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SEBU7563-02

June 2002

Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
G3600 Engines
4ZS1-Up (Engine)
BEN1-Up (Engine)
BKE1-Up (Engine)
BLB1-Up (Engine)
i01658146

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil-
lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, phys-
ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
3
Table of Contents

Table of Contents Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines that use


Bio-Gas) .............................................................. 69

Foreword ................................................................. 4 Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines with a


10.5:1 Compression Ratio that use Wellhead Gas or
Natural Gas) ........................................................ 71
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels ......................................... 6 Reference Information Section

General Hazard Information ................................. 12 Customer Service ............................................... 123

Burn Prevention .................................................... 15 Reference Materials ............................................ 125

Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ............ 15 Index Section


Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention ........ 17 Index ................................................................... 130

Mounting and Dismounting ................................... 17

Ignition Systems ................................................... 17

Before Starting Engine .......................................... 18

Engine Starting ..................................................... 18

Engine Stopping ................................................... 18

Electrical System .................................................. 18

Product Information Section


Model Views and Specifications ........................... 20

Product Identification Information ........................ 29

Operation Section
Engine Lifting and Storage ................................... 31

Features and Controls .......................................... 33

Engine Starting ..................................................... 42

Engine Operation .................................................. 46

Engine Stopping ................................................... 47

Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications ........................................ 49

Fuel Specifications ................................................ 54

Cooling System Specifications ............................. 58

Refill Capacities .................................................... 66

Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines with a


9:1 Compression Ratio that use Wellhead Gas or
Natural Gas) ........................................................ 68
4
Foreword

Foreword Use service hours to determine intervals. Calendar


intervals shown (daily, annually, etc) may be used
instead of service meter intervals if they provide
Literature Information more convenient schedules and approximate the
indicated service meter reading.
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This Recommended service should always be
manual should be stored in or near the engine area performed at the service hour interval. The actual
in a literature holder or literature storage area. Read, operating environment of the engine also governs
study and keep it with the literature and engine the maintenance schedule. Therefore, under
information. extremely severe, dusty, wet or freezing cold
operating conditions, more frequent lubrication and
English is the primary language for all Caterpillar maintenance than is specified in the maintenance
publications. The English used facilitates translation schedule may be necessary.
and consistency in electronic media delivery.
The maintenance schedule items are organized
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual for a preventive maintenance management
show details or attachments that may be different program. If the preventive maintenance program
from your engine. Guards and covers may have is followed, a periodic tune-up is not required.
been removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing The implementation of a preventive maintenance
improvement and advancement of product design management program should minimize operating
may have caused changes to your engine which are costs through cost avoidances resulting from
not included in this manual. Whenever a question reductions in unscheduled downtime and failures.
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Caterpillar dealer for the latest
available information. Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples
Safety of the original requirement. Each level and/or
individual items in each level should be shifted
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. ahead or back depending upon your specific
In addition, this section identifies hazardous, maintenance practices, operation and application.
warning situations. Read and understand the basic We recommend that the maintenance schedules
precautions listed in the safety section before be reproduced and displayed near the engine as
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance a convenient reminder. We also recommend that a
and repair on this product. maintenance record be maintained as part of the
engines permanent record.
Operation
See the section in the Operation and Maintenance
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are Manual, Maintenance Records for information
basic. They assist with developing the skills and regarding documents that are generally accepted
techniques required to operate the engine more as proof of maintenance or repair. Your authorized
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques Caterpillar dealer can assist you in adjusting your
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
engine and its capabilities. operating environment.

The operation section is a reference for operators. California Proposition 65 Warning


Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, Battery posts, terminals and related accessories
operating and stopping the engine. This section contain lead and lead compounds. Wash hands
also includes a discussion of electronic diagnostic after handling.
information.

Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine
care. The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are
grouped by service hours and/or calendar time
maintenance intervals. Items in the maintenance
schedule are referenced to detailed instructions
that follow.
5
Foreword

Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs are best left to trained personnel or
an authorized Caterpillar dealer. Your Caterpillar
dealer offers a variety of options regarding overhaul
programs. If you experience a major engine failure,
there are also numerous after failure overhaul
options available from your Caterpillar dealer.
Consult with your dealer for information regarding
these options.
6
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

Safety Section
i01749840

Safety Signs and Labels


SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
7
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

g00901952
Illustration 1
8
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

g00901955
Illustration 2

There may be several specific safety signs on the


engine. The exact location of the hazards and the
description of the hazards are reviewed in this
section. Please become familiar with all safety signs.
9
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

Ensure that all of the safety signs are legible. Clean (2) Removal of the Prechamber
the safety signs or replace the safety signs if the
words cannot be read or if the pictures are not
Assembly
visible. When the safety signs are cleaned, use a
The notices for the removal of the prechamber
cloth, water, and soap. Do not use solvent, gasoline,
assemblies are located on each valve cover.
or other harsh chemicals to clean the safety signs.
Solvents, gasoline, or harsh chemicals could loosen
the adhesive that secures the safety signs. The
safety signs that are loosened could drop off of
the engine.

Replace any damaged safety signs or missing


safety signs. If a safety sign is attached to a part of
the package that is replaced, install a new safety g00902999
sign on the replacement part. Any Caterpillar dealer
can provide new safety signs. NOTICE

To prevent damage, drain the coolant and remove


the spark plugs before removing the prechamber.
Do not operate or work on this engine unless you Tighten the combustion sensor wire assembly nuts
have read and understand the instructions and to 9.5 .5 Nm (85 5 lb in). Do not overtighten.
warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Man-
ual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the (3) Oil Filter
warnings could result in injury or death. Contact
any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals. This information is for engines that have a control
Proper care is your responsibility. valve for the oil filters. The warning label for the oil
filters is located on the oil filter covers.
The safety signs and notices that may be attached
on the engine are illustrated and described below.

(1) Lifting Eye


The notices for the lifting eyes are located on the
bases of the lifting eyes.
g00123170

Filter contains hot pressurized fluid when engine


is running. Follow instructions on control valve to
avoid injury if rapid air movement exists to blow
fluid. Stop engine to avoid fire.

g00902989

NOTICE

For lifting engine only, use a 50.8 anchor shackle.


10
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

This information is for engines that do not have a (5) Read the Manual
control valve for the oil filters. The warning label for
the oil filters is located on the oil filter covers. The warning label for reading the manual is located
on the cover of the junction box.

g00296929

Filter contains hot pressurized fluid when engine


is running.

To avoid personal injury, stop engine before re- g00903032


moving filter cover.

