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YES, the lender did correctly apply the totality rule and joinder of causes of
Under the Rules, the sums of all the claims of the party shall be the one to be
used in determining jurisdiction and in joinder of causes of action when there
is one defendant, all causes of action can be joined whether it is
2. No, X should not be declared in default. Under the Rules summons can be
served through a non-resident defendant through extraterritorial mode of
service but this should be with leave of court.
The effect of Xs answers is that there can be no judgment on the pleading
since the trial will ensue on the basis of the answer of Y. Ys answer inure to
the benefit of the party who did not file one.
3. No, the case should not be dismissed. X is neither an indispensable nor a
necessary party to the action
The trial can proceed without X being impleaded, and full accord of the relief
sought by the plaintiff can be had without X to the action.

No, there is no remedies for X.

The interest of mortgagee is not a sufficient legal interest to justify an
4. No, Rules in Ordinay action can be suppletorily applied to special
NO, the court cannot