROD CPYRAM CTRIA3 RBE2
CDAMP2 CPENTA CQUAD4 CTRIA6 RBE3
CELAS1 CPLSTN3 CQUAD8 CTRIAR
CELAS2 CPLSTN4 CQUADR CTRIAX
CGAP CPLSTN6
CHEXA CPLSTN8
Element Properties
EBDSET PBCOMP PCOMP PLPLANE PROD
EBDADD PBEAM PCOMPG PLSOLID PSHELL
PBAR PBEAML PDAMP PMASS PSHL3D
PBARL PBUSH PELAS PPLANE PSOLID
PBUSH1D PELAST
PGAP
Material Properties
CREEP MAT8 MATHE MATT1 PCONV
MAT1 MAT9 MATHEV MATT2 PLCYISO
MAT2 MAT10 MATHEM MATT3 PLCYKIN
MAT3 MAT11 MATHP MATT4 PLCYRUP
MAT4 MATCID MATPLCY MATT5 RADM
MAT5 MATCRP MATS1 MATT8 RADMT
MATG MATSMA MATT9 TABLEM1
MATSR MATT11 TABLES1
MATTC TABLEST
MATVE
Loads, Boundary Conditions and Constraints
BCPROPS FORCE MPC PLOADX1 TABLED1
BEDGE FORCE1 MPCADD RFORCE TABLED2
BFLUID FORCE2 PLOAD RFORCE1 TEMP
BGSET GRAV PLOAD1 SPC TEMPD
BOLT LOAD PLOAD2 SPC1 TIC
BOLTFOR MOMENT PLOAD4 SPCADD TLOAD1
BSURFS MOMENT1 PLOADE1 SPCD
DLOAD MOMENT2
Notes:
1. NXSTRAT is the main entry defining the solution settings for Advanced
Nonlinear Solution.
2. Only a few PARAM variables are supported. Most are replaced by
NXSTRAT variables.
3. TMCPARA is the main entry defining the solution settings for heat
transfer and TMC models.
4. TSTEP is used for both static and dynamic analyses.
2. Elements
Advanced Nonlinear Solution supports most of the commonly
used elements in linear Nastran analyses. Some of these elements
are modified to be more suitable for nonlinear analysis.
RType Elements
RBAR None Single rigid element
RBE2 None Multiple rigid elements
RBE3 None Interpolation constraint
element
Other Elements
CGAP PGAP 2node gap element
CONM1, CONM2 None Concentrated mass element
CBUSH1D PBUSH1D Rod Type SpringandDamper
Connection
CBUSH PBUSH Generalized Springand
Damper Connection
Notes:
Note:
Note:
Z
w2
Y G2
w1 l v2
X
G1 u2
l
v1
u1
ref. KJB Note that the only force transmitted by the rod element is the
Sections 5.3.1, longitudinal force as illustrated in Fig. 2.12. This force is constant
6.3.3 throughout the element.
Z P
Y
X
area A
s
Stress constant over
P crosssectional area
See Tables 22 and 23 for a list of the material models that are
compatible with rod elements.
The same lumped mass matrix is used for both Solution 601 and
Solution 701.
Figs 2.21 and 2.22 show the beam element along with its local
coordinate system (r,s,t). The r direction always lies along the
neutral line of the beam (line connecting nodes GA and GB). The
orientation of the s and t directions is defined using the v vector
defined in the CBAR or CBEAM entries.
Notice that, for the Hermitian beam element, (r,s,t) are not
isoparametric coordinates, rather (r,s,t) have the same units as the
global coordinates.
Fig 2.22 also shows the degrees of freedom at the local nodes.
These degrees of freedom are defined in the local coordinate
system.
End B
Plane 1 r (xelem)
s (yelem) l
node GB
End A t (zelem)
node GA
_
qs

_ qr
v _u
s
l
_
r GB w _
Z
l qt
GA t
X Y
s
S11
S 10
S5 S8
S7
l
S2 S9
S1 GB
S4 l S12
GA S3
S6 t
Z
X Y
A : Crosssectional area
L : Beam length
(do not confuse the polar moment of inertia I rr with the Saint
Venant torsional constant J )
I st : Product of inertia:
I st = stdA
A
If st axes are coincident with the principal axes of the section then
I st = 0 .
Crosssections
2.2.2.1 Kinematics
u = un t s + s t
v = vn r t
w = wn + r s
dwn
s =
dr
dv
t = n
dr
un = L1u 1 + L2u 2
vn = H1v 1 + H 2t1 + H 3v 2 + H 4t 2
wn = H1w1 H 2 s1 + H 3 w2 H 4 s2
r = L1 r1 + L2 r2
dH1 1 dH 2 1 dH 3 2 dH 4 2
s = w + s w + s
dr dr dr dr
dH dH dH dH
t = 1 v 1 + 2 t1 + 3 v 2 + 4 t 2
dr dr dr dr
r r
L1 = 1 , L2 =
L L
r2 r3 r2 r3
H1 = 1 3 2 + 2 3 , H 2 = r 2 + 2 ,
L L L L
2 3 2 3
r r r r
H3 = 3 2 2 3 , H4 = + 2
L L L L
z
Vs2
Vr2
x y
GB Vt2
Vs1
Vr1
GA Vt1
a) Before deformation
Vs1
Vr1 Vs2
GA
Vt1 Vr2
GB Vt2
GB
y
y x
v
y
v x

v
1 1
3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6
13 6 I tt
+ 0 0 0
11L I
+ tt 0
9
6 I tt
0 0 0
13L
+
I tt
35 5 AL2 210 10 AL 70 5 AL2 420 10 AL
13 6 I ss 11L I 9 6I 13L I
+ 0 ss 0 0 0 ss 0 ss 0
35 5 AL2 210 10 AL 70 5 AL2 420 10 AL
I rr I rr
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3A 6A
2
L 2I 13L I L 2
I
+ ss 0 0 0 + ss 0 ss 0
105 15 A 420 10 AL 140 30 A
L2 2I 13L I L2 I tt
+ tt 0 tt 0 0 0
M = AL
105 15 A 420 10 AL 140 30 A
1
0 0 0 0 0
3
13 6 I tt 11L I tt
+ 0 0 0
35 5 AL2 210 10 AL
13 6 I ss 11L I ss
+ 0 + 0
35 5 AL2 210 10 AL
I rr
0 0
3A
2
L
+
2 I ss
0
105 15 A
L2 2I
symmetric + tt
105 15 A
AE
L 0 0 0 0 0 k11 0 0 0 0 0
12 EI tt
0 0 0
6 EI tt
0 k22 0 0 0 k26
L3 (1 + 2 ) L2 (1 + 2 )
12 EI ss 6 EI ss
0 0 0 0 k33 0 k35 0
L3 (1 + 3 ) L2 (1 + 3 )
GJ
0 0 0 0 0 k44 0 0
L
EI ss (4 + 3 ) EI ss (2 3 )
K= 0 0 0 k35 0 0
L(1 + 3 ) L(1 + 3 )
EI tt (4 + 2 ) EI tt (2 2 )
0 k26 0 0 0
L(1 + 2 ) L(1 + 2 )
k11 0 0 0 0 0
k22 0 0 0 k26
k33 0 k35 0
k44 0 0
k55 0
symmetric k66
24(1 + )
2 = I tt , Assh > 0
L2 Assh
= 0, Assh = 0
24(1 + )
3 = 2 sh
I ss , Atsh > 0
L At
= 0, Atsh = 0
Note that torsional warping effects are only taken into account
by the selection of the torsional constant J.
u = ... + st1 + ( s 3t st 3 ) 2
s Integration points
equally spaced
1 2 3 ...
r
r=0 r=L
t
a) Integration point locations in rdirection
Integration points
t equally spaced
HEIGHT s
1 2 3
WIDTH
b) Integration point locations in sdirection
t Integration points
equally spaced
s
3
2
1
c) Integration point locations in tdirection
Integration points
s
equally spaced
1 2 3 ...
r
r=0 r=L
t
a) Integration point locations in rdirection
t
Integration points
equally spaced
3
...
2
R 1
s
t
Integration points
equally spaced
... 3 2
R
1
s
The beam element has the same heat transfer capabilities of the
rod element. See Section 2.1.5 for details.
Beam element
Rigid elements
Hollow square section
l
l
l
l
l
(a) 3node element (b) 4node element
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
(c) 6node element (d) 8node element
Notes:
1. Only for Solution 601
2. With ELCV = 1 in NXSTRAT entry
Table 2.32 lists the features and capabilities available for the
shell element types mentioned above.
For the Timoshenko beam theory, the structure is the beam, and
for the Reissner/Mindlin plate theory, the structure is the plate
under consideration. In shell analysis, these assumptions
correspond to a very general shell theory. See the reference below
for more details:
G8 s
G7
G3
G1
G6 r
G5
Midsurface nodes G2
No stiffness
for rotation k
Vn
about Vnk
wk
l Z
l
k
l V2
vk Y
l bk
X
uk
ak
k
V1
Fig. 2.33: Shell degrees of freedom at node k
q
t q
xi = hk x + ak hk Vnik (i = 1, 2,3)
t t t k
i
k =1 2 k =1
ak hk ( t Vnik 0 Vnik )
q
t q
t
ui = hk t uik +
k =1 2 k =1
Y Vnk
V1k =
Y Vnk
2
For the special case when the Vnk vector is parallel to the Y axis,
the program uses the following conventions:
and
( L1 L+2L2 ) a
0 k+1
a Vn
0
0 k
Vn Vn
l l
k k+1
L1 L2
Angle = 90
t
l
Vn
l
l
Z Final configuration
Angle 90
Y
X
b) Due to displacements and deformations (with shear)
t
s
t
s
s
r
r
r= st s= t r
st 2 tr 2 r
t t
s
t
s
s
r
r
s t , s=tr
t= rs , r=
rs 2 st 2 r
See Tables 22 and 23 for a list of the material models that are
compatible with shell elements.