(4) Pinch Point (Linkage) Do not operate or work on this engine unless you
The warning labels for the pinch point (linkage) are have read and understand the instructions and
located on the covers of the fuel control actuator, warnings in the Operation and Maintenance Man-
the air choke actuator, and the bracket of the ual. Failure to follow the instructions or heed the
exhaust bypass actuator . warnings could result in injury or death. Contact
any Caterpillar dealer for replacement manuals.
Proper care is your responsibility.

g00123168

During operation, the linkage of the electrohy-


draulic actuators can form pinch points which
can cause personal injury. Shut down the engine
before you service the electrohydraulic actuators.
11
Safety Section
Safety Signs and Labels

(6) Barring Device (7) Crankcase Covers


The warning label for the barring device is located The warning label for the crankcase covers is
on the guard of the barring device. located on the rearmost crankcase covers.

g00902932 g00123185

Guards must be in place prior to operating barring Flash fire may result in personal injury, if
device motor. crankcase covers are removed within fifteen
minutes after emergency shut down. Do not
Remove all hand tools prior to operating barring restart engine until cause for shutdown has been
device motor. corrected.

NOTICE

The barring device must be disengaged before


starting the engine.

Tighten nut to 270 Nm max. (200 lb ft) to lock


barring device.

Refer to the operations and maintenance manual for


further operating instructions.
12
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

(8) Engine Lifting (Label On the (9) Engine Lifting (Label On the
Number Three Camshaft Cover Number One Camshaft Cover and
and On the Number Four Camshaft On the Number Two Camshaft
Cover) Cover)
Warning labels for engine lifting are located on the Warning labels for engine lifting are located on the
camshaft cover of the number three cylinder and on camshaft cover of the number one cylinder and on
the camshaft cover of the number four cylinder. the camshaft cover of the number two cylinder.

g00299841 g00299818

Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble caus- Improper lift rigging can allow unit to tumble caus-
ing injury and damage. ing injury and damage.

1. Use a proper spreader bar, as shown. 1. Use a proper spreader bar, as shown.

2. Attach two properly rated cables to the spreader 2. Attach two properly rated cables to the spreader
bar from the engine lift shackles. bar from the engine lift shackles.

i01359759

General Hazard Information


SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

g00104545
Illustration 3
13
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

Attach a Do Not Operate warning tag or a similar Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls snag on controls or on other parts of the engine.
before the engine is serviced or before the engine
is repaired. These warning tags (Special Instruction, Ensure that all protective guards and all covers
SEHS7332) are available from your Caterpillar are secured in place on the engine.
dealer. Attach the warning tags to the engine
and to each operator control station. When it is Never put maintenance fluids into glass
appropriate, disconnect the starting controls. containers. Glass containers can break.

Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine, Use all cleaning solutions with care.
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced. Report all necessary repairs.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion Unless other instructions are provided, perform
which may be harmful to your health. Always the maintenance under the following conditions:
start the engine and operate the engine in a well
ventilated area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
vent the engine exhaust to the outside. cannot be started.

Cautiously remove the following parts. To help Disconnect the batteries when maintenance
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids, is performed or when the electrical system is
hold a rag over the part that is being removed. serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
Filler caps
Do not attempt any repairs that are not
Grease fittings understood. Use the proper tools. Replace
any equipment that is damaged or repair the
Pressure taps equipment.

Breathers California Proposition 65 Warning

Drain plugs Some engine exhaust constituents are known to the


State of California to cause cancer, birth defects,
Use caution when cover plates are removed. and other reproductive harm.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of Pressure Air and Water
the cover plate or the device. Before removing the
last two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris
to relieve any spring pressure or other pressure. and/or hot water to be blown out. This could result
in personal injury.

When pressure air and/or pressure water is used


for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.

The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes


must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be
below 275 kPa (40 psi).

g00702020
Illustration 4

Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other


protective equipment, as required.

When work is performed around an engine that


is operating, wear protective devices for ears in
order to help prevent damage to hearing.
14
Safety Section
General Hazard Information

Fluid Penetration Asbestos Information

g00687600 g00702022
Illustration 5 Illustration 6

Always use a board or cardboard when you check Caterpillar equipment and replacement parts that
for a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can are shipped from Caterpillar are asbestos free.
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause Caterpillar recommends the use of only genuine
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak Caterpillar replacement parts. Use the following
can cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your guidelines when you handle any replacement parts
skin, you must get treatment immediately. Seek that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos
treatment from a doctor that is familiar with this type debris.
of injury.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that
Containing Fluid Spillage contain asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can
be hazardous to your health. The components
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids
that may contain asbestos fibers are brake pads,
are contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the brake bands, lining material, clutch plates, and
some gaskets. The asbestos that is used in these
engine. Prepare to collect the fluid with suitable
components is usually bound in a resin or sealed in
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component containing fluids. some way. Normal handling is not hazardous unless
airborne dust that contains asbestos is generated.
Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Tools and
Shop Products Guide for the following items: If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
Tools that are suitable for collecting fluids and
equipment that is suitable for collecting fluids Never use compressed air for cleaning.

Tools that are suitable for containing fluids and Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
equipment that is suitable for containing fluids
Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.

A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high


efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.

Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining


jobs.

Wear an approved respirator if there is no other


way to control the dust.
15
Safety Section
Burn Prevention

Comply with applicable rules and regulations Any contact with hot coolant or with steam
for the work place. In the United States, use can cause severe burns. Allow cooling system
Occupational Safety and Health Administration components to cool before the cooling system is
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements drained.
can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.
Check the coolant level after the engine has
Obey environmental regulations for the disposal stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
of asbestos.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing
Stay away from areas that might have asbestos the filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough
particles in the air. to touch with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Dispose of Waste Properly Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali
can cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to
contact the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.

Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact
the skin.

Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause
g00706404 personal injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact
Illustration 7
the skin or the eyes. Always wear protective glasses
for servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
the batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be recommended.
disposed of according to local regulations.

Always use leakproof containers when you drain i01372262


fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water. Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
i01480768
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Burn Prevention
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405

Do not touch any part of an operating engine.


Allow the engine to cool before any maintenance
is performed on the engine. Relieve all pressure
in the air system, in the hydraulic system, in the
lubrication system, in the fuel system, or in the
cooling system before any lines, fittings or related
items are disconnected.

Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the Illustration 8
g00704000
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
to the engine contain hot coolant. are flammable.
16
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention

Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot Inspect all lines and hoses for wear or for
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause deterioration. The hoses must be properly routed.
a fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property The lines and hoses must have adequate support
damage. and secure clamps. Tighten all connections to the
recommended torque. Leaks can cause fires.
A flash fire may result if the covers for the engine
crankcase are removed within fifteen minutes after Oil filters and fuel filters must be properly installed.
an emergency shutdown. The filter housings must be tightened to the proper
torque.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in
an environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.

If the application involves the presence of


combustible gases, consult your Caterpillar dealer
for additional information about suitable protection
devices.

Remove all flammable materials such as fuel, oil,


and debris from the engine. Do not allow any
flammable materials to accumulate on the engine.

