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Fibre Chemistry, Vol. 40, No.

6, 2008

BASALT PLASTICS NEW MATERIALS FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION

S. E. Artemenko, S. V. Arzamastsev, UDC 666.964:625.752


D. A. Shatunov, and A. A. Vyazenkov

The effectiveness of using basalt fibres and substandard basalt wool large-tonnage waste from chemical
plants and nuclear generating stations as a reinforcing component in road construction was demonstrated.
Incorporation of basalt fibre or wool in asphalt concrete in an amount of up to 0.4 wt. % increased the strength
characteristics of the asphalt concrete by 10-30%. The presence of a physicochemical reaction in the basalt
fibrepolymer-asphalt binder system, which increased the strength characteristics, heat resistance, and lifetime
of the polymerasphaltconcrete, was demonstrated. IR spectroscopy showed ordering of the structure of the
PAB due to formation of organosilicate compounds that strengthened the structure of the polymer asphalt concrete.

The status of a developed country implies a branched infrastructure with modern highways. However, high-quality
road construction is impossible without the use of new materials and technologies.
The petroleum asphalt used in road construction, fabricated based on the residual principle, has low characteristics.
The use of domestic modifiers to increase them is frequently ineffective and use of foreign modifiers is impeded by their
high cost.
Reinforcement with fibres is a promising direction for raising the properties of composite materials. However,
chemical fibre production volumes are currently so small that they cannot satisfy even textile industry demand. Only the
dynamically developing production of basalt fibres exhibits a positive trend.
The intensive development of basalt fibre production in the territory of Russia is due to the high demand for these
fibres, which greatly outstrips the supply. Basalt fibres have unique properties: a high level of physicomechanical and
chemical properties, high resistance to aggressive media and vibrations, sound-insulating capacity, long lifetime, stability of
properties in prolonged use in different conditions, high adhesion to binders, and heat and fire resistance. All of these
positive properties make basalt fibres extremely promising for production of new composite materials basalt plastics and
articles with different functional applications. Use of basalt fibres and basalt wool as the reinforcing component in asphalt
concrete to increase its performance properties is very important.
The efficacy of reinforcement is determined by the adhesive reaction between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing
component to a significant degree, evaluated here by capillary rise (Fig. 1) of the polymer-asphalt binder (PAB). It was
found that the best wettability is characteristic of basalt fibre and standard basalt wool. We noted that the oiling agent did
not significantly affect the wettability.
The study of the reaction in the basalt fibrePAB system (Fig. 2) showed splitting of the intense fundamental
absorption band of SiO bond stretching vibrations (1091 cm-1) in PAB into two components (1062 and 1031 cm-1). This
suggests that the SiO group participates in formation of chemical bonds with the functional groups in the components of the
PAB, primarily the OH group of aromatic compounds and carboxylic acids in the asphalt:

O Si OH O Si O

O O
Si O R R
OH O Si OH

Saratov State Technical University. Translated from Khimicheskie Volokna, No. 6, pp. 11-14, November-December,
2009.

0015-0541/08/4006-0499 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 499


40
1

Absorption intensity
35
Rise height, mm

30
2
25
20 3
4
15
5
10
5
0
0 5 10 Time, min
Wavelength, cm-1
Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Fig. 1. Capillary rise kinetic curves of a 30% solution of polymer-asphalt binder (PAB) based on basalt filler: 1)
industrial basalt fibre; 2) standard basalt wool with no oiling agent; 3) basalt wool with oiling agent; 4) substandard
basalt wool with no oiling agent; 5) substandard basalt wool.
Fig. 2. IRS data: 1) PAB; 2) basalt fibre; 3) basalt fibrePAB composite.
evolution of gas
Intensity of

1 2

Time, min

Fig. 3. Change in the character of evolution of gas in heating


to 70C: 1) PAB; 2) PAB + basalt fibre.

a
Intensity (amount)of ion

Mass of ion, m/z

Fig. 4. Mass spectrum of initial PAB (a) and PABbasalt fibre


composite (b).

Under the effect of the active functional groups of the PAB components, the chain silicate structure on the surface
of the basalt fibres is partially reorganized, resulting in the formation of surface organosilicate compounds that bind the
basalt fibres with the PAB components. Very active SiOH silanol groups are formed and would pass into the
macromolecules of the PAB components, separating from the surface of the basalt fibres. The newly formed silanol groups
are catalysts of the reaction of the basalt with the PAB components.

500
Mass, % of initial
3
2

Temperature, C

Fig. 5. Weight losses according to TGA: 1) BND 60/90


asphalt; 2) PAB; 3) PABbasalt fibre composite.