Note that for both 5 and 6 degree of freedom shell nodes, the
translations uk, vk, wk are referred to the chosen displacement
coordinate system.
Number Potential
Node
of DOFs singularity
1 6 Yes
2 5 No
3 6 Yes
4 6 No
5 5 No
6 6 No
7 6 No
8 6 Yes
9 5 No
0 k
Vn is the average of all element director vectors
0 k
Vn
l k
element 1 l
element 2
0 k 0 k
Vn Vn
k k
l l
l
element 1 l
element 2
Fig. 2.37: 5 degree of freedom shell node with unique vector at node k
l k
element 1 l
element 2
0 k 0 k
Vn Vn
element 1 element 2
k k
l l
l
element 1 l
element 2
Not all the cases that lead to a shell node possessing 6 degrees
of freedom (listed at the beginning of this section) may introduce a
singularity at the node.
Zero pivot in
stiffness matrix.
F t
Vn
Moment causes
z infinite rotation.
y Mz
x t
Vn
Reactions at fixities
are zero.
Perpendicular
to both shells
Beams
Not perpendicular
to shells
z
Shell elements y
x
The conventions for defining the director vectors, the local axes
V1 and V2, and the 5/6 degree of freedom selection are all the same
as those for the single layer shell.
1 n i
t = 1 + 2
a i =1
n
(1 t )
n
(2.31)
with
i
a and are functions of r and s.
l
1
Y t l
8
5l
X s l 4
r l
a2 2l 7
V3n
l
6
3l V 32
b3
V31 a3
ln E nxx n
G xz nnxy Layer n
a
Layer 1
N N
n
t
t
xi = hk t xik + mkn + t n k hk Vnik (2.32)
k =1 k =1 2
with
t
xi = coordinate of a point inside layer n in direction i
N = number of nodes
hk = interpolation functions
t
xik = Cartesian coordinates of node k
t
Vnik = component of normal vector t Vnk at node k
ak = total element thickness at node k
j
k = thickness of layer j at node k
mkn = distance between element midsurface and midsurface of
layer n at node k
n n
ak
mkn = + j
k k
(2.33)
2 j =1 2
The same integration order is used for both Solution 601 and
701.
! Fig. 2.314 shows a 4node thermal shell element with the shell
midsurface nodes, the nodal director vectors and constructed top
and bottom nodes. The director vectors are automatically calculated
by the program, see Fig. 2.315.
l
Shell
l
midsurface
s
l Vkn
l node k
l
l
ak
Z
Thickness at a mid
l
r surface node is
Y l measured along the
X l director vector Vnk
Director vector is
average of all midsurface
normal vectors at the node
Normal vector to midsurface
Node k
Normal vector to
Element 1 l midsurface
Element 2
l
l
l
l
Thickness l
l
l
l
Thickness
Vkn Vkn
Element 1
l l Element 2
Overview
Midsurface
a) Undeformed configuration
Material particles
initially on midsurface
b) Deformed configuration
The following features available for other shell elements are not
available for the 3Dshell element: 6, 8node elements, composite
(multilayer) shells.
a) Undeformed configuration
b) Deformed configuration
a) Undeformed configuration
b) Deformed configuration
Fig. 2.319 shows the corner of a 3Dshell element, with its top and
bottom surfaces described by control vectors. Initially the control
vectors are equal and opposite. During deformations, the control
vectors can evolve independently. Thus in the deformed
configuration, the control vectors are in general not equal and
opposite, as shown in Fig 2.319(b).
Top surface
Bottom surface
x, y, z translations
, rotations (5 DOF node), or x , y , z rotations (6 DOF
node)
Material models for the usual shell elements are developed using
the assumption of zero stress through the shell thickness. Hence
these models do not directly apply to the 3Dshell element.
When stresses are output in the shell local coordinate system, the
coordinate system is the r, s, t system shown in Figure 2.35(b).
Incompatible modes
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l l
l l
l
l l l
l
l l
l l
l l
l l
y l l e zz = 0
y
l l s zz = 0
g xz = 0 s zx = 0
z x l l g yz = 0 z x l l s zy = 0
ezz = u/x
l l
y (linear analysis)
g xz = 0
z x l l
g yz = 0
c) Axisymmetric element
Note that the extra middle node in the 7node and 9node 2D
elements is automatically added by the program when ELCV is set
to 1 in the NXSTRAT entry. These extra nodes improve the
performance of the 2D elements as explained later in this section.
The boundary conditions at the added node are predicted from the
neighboring nodes.
CPLSTN31, CPLSTS32
3node triangle CTRIA35, CTRAX36
CTRIAX3 (with 3 input nodes)
CPLSTN41, CPLSTS42
4node quadrilateral CQUAD45, CQUADX46
CQUAD4, CQUADX3 (with 4 input nodes)
CPLSTN61, CPLSTS62
6node triangle CTRIA65, CTRAX66
CTRIAX3 (with 6 input nodes)
CPLSTN61,7, CPLSTS62,7
7node triangle CTRIA65,7, CTRAX66,7
CTRIAX3,7 (with 6 input nodes)
CPLSTN81, CPLSTS82
8node quadrilateral CQUAD85, CQUADX86
CQUAD4, CQUADX3 (with 8 input nodes)
CPLSTN81,7, CPLSTS82,7
CQUAD85,7, CQUADX86,7
9node quadrilateral
CQUAD4,7, CQUADX3,7 (with 8 input nodes)
CQUAD4, CQUADX3 (with 9 input nodes)
q q
x = hi xi ; y = hi yi
i =1 i =1
q q
u = hi ui ; v = hi vi
i =1 i =1
where
The equations above are for 2D solid elements that lie in the XY
plane. A simple change of variable from y to z describes the 2D
solid elements in the XZ plane.
Y
s
4l l
7 3
l
Displacement degrees
of freedom
8l l
9 6 r
l
v2
1l l
5 2 u2
l
y2
Z X
x2
Fig. 2.43: Conventions used for the 2D solid element
(assuming element lies in XY plane)
Number of pressure
2D solid element
DOFs
3node triangle 
4node quadrilateral 1
6node triangle 3
7node triangle 3
8node quadrilateral 3
9node quadrilateral 3
See Tables 22 and 23 for a list of the material models that are
compatible with 2D solid elements.
ref. KJB
The basic continuum mechanics formulations of 2D solid
Sections 6.2 and elements are described in ref. KJB, pp. 497537, and the finite
6.3.4 element discretization is given in ref. KJB pp. 538542, 549555.
ref. KJB Note that all these formulations can be mixed in the same finite
Section 6.8.1 element model. If the elements are initially compatible, then they
will remain compatible throughout the analysis.
ref. KJB The 4node quadrilateral element uses 22 Gauss integration for
Sections 5.5.3, the calculation of element matrices. The 8node and 9node
5.5.4 and 5.5.5 elements use 33 Gauss integration. See Fig 2.44(a).
s
s
r r
a) Rectangular elements
r
1point 4point 7point
b) Triangular elements
l l l ll l l l l
l
l l l l l
l l l
l l l
l l l l
l l l l l
l l
l
l
l l l l l
l l l l l l l l
l l l l l
l l l
l l l l l l
l l l
l l
l l l l
l l l
l
l
l l l l
l l l l l l
l l
l l l
l l
l l
l l
l l l l
l l l l l
l l
l l
l
Note:
1. Only for Solution 601
q q q
x = hi xi y = hi yi z = hi zi
i =1 i =1 i =1
q q q
u = hi ui v = hi vi w = hi wi
i =1 i =1 i =1
t
Z 7
l
w8 l
18
19
l
l
6
v8 15 l
8l l
20 l l
l l 17
l 5 14
l l l
u8 l 16
3 l
l
l l 10
11 13 l
4l l l 2
s
l
l 9
z4 r 12
l
1
x4 Y
y4
X
where
hi (r, s, t) = interpolation function corresponding to node i
r, s, t = isoparametric coordinates
q = number of element nodes
xi, yi, zi = nodal point coordinates
ui, vi, wi = nodal point displacements
Table 2.52: Mixed u/p formulations available for 3D solid elements
Number of
3D solid element
pressure DOFs
4node tetrahedron 
10node, 11node tetrahedron 4
6node wedge 1
15node, 21node wedge 4
8node brick 1
20node, 27node brick 4
5node pyramid 1
13node, 14node pyramid 1
Note that 4 pressure degrees of freedom are used for the 10
node tetrahedron, the 15node wedge and the 20node brick
element. Even though this setting does not satisfy the infsup test,
the elements generally perform better than with a single pressure
degree of freedom. Still, it is better to add the midside nodes if
possible. This is done by setting ELCV = 1 in the NXSTRAT
entry.
Support for
3D solid element incompatible
modes
4node tetrahedron No
5 to 11node tetrahedron No
6node wedge Yes
15node, 21node wedge No
8node brick Yes
20node, 27node brick No
5node pyramid Yes
6 to 14node pyramid No
See Tables 22 and 23 for a list of the material models that are
compatible with 3D solid elements.
materiallynonlinearonly formulation.
The program uses the TL (total Lagrangian) formulation
when large displacement/small strain kinematics is selected.