Store fuels and lubricants in properly marked


containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.

Do not expose the engine to any flame. g00704135


Illustration 9

Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust


Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line,
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
a hose, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
not smoke in battery charging areas.
installed correctly.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or
fluids. Do not flame cut lines that contain flammable
a hydrometer.
fluid. Clean any such lines thoroughly with a
nonflammable solvent prior to welding or flame
Improper jumper cable connections can cause
cutting.
an explosion that can result in injury. Refer to
the Operation Section of this manual for specific
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
instructions.
wires must be properly routed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
Do not charge a frozen battery. This may cause
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate
an explosion.
the engine. Clean all electrical connections and
tighten all electrical connections.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or
recommended cables, connections, and battery
unnecessary. Do not use any wires or cables that
box covers when the engine is operated.
are smaller than the recommended gauge. Do not
bypass any fuses and/or circuit breakers.
Fire Extinguisher
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and properly Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
or sparking. Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
17
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention

Lines, Tubes and Hoses Chips or other debris may fly off objects when
objects are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure
Do not bend high pressure lines. Do not strike high that no one will be injured by flying debris.
pressure lines. Do not install any lines that are bent
or damaged.
i01372247

Repair any lines that are loose or damaged. Leaks


can cause fires. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
Mounting and Dismounting
repair or for replacement parts. SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Check lines, tubes and hoses carefully. Do not Inspect the steps, the handholds, and the work
use your bare hand to check for leaks. Use a area before mounting the engine. Keep these items
board or cardboard to check for leaks. Tighten all clean and keep these items in good repair.
connections to the recommended torque.
Mount the engine and dismount the engine only at
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions locations that have steps and/or handholds. Do not
are present: climb on the engine, and do not jump off the engine.
End fittings are damaged or leaking. Face the engine in order to mount the engine or
dismount the engine. Maintain a three-point contact
Outer coverings are chafed or cut. with the steps and handholds. Use two feet and one
hand or use one foot and two hands. Do not use
Wires are exposed. any controls as handholds.
Outer coverings are ballooning. Do not stand on components which cannot support
your weight. Use an adequate ladder or use a work
Flexible part of the hoses are kinked. platform. Secure the climbing equipment so that the
equipment will not move.
Outer covers have embedded armoring.
Do not carry tools or supplies when you mount the
End fittings are displaced. engine or when you dismount the engine. Use a
hand line to raise and lower tools or supplies.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against other i01519141
parts, and excessive heat.
Ignition Systems
i01359666 SMCS Code: 1550
Crushing Prevention and Ignition systems can cause electrical shocks. Avoid
Cutting Prevention contacting the ignition system components and
wiring.
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7405
Do not inspect the valve mechanism or the
Support the component properly when work transformers while the engine is operating. Personal
beneath the component is performed. injury or death may result.

Unless other maintenance instructions are provided, If the mode control switch is in the AUTOMATIC
never attempt adjustments while the engine is or START position and the wiring harness is
running. connected, the ignition system may discharge and
a spark plug will ignite. The spark plug will ignite
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving any gas that has accumulated in that cylinder. The
parts. Leave the guards in place until maintenance crankshaft and the driven equipment can move.
is performed. After the maintenance is performed, Personal injury may result. The driven equipment
reinstall the guards. could be damaged. Gas that has accumulated in
the exhaust system can also be ignited.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The
fan blades will throw objects or cut objects.

When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in


order to avoid injury to the eyes.
18
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine

Turn the mode control switch to the STOP or Start the engine from the operators compartment or
OFF/RESET position before connecting the wiring from the engine start switch.
harness. When the mode control switch is in the
STOP or OFF/RESET position, the ignition system Always start the engine according to the procedure
is disabled. that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Engine Starting topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
i00659904
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Before Starting Engine Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
SMCS Code: 1000
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
Inspect the engine for potential hazards. and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
properly, check the water temperature gauge
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on, and the oil temperature gauge during the heater
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the operation.
area is free of personnel.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
Ensure that the engine is equipped with a lighting which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
system that is suitable for the conditions. Ensure engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
that all lights work properly. area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order i00659907
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work Engine Stopping
around the parts carefully.
SMCS Code: 1000
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits To avoid overheating of the engine and accelerated
are provided in order to help prevent personal wear of the engine components, stop the engine
injury. The circuits are also provided in order to help according to the instructions in this Operation and
prevent engine damage. Maintenance Manual, Engine Stopping topic
(Operation Section).
On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been serviced, be prepared to stop the Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped)
engine if an overspeed condition occurs. This may ONLY in an emergency situation. Do not use the
be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply to Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping.
the engine, or shutting off the ignition system. After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine
until the problem that caused the emergency stop
See the Service Manual for repairs and for has been corrected.
adjustments.
On the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been serviced, make provisions to stop
i00572000
the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may be
Engine Starting accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply to the
engine, or shutting off the ignition system.
SMCS Code: 1000
i01032810
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start
switch or to the controls, DO NOT start the engine Electrical System
or move the controls. Consult with the person that
attached the warning tag before the engine is SMCS Code: 1000; 1400
started.
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
All protective guards and all protective covers must circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
be installed if the engine must be started in order is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
to perform service procedures. To help prevent an gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
19
Safety Section
Electrical System

Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are


loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical wires
before the engine is operated. Repair all frayed
electrical wires before the engine is started.

Grounding Practices
Proper grounding is necessary for optimum engine
performance and reliability. Improper grounding will
result in uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in
unreliable electrical circuit paths.

Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in


damage to main bearings, to crankshaft bearing
journal surfaces, and to aluminum components.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can also cause
electrical activity that may degrade the engine
electronics and communications.

Ensure that all grounds are secure and free of


corrosion.

The engine alternator must be grounded to the


negative - battery terminal with a wire that is
adequate to carry the full charging current of the
alternator.

For the starting motor, do not attach the battery


negative terminal to the engine block.

Ground the engine block with a ground strap that


is furnished by the customer. Connect this ground
strap to the ground plane.

Use a separate ground strap to ground the battery


negative terminal for the control system to the
ground plane.

