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Chapter 9

Sinusoids and Phasors

SJTU 1
Sinusoids
A sinusoid is a signal that has the form of the sine or
cosine function.
v Vm cos(t )
where Vm amplitude
angular frequency
t arg ument
phase angle

SJTU 2
t

v Vm cos(t )

2
2 f radians/second
T (rad/s)
f is in hertz(Hz)
SJTU 3
v1 (t ) Vm1 cos( t 1 )
v2 (t ) Vm 2 cos( t 2 )
Phase difference:
( t 1 ) ( t 2 )
1 2
if 0 v1 and v 2 are out of phase
0 v1 and v 2 are in phase
0 v1 leads v 2 by
0 v1 lags v 2 by
SJTU 4
Complex Number

z x jy rectangular form
z r polar form
z rcos jrsin sinusoidal form
z re j exponential form

SJTU 5
Phasor
a phasor is a complex number representing the amplitude
and phase angle of a sinusoidal voltage or current.

Eq.(8-1)

Eq. (8-2)

and Eq.(8-3)

SJTU 6
When Eq.(8-2) is applied to the general sinusoid we obtain

Eq.(8-4)

The phasor V is written as


Eq.(8-5)

SJTU 7
Fig. 8-1 shows a graphical representation commonly called
a phasor diagram.
Two features of the phasor concept
need emphasis:
1. Phasors are written in boldface
type like V or I1 to distinguish
them from signal waveforms
such as v(t) and i1(t).
2. A phasor is determined by
Fig. 8-1: Phasor diagram
amplitude and phase angle and
does not contain any
information about the
frequency of the sinusoid.

SJTU 8
In summary, given a sinusoidal signal , the
corresponding phasor representation is . Conversely,
given the phasor , the corresponding sinusoid is found
by multiplying the phasor by and reversing the steps in Eq.
(8-4) as follows:

Eq.(8-6)

v(t ) Vm cos(t ) V Vm
Time domain Phase-domain
representation representation

SJTU 9
Properties of Phasors

additive property

Eq.(8-
7)

Eq.(8-8)

Eq.(8-9)

SJTU 10
derivative property

Eq.(8-
10)

dv
j V
dt
Time domain Phase-domain
representation representation
SJTU 11
Integral property
V
vdt j
Time domain Phase-domain
representation representation
The differences between v(t) and V:

1. V(t) is the instantaneous or time-domain representation,


while V is the frequency or phasor-domain
representation.
2. V(t) is a real signal which is time dependent, while V is
just a supposed value to simplify the analysis

SJTU 12
The complex exponential is sometimes called a rotating phasor,
and the phasor V is viewed as a snapshot of the situation at t=0.

Fig. 8-2: Complex exponential

SJTU 13
v Vm cos 2 f t 10 cos 2 0.5 t + j = 90 or /2 10V rms ac signal at 0.5 Hz
14.142 15
In this particular case
12

Vm 6

ot
ls
3

v
= 180 or t v imag t n

en
i
=0

g
0

Va
t
+

o
l
- real 3

real 6

12
14.142
15
0 5 10 15
- j = -90 or - /2 0 ( t) n 12.566
angular frequency times time in radians
10V rms ac signal at 0.5 Hz
0 0 The projection of the rotating
phasor on the j (imaginary) axis is
ns

1.5
da
i

vimag Vm sin(t )
a

3
m n r

4.5
i ei

6
mst

t n
e

7.5
c
nyi
t

9
The projection of the rotating
qe
u

10.5
e

phasor on the real axis is


r
afr

12
u
l

vreal Vm cos(t )
ng

13.5
a

12.566
15
15 10 5 0 5 10 15
14.142 v real( t ) n 14.142
voltage in volts

SJTU 14
EXAMPLE 8-1
(a) Construct the phasors for the following signals:

(b) Use the additive property of phasors and the phasors


found in (a) to find v(t)=v1(t)+v2(t).
SOLUTION
(a) The phasor representations of v(t)=v1(t)+ v2(t) are

SJTU 15
(b) The two sinusoids have the same frequent so the additive
property of phasors can be used to obtain their sum:

The waveform corresponding to this phasor sum is

V2

1
V
V1
SJTU 16
EXAMPLE 8-2
(a) Construct the phasors representing the following signals:

(b) Use the additive property of phasors and the phasors found
in (a) to find the sum of these waveforms.
SOLUTION:
(a) The phasor representation of the three sinusoidal currents are

SJTU 17
(b) The currents have the same frequency, so the additive
property of phasors applies. The phasor representing the sum of
these current is

Fig. 8-4

SJTU 18
EXAMPLE 8-3
Use the derivative property of phasors to find the time derivative
of v(t)=15 cos(200t-30).

SOLUTION:
The phasor for the sinusoid is V=15-30 . According to

the derivative property, the phasor representing the dv/dt is


found by multiplying Vbyj .