TABLE 1. Properties of Asphalt Concrete Based on Initial Asphalt

Compressi ve stren gth, MPa, at different


Asphalt concrete temperature, C Water satu ration,
Wat er resist ance
vol. %
0 20 50
BND 60/90 12.1 5.7 2.1 0.9 0.95
BND 60/90+0.4% s ub standard basalt wool 12.9 5.6 2.6 1.9 0.99
BND 60/90+0.4% basalt wool 9.1 4.4 2.3 4.7 0.91
BND 60/90+0.4% basalt fibre in bulk 11.4 6.9 3.1 3.1 0.91
BND 60/90+ 0.2% basal t fibre laid in mold 11.9 5.6 2.7 4.2 0.91
Requirements in GOST 9128-97 M ax 13 Min 2.5 Min 1.3 1.5-4.0 Min 0.85

The functional groups in the PAB components substitute the hydrogen atoms in the surface OH groups of the basalt
fibres according to the following reactions:

silicate OH + C=C > silicate OCCH


silicate OH + C=O > silicate OCO
silicate OH + CN > silicate OC=NH
silicate OH + CH > silicate OCH2

The organic substituents formed on the surface of the basalt fibres contain free valence bonds that actively react
with the macromolecules of the PAB components.
The analysis of the IR spectra of the samples indicates that the basalt fibres order the structure of the PAB, forming
organosilicate compounds that strengthen the structure of the polymer-asphalt-concrete (Table 2).
In the chromatographic study of the vapor phase of un unmodified sample and a sample modified by adding basalt
wool, it was found (Fig. 3) that the peak corresponding to elimination of alkylbenzene was shifted from 18.91 to 21.55 min.
This demonstrates the presence of a reaction of the given kind of the PAB components with the basalt.
A detailed interpretation of the mass spectra showed that the vapor phase was primarily formed by decane, dodecane,
tricdecane, and dodecene (Fig. 4). Ions of the following masses are present in the mass spectrum: 55 (C4H7+), 57 (C4H9+),
69 (C5H9+), 71 (C5H11+), 85 (C6H13+), 91 (C7H7+), 106 (C8H10+), 119 (C9H11+). The include ions belonging to homologous
series of alkanes, alkenes, and alkylbenzenes.
The use of PAB in production and reinforcement of asphalt concrete with basalt fibre slows evolution of gas at the
working temperature of asphalt concrete paving.
The thermogravimetric analysis showed (Fig. 5) that incorporation of a complex modifier consisting of rubber and
polyethylene and basalt fibre in the asphalt increases the heat resistance of the polymer-asphalt binder and the composite
made from it.
The efficacy of using substandard basalt wool (waste formed at Saratovorgsintez Ltd. nitrogen-oxygen station),
which increases the compressive breaking stress at 50C by 24%, and basalt fibre, which increases the compressive stress at

501
TABLE 2. Properties of Asphalt Concrete Based on PAB

Compres sive st rength, MPa, at different


Asphalt concrete temperature, C Water saturation,
Water resist ance
vol. %
0 20 50
PAB 14.0 6.0 2.5 0.5 -
PAB+ 0.4% substandard basalt wool 14.0 6.5 2.8 1.9 1.00
PAB+ 0.4% substandard wool 11.0 5.6 2.3 2.3 0.72
PAB+0.4% basalt fibre in bulk 12.0 6.9 3.2 2.7 0.99
PAB+ 0.2% basalt fibre lai d in mold 12.8 5.9 2.9 2.5 0.89
Requirements in GOST 9128-97 M ax 13 Min 2.5 Min 1.3 1.5-4.0 Min 0.85

20 and 50C by 21 and 47%, as the reinforcing component was demonstrated for asphalt concrete based on the initial grade
BND 60/90 asphalt (Table 1).
The asphalt concrete based on the polymer-asphalt binder from the beginning has strength characteristics 5-20%
higher than these characteristics in the grade BND 60/90 asphalt most frequently used in road construction. Reinforcement
allows increasing the strength characteristics of the asphalt concrete by an additional 10-30% (Table 2).
Basalt fibre was incorporated in asphalt concrete in the amount of 0.2-0.4 wt. % with a cut length of 50-60 mm both
in the stage of mixing the components in the bulk of the mineral filler and asphalt and in the stage of molding the samples
with a lining in the cylindrical mold by layers.

REFERENCES

1. D. V. Chechulin, I. A. Ionov, et al., in: All-Russian Conference Prospects for Development of the Volga Region
[in Russian], Tver (2001), p. 121.
2. I. A. Ionov, D. V. Chechulin, et al., Plast. Massy, No. 11, 40-41 (2004).
3. D. V. Chechulin, I. A. Ionov, et al., Khim. Volokna, No. 5, 52-55 (2004).
4. I. A. Ionov, S. E. Artemenko, and S. V. Arzamastsev, in: Proceedings of the International Conference Kompozit-
2004 [in Russian], SSTU, Saratov (2004), pp. 90-94.
5. I. A. Ionov, S. E. Artemenko, et al., in: Proceedings of the International Symposium 21st Century Composites [in
Russian], SSTU, Saratov (2005), pp. 234-239.
6. S. E. Artemenko, S. V. Arzamastsev, and I. A. Ionov, Plast. Massy, No. 1, 19-21 (2008).

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