If rubber couplings connect the steel piping of the


cooling system and the radiator, the piping and the
radiator can be electrically isolated. Ensure that the
piping and the radiator are continuously grounded
to the engine. Use ground straps that bypass the
rubber couplings.
20
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

Product Information
Section

Model Views and


Specifications
i01744053

Model View Illustrations


SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

The illustrations show various typical features of


G3600 Engines. The illustrations do not show all of
the options that are available.

g00892828
Illustration 10
Right hand view (in-line engine)
(1) Gas shutoff valve (5) Engine oil filter
(2) Fuel actuator (6) Junction box
(3) Ignition transformer (7) Crankcase pressure sensor
(4) Integrated Combustion Sensing Module (8) Engine oil level gauge
(ICSM) (9) Engine oil filler
21
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

g00892830
Illustration 11
Left hand view (in-line engine)
(1) Exhaust bypass actuator (3) Hydraulic oil tank (5) Hydraulic oil filter
(2) Air choke actuator (4) Hydraulic oil pump

g00893222
Illustration 12
Right hand view (vee engine)
(1) Gas shutoff valve (5) Engine oil filter (10) Engine oil filler
(2) Exhaust bypass actuator (6) Junction box
(3) Fuel actuator (7) Ignition rail
(4) Integrated Combustion Sensing Module (8) Crankcase pressure sensor
(ICSM) (9) Engine oil level gauge
22
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

g00893223
Illustration 13
Left hand view (vee engine)
(1) Ignition transformer (4) Ignition rail
(2) Integrated Combustion Sensing Module (5) Hydraulic oil tank
(ICSM) (6) Hydraulic oil pump
(3) Air choke actuator (7) Hydraulic oil filter

i01522356 The ECM monitors the actual engine speed. The


ECM calculates the difference between the actual
Product Description engine speed and the desired engine speed. The
ECM controls the fuel actuator in order to maintain
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450 the desired engine speed.
The G3600 Family of Engines is designed to provide The fuel, the inlet air, and the exhaust bypass
power for the following applications: are regulated by the ECM through control of
three electrohydraulic actuators. The actuators are
Electrical power generation electronically controlled and hydraulically actuated.
The hydraulic oil is in a circuit that is separate from
Gas compression the engine oil. The hydraulic oil is circulated by a
gear-driven pump.
Industrial air compression
The ECM operates the fuel actuator in order to
Petroleum allow fuel to enter the gas manifold. Fuel flows from
the manifold through an orifice. Some of the gas
The engines incorporate advanced technology that is routed through an adjustable needle valve and
is essential for obtaining high output, low emissions, into a precombustion chamber. The rest of the gas
and thermal efficiency. is routed through a gas admission valve that is
actuated by the camshaft. This allows fuel to enter
Precise control of the engine parameters enable the inlet port in the cylinder head.
optimum engine performance. The engines are
capable of using a variety of fuels in various Air for combustion flows from the turbocharger to
ambient conditions. an air inlet choke. The ECM operates the air choke
actuator in order to allow air to enter the inlet air
The Engine Control Module (ECM) controls most manifold. The air flows through the aftercooler to the
of the functions of the engine. The module is an air plenum and into the cylinder head inlet port. The
environmentally sealed unit that is mounted in a air is mixed with gas in the cylinder head. The rich
junction box on the engine. The ECM monitors fuel in the precombustion chamber is ignited by the
various inputs from sensors in order to activate spark plug. This provides the ignition for the air/fuel
relays, solenoids, etc at the appropriate levels. mixture in the cylinder.
23
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

The inlet manifold air pressure is controlled by the For more detailed information on the control system,
air inlet choke and the exhaust bypass valve. The refer to Systems Operation, Electronic Control
ECM determines the air pressure that is required to System Operation.
maintain the correct air/fuel ratio.
The engine has two cooling circuits: a jacket water
Each cylinder has an ignition transformer. To circuit and a separate circuit for the aftercooler
initiate combustion, the ECM sends a pulse of and engine oil cooler. Water temperature regulators
approximately 108 volts to the primary coil of each are used in both circuits in order to maintain the
ignition transformer at the appropriate time and for correct operating temperatures. Water temperature
the appropriate duration. The transformer increases regulators can be installed in order to regulate the
the voltage which creates a spark across the spark inlet or outlet temperature of the water.
plug electrode.
A gear-driven centrifugal pump circulates the jacket
The electronic control system controls the ignition water coolant from an external source. The coolant
timing. The control system monitors changes in is circulated through the water jacket to the cylinder
the load. The control system modifies the timing heads. The coolant flows through water manifolds to
in response to the change in the load. The timing the outlet. The coolant flows through a remote water
can also be modified in order to compensate for temperature regulator and to a heat exchanger. The
detonation that is detected. coolant is returned to the engine.

The fuel flow is the main factor in the calculation of The engine oil and the combustion air are cooled
the engine load. Zero fuel flow is zero load. A fuel in a separate circuit. A gear-driven pump pulls
flow that is greater than zero is used to calculate a the coolant from the heat exchanger. Some of the
percentage of the indicated load. coolant goes to the engine oil cooler. Most of the
coolant goes to the aftercooler. The coolant returns
At loads that are less than 40 percent, the air/fuel to the heat exchanger.
ratio is controlled by the air choke actuator which is
trimmed by the exhaust port temperatures. A gear-driven pump pumps the engine oil. The
temperature of the engine oil is regulated. The
The engine has an Integrated Combustion Sensing engine oil is filtered prior to circulation in the
Module (ICSM) for each bank of cylinders. Each cylinder block.
cylinder exhaust port has a thermocouple that
is monitored by an ICSM. The ICSM monitors Engine Service Life
the actual exhaust port temperatures for one
bank of cylinders. The ICSM calculates an
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
average exhaust port temperature for the bank of performance depend on the adherence to proper
cylinders. The ECM sends a map of the desired
operation and maintenance recommendations. This
exhaust port temperature to the ICSM. The ICSM
includes use of the recommended lubricants, fuels,
calculates the difference between the average and coolant/antifreezes.
exhaust port temperature and the desired exhaust
port temperature. The ICSM communicates the
For the engine maintenance that is required, see this
information to the ECM. The ECM controls the air Operation and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance
choke actuator in order to maintain the desired
Interval Schedule (Maintenance Section).
exhaust temperature.

When the load reaches approximately 40 percent,


the air/fuel ratio is controlled by the exhaust bypass
actuator which is trimmed by the combustion burn
time.

Each ICSM calculates an average combustion burn


time for all of the cylinders in one bank. The ECM
sends a map of the desired combustion burn time
to the ICSM. The ICSM calculates the difference
between the average combustion burn time and the
desired combustion burn time. The ICSM sends a
fuel correction factor to the ECM. The ECM controls
the exhaust bypass actuator in order to maintain
the desired combustion burn time.
24
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

