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1. To learn two of the arc welding technique.

2. To Learn about arc welding and its safety and health
3. Identify arc welding equipment

In this laboratory the type of welding has been carried out is arc
welding which a manual process that uses a consumable electrode coated
in flux to lay the weld. It is a fusion welding processes which uses an
electric arc to produce the heat required for melting the metal. The welder
creates an electric arc that melts the base metals and filler metal
(consumable) together so that they all fuse into one solid piece of metal

An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct

current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc
between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid, the
flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapours that serve
as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the
weld area from atmospheric contamination.

Arc welding is also known as stick welding. Its used an arc

welding to weld between a covered electrode and a workpiece. There
were shielding obtained from decomposition of the electrode cover. During
this working operation the pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained
from the electrode.

There are many weave pattern technique in welding operation such as circular, c,
square, J, T , and straight step pattern. Only the circular and c technique has been used
on my tasks. Circular pattern is used for flat position welds on butt, tee,
outside corner joints and build up or surfacing applications. "C" pattern
good for most flat welds, but can be used for vertical positions.The arc
welding continues to be used extensively in the construction of steel structures and in
industrial fabrication. It is popular because it can be used in the field without complicated
equipment and gases.

1) Follow the procedures for turning off and on the welding machine.
2) Wear face shield, safety shoes and safety jacket, leather gloves and apron all
the times.
3) Avoid performing a welding operation and the tools until you are thoroughly
familiar with how it should be done.
4) Obtain permission before start the welding operation and only attempt work
that you have been approved to do.
5) Be aware when performing the machine because it produced ultraviolet rays
spatter and heat to the materials. Use the black glass of the face shield.
6) Do not watch the ultraviolet ray spatter when welding without using the black
glass of face shield.
7) Carry out at a comfortable area and where there is good welding will be done
away from the flammable materials.
8) Do not disturb other student that are still work.
9) Store the equipment and other accessories carefully because they can be
damaged if not store properly.
10) Always use a wire brush, not hand to remove the coated molten metal after the
welding process.
11) Use the chipping hammer to remove the coated part of the molten metal.
12) Dont leave wire brush and chipping hammer on working table to avoid injury.
13) Be sure the electrode being clamped successfully at electrode holder to avoid
it from moving during the working operation.
14) Keep the floor clean around the machine free from chips, electrodes coated.
15) Clean the entire working place after used it.


Arc welding used a coated electrode to weld with the metal. Basically, only two weave
pattern has been used which is circular and c pattern. In circular pattern the molten metal
produced cover more space and higher metal height compared to the c pattern. Welding
operation will consume less time when using the circular pattern compared to the c. The
electrode which clamped at the electrode holder must be between 3mm to 5 mm from the
metal. If the electrode is too close or less than 3 mm it will stick together with the metal and
the welding operation cannot be carried out.If the operation is too far the operation cannot be
conducted and the spatter will not come up and the welding did not happen. The power
supply will be around 45 V at up to 600A. the electrode is a mild steel 6013.


Based on the result, the welding that has been carried out has some defect. The defect is due
to the bad practices, the effect of changing variation of parameters which either the current is
too low or too height. The height of the weld metal and the slag inclusion are caused by the
current conductivity which s too low while for the ripple appearance and the porosity is
caused by the too high current flow.
The c weave pattern technique The circular weave pattern technique


Based on the result, some defect occurred which are from the technical term and also the bad
practise. The height of the molten metal must be higher in both technique. Besides that, the
circular technique must cover a big area of weld compared to the c technique. The two
welding technique which are circular and c pattern has been used, the equipment of the arc
welding and the arc welding itself has been learnt. We also get to know how to do an arc
welding and how the process is occur . Besides that, there are also a few tips on handling and
welding that we have learn . We also can improve our skills in welding .

4. Welding Essentials by William L. Galvery Jr. and Frank B. Marlow\
5. Audel Welding Pocket Reference by James E. Brumbaugh and Rex

1. Prepare a piece of steel 75 100mm as the welding metal.

2. Use and electrode code MS6013 or E6013 which have the diameter 2.6mm or
3. Clean the rusting part of the metal using the wire brush.
4. Put the metal on the working table at horizontal position.
5. Clamp the earth holder at the bottom of the working table.
6. Put an electrode at the electrode holder and make sure that there are no
movement of electrode at the holder.
7. Turn on the main switch of the welding machine. Turn on the output voltage of
the machine.
8. Hold the electrode at 60 work at above 5mm of the metal.
9. Put on the black glass of the face shield to avoid the ultraviolet ray spatter
from directly contact to the eye which may lead the eye to damages.
10. Contact the electrode to the metal at 3mm to 5mm until the a spatter appear.
11. Hold the work angle with the inner core of the flame 3mm to 5mm above the
base metal.
12. Hold that position over a spot just inside a right edge of the base metal until a
molten metal height meet the desired height.
13. Move the electrode position horizontally at slow rate until the desired length
achieve. This is the c weave pattern technique.
14. Put off the black glass of the face shield. Hit the molten metal with the
chipping hammer to remove the coated part of the metal.
15. Remove the coated part by using the wire brush.
16. Repeat step 9 to 11. The motion of the electrode must be in circular motion. Its
need to cover more space compare to the c weave pattern technique.
17. In circular motion hold that position over a spot just inside a right edge of the
base metal until a molten metal height meet the desired height.
18. Move the electrode position horizontally at slow rate until the desired length
achieve but in circular motion.
19. Repeat step 14 and 15.Put off the face shield.
20. Turn off the main switch. Place the metal at safe place.
21. Store the electrode holder and the earth holder at the machine. Clean the
working place up.

Welding machine Electrode holder

Electrode Earth holder

Chipping hammer Wire brush

Face shield Leather apron

Leather glove Metal