The large displacement/large strain kinematics can be used
with plastic materials including thermal and creep effects, as
well as hyperelastic materials. The ULH (updated
Lagrangian Hencky) formulation or the ULJ (updated
Lagrangian Jaumann) formulation can be used for all
compatible material models except the hyperelastic material.
For the hyperelastic material models, a TL (total Lagrangian)
formulation is used. The ULFORM parameter in the
NXSTRAT entry determines the ULH/ULJ setting.
ref. KJB Note that all these formulations can be used in the same finite
Section 6.8.1 element model. If the elements are initially compatible, they will
remain compatible throughout the analysis.
ref. KJB The 8node brick element uses 222 Gauss integration for the
Sections 5.5.3,
5.5.4 and 5.5.5 calculation of element matrices. The 20node and 27node elements
use 333 Gauss integration.
The same integration order is used for both Solution 601 and
701.
The same lumped matrix is used for both Solution 601 and
Solution 701.
ref. KJB The 27node element is the most accurate among all available
Page 383
elements. However, the use of this element can be costly.
Fig. 2.61 shows the spring, mass and damper single degree of
freedom elements available in Advanced Nonlinear Solution. They
correspond to a grounded spring, a concentrated mass, and a
grounded damper, respectively.
u q
k
l
l
k m
.
u
c c
l l
Single Single
translational rotational
DOF damper DOF damper
Damping C = [c]
k k
k
K = 1 2
k k
U1 U2
a) spring element
c c c
C = 1 2
c c
U1 U2
b) damper element
m/2 0
Mlumped =
0 m/2 m
m/3 m/6 U1 U2
Mconsistent =
m/6 m/3
c) mass element
yelement
zelement xelement
CID
z y
GA
x
yelement
zelement xelement
CID
y
z
GA, GB x
yelement
xelement
zelement
CID
y
z
x
GA
GB
zelement yelement
(normal to plane) (in plane) GO or (X1,X2,X3)
GA xelement
GB
l l l
qrotation l l l
l
using MPC small rotations
l l l
l l l
l
3 RBAR elements with
l
one independent node
l
l
l
l
using large displacement
rigid links
GB
l
GA
l Independent: CNB
Dependent: CMB
Independent: CNA
Dependent: CMA
Class 1:
All 6 degrees of freedom of one point are dependent on those of the
other point. In other words,
Class 2:
One point has all the dependent degrees of freedom (but not all 6 of
them), and all those that are not dependent (missing terms in CMA
or CMB) involve degrees of freedom that do not exist at the slave
node. For example,
Another example,
Class 3:
One point has all the dependent degrees of freedom (but not all 6 of
them). In other words,
or
CNA = 0, CNB = 123456, CMA = Q, CMB = 0
Note that if the degrees of freedom not included in Q are all non
existent at the node, then the rigid element belongs to Class 2.
Class 4:
All 6 degrees of freedom active but not all dependent degrees of
freedom belong to 1 point. For example,
Class 5:
Not all the 6 degrees of freedom are active in the constraint and
rigid element fails criteria for Classes 2 and 3. For example,
Note that there are some other valid settings for RBAR that are
not supported in Advanced Nonlinear Solution.
S S M = Master node
S = Slave node
M M
M S
Rigid link
a) Two element assemblages connected with rigid elements
Fxq 1 0 0 0 0 0 Fxk
q
Fy 0 1 0 0 0 0 Fyk
Fz
q
0 0 1 0 0 0 Fzk
q =
M x 0 ( z k z q ) ( y k y q ) 1 0 0 M xk
M q (zk zq ) 0 ( x k x q ) 0 1 0 M yk
q
y
M z ( y y ) ( x x ) 0 0 1 M zk
k q k q
0
F q = (S k )T F k (2.71)
F q = (S k )T F k (2.72)
k
F k = W k S k XF q (2.73)
w1k
k
w2
w3k
where W k = is a diagonal
w4k
w5k
w6k
matrix with weighting factors given by WTi and Ci as follows:
F q = (S k )T W k S k XF q (2.74)
k
1
X = (S k )T W k S k (2.75)
k
Now let
G k = Wk Sk X (2.76)
From (2.73),
Fk = G k Fq (2.77)
(F q )T u q = (F k )T u k
k
(2.78)
= (F q )T (G k )T u k
k
u q = (G k )T u k (2.79)
k
u q = (G k )T u k (2.710)
k
(2.710) has six rows. Each row l selected by a component in REFC
corresponds to a multipoint constraint equation, in which ulq is
dependent and u k is independent. Rows not selected by a
component in REFC are discarded.
2.8.1 Theory
Fluid
Fig. 2.81 shows a generic fluid region. It is assumed that the fluid
is inviscid and irrotational with no heat transfer, and that the
velocities and density changes are infinitesimally small. Under
these assumptions, the continuity equation in the fluid is
0 p
+ i( ) + 0 2 + 0 2 = 0 (2.81)
the momentum/equilibrium equation is
p
h ( x) (2.82)
p
= 1+ (2.83)
0
Bounding surface S
Unknowns on S:
f = fluid potential Fluid region V
u = displacements n
Unknowns in V:
f = fluid potential
(
p = 0 ( x ) ) (2.84)
0 + 2 = 0 (2.85)
0 dV dV u n dS
V V S
= 0 dV (2.86)
V
Structure
Fluid Structure
n
Pressure p Traction pn
Fu = pni u dS1 = 0 + 0 iu 0 ni u dS1 (2.87)
S1 S1
x
0 0 U 0 CTFU U ( K UU )S 0 U
0 M + +
K FF
FF CFU 0 0
(2.88)
( R ) 0
= UB S +
0 R FB
where
Static conditions
( K UU )S CTFU U ( R UB )S
M FF R FB
= (2.89)
CFU
K FF = 0 (2.810)
2.8.2 Elements
The fluid material properties are specified via the MAT10 entry.
Interface elements
2.8.4 Loads
Massproportional loads
Centrifugal loads
5) When there are body force loads, Solution 601 loops over all
nodes on a fluidfluid interface. If the node is attached to a
structural element, the node is skipped. Otherwise constraint
equations are defined for all pairs of nodes, so that the
displacements in the direction of the free normal are compatible.
The intent is to enforce displacement compatibility between the
fluids.
6) Solution 601 then loops over all nodes with zero stiffness
degrees of freedom and defines fixities for each zero stiffness
degree of freedom.
16 3 2 1 10 Potentialbased
Fluid nodes are at the same fluid elements
coordinates as structural nodes.
6 5 4 11
The fluid nodes and structural Beam elements
nodes are separated in this figure 15
for clarity. 9 8 7
30o
14 13 12
Interface elements
of type free surface
3 2 1
6 4
9 8 7
Interface elements of
type fluidstructure interface
b z z
x x
c 3 2 1
the b displacement is left free so that the free surface can slip along
the wall.
Notice that at node 4, both the x and z displacements are
constrained to the structure. The fluid still slips in the z direction
because only the normal displacement (the x displacement in this
case) is used by the fluid equations. Similar statements hold for
nodes 6 and 8.
Nodes 7 and 9 are fixed because corresponding nodes 12 and 14
are fixed.
If the analysis is static without body forces, then Solution 601
performs step 4 of phi model completion (Figure 2.83(e)). The
free surface can only translate vertically as a rigid body.
16 3 1 10
6 4 11
15
9 8 7
14 13 12
Node 1: ux=u10
x
o o
Node 3: uc=cos30 ux16  sin 30 uz16
Node 4: ux=u11 11
x , uz=uz Node 6: ux=u15 15
x , uz=uz
Node 7: ux=uz =fixed Node 8: ux=u13 13
x , uz=uz
Node 9: ux=uz =fixed
b z z
x x
c 3 2 1
Node 2: uz=u1z
o
Node 3: ub= uz1 / cos30
Step 4 is only performed in static analysis when
there are no body forces.
This motion affects the total volume of the fluid region, so that
there is no zero pivot in the system matrices.
If there are body forces, then step 4 is not necessary because all
boundary motions are given stiffness by the matrix ( K UU )S .
Step 5 of phi model completion is skipped because there are no
fluidfluid boundaries.
In step 6 of phi model completion, the zero stiffness direction at
node 2 is fixed (Fig. 2.83(f)). Vertical motions of the nodes
attached only to free surface interface elements are allowed, but
horizontal motions of these nodes are not allowed (because the
fluid does not provide stiffness, damping or mass to horizontal
motions).
z
x
2
Node 2: ux=fixed
3 2 1
6 5 4
9 8 7
y
x
13 14 15
n12 n23
1 2 3
n14 n36
4 5 6
n69
7 8 9
y
10 11 12 x
15 14 13 2D potentialbased
fluid elements, PID 1
3 2 1
Beam elements
2D potentialbased
12 11 10 fluid elements, PID 2
20 19 18
z
15 14 13 x
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
Node 1: ux=u13 13
x , uz=uz Node 2: ux=u14 14
x , uz=uz
Node 3: ux=u15 15
x , uz=uz Node 4: ux=u16
x
Node 6: ux=u17
x Node 7: ux=u16
x
Node 9: ux=u17
x Node 10: ux=u18 18
x , uz=uz
15 14 13
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
15 14 13
3 2 1
6 5 4
17 16
9 8 7
12 11 10
20 19 18
The initial gap opening is U0. When the gap is closed the
element has a stiffness of KA (should be stiff), and when it is open
the stiffness is KB (should be soft).
t
s
GA
r U0
KB
KA  KB
GB
For CONM1, only the diagonal mass terms are supported, and
the resulting mass matrix is given by:
M 11 0 0 0 0 0
0 M 22 0 0 0 0
0 0 M 33 0 0 0
M=
0 0 0 M 44 0 0
0 0 0 0 M 55 0
0 0 0 0 0 M 66
M 0 0 0 0 0
0 M 0 0 0 0
0 0 M 0 0 0
M=
0 0 0 I11 0 0
0 0 0 0 I 22 0
0 0 0 0 0 I 33
GA GB
The stiffness and damping act along the axis of the element,
which is the line connecting its two nodes. In large displacement
analysis the element axis is updated with deformation. A fixed
element axis can be specified via the CID parameter in the
CBUSH1D entry.