i01758379

Specifications
SMCS Code: 1000

Engine Specifications
Table 1
G3600 Engine Specifications
G3606 G3608 G3612 G3616
Operating rpm 750 to 1000 750 to 1000 750 to 1000 750 to 1000
Low idle rpm 550 550 550 550
Arrangement and In-line In-line 50 degree V-12 50 degree V-16
cylinders 6 8
Bore 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch)
Stroke 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch) 300 mm (11.8 inch)
Aspiration TA TA TA TA
Compression ratio 9:1 9:1 9:1 9:1
10.5:1 10.5:1
Displacement per 21.2 L (1294 in3) 21.2 L (1294 in3) 21.2 L (1294 in3) 21.2 L (1294 in3)
cylinder
Total displacement 127.2 L (7762 in3) 169.6 L (10 350 in3) 254.4 L (15 528 in3) 339.2 L (20 704 in3)
Mean velocity of the 9 m/s (1772 ft/min) 9 m/s (1772 ft/min) 9 m/s (1772 ft/min) 9 m/s (1772 ft/min)
pistons at 900 rpm
Mean velocity of the 10 m/s (1969 ft/min) 10 m/s (1969 ft/min) 10 m/s (1969 ft/min) 10 m/s (1969 ft/min)
pistons at 1000 rpm
Flywheel rotation Counterclockwise Counterclockwise Counterclockwise Counterclockwise
(standard)
Fuel See this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fuel Recommendations (Maintenance Section).
Also, see the Application and Installation Guide.
Method of starting Air starting motors Air starting motors Air starting motors Air starting motors
Performance of the See the Application See the Application See the Application See the Application
cooling system and Installation Guide. and Installation Guide. and Installation Guide. and Installation Guide.
Maximum allowable 3 kPa 3 kPa 3 kPa 3 kPa
exhaust back pressure (12 inches of H2O) (12 inches of H2O) (12 inches of H2O) (12 inches of H2O)
Maximum allowable 3.7 kPa 3.7 kPa 3.7 kPa 3.7 kPa
inlet air restriction (15 inches of H2O) (15 inches of H2O) (15 inches of H2O) (15 inches of H2O)
Air cleaners Remote Remote Remote Remote
Valve lash (gas 0.64 mm (.025 inch) 0.64 mm (.025 inch) 0.64 mm (.025 inch) 0.64 mm (.025 inch)
admission valve)(1)
Inlet valve lash 0.50 mm (.020 inch) 0.50 mm (.020 inch) 0.50 mm (.020 inch) 0.50 mm (.020 inch)
Exhaust valve lash 1.25 mm (.050 inch) 1.25 mm (.050 inch) 1.25 mm (.050 inch) 1.25 mm (.050 inch)
(1) This measurement is for newer engines. For earlier engines, the valve lash is set by turning an adjusting screw and counting the clicks.
25
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

g00891513 g00790805
Illustration 14 Illustration 17
G3606 Engine design G3616 Engine design
(A) Gas admission valves (A) Gas admission valves
(B) Inlet valves (B) Inlet valves
(C) Exhaust valves (C) Exhaust valves

Drives and Gear Trains


Front Drives

g00891514
Illustration 15
G3608 Engine design
(A) Gas admission valves
(B) Inlet valves
(C) Exhaust valves g00790861
Illustration 18
SAE standard engine crankshaft rotation
In-line engines and vee engines
(1) Jacket water pump
(2) Aftercooler and oil cooler pump
(3) Oil pump

g00790801
Illustration 16
G3612 Engine design
(A) Gas admission valves
(B) Inlet valves
(C) Exhaust valves
26
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

Engine Front Gear Train

g00790864
Illustration 19
SAE standard engine crankshaft rotation g00891685
Illustration 20
In-line engines and vee engines SAE standard engine crankshaft rotation
(4) Water outlet In-line engines and vee engines
(5) Water inlet
(6) Oil outlet (1) Crankshaft
(7) Oil inlet (2) Idler
(3) Idler
(4) Jacket water pump
Table 2 (5) Aftercooler and oil cooler pump
Front Drives (6) Auxiliary pump
(7) Oil pump
Component Speed(1)
Table 3
Jacket water pump 2522
Front Gear Train
Aftercooler and oil cooler pump 2522
Gear Number Of
Oil pump 1524 Teeth
(1) The speed of the component is listed for an engine that is (1) Crankshaft 96
operating at 1000 rpm. For an engine that is operating at
900 rpm, multiply the speed of the component by .9. For an (2) Idler 68
engine that is operating at 800 rpm, multiply the speed of the
component by .8. (3) Idler 67
(4) Jacket water pump 38
(5) Aftercooler and oil cooler Pump 38
(6) Auxiliary pump 43
(7) Oil pump 63
27
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

Engine Rear Gear Train

g00891620
Illustration 21
SAE standard engine crankshaft rotation
In-line engines
(1) Crankshaft
(2) Large cluster idler
(3) Small cluster idler
(4) Camshaft

g00891688
Illustration 22
SAE standard engine crankshaft rotation
Vee engines
(1) Crankshaft
(2) Large cluster idler
(3) Small cluster idler
(4) Camshaft
(5) Idler

Table 4
Rear Gear Train
Gear Number Of Teeth
(1) Crankshaft 81
(2) Large cluster idler 90
(3) Small cluster idler 45
(4) Camshaft 81
(5) Idler 81
28
Product Information Section
Model Views and Specifications

Reference Weights
Table 5
Approximate Weights Of Package Generator Sets
Item G3606 Engine G3608 Engine G3612 Engine G3616 Engine
Engine(1) 15 680 kg (34 568 lb) 19 000 kg (41 888 lb) 25 084 kg (55 300 lb) 29 892 kg (65 900 lb)
Generator 8300 kg (18 298 lb) 9400 kg (20 723 lb) 15 855 kg (34 954 lb) 15 855 kg (34 954 lb)
(2)

8270 kg (18 232 lb)


(3)

Module 1360 kg (2998 lb) 1410 kg (3109 lb) 1650 kg (3638 lb) 1650 kg (3638 lb)
Mounting base 7820 kg (17 240 lb)(2) 8640 kg (19 048 lb) 12 700 kg (28 000 lb) 12 700 kg (28 000 lb)
8170 kg (18 012 lb)(3)
Coupling 590 kg (1300 lb) 590 kg (1300 lb) 977 kg (2154 lb) 977 kg (2154 lb)
Total 33 750 kg (74 406 lb)(2) 39 040 kg (86 068 lb) 56 266 kg (124 045 lb) 61 074 kg (134 645 lb)
34 070 kg (75 111 lb)(3)
(1) The weights of the engines that are listed includes attachments that are mounted on the engines. The engine weights are dry weights.
(2) Single bearing generator
(3) Double bearing generator