The sinusoid corresponding to the phasor jV is

SJTU 19
Device Constraints in Phasor Form
Resistor: jIm
V

I
0
Re

Vm I m R
Voltage-current relations for a resistor in the: (a) time
domain, (b) frequency domain. V I
SJTU 20
Device Constraints in Phasor Form
Inductor:


Vm LI m
V I 90
Voltage-current relations for an inductor in the: (a) time
domain, (b) frequency domain.
SJTU 21
Device Constraints in Phasor Form
Capacitor:


I m CVm
Voltage-current relations for a capacitor in the:
I V 90
(a) time domain, (b) frequency domain.

SJTU 22
Connection Constraints in Phasor Form
KVL in time domain

Kirchhoff's laws in phasor form (in frequency domain)

KVL: The algebraic sum of phasor voltages around a loop is


zero.
KCL: The algebraic sum of phasor currents at a node is zero.

SJTU 23
The Impedance Concept
The IV constraints are all of the form
V=ZI or Z= V/I Eq.(8-16)

where Z is called the impedance of the element


The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the phasor voltage
V to the phasor current I, measured in ohms()
Z R jX
where R Re Z is the resistance and X Im Z is the reactance.

The impedance is inductive when X is positive


is capacitive when X is negative

SJTU 24
The Impedance Concept
Z Z
X
where Z R 2 X 2 , tan 1
R
and R Z cos , X Z sin

SJTU 25
EXAMPLE 8-5

Fig. 8-5

The circuit in Fig. 8-5 is operating in the sinusoidal steady state


with and . Find the impedance of
the elements in the rectangular box.
SOLUTION:

SJTU 26
I 3 V2 /RL 0.278 37.9

SJTU 27
The Admittance Concept
The admittance Y is the reciprocal of impedance,
measured in siemens (S)
1 I
Y
Z V
Y=G+jB
Where G=Re Y is called conductance and B=Im Y is called
the susceptance
1
G jB
How get Y=G+jB from R jX
Z=R+jX ? R X
G , B
R2 X 2 R2 X 2

SJTU 28
1
resistor : YR G
R
1
inductor : YL
jL
capacitor : YC jC

SJTU 29
Basic Circuit Analysis with Phasors
Step 1: The circuit is transformed into
the phasor domain by representing the
input and response sinusoids as phasor
and the passive circuit elements by
their impedances.
Step 2: Standard algebraic circuit
techniques are applied to solve the
phasor domain circuit for the desired
unknown phasor responses.
Step 3: The phasor responses are
inverse transformed back into time-
domain sinusoids to obtain the
response waveforms.

SJTU 30
Series Equivalence And Voltage Division

where R is the real part and X is the imaginary part

SJTU 31
EXAMPLE 8-6

Fig. 8-8
The circuit in Fig. 8 - 8 is operating in the sinusoidal steady
state with

(a) Transform the circuit into the phasor domain.


(b) Solve for the phasor current I.
(c) Solve for the phasor voltage across each element.
(d) Construct the waveforms corresponding to the phasors found
in (b) and (c)

SJTU 32
SOLUTION:

SJTU 33
PARALLEL EQUIVALENCE AND
CURRENT DIVISION
I
Rest of I1 I2 I3
the V Y
Y1
1 Y2 YN
circuit

phasor version of the current division principle

SJTU 34
EXAMPLE 8-9

Fig. 8-13
The circuit in Fig. 8-13 is operating in the sinusoidal
steady state with iS(t)=50cos2000t mA.
(a) Transform the circuit into the phasor domain.
(b) Solve for the phasor voltage V.
(c) Solve for the phasor current through each element.
(d) Construct the waveforms corresponding to the phasors
found in (b) and (c).

SJTU 35
SOLUTION:
(a) The phasor representing the input source current is
Is=0.050 A. The impedances of the three passive elements are

Fig. 8-14

SJTU 36
And the voltage across the parallel circuit is

The current through each parallel branch is

The sinusoidal steady-state waveforms corresponding to the


phasors in (b) and (c) are

SJTU 37
EXAMPLE 8-10

Fig. 8-15

Find the steady-state currentsi(t), and iC(t) in the circuit of


Fig. 8-15 (for Vs=100cos2000t V, L=250mH, C=0.5 F, and
R=3k ).
SOLUTION:
Vs=1000

SJTU 38
SJTU 39
SJTU 40
Y TRANSFORMATIONS
The equations for the to Y
transformation are

SJTU 41
The equations for a Y-to- transformation are

when Z1=Z2=Z3=ZY or ZA=ZB=ZC=ZN.

ZY=ZN /3 and ZN =3ZY balanced conditions

SJTU 42
EXAMPLE 8-12
Use a to Y transformation to solve for the phasor current IX in
Fig. 8-18.
SOLUTION:

ABC to Y

Fig. 8-18

SJTU 43
SJTU 44