Notes:
1. Temperature interpolation at the start of the analysis only in Solution 701.
2. With MATS1 TYPE=NELAST.
3. Cannot be used with beam element for SOL 601. Can only be used with rod element
for SOL 701.
4. With MATS1 TYPE=PLASTIC.
5. With MATS1 TYPE=PLASTIC and TID pointing to a TABLEST entry.
6. With MATS1 TYPE=PLASTIC and TID pointing to a TABLES1 entry.
7. Only MooneyRivlin, Ogden and SussmanBathe hyperelastic materials are available
in Solution 701.
Output: The output depends on the element type. Note that as long
as the strains are small, GreenLagrange strains are practically the
same as engineering strains in the element coordinate system.
Similarly, 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stresses are practically the same as
Cauchy stresses in the element coordinate system.
This kind of formulation can only be used with 2D and 3D solid
elements and with shell elements.
Output:
ULH formulation: Cauchy stresses and logarithmic
strains in the element coordinate system.
Engineering strain: e0 = 0
A0 D
A0 = initial crosssectional area
S = final crosssectional
F = applied force
0 = 0 +D
1 2
2
GreenLagrange strain: = 2
0
2 0
d
e = ln
=
0
0
Stretch: =
0
Note that for the small strains assumption to be valid, the strains
should be less than about 2%.
F
Engineering stress: =
A0
F A
Cauchy stress: = = 0
A A
F 0
2nd PiolaKirchhoff stress: S = = 0
A0
F
Kirchhoff stress: J = =
A0 0 0
When the strains are small, the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stresses are
nearly equal to the Cauchy stresses from which the rigid body
rotations of the material have been removed.
X = RU (3.11)
U = R L R TL (3.12)
y R
(t) RL
(0)
x
E R = ln U = R L ln R TL (3.13)
X= VR (3.14)
V = R E RTE (3.15)
E L = ln V = R E ln RTE (3.16)
X = XE XP (3.17)
XE = R E UE = V E R E (3.18a,b)
E ER = ln U E , E EL = ln V E (3.19a,b)
= ( R E ) J R E
T
(3.110)
and when the left Hencky strain measure is used, the stress measure
is the (unrotated) Kirchhoff stress J . J = det X is the volume
change of the material, and, using det X P = 1, J = det X E .
With these choices of stress and strain measures, the stresses
and strains are workconjugate.
The choice of right Hencky strain and rotated Kirchhoff stresses
gives the same numerical results as the choice of left Hencky strain
and (unrotated) Kirchhoff stresses.
For further information, see ref KJB, Section 6.2.2 and also the
following reference:
tu
L = t i = XX 1 (3.111)
x j
D=
1
2
( L + LT ) (3.112)
W=
1
2
( L LT ) (3.113)
J = D +W J J W (3.114)
t +t
J = t J + ( Dt ) +( Wt ) t J t J ( Wt ) (3.115)
t TH
e ij = ( t 0 ) ij (3.116)
t TH
ije = t ( t 0 ) ij (3.117)
where
t
=
(
1
)
t 0 (
( t )( t REF ) ( 0 )( 0 REF ) )
(3.118)
t TH
e
ij = i ( t 0 ) ij (no summation over i ) (3.119)
L
Secant to curve
Length, L
LREF
qREF q
Temperature, q
Fig. 3.13: Length of bar vs. temperature
L LREF
TH =
LREF
TH ( )
( ) =
REF
t
TH = ( t )( t REF ) ( 0 )( 0 REF )
t
0 = C t0e
t
= C tt *
t
0 = C ( t0 e t0 eTH )
This material model is available for the rod, 2D solid, 3D
solid, beam, and shell type elements.
and
resulting in
e11 1/ E1 12 / E1 13 / E1 0 0 0 11
e / E 1/ E2 23 / E2 0 0 0 22
22 21 2
e33 31 / E3 32 / E3 1/ E3 0 0 0 33
=
12 0 0 0 1/ G12 0 0 12
23 0 0 0 0 1/ G23 0 23
31 0 0 0 0 0 1/ G13 31
e11 1/ E1 12 / E1 0 0 0 11
e / E 1/ E2 0 0 0 22
22 21 2
12 = 0 0 1/ G12 0 0 12
13 0 0 0 1/ G1z 0 13
23 0 0 0 0 1/ G2 z 23
The MAT2 entry can also be used to define a shell material with
only inplane orthotropy:
ex 1 x zx x
0
Ex E Ez
x 1 z
e 0
= Ex E Ez
xz z 1
ez 0 z
Ex E Ez
1
zx 0 0 0
Gzx zx
1 zx
ex 0 x
Ex Ez
1
ez = xz 0 z
Ex Ez
1
zx 0 0
Gzx zx
1 yx xy zx + yx zy
ex 0 x
Ex Ez
+ 1 yz zy
ez = xz yx xy
0 z
Ex Ez
1
zx 0 0
Gzx zx
E1 E E
21 32 13 < 0.5 1 212 322 2 132 3 0.5
E2 E3 E1
ji ij
=
Ei Ej
Note that the material unloads along the same curve, so that no
permanent inelastic strains are introduced.
d = d
T
(3.31)
1 1
E0 2 = T C0 (3.32)
2 2
1 T
d = C0 d (3.33)
E0
= C0 (3.34)
E0
or
= e (3.35)
E0
t +t
e = C0 t +t (3.36)
I1e
r =C (3.37)
t +t
e
t +t
e = E0 t +t (3.38)
t +t
c = t +t (t +t ) (3.310)
1 + r t +t 1 r t +t
t +t
= t + c (3.311)
2 2
t +t
t +t
t +t
= e (3.312)
E0 t +t
Stress
s6 l
s5 l
s4 l
e1 e2 e3
s3 e4
l
e5 e6 Strain
l s2
l s1
Stress
Point 3
Point 1 Point 2
Strain
n
l
Gap D
Gap element L
(between nodes m and n)
m
l
Stress
D
_
L
Strain
These models can be used with the rod, 2D solid, 3D solid,
beam (plasticbilinear only), and shell elements.
Stress
0s
y
Bilinear stressstrain curve
Strain
s3
(1,1,1) s3
23
0
sy
23
0
sy
s2 s1 s2
Elastic region
s1
a) Principal stress space b) Deviatoric stress space
Stress Stress
B ET B ET
A A
0s ts 0s
y y y
E E 2 0sy
Strain E Strain
E ts
y E
E D C
D ET
C
ET
a) Bilinear isotropic hardening b) Bilinear kinematic hardening
Stress Stress
B B
A A
ts
0s y
0s 2 0sy
y y
Strain Strain
ts D C
y
D C
solid, 3D solid and shell elements (only single layer shell
elements).
For multilinear plasticity, there is no restriction on the number
of stressstrain points in the stressstrain curve.
Mixed hardening is available only for bilinear plasticity.
t
fy =
2
( s s ) t y2 = 0
1 t t 1
3
t
fy =
2
(
1 t
s t ) ( t s t ) 0 y2 = 0
1
3
where t is the shift of the center of the yield surface (back stress
tensor) and 0 y2 is the virgin, or initial, yield stress.
In the von Mises model with mixed hardening, the following
yield surface equation is used:
t
fy =
2
(
1 t
s t ) ( t s t ) t y2 = 0
1
3
where
t
y = 0 y + ME p e p
d = C p (1 M ) de p
t
2 p
e =
P
t
de de p
0
3
P
t
e = e p
all solution steps
P 2 p
where e = e e p and e p is the tensor of plastic strain
3
increments in a solution step. Because of the summation over the
P
solution steps, the calculated value of t e is referred to as the
accumulated effective plastic strain.
P
y = y0 1 + b ln 1 +
0
This material model can be used with the rod, 2D solid, 3D
solid, Hermitian beam and shell elements. However this material
model cannot be used with the CQUAD8 shell element, or with the
composite shell element.
Time
Stress
Stress
Strain Strain
Stress
Stress
Strain Strain
Stress
Strain
Fig. 3.45: Response predictions using the plasticbilinear and plasticmultilinear models
Stress Stress
Strain Strain
Stress
Strain
Strain
Time
Strain Strain
Stress Stress
Strain
Time
t +t
=t +t s + t +t m I
t +t
e= t +t
e + t +t em I
m = 3 t +t em
t +t
t +t
s = 2G ( t +t e t +t e P )
where and G are the bulk modulus and shear modulus, and
t +t P
e is the plastic strain ( P in ref LC). Thermal strains are not
included in the above equations, but are included in the program
when there are thermal effects.
1 2 1
t +t
fy = t +t
s t +t t +t
y2 = 0
2 3
where t +t
is the back stress tensor ( X and X in ref LC, note
that back stress is always deviatoric) and t +t
y is the yield stress
( Y + R or k in ref LC). The norm of a symmetric tensor a is
defined as a = a : a . The yield condition is always evaluated
at time t + t .