Table 6
Approximate Weights Of Serviceable Parts
Component G3606 Engine G3608 Engine G3612 Engine G3616 Engine
Cylinder block 4638 kg (10 225 lb) 6476 kg (14 260 lb) 6805 kg (14 971 lb) 9625 kg (21 219 lb)
Bearing cap 65 kg (144 lb) 65 kg (144 lb) 65 kg (144 lb) 65 kg (144 lb)
Crankshaft 1782 kg (3929 lb) 2288 kg (5034 lb) 2091 kg (4600 lb) 3800 kg (8378 lb)
Flywheel assembly 491 kg (1082 lb) 491 kg (1082 lb) 491 kg (1082 lb) 491 kg (1082 lb)
Crankshaft vibration damper 183 kg (403 lb) 267 kg (588 lb) 183 kg (403 lb) 183 kg (403 lb)
Cylinder head assembly 196 kg (432 lb) 196 kg (432 lb) 196 kg (432 lb) 196 kg (432 lb)
Cylinder liner 110 kg (243 lb) 110 kg (243 lb) 110 kg (243 lb) 110 kg (243 lb)
Piston assembly 48 kg (106 lb) 48 kg (106 lb) 48 kg (106 lb) 48 kg (106 lb)
Piston pin 19 kg (42 lb) 19 kg (42 lb) 19 kg (42 lb) 19 kg (42 lb)
Piston rod assembly 57 kg (126 lb) 57 kg (126 lb) 57 kg (126 lb) 57 kg (126 lb)
Turbocharger (one) 401 kg (884 lb) 401 kg (884 lb) 401 kg (884 lb) 401 kg (884 lb)
Aftercooler core(1) 52 kg (115 lb) 52 kg (115 lb) 94 kg (207 lb) 125 kg (275 lb)
Front housing 258 kg (569 lb) 258 kg (569 lb) 258 kg (569 lb) 258 kg (569 lb)
Rear housing 222 kg (489 lb) 222 kg (489 lb) 350 kg (772 lb) 350 kg (772 lb)
Used air cleaner element 29 kg (64 lb) 29 kg (64 lb) 29 kg (64 lb) 29 kg (64 lb)
(1) The weight for a single-stage type of aftercooler is listed. The two-stage aftercooler and the aftercooler with a deep core are also available.
29
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Product Identification Information Plate


Information
i01519197

Plate Locations and Film


Locations
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Engine Identification
Caterpillar engines are identified with serial
numbers, with performance specification numbers, Illustration 24
g00361974
and with arrangement numbers. In some of the
cases, modification numbers are used. These The Information Plate is on the side of the cylinder
numbers are shown on the Serial Number Plate block above one of the crankshaft inspection
and the Information Plate that are mounted on the covers. The following information is stamped on
engine. the Information Plate: engines maximum altitude,
horsepower, high idle, full load rpm, fuel settings,
Caterpillar dealers need these numbers in order to and other information.
determine the components that were included with
the engine. This permits accurate identification of
replacement part numbers. i01519312

Reference Information
Serial Number Plate
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Identification of the items in Table 7 may be needed


in order to obtain parts and service. Some of the
numbers are on the engine Serial Number Plate
and/or Information Plate. Locate the information
for your engine. Record the information on the
appropriate space in Table 7. Make a copy of this
list for a record. Retain the information for future
reference.

The top level part numbers in the Parts Manual for


the engine are listed with the engine arrangement
number.
g00123229
Illustration 23
The performance specification can be used by
your Caterpillar dealer with the Technical Marketing
The Serial Number Plate is on the side of the
Information system. Before the engine leaves the
cylinder block above one of the crankshaft
factory, the engine performance is tested. Detailed
inspection covers. The following information is performance data is recorded. The performance
stamped on the Serial Number Plate: engine serial
specification number can be used for obtaining the
number, model, and arrangement number.
data.
30
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information

Table 7
Record Of Reference Numbers
Item Identification
Engine Model
Serial Number
Arrangement Number
Modification Number
Performance Specification
Power Rating
Personality Module (Revision)
Low Idle rpm
High Idle rpm
Full Load rpm
Overspeed Setpoint
Air Choke Actuator
Exhaust Bypass Actuator
Fuel Actuator
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Lube Oil Capacity (total)
Air Cleaner Element
Alternator Belt
Supplemental Coolant Additive
Cooling System Capacity (total)
Turbocharger
31
Operation Section
Engine Lifting and Storage

Operation Section Engine Lifting with a Generator


NOTICE
Do not use the engine lifting eyes to remove the engine
Engine Lifting and Storage and generator together.

i01492427 A lifting plate is provided with the package


generator set. Instructions for lifting the package
Engine Lifting generator set are stamped on the lifting plate.
SMCS Code: 1000; 1122
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for information
regarding proper fixtures and lifting devices.

Lifting packaged generator sets will not be


level if you lift the unit with a single point lift. A
counterweight can be added between the package
frame rails whenever the application requires
frequent relocation of the unit. For complete
information about adding the counterweight, consult
your Caterpillar dealer.

The single point lifting eye is secured from the


factory before the enclosure is shipped. The correct
orientation of the single point lifting eye will allow
you to look through the eye when you stand at the
Illustration 25
g00103219 side of the enclosure. The lifting eye may stretch
when the package is lifted. This may cause the
locking nuts to loosen. This could cause the lifting
NOTICE eye to swivel. Ensure that the lifting eye is correctly
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load oriented on the packaged generator set. Ensure
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remem- that the lifting eye is tightened to the correct torque
ber that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle before you lift the packaged generator set.
between the supporting members and the object be-
comes less than 90 degrees.

When it is necessary to remove a component at an


angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.

Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use


an adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should
be parallel to each other. The chains and cables
should be perpendicular to the top of the object
that is being lifted.

Some removals require lifting fixtures in order to


obtain proper balance and safety.

To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that


are on the engine.

Lifting eyes are designed and installed for the


specific engine arrangement. Alterations to the lifting
eyes and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and
the lifting fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made,
ensure that proper lifting devices are provided.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for information
regarding fixtures for proper engine lifting.
32
Operation Section
Engine Lifting and Storage

i00816700

Engine Storage
SMCS Code: 1000

If the engine will not be started for several weeks,


the lubricating oil will drain from the cylinder walls
and from the piston rings. Rust can form on the
cylinder liner surface, which will increase engine
wear which can reduce engine service life.

To help prevent excessive engine wear, use the


following guidelines:

Complete all of the lubrication recommendations


that are listed in this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule
(Maintenance Section).

If freezing temperatures are expected, check the


cooling system for adequate protection against
freezing. See this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, General Coolant Information
(Maintenance Section).

If an engine is out of operation and if use of the


engine is not planned, special precautions should
be made. If the engine will be stored for more than
one month, a complete protection procedure is
recommended.

Your Caterpillar dealer will have instructions for


preparing the engine for extended storage periods.

For more detailed information on engine storage,


see Special Instruction, SEHS9031, Storage
Procedure for Caterpillar Products.

