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Appendix A

Conversion Factors
Table A.1 Conversion factors for commonly used quantities

Quantity SI to English English to SI

Area 1 m2 = 10.764 ft2 1 ft2 = 0.00929 m2


= 1550.0 in2 1 in2 = 6.452 10 4 m2
Density 1 kg/m3 = 0.06243 lbm/ft3 1 lbm /ft3 = 16.018 kg/m3
1 slug/ft3 = 515.379 kg/m3
Energy 1 J = 9.4787 10 4 Btu 1 Btu = 1055.056 J
1 cal = 4.1868 J
1 lbf ft = 1.3558 J
1 hph = 2.685 106 J
Energy per unit mass 1 J/kg = 4.2995 10 4 Btu/lbm 1 Btu/lbm = 2326 J/kg
Force 1 N = 0.22481 lbf 1 lbf = 4.448 N
1 pdl = 0.1382 N
Gravitation g = 9.80665 m/s2 g = 32.17405 ft/s2
Heat flux 1 W/m2 = 0.3171 Btu/hft2 1 Btu/hft2 = 3.1525 W/m2
1 kcal/hm2 = 1.163 W/m2
1 cal/scm2 = 41870.0 W/m2
Heat generation (volum.) 1 W/m3 = 0.09665 Btu/hft3 1 Btu/hft3 = 10.343 W/m3
Heat transfer coefficient 1 W/m2 K = 0.1761 Btu/ft2 F 1 Btu/hft2 F = 5.678 W/m2 K
1 kcal/hm2 C = 1.163 W/m2 K
1 cal/sm2 C = 41870.0 W/m2 K
Heat transfer rate 1 W = 3.4123 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.2931 W
Length 1 m = 3.2808 ft 1 ft = 0.3048 m
= 39.370 in 1 in = 2.54 cm = 0.0254 m
1 km = 0.621371 mi 1 mi = 1.609344 km
1 yd = 0.9144 m
Mass 1 kg = 2.2046 lbm 1 lbm = 0.4536 kg
1 ton (metric) = 1000 kg 1slug = 14.594 kg
1 grain = 6.47989 10 5 kg
(continued overleaf )

Thermal Energy Storage: Systems and Applications, Second Edition Ibrahim Dincer and Marc A. Rosen
2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-74706-3
586 Appendix A: Conversion Factors

Table A.1 (continued)

Quantity SI to English English to SI

Mass flow rate 1 kg/s = 7936.6 lbm /h 1 lbm/h = 0.000126 kg/s


= 2.2046 lbm /s 1 lbm/s = 0.4536 kg/s
Power 1 W = 1 J/s = 3.4123 Btu/h 1 Btu/h = 0.2931 W
= 0.737562 Ibf ft/s 1 Btu/s = 1055.1 W
1 hp (metric) = 0.735499 kW 1 lbf ft/s = 1.3558 W
1 ton of refrig. = 3.51685 kW 1 hpUK = 745.7 W
Pressure and stress 1 Pa = 0.020886 lbf/ft2 1 lbf /ft2 = 47.88 Pa
(Pa = N/m2 ) = 1.4504 10 4 lbf/in2 1 lbf /in2 = 1 psi = 6894.8 Pa
= 4.015 10 3 in water 1 stand. atm. = 1.0133 105 Pa
= 2.953 10 4 in Hg 1 bar = 1 105 Pa
Specific heat 1 J/kgK = 2.3886 10 4 Btu/lbm F 1 Btu/lbm F = 4187 J/kgK
1 lbf/ft = 14.594 N/m
Surface tension 1 N/m = 0.06852 lbf /ft 1 dyn/cm = 1 10 3 N/m
T( R) = 1.8 T(K)
Temperature T(K) = T( C) + 273.15 = T( F) + 459.67
= T( R)/1.8 = 1.8 T( C) + 32
= [T( F) + 459.67]/1.8 = 1.8[T(K) 273.15] + 32
T( C) = [T( F) 32]/1.8 1 R = 1 F = 1 K/ 1.8 = 1 C/ 1.8
Temperature difference 1 K = 1 C = 1.8 R = 1.8 F 1 Btu/hft F = 1.731 W/mK
Thermal conductivity 1 W/mK = 0.57782 Btu/hft F 1 kcal/hm C = 1.163 W/mK
1 cal/scm C = 418.7 W/mK
Thermal diffusivity 1 m2 /s = 10.7639 ft2 /s 1 ft2 /s = 0.0929 m2 /s
1 ft2 /h = 2.581 10 5 m2 /s
Thermal resistance 1 K/W = 0.52750 Fh/Btu 1 Fh/Btu = 1.8958 K/W
Velocity 1 m/s = 3.2808 ft/s 1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s
1 km/s = 0.62137 mi/h 1 ft/min = 5.08 10 3 m/s
Viscosity (dynamic) 1 kg/ms = 0.672 lbm /fts 1 lbm /fts = 1.4881 kg/ms
(kg/ms = Ns/m2 ) = 2419.1 lbm /fhh 1 lbm /fth = 4.133 10 4 kg/ms
1 centipoise(cP) = 10 2 poise
= 1 10 3 kg/ms
Viscosity (kinematic) 1 m2 /s = 10.7639 ft2 /s 1 ft2 /s = 0.0929 m2 /s
= 1 104 stokes 1 ft2 /h = 2.581 10 5 m2 /s
1 stoke = 1 cm2 /s
Volume 1 m3 = 35.3134 ft3 1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3
1 L = 1 dm3 = 0.001 m3 1 in3 = 1.6387 10 5 m3
1 galUS = 0.003785 m3
1 galUK = 0.004546 m3
Volumetric flow rate 1 m3 /s = 35.3134 ft3 /s 1 ft3 /s = 2.8317 10 2 m3 /s
= 1.2713 105 ft3 /h 1 ft3 /min = 4.72 10 4 m3 /s
1 ft3 /h = 7.8658 10 6 m3 /s
1 galUS /min = 6.309 10 5 m3 /s