Fig. 3.49 shows the yield condition.
s3
t+Dt
fy=0
t+Dt
s
t+Dt
a
2 t+Dts
y
3
s1 s2
Flow rule: The flow rule states that the direction of plastic strain
increments is normal to the yield surface.
directions of e P = directions of ( t + t
s t + t
)
s3
Ds t+Dt
ts s
t+Dt
Da a
ta
2 t+Dts
y
2 ts 3
3 y
s1 s2
a) Overview
DeP parallel to n
2GDe 2GDe
ts 2GDeP ts
n 2GDeP
t+Dt
t+Dt
s s
2 t +t 2
fm = e P t +t t +t q 2 = 0
3
e3P
t+Dt
fm=0
t+Dt
eP
t+Dt
x
3 t+Dtq
2
e1P
e2P
The differential rules used for the evolution of the strain memory
surface are
dq = (directions of de P ) : (directions of ( t e P t )) de P
and
directions of d = directions of ( t e P t )
in which the symbol <> means that <u>=0 when u<0, and <u>=u
when u>0. The incremental versions of these rules are
q = (directions of e P ) : (directions of ( t + t e P t + t )) e P
and
directions of = directions of ( t + t e P t + t )
n
t+Dt
t
eP De P eP
t+Dt
Dx x
tx
3 t+Dtq
2
3 tq
2 Dx parallel to n
q
e1P
x1
Time
Bilinear hardening:
y = 0 y + EP t +t e P
t +t
sy q=q2
q=q1 R
Memoryexponential
Q(q2 ) hardening
Q(q1)
0
sy
Q Exponential hardening
0
sy
Multilinear hardening
(ePi , syi)
Bilinear hardening
0
sy EP
eP
Fig. 3.414: Dependence of stress radius on accumulated
effective plastic strain
Multilinear hardening:
Exponential hardening:
t +t
y = 0 y + Q(1 exp(b t +t e P ))
y = 0 y + t +t R
t +t
dR = b( tQ t R)de P
t +t
and is calculated using R = t R + R ,
R = b( t +t Q t +t R)e P . t +tQ is the asymptotic change in
yield surface size, and is calculated as
t +t
Q = Q( t +t q ) = QM (QM Q0 ) exp(2 t +t q )
t +t
= t +t ( m )
2 (m) P
d ( m ) = h de ( m ) t ( m ) de P
3
t +t
( m ) = A ( m ) ( A ( m ) t ( m ) ) exp(b( m ) )
2 h( m )
where A = (m)
(directions of e P ) , b( m ) = ( m ) e P .
3 (m)
h e P
= tanh + y
2 2
Thus, given several cycles for different cyclic strains, the material
constants can be estimated using the above formula.
s
B
A EP 2sy
Ds
eP
DeP
=y +
h
(1 exp ( e ))
P
h/z
sy
eP
MATPLCY entry
PLCYISO entry
PLCYKIN entry
The parametrs of this entry are used to specify the constants for the
kinematic part of the plasticcyclic model.
PLCYRUP entry
The parametrs of this entry are used to specify the constants for the
rupture part of the plasticcyclic model. Rupture is based on the
accumulated effective plastic strain.
Conversion formulas
Plasticbilinear to plasticcyclic:
Plasticmultilinear to plasticcyclic:
strain(i) stress(i)
aeps(i) sr(i)
The thermal isotropic model is available for the rod, 2D solid,
3D solid and shell elements.
In the data input for the analysis, the nodal point temperatures
must be defined for all time steps. See Section 5.6.
For these models, the elastic moduli, the shear moduli, the
Poisson's ratios and the coefficients of thermal expansion defined
in Section 3.2 are input as piecewise linear functions of the
temperature, as illustrated in Fig. 3.51. Linear interpolation is used
to calculate the material properties between input points.
E n
l l
tn
t
E l l
l l l l
q1 tq q2 q3 q4 q1 tq q2 q3 q4
Temperature Temperature
a
l
ta
l
l l
q1 tq q2 q3 q4
Temperature
l
l
r
l
Integration points
1 l
Temperature t q1 l
ref. KJB
The thermal elastoplastic and creep models include the effects
Section 6.6.3 of
Isotropic elastic strains, via the MAT1 entry
Thermal strains, t ersTH , via the MATT1 or the MAT1 entries.
Timeindependent plastic strains, t ersp , via the MATS1 entry
Timedependent creep strains, t ersC , via the CREEP entry,
t
ij = t Cijrs
E
( t ers t ersP t ersC t ersTH ) (3.61)
Note that the thermal, plastic and creep parts of these material
models are optional. If, however, the omitted strain components
result in one of the material models detailed in one of the previous
sections, then the program will select that material model.
These material models can be used with the rod, 2D solid, 3D
solid, and shell elements.
Notes:
1. "No" means that this strain is not included in the material. "Yes" means that this strain is
included in the material description, and that the material constants for this strain are
temperatureindependent. "Tempdep" means that this strain is included in the material
description, and that the material constants for this strain are temperaturedependent.
Note that the constitutive relations for the thermal, plastic and
creep strains are independent of each other; hence the only
interaction between the strains comes from the fact that all strains
affect the stresses according to Eq. 3.61. Fig. 3.61 summarizes the
constitutive description for a onedimensional stress situation and a
bilinear stressstrain curve.
ref. M.D. Snyder and K.J. Bathe, "A Solution Procedure for
ThermoElasticPlastic and Creep Problems," J. Nuclear
Eng. and Design, Vol. 64, pp. 4980, 1981.
Area A
l l
tq tP
Temperature
Stress
ts
ts (t q)
T( q)
tE t
yv
tE(tq)
Strain
teP (time independent)
teE (time independent)
Creep
strain
teC (time dependent)
t Time
The plastic strains are calculated using the von Mises plasticity
model (see Section 3.4) with temperaturedependent material
parameters (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, stressstrain curves,
...).
1t t 1t 2
t
fy = s s yv
2 3
t
fy =
2
(
1 t
s t ) ( t s t ) t y2v
1
3
d ij = t CdeijP
2 t E t ET
t
C=
3 t E t ET
E ET
EP =
E ET
q1
Stress
ET 1
syv1
q2
E1
syv2 ET2 ..
.. .
. E2
syvi qi
ETi
Ei
Strain
(a) Uniaxial relation of stress versus total strain
Stress q1
E1 ET1
syv1
E1  ET q2
1
..
syv2 E2 ET2 .
.. E2  ET
. 2 qi
syvi Ei ETi
Ei  ET
i
Plastic strain
Stress 3 4
2
1
qi
e 1i e i2 ei3 e4i Strain
3 4
1 2
qi+1
3
1
e i+1 2
e i+1 e i+1 e 4i+1
Temperature
a) Stressstrain curves input data
Stress 4q
3 i
2
Interpolated
yield curve 1
tq
4 Plastic
3
1 2 qi+1 strain
P2 P3
e i+1 e i+1
Temperature
b) Yield curves
Two creep laws are currently available in Solution 601. The first
called the Power creep law is obtained by setting TYPE = 300 in
the CREEP material entry, or by setting TYPE = 301 in the
MATCRP material entry. The second creep law called the
Exponential creep law is obtained by setting TYPE = 222 in the
CREEP material entry. The Power creep law is currently supported
for the elasticcreep, thermal elasticcreep, plasticcreep and
thermal plasticcreep material models. The Exponential creep law
is currently supported only for the elasticcreep and plasticcreep
material models.
t
e C = a t b t d
t
(
e C = F( ) 1 e
R ( ) t
) + G( ) t
with
( )
F( ) = a eb ; R( ) = c ( t ) ; G( ) = e e f
t d
( t
)
in which a through f are material constants from the CREEP
material entry.
ref. C.E. Pugh, J.M. Corum, K.C. Liu and W.L. Greenstreet,
"Currently Recommended Constitutive Equations for
Inelastic Design of FFTF Components," Report No. TM
3602, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge,
Tennessee, 1972.
1
3 2
t +t
= t +t sij t +t sij
2
1
2 2
e = ( t eijC eijorig )( t eijC eijorig )
t C
( eC ) = (teC ) + ( a0 t +t a1 )
1/ a2 1/ a2 1/ a2
t +t
t
t +t
t +t e C t e C
eC =
t
e C ( t +t , t +t , t ) =t e C + e C ( t +t , t +t , t ) t
where e C ( t +t
, t +t , t ) is the generalized uniaxial creep law
d e C ( t +t , t +t , t ) . Then calculate
and e C
( t +t
, t +t
, t ) =
dt
the effective creep strain and effective creep strain rate at time
t + t using
t +t
e C = e C ( t +t , t +t , t ) , t +t
e C = e C ( t +t , t +t , t ) .
4) Calculate t +t
using
t +t
3 eC
t +t
=
2 t +t
eijC = t t +t
t +t
sij
ref. KJB The stresses and strains at the integration points are evaluated
Section 6.6.3 using the effectivestressfunction algorithm.
t +t
(i ) = t +t C E ( t +t e(i ) t +t e P (i ) t +t eC (i ) t +t eTH ) (3.61)
is solved separately for the mean stress and for the deviatoric
stresses. In this equation the index (i) denotes the iteration counter
in the iteration for nodal point equilibrium. For easier writing this
index will be dropped in the discussion to follow. The mean stress
is calculated as
t +t
t +t
m =
1 2
E
t +t
( t +t
em t +t eTH ) (3.62)
1
t +t
s= t +t e (1 ) t t s (3.63)
t +t
aE + t +
t +t
t +t E t
where aE = , s = deviatoric stress at the start of the
t +t
1+
time step and is the integration parameter used for stress
evaluation ( 0 < 1) . The creep and plastic multipliers and
are functions of the effective stress t +t
only, and they
account for creep and plasticity; also
t +t
e = t +t
e t e P t eC
f ( t +t ) = a 2 t +t 2 + b c 2 2 d 2 = 0 (3.64)
The zero of Eq. (3.64) provides the solution for the effective stress
t +t
, where
a = t +t aE + t +
b = 3 (1 )t t +t eij t sij
c = (1 ) t t
3 t +t
d2 = eij t +t
eij
2
e = t e P + t +t s
t +t P
e = t eC + (1 ) t s +
t +t C t +t
s t
This material model can be employed with the 2D solid and
3D solid elements.