Generator Storage
For information on generator storage, see the
literature that is provided by the OEM of the
generator. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance.
33
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Features and Controls (Table 8, contd)


Configuration Parameters for G3600 Engines
i01765789 Choke Compensation

Programmable System Wastegate Gain

Parameters Wastegate Stability


Wastegate Compensation
SMCS Code: 1900
Start/Stop Control
Certain parameters are unique for each engine Driven Equipment Delay Time
application. Table 8 is a list of the parameters
that can be configured in the Electronic Control Crank Terminate Speed
Module (ECM) for G3600 Engines. The values of the Engine Purge Cycle Time
parameters can be viewed on the Configuration
screen of Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET). Engine Cooldown Duration
Cycle Crank Time
Table 8
Engine Overcrank Time
Configuration Parameters for G3600 Engines
Engine Speed Drop Time
Information for the ECM
Engine Pre-lube Time Out Period
Engine Serial Number
Engine PostLube Time Out Period
Equipment ID
Monitoring and Protection
Customer Password #1
High Inlet Air Temp Engine Load Set Point
Customer Password #2
Total Tattletale
For detailed information on the parameters, refer
Air/Fuel Ratio Control to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting,
RENR5908, Electronic Control System Parameters.
Fuel Quality
Gas Specific Gravity
i01758402
Speed Control
Monitoring System
Low Idle Speed
Minimum Engine High Idle Speed SMCS Code: 1900; 7400; 7450; 7451
Maximum Engine High Idle Speed The Electronic Control Module (ECM) monitors the
Engine Accel. Rate operating parameters of the engine. The ECM can
initiate a warning or a shutdown if a specific engine
Desired Speed Input Configuration parameter exceeds an acceptable range. Some
Governor Type Setting of the responses are not available for some of the
parameters. Use Caterpillar Electronic Technician
Engine Speed Droop (ET) to perform the following activities:
Governing Select the available responses.
Governor Gain
Program the level for monitoring.
Governor Stability
Governor Compensation Program delay times for each response.
Auxiliary Proportional Governor Gain 1 The default settings for the parameters are
Auxiliary Integral Governor Gain 1 programmed at the factory. To accommodate unique
applications and sites, the parameters may be
Auxiliary Derivative Governor Gain 1 reprogrammed with ET. The screens of ET provide
Choke Gain guidance for the changing of trip points.

Choke Stability Note: Some of the parameters are protected by


(continued) factory passwords. Other parameters can be
changed with customer passwords.
34
Operation Section
Features and Controls

For more detailed information on the monitoring


system and for programming instructions, refer to
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting.

Examples of the default settings for the parameters


are listed in Table 9. The values may have changed.
Use the ET to determine the programming for your
engine. Many of the items can be reprogrammed
in order to accommodate the requirements of
individual sites.
Table 9
Default Settings of the Programmable Monitoring System
Security Range of
System Trip Delay in
Parameter Event Code State Level Range the Delay
Response Point Seconds
Password in Seconds

Low System E043 (1) Warning 20 volts 20


On (1) This item cannot be programmed.
Voltage E042 (3) Shutdown 18 volts 10
High Engine E017 (1) Warning On 92 C
Coolant 80 to 129 C
Temperature E016 (3) Shutdown On (1) 98 C
20 Customer 1 to 60
Low Engine
Coolant E038 (1) Warning On 5 C 5 to 80 C
Temperature
1120
rpm
Engine 800 to 1300
E004 (3) Shutdown or 0 Factory 0
Overspeed rpm
1017
rpm

High Engine Oil E020 (1) Warning 88 C Customer 85 to 102 C


20 1 to 60
Temperature E019 (3) Shutdown 90 C Factory 85 to 104 C
379
E100 (1) Warning 10
Low Engine Oil kPa
On (1) This item cannot be programmed.
Pressure 355 0
E040 (3) Shutdown
kPa
103
High Oil Filter E129 (1) Warning Customer
kPa
Differential 0 to 35 kPa
Pressure 138
E130 (3) Shutdown Factory
kPa 10
Low Oil Filter E127 (1) Warning 5 kPa Customer
Differential 0 to 150 kPa
Pressure E128 (3) Shutdown 3 kPa Factory

High Fuel 1 to 60
E223 (1) 60 C 20 0 to 60 C
Temperature
On
Low Fuel Warning 105 Customer 100 to 135
E053 (1) 10
Pressure kPa kPa
High Jacket E123 (1) 10 C(2)
Water to Engine
On (1) 20 0 to 80 C
Oil Temperature E124 (3) Shutdown 15 C(2) Factory
Differential
(continued)
35
Operation Section
Features and Controls

(Table 9, contd)
Default Settings of the Programmable Monitoring System
Security Range of
System Trip Delay in
Parameter Event Code State Level Range the Delay
Response Point Seconds
Password in Seconds
High System Warning
E050 (1) On (1) 34 volts 20 This item cannot be programmed.
Voltage
72 C(3)
High Inlet Air E027 (1) On 77 C(4) 32 to 100 C
Temperature 82 C(5)
at Low Engine 75 C(3) 32 to 120 C
Load E026 (3) Shutdown On (1) 80 C(4)
85 C(5)
20 Customer 1 to 60
57 C(3)
High Inlet Air E027 (1) Warning On 65 C(4)
Temperature at 72 C(5)
High Engine 60 C(3)
Load E026 (3) Shutdown On (1) 68 C(4)
75 C(5)
(1) This parameter is permanently active. This parameter cannot be turned off.
(2) Above 50% load
(3) This temperature is for systems that operate at 32C.
(4) This temperature is for systems that operate at 43C.
(5) This temperature is for systems that operate at 58C.

Integrated Combustion Sensing


Module (ICSM)
The Integrated Combustion Sensing Module (ICSM)
monitors the temperatures of the cylinder exhaust
ports, the inlets of the turbocharger turbine, and the
outlets of the turbocharger turbines. The ICSM also
monitors the combustion sensors.

Table 10 lists default examples of the values for the


parameters.
36
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Table 10
Default Settings for the Integrated Combustion Sensing Module
Parameter Event Code System State Trip Delay in Security Range Range
Response Point Seconds Level of the
Password Delay in
Seconds
High Exhaust E801 (1)
Temperature through E816 Warning 600 C 5
(1) 100 to
E801 (3) 1000 C
through E816 Shutdown 650 C
(3)
Exhaust Port E821 (1)
Temperature through E836 Warning 50 C
High Deviation (1)
On
E821 (3)
through E836 Shutdown 100 C
(3) 10 to 500

Exhaust Port E841 (1) C
Temperature through E856 Warning 120 C Customer 1 to 6000
Low Deviation (1)
10
E841 (3)
through E856 Shutdown 400 C
(3)
High Turbo E245 (1)
Warning 600 C
Turbine Inlet E246 (1)
Temperature
E245 (3)
Shutdown 650 C
E246 (3) 100 to
Off
High Turbo E243 (1) 400 to 1000 C
Warning
Turbine Outlet E244 (1) 650 C
Temperature
E243 (3)
Shutdown 600 C
E244 (3)
37
Operation Section
Features and Controls

i01765805

Control Panel
SMCS Code: 7451

g00799615
Illustration 27
Keypad

Note: At the time of this publication, these keys


have no function: X, . (period or decimal), check,
and 0 (zero).