Cij = 2 ij + ij (3.71)
I1 = Ckk , I2 =
2
( I1 Cij Cij ) ,
1 2
I 3 = det C (3.72a,b,c)
1 2 1
I1 = I1 I 3 3 , I 2 = I 2 I 3 3 , J = I 3 2 , (3.73a,b,c)
the stretches i where the i s are the square roots of the principal
stretches of the CauchyGreen deformation tensor; and the reduced
stretches:
1
i = i ( 12 3 )
3 (3.74)
Note that
J = 12 3 (3.75)
1 W W
Sij = + (3.76)
2 ij ji
1 Sij Sij
Cijrs = + (3.77)
2 rs sr
(3.78)
where Cij are material constants , and I1 and I 2 are the first and
second strain invariants at time t, referring to the original
configuration (see ref. KJB, Section 6.6.2 for the definitions of the
strain invariants).
Note that constants Aij used in the MATHP material entry are
identical to Cij constants used in MATHE and in the equation
above.
1
WV = ( J 1)
2
(3.79)
2
p = ( J 1) (3.710)
E
= with = 0.499 (3.713)
3 (1 2 )
2G (1 + )
= = 500G for = 0.499 (3.714)
3 (1 2 )
This rule of thumb can be used to estimate the bulk modulus in the
absence of experimental data. However, lower values of the bulk
modulus can be used to model compressible materials.
9
WD = n 1 n + 2 n + 3 n 3 (3.715)
n =1 n
1 1
WV = ( 12 3 1) = ( J 1)
2 2
(3.716)
2 2
1 9
G= n n
2 n =1
(3.717)
3 9
E= n n
2 n =1
(3.718)
WD = N KT [
1
2
( I1 3) +
1
20 N
( I12 9 ) +
11
1050 N 2
( I13 27 )
(3.719)
+
19
7000 N 3
( I1 81) + 673750 N 4 ( I1 243)]
4 519 5
( J 1)
2
WV = ln J (3.720)
2 2
1
p= J (3.721)
2 J
n n
( )
N
1
W = n n
1 + 2 + 3 3 + J n n 1 (3.722)
n =1 n n
N
n
WD = 1 + 2 + 3 3 J 3 / 3
n n n n
(3.723)
n =1 n
n
3 ( J 3 ) (J )
N
1
WV = n /3
1 + n n
1 (3.724)
n =1 n n
3
1 W WD
SijD = D+ = 0,
ij = 0 2 ij ji
ij = 0
1 W W
SijV = V + V =0
ij = 0 2 ij ji
ij = 0
1 9
G= n n
2 n =1
(3.725)
9
1
= n + n n (3.726)
n =1 3
= (3.727)
1 2
Theoretical background:
WD
i = + p = w(ei ) + p (3.729)
ei
where w(ei ) dw / de .
= w(e) w( 12 e) (3.730)
(( )
w(e) = 2)
1 k
e (3.731)
k =0
Original
Deformed
L2
F1
L3 0
L1
A1 = L2 L3 = 0 A1
L1
L1
L1 1 F1
e = e1 = ln 0
e2 = e3 =  e1 t1 = t2 = t3 = 0
L1 2 A1
(e) = ET e, e > 0
= EC e, e < 0
where ET and EC are constants greater than zero, has w(e) > 0
only if
1
2 ET < EC < 2 ET
5) Given only simple tension data for (e) , there are multiple
w(e) that exactly correspond to (e) , for positive e only. Two
such w(e) are
w(e) = 0, e < 0
= (e), e > 0
and
3 1
E= w(0) , G = w(0) (3.732a, b)
2 2
t(e)
emin,t
emax,t e
2) The range of the cubic spline is between the first and last user
input data points.
3) Outside the range of the cubic spline, the slope of (e) is greater
than zero. This ensures that the asymptotic conditions of
() = , () = are met.
w(e)
emin,w
emax,w e
Slope > 0
( e ) ( e)
r = max (3.734)
e (e )
w(e) = Ai +1 z + Bi +1 z 3 + Ai (1 z ) + Bi (1 z )3 (3.735)
z2 z4 1 (1 z ) 2 1 (1 z ) 4
w(e) = Ci + (ei +1 ei ) Ai +1 + Bi +1 + Ai + Bi
2 4 2 4
(3.736)
WV = ( J ln J ( J 1) ) (3.737)
p = ln J = ( e1 + e2 + e3 ) (3.738)
2) The data set should contain both tension and compression data
(compression data is possibly converted from equibiaxial tension
data, see below). If the data set contains only tension data, the
program will assume that the true stress / true strain curve in
compression is a straight line, which is most likely not a good
assumption.
3) The stresses and strains in the set of stressstrain data points can
be either
eu = 2eb , u = b2 , 0 eu = (1 + 0 eb ) 1
2
(3.739)
u = b , 0 u = 0
3
b b
7) The strain range of the data set should contain the range of
strains anticipated during the analysis.
th = ( 0 ) (3.740)
X = X m Xth (3.741)
X m = (1 + eth ) 1 X (3.743)
Cm = (1 + eth ) 2 C (3.744)
m = (1 + eth ) 2
1
2
(1 (1 + eth ) 2 ) I (3.745)
1 W ( m ) ab W ( m )ba
= + (3.746)
2 ( m ) ab ( )ij ( m )ba ( ) ji
2 1 W W
(
= (1 + eth ) ) +
2 ( m )ij ( m ) ji
Strain e,
stress s
E
E1 h1
..
E .
a ha
Strain Strain
ga Ga
= + q (3.747)
1
q + q = (3.748)
t t
t
q = exp t dt (3.749)
0
t t t
t
= E 1 + exp
e dt (3.750)
0
1 q
D = q = q ( e g ) = q e (3.751)
E
= (e) + ( g ) (3.752)
1 2
where (e) = E e is the strain energy of the elastic chain
2
and ( g ) = E ( g ) is the strain energy in the spring of
1 2
2
chain . In terms of , ( g ) = ( g ) . The 1D model
is recovered by defining
= , q = (3.753a,b)
e fixed e fixed
q = = .
e fixed
g
Finite strain model: The finite strain model is derived from the
potentialbased 1D model as follows. The elastic potential is
defined as
( ) = W ( ) (3.754)
( )
where W ij is the strain energy density from the elastic part of
the material model. The potential of each chain is defined as
( ij , ij ) = W ( Gij ) , usage=combined
= WD ( Gij ) , usage=deviatoric (3.755a,b,c)
= WV ( Gij ) , usage=volumetric
Sij = , Qij = = =
ij ij ij Gij
ij fixed ij fixed ij fixed
(3.756a,b)
where Sij are the 2nd PiolaKirchhoff stresses and Qij is analogous
to the stress q .
Following exactly the same arguments as in the 1D case, we
obtain
1
Qij + Qij = Sij (3.757)
t t
t
Qij = exp t Sij dt
(3.758)
0
t
1 exp
t t +t S t S
t +t
Qij = exp tQij +
t
( ij ij )
(3.759)
(3.759) is exact when Sij does not change during the time step,
and is more accurate than the formula given by Holzapfel:
t t
t +t
Qij = exp tQij + exp ( t +t Sij t Sij )
2
(3.760)
t
especially when is large.
(
D = Qij ij = Qij ij Gij ) (3.761)
where
2
Grs = Qij (3.762)
Gij Grs
2 2W
=
= Cijrs . (3.763)
Gij Grs ij rs
where the tensor Cijrs is evaluated at the strain state Gij . The
dissipation calculation requires the solution of a set of simultaneous
linear equations of at most order 6 (in the 3D case) at each
integration point.
If usage=deviatoric,
2 WD
2
= = ( CD )ijrs (3.764)
Gij Grs ij rs
where the tensor ( CD )ijrs is evaluated at the strain state Gij . Here,
the dissipation calculation requires a singular value decomposition
of ( CD )ijrs , since ( CD )ijrs has a zero eigenvalue. A similar
situation applies when usage=volumetric, except that the
corresponding material tensor has only one nonzero eigenvalue.
The procedure given in (3.761) to (3.764) is only
approximate, since the fundamental assumption Gij = ij ij
strictly speaking only holds for small strain analysis.
d 1
= (3.765)
dt aT ( t )
t
1
=
t
dt (3.766)
a ( t )
0 T
The shift function used here is either the WLF shift function,
C1 ( t ref )
log10 aT ( t ) = (3.767a)
C2 + t ref
1 1 t
log10 aT ( t ) = C1 t , ref
ref
(3.767b)
1 1 t
= C2 t
, < ref
ref
dq 1 d
+ q = (3.768)
d d
1
q + q = (3.769)
aT ( )
1 exp
t +t S t S
t +t
Qij = exp t Qij +
( ij ij )
(3.771)
t +t
1
= t
aT ( t )
dt (3.772)
Force
h
f
e
c
b
d g
a
Deflection
Note that any permanent set associated with the Mullins effect
is not included in the OgdenRoxburgh model used here.
The OgdenRoxburgh model, as implemented in Advanced
Nonlinear Solution, uses the following strain energy density
expression:
1 1
= 1 erf (Wm W ) (3.774)
r m
exp ( u ) du
2
erf( x ) = 2
(3.775)
0
d ( )
= W (3.776)
d
1 W
m = 1 erf m (3.777)
r m
1 W
( m ) = (1 m ) Wm = erf m Wm (3.778)
r m
m Wm W 1 W 2
E
= 0 de = erf m 1 exp m
r m m m
A
(3.779)
where
C
Wm = 0 de (3.780)
A
Force
Slope kb
Fb
2 1
Slope k b + Fb2
Slope ka p rm
Deflection
1 W
Slope 1  erf m k a
r m
Wm = strain energy density at b
B
Dissipation = shaded area
D
A
E e=displacement/
original length
Gasket inplane
directions
The gasket model can be used with 3D solid elements. It can
also be used with small displacement/small strain, large
displacement/small strain formulations.
User input
Last yield
point (rupture
point)
Gasket pressure
Leakage
pressure
Closure strain
Etensile
The point number of the first yield point on the yield curve is
given by the value of p yield (parameter YPRESS). p yield must
match the third, fourth or higher point on the yield curve. For future
reference, the point number corresponding to p yield is denoted
NPOINTS. NPOINTS must be greater than or equal to 3.
For each point on the main loading curve higher than the first
yield point, there is an associated unloading curve, as shown.
Notice that each unloading curve must have the same number of
Closure strain
Etensile
Gasket pressure
Interpolated unloading
curve based on highest M
closure strain I
Initial yield
point
G
E L
pyield
D
H
J
B
Leakage F
pressure A
N
C K Closure strain
Modeling issues
If the user does not explicitly set the material axes coordinate
system in gasket elements (using CORDM of the PSOLID entry),
the program attempts to automatically determine the gasket
material axes directions. This automatic determination is made
based on the element layout. Fig 3.85 shows element layouts in
which the program can and cannot automatically determine the
gasket material directions. If the program can automatically
determine the gasket material directions, then the program
constructs a material coordinate system in which the x direction
corresponds to the gasket thickness direction.
(b) At least one element is surrounded by neighboring elements on opposite sides only.
Gasket direction cannot be automatically determined.
The SMA material model can be used with rod, 2D solid, 3D
solid and shell elements. It is available only for implicit analysis
(Solution 601).
seff
Detwinned
martensite CM CM CA CA
Austenite
Twinned
martensite
Mf Ms As Af
Temperature, q
Transformation at seff = 0
Transformation at seff > 0
Mf Mfs As Ass
Volume fraction of martensite, m
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Ms Mss Af Afs
Temperature, q
Fig. 3.92: Volume fraction of martensite vs. temperature
s s
q > Af q < As
= e + t +
where
e= elastic strain
= thermal strain
t = transformation strain; to be evaluated
The onedimensional macroscale model,
= s + t ; 0 1
+ = 1
t = tmax s
= ((1 ) E A + EM )( t max s )
ijt = s max
t
nijt
3 sij
nijt = ; for the martensitic transformation
2
3 ij
t
3
= sij sij is the effective von Mises stress
2
3 t t
t = ij ij is the effective transformation strain
2
t +t
E ( )
t +t
sij =
1+ t +t
( )
( t +t
ij ijt )
where
t +t
ij = t +t ij t ijt
f M S = 3J 2 CM ( M S )
f M f = 3 J 2 CM ( M f )
f AS = 3J 2 C A ( AS )
f Af = 3J 2 C A ( Af )
R
= f f
ff
t +t
3 J2 t J2
f = c( t +t t )
2
t +t
f f =  f M f , c = CM and R = 1 
f f = f A f , c = C A and R =
f R = 3 J 2 CR R
where
s =
s
s =
t
t =
E ( t ) t +t
t +t TR
s = ( ij )
1 + ( t )
ij
3 t +t t +t
g 2 ( s ) = sij sij CR t +t R = 0
2
(3.91)
E ( ) t +t "
t +t
t +t
sij = ( ij s max
t t +t t
nij )
1 + ( )
t +t
t +t
R 3 t +t
J 2 ( ) t J 2
g ( ) = c( t +t t ) = 0
t +t
ff 2
t +t
(3.92)
where
E ( ) t +t "
t +t
t +t
sij = ( ij s ( ) max
t t +t t
nij )
1 + ( )
t +t
R = 1 , f f = f M f and c = CM
R = , f f = f Af and c = CA
dG ( )
t
sij (t ) = 2G (0)eij (t ) + 2 eij (t ) d (3.101)
0+
d
dK ( )
t
kk (t ) = 3K (0) kk (t ) + 3 kk (t ) d (3.102)
0 + d
1
where t is the time, sij = ij ij kk is the deviatoric stress, ij
3
1
is the Kronecker delta, ij is the stress, eij = ij ij kk is the
3
deviatoric strain, ij is the strain, G(t) is the shear modulus and
K(t) is the bulk modulus.
In the presence of a temperature variation (t ) the stresses for
an isotropic and thermorheologically linear viscoelastic material
may be written as
dG ( )
sij (t ) = 2G (0)eij (t ) + 2 eij ( ) d (3.103)
0+
d
dK ( ) dK ( )
kk (t ) = 3K (0) ( kk (t ) (t ) ) + 3 [ kk ( )]
th
d 3 kkth (t ) d
d d
kk
0+ 0+
(3.104)
where
t
= ( ) d , = ( ) d (3.105)
+ +
0 0
d
(TALPHA ) = 1, ( ) > 0, >0 (3.107)
d
Note that TALPHA is the reference temperature used for thermal
strain calculation.
In equations (3.103) and (3.104) it is assumed that the
mechanical and thermal responses are uncoupled. Furthermore if
the temperature is constant, equations (3.103) and (3.104) reduce
to equations (3.101) and (3.102).
K
K (t ) = K + K i e it (3.109)
i =1
(t ) 0 (3.1010)
= ( (t ) ) (3.1011)
1 1
log10 ( ) = C1 , 0
0
(3.1013)
1 1
= C2 , < 0
0
4. Contact conditions
Contact conditions can be specified in Advanced Nonlinear
Solution to model contact involving 3D solid elements, shell
elements, 2D solid elements, and rigid surfaces.
ref. KJB ref. Bathe, K.J. and Chaudhary, A., "A Solution Method for
Section 6.7 Planar and Axisymmetric Contact Problems," Int. J.
Num. Meth. in Eng., Vol. 21, pp. 6588, 1985.
ref. Eterovic, A. and Bathe, K.J., "On the Treatment of
Inequality Constraints Arising From Contact Conditions
in Finite Element Analysis," J. Computers & Structures,
Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 203209, July 1991.
ref. Pantuso, D., Bathe, K.J. and Bouzinov, P.A."A Finite
Element Procedure for the Analysis of Thermo
mechanical Solids in Contact," J. Computers &
Structures, Vol. 75, No. 6, pp. 551573, May 2000.
Most of the features and tolerances needed for contact sets are
provided in the BCTPARA entry. An explanation of this entry is
provided in the NX Nastran Quick Reference Guide. Some contact
settings however apply to all contact sets (such as contact
convergence tolerances, suppression of contact oscillations). These
settings are provided in the NXSTRAT entry.
4.1 Overview
Contact sets (and their contact surfaces) in Advanced Nonlinear
Solution can be either 2D or 3D. The contact surfaces should be
defined as regions that are initially in contact or that are anticipated
to come into contact during the solution.
Contact surface 3
Body 2 l
l l
l l
l
D
l Body 3 l
l l
l
Contact surface 2 l l l
l
l
l l l l l l l l l
A
l l
l l
l l l
l Contact surface 1
C l
Bl
Body 1
Contactor surface
(surface of cylinder)
Body 1
Target surface
(top surface of
body 2)
Body 2
No penetration Target
surface
Contactor
surface
Contactor
No penetration surface
Target
surface
Basic concepts
1
and < 1 implies u = 0 (4.13)
while = 1 implies sign ( u ) = sign ( )
Sliding: the gap between the contactor node and the target
segment is closed; a compression force is acting onto the
contactor node and the node kinematically slides along the
target segments (either due to frictionless contact or to a
frictional restrictive force less than the limit Coulomb force.
Singlesided contact
For singlesided contact, which is defined using NSIDE=1
parameter on the BCTPARA card (see Fig. 4.14), one side of the
contact surface is assumed to be internal and the other side to be
external. Any contactor node within the internal side of a target
surface is assumed to be penetrating and will be moved back to the
surface. This singlesided option is ideal for contact surfaces on the
faces of solid elements since in that case it is clear that one side is
internal to the solid while the other is external. In this case, the
external side can usually be predicted from the geometry. This
option is also useful for shells when it is known that contact will
definitely occur from one direction. In this case, however, the
program cannot intuitively predict the internal side of the contact
surface.
Internal side
(no contactor nodes allowed)
Target
surface
External side
Doublesided contact
In doublesided contact, which is defined using NSIDE=2
parameter on the BCTPARA card (see Fig. 4.15), there are no
internal or external sides. The contactor surface nodes in this case
are prevented from crossing from one side of the target contact
surface to the other during solution. This option is more common
Tied contact
When the tied contact feature is selected for a contact set (TIED
parameter in the BCTPARA card), Solution 601 performs an initial
contact check at the start of the analysis. All contactor nodes that
are found to be in contact or overlapping are permanently attached
to their respective target segments. Contactor nodes that are not in
contact are also set to be tied if the contact gap is less than a user
specified contact tolerance (TIEDTOL parameter in the BCTPARA
card). This tolerance is useful when the contact gap is due to non
matching finite element discretizations of the contacting surfaces.
The tied contact feature is conceptually similar to using Rigid
elements or multipoint constraints to attach the node to the target
surface. The main difference is that the coefficients for the rigid
elements are automatically determined by the program and they are
only applied for the nodes that are initially in contact. The basic
idea is illustrated in Fig. 4.16.
Tied contact is not "real" contact because there can be tension
between tied contact surfaces. Also no sliding can occur between
tied contact surfaces.
The tied contact option can be used to connect two incompatible
meshes. However, the mesh glueing feature described in Section
5.9 produces more accurate results.
Contactor surface
Permanent rigid
connections
Gap between
contact surfaces
(exaggerated)
Target surface
If the contact surfaces initially overlap, they are not pushed back
to eliminate the overlap. Similarly, if there is an initial gap it is not
eliminated.
The tied contact constraint equations are computed based on the
initial nodal positions only. The constraints generated in tied
contact are not updated during the analysis. Hence, the constraints
will be inaccurate if the bodies experience large rotations.
Target surface
x*1
N x*1
x1 x1
Contactor surface
x*1
x1 x*1
x1
Constraintfunction method,
Segment (Lagrange multiplier) method, or
Rigid target method
g + g
2
w ( g, ) = + N
2 2
w(g,l)
.
10 2 1 1 2 _
10 u
eT
1
t
_
2
p
1
.
10 2 1 1 2 _
10 u
eT
1
The old friction algorithm can still be accessed via the FRICALG
parameter in the NXSTRAT entry.
Note that the target surface can be rigid in all three contact
algorithms. The presence of a rigid target does not mean that the
rigid target algorithm must be used.
N
FCN = M C aCN * = M C N
t 2
FTNi = N i FCN
M Ti = N i M C
and this mass is added to that of the target node itself. Then the
acceleration of the target node is determined as
aTN ( M T + M Ti ) = FTNi
vT
FCT * = M C
t
F = A P = A N ( K N N + K D N )
x
FT = min A KT xT , FN T
xT
Offset
t Actual contact
surface
Internal side Defined contact
surface
(a) singlesided contact
(using NSIDE=1, OFFSET=t on BCTPARA card)
Offset
Actual contact
t surfaces
t
Offset
Defined contact surface
(b) doublesided contact
(using NSIDE=2, OFFTYPE=1, OFFSET=t on BCTPARA card)
Nodal normals
(a) Discontinuous normals (b) Continuous normals
Initial penetration
The treatment of initial penetrations in Solution 601 is governed by
the INIPENE parameter in the BCTPARA entry. By default, if
there is initial overlap (penetration) between a contact node and a
target segment in the first solution step, the program attempts to
eliminate the overlap. Advanced Nonlinear Solution can eliminate
the overlap at the first step or over a userspecified time using the
TZPENE parameter in BCTPARA. This feature is useful if the
initial penetrations are too large to be eliminated in a single step.
Eliminate penetration
Contactor node
INIPENE = 0, TZPENE = 0.0
Target surface
Continuum
Eliminate penetration
over time period Ignore penetration
Overlap
distance
Gap override
In the gap override feature (set via the initial penetration flag
INIPENE=3 in BCTPARA), the gaps and penetrations calculated
from the finite element mesh are replaced by a fixed userspecified
value (GAPVAL parameter in the BCTPARA entry). A positive
value represents an initial gap, zero means that the contact is
touching the target, and a negative value represents an initial
penetration (which can be removed either immediately or over a
userspecified time as explained in the Section on initial
penetration above).
Note also that the error in mesh based gaps and penetrations for
curved surfaces can be more significant when low precision
numbers are used for the node coordinates (such as when short
input file format is used). Gap override is also useful for such
cases.
Target
surface e = L contact surface extension
L
e
Extended target
surface
where
eP /A
Contact birth/death
The contact birth feature activates a contact set at a specific time,
while the contact death feature disables a contact set at a specific
time. They are set via the TBIRTH and TDEATH parameters on
the BCTPARA card. A 0.0 birth time means that the contact set
starts active at the beginning of the analysis, and a death time less
than or equal to the birth time means that the contact set does not
die.
Time = t
t+2Dt t+Dt
x1t
t+2Dt t+Dt
FT FT .
x1t R= Relative sliding velocity
t+2Dt t+Dt t+Dt
FN FN Friction delay FT = 0
. .
x1t+2RDt unique x1t+DRt nonunique
4.5 Friction
Advanced Nonlinear Solution has a general Coulomb type friction
model, where the coefficient of friction can be a constant or
calculated based on several predefined friction laws. Solution 701
however, only supports standard Coulomb friction.
= A1
A1 if u A3
=
A2 if u > A3
u
A1 + ( A3 A1 ) if u < A2
= A2
if u > A2
A3
where v(1), v(2) and v(3) are the x, y and z components of the sliding
direction.
= A1 + A2 Fn , 0 1
A1 + A3 x (1) + A4 x (2) in 2D
= , 0 A2
A1 + A3 x (1) + A4 x (2) + A5 x (3) in 3D
1 exp( A2Tn )
=
Tn A1
1 exp( A2 Fn )
=
Fn A1
= A2 + ( A2 A1 ) exp( A3Tn )
= A2 + ( A2 A1 ) exp( A3 Fn )
The contact algorithm itself for a certain contact set can also
change in a restart. For this purpose, the contact algorithms can be
divided into two categories. The first category includes the
constraint function (implicit), Lagrange multiplier segment
(implicit), kinematic constraint (explicit), and penalty (explicit).
Restarts are possible between different algorithms in this category.
The second category includes the implicit and explicit Rigid Target
The contact damping feature allows the user to add normal and
tangential grounded viscous dampers to all contactor and target
nodes in the model. The damping is activated via the CTDAMP
parameter in NXSTRAT, and the normal and tangential damping
coefficients are CTDAMPN and CTDAMPT. Using the same value
for both normal and tangential direction results in isotropic viscous
damping. The damping force on each node is
FDamp = CN u N + CT uT
Body 1 (contactor)
Body 2 (target)
Contactor nodes
Target segments
Contactor
surface
Target
surface
The commands for 3D contact surface definition all require the
contact surface nodes to be connected with 3D solid or shell
elements. Therefore, to model a rigid target, dummy shell elements
should be used to define the surface. These shell elements are
removed from the model if they are found to be attached to a rigid
contact surface. A contact surface is deemed rigid if:
model illconditioned.
Outer cylinder
Inner cylinder
Contactor surface,
marked with
Target surface,
marked with
Geometry before
discretization
Overlap to ignore
features, the load steps should be small. The time step t should
also be small in dynamic analysis and when time dependent
material constitutive relations (e.g., creep) are used.
Contact surface
with sharp corners
Contact surface 1
Contact
Contact surface 3
surface 1 Contact surface 1
(with fine
corner mesh)
Contact surface 2
usually the case due to the small time step size of explicit analysis.
However, some cases such as that mentioned above lead to large
projected penetrations which results in incorrect contact conditions
and tensile contact forces.
One node
in contact
Tensile forces
Wrong contact
region
Projected configuration
(before contact correction) Final configuration
CFORCE
RCTOL
max(CFNORM,RCONSM)
Contact pair 1
Contact Contact
pair 2 pair 3
Applied Blankholder
load pressure
Symmetry
Fixed die
C U=R
Prescribed punch
displacement
Punch
Blank holder
Blank
Die
a) Physical problem
Contact
surface Contact
4 (target) surface 2
(target)
Contact
Contact surface 3
surface 1 (target)
(contactor),
offsets used
to model blank
thickness
Contact Contact
segment 1 segment 2
Segment normals
a) Contactor segments without offsets. Segment normals are not used.
Radius of sphere
Upper surface = contactor offset
Lower surface
b) Contactor segments with spherical offsets. Segment normals are not used.
Offset
vector
Contactor
node normal
Lower contactor point
Contactor surface
Targ ent 2
et seg gm
men et se
t1 Targ
Normals offset
Targ ent 2
et seg gm
men
t1 a rg et se
T
Target edge 1
g = d GAPBIAS
where GAPBIAS can be chosen to, for example, not model contact
even if there is geometric overlap. (The default for GAPBIAS is 0.)
Contactor node
Target segment
Closest point on
target segment
Target segment normal
n
Contactor node
Contactor node
d
d
Target edge
Edge 1
Segment 1
Segment 2
Fig. 4.85: Interaction of contactor node with target segments and edges
g = d OFFSET GAPBIAS
Contactor node
OFFSET
d
d  OFFSET
Target segment
Closest point on
target segment
Slope kn
Fn
DEPTH g
Spring is compressed
Contactor node Spring is uncompressed
Target segment
Contactor node
Target segment
Contactor node
Target segment
u f = ( u c ut ) ( ( u c ut ) n ) n
uf
Ff = Fn , u f < u f min
u f min
= F , u f u f min
Ff
mFn
Sliding
. . .
uf uf u
mFn
Sliding Sticking
sticking contact, even if the sticking force is larger than the sliding
force, and convergence is prevented for the current equilibrium
iteration.
Oscillation checking only forces sticking friction for the current
equilibrium iteration. For successive equilibrium iterations, the
frictional state (sliding or sticking) is determined as usual from the
sliding and sticking forces. So oscillation checking cannot
converge to a solution in which the frictional state is wrong.
Rigid links
Contactor node is closest to lower target. Contactor node is not closest to upper target,
since there is no upper target segment with normal that points in the direction of the
contactor node.
Contactor node
is closest to
upper target
Upper target
Lower target
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