The keypad is protected in a sealed membrane.


When you press a key, press firmly. When a key
is pressed sufficiently, a small red indicator in the
upper left corner of the keypad will flash once.
g00824832
Illustration 26
Control panel
When the control panel is powered up, the screen
becomes active. To view the options for the display,
(1) Display for the Machine Information Display System (MIDS)
(2) Keypad for the MIDS press the ? key. Table 11 lists the menu.
(3) EMERGENCY STOP button
(4) ENGINE ON indicator Table 11
(5) ACTIVE ALARM indicator
Menu
(6) ENGINE FAILURE indicator
(7) MANUAL PRELUBE switch and PRELUBE ACTIVE (1) Status Information
indicator
(8) Mode control switch (2) Detonation Levels
(9) DESIRED SPEED potentiometer
(3) Ignition Timing
The features of the control panel are described (4) Filtered Burn Times
below.
(5) Unfiltered Burn Times
Machine Information Display (6) Exhaust Temperatures
System (MIDS) (7) Turbo Temperatures
(8) Events and Diagnostics
The Machine Information Display System (MIDS)
is a device which enables the operator to monitor (9) Display Setup
engine operation. The MIDS receives information
from the Electronic Control Module (ECM). The
To select an option, press the number on the
device cannot be used for programming. A screen
keypad that corresponds to the selection. To exit
display and a keypad provide the interface for the
the option, press the ? key or any of the numbered
operator.
keys. It is not necessary to return to the menu in
order to select a different option. When you press a
different numbered key, the corresponding option is
displayed.
38
Operation Section
Features and Controls

(1) Status Information There are four status Table 14


screens. The upper left corner of the display Parameters of the MISC Status Screen
identifies the four screens with A/F, SPD, MISC,
and RLY. When you select item (1) from the menu, Oil pressure Oil filter Oil temperature
the A/F screen is automatically displayed and differential
A/F is highlighted in the upper left corner of the pressure
screen. To display a different status screen, press Crankcase BTU of the fuel Temperature of
the left arrow key or the right arrow key. The display pressure (quality) the jacket water
will change and the identifier for the screen will be
highlighted in the upper left corner of the screen. Detonation level Service hours Battery voltage
(bars)
A/F screen This screen displays the status of
parameters that pertain to the air and fuel. The RLY screen This screen displays the status of
actual data is continuously updated. Table 12 lists switches and relays that are identified in Table 15.
the information that is displayed.
Table 15
Table 12
Status of Switches and Relays on the RLY Screen
Parameters of the A/F Status Screen
Item Status
Inlet manifold air Desired inlet Inlet manifold air
pressure manifold air temperature Speed Idle Rated
pressure Mode control switch Auto Start Run Stop
Volume of air flow Volume of fuel The percent Emergency stop Run Stop
flow of the fuel
command Driven equipment Ready Not Ready
Fuel pressure The percent Fuel temperature Solenoid for the prelube Off Energized
of the fuel pump
correction factor
Pressure switch for the Ready Not Ready
prelube
SPD screen This screen displays parameters
that pertain to the engine speed and some Initiate contact Run Stop
additional parameters. Table 13 lists the information Hydraulic oil pressure Ready Not Ready
that is displayed. switch
Table 13 Starting motor solenoid Ready Not Ready
Parameters of the SPD Status Screen Normal stop Run Stop
Engine speed Desired engine Percent load
(rpm) speed (2) Detonation Levels This screen displays the
Remote input or Percent of droop Type of governor level of detonation for each cylinder in bars. The
local input for the average detonation level for all of the cylinders is
speed control also displayed.
Percent of the Percent of the Status of the (3) Ignition Timing This screen displays the current
command for command for the feedback for the degrees before top center for the timing of each
the wastegate air choke ECM (1)
(exhaust bypass)
cylinder. The values for the programmable desired
timing are listed. The current active selected timing
(1) There are four possibilities: no feedback, exhaust temperatures, is indicated.
combustion burn time, and PC calibration.
(4) Filtered Burn Times This screen displays an
MISC screen This screen displays the average of the combustion burn time for each bank
parameters that are listed in Table 14. of cylinders. The desired combustion burn time
and the time for each individual cylinder are also
displayed.

(5) Unfiltered Burn Times This screen displays


the actual instantaneous combustion burn time for
each individual cylinder. The desired combustion
burn time and the average combustion burn time
for each bank of cylinders are also displayed.
39
Operation Section
Features and Controls

(6) Exhaust Temperatures This screen displays the


actual exhaust port temperature for each cylinder.
The average temperature for all of the exhaust
ports in each bank is also displayed. If the engine
is operating at a load that is less than 40 percent,
the desired exhaust temperature is displayed. If the
engine load is greater than 40 percent, the desired
exhaust temperature is not a factor.

(7) Turbo Temperatures This screen displays the


temperatures of the exhaust at the inlet and outlet
of each turbocharger. The average temperature for
each bank is also displayed.

(8) Events and Diagnostics This screen has two g00824884


options for displaying information on event codes Illustration 28
and diagnostic codes: LIST and DETAIL. When
you select item (8) from the menu, the LIST screen The fuel and the ignition are immediately shut off
is automatically displayed and LIST is highlighted when the EMERGENCY STOP button is pressed.
in the upper left corner of the screen. To display the No postlube cycle occurs.
DETAIL screen, press the left arrow key or the right
arrow key. The display will change and DETAIL will The EMERGENCY STOP button and the mode
be highlighted in the upper left corner of the screen. control switch must be reset before the engine will
start. To reset the EMERGENCY STOP button, turn
LIST screen This screen is a list of all of the the button clockwise. To reset the mode control
diagnostic codes and event codes that are logged. switch, turn the switch to the OFF/RESET position.
The list includes this information regarding the
code: Module Identifier (MID), code, number of Note: The engine mounted junction box also has an
occurrences, service hours at the first occurrence, EMERGENCY STOP button.
service hours at the last occurrence, and an X
for active codes. If more than one code is logged, Indicators
the code that occurred first is listed first. To view
more detail about a particular code, you can use The remote panel has three indicators for the status
the down arrow or the up arrow to select the code. of the engine operation.
Then use the left arrow or the right arrow in order to
display the DETAIL screen.

DETAIL screen This screen displays the same


information as the LIST screen for the selected
code. Additionally, the module that generated the
code and the codes description is displayed.

(9) Display Setup This screen enables the operator


to adjust the display. The contrast and back lighting
can be adjusted. Metric units or English units can
also be selected for the display. Use the left arrow
or the right arrow to navigate the options. Use the
up arrow or the down arrow to select the preference.
g00824980
Illustration 29
EMERGENCY STOP Button
(1) ENGINE ON indicator
(2) ACTIVE ALARM indicator
NOTICE (3) ENGINE FAILURE indicator
Only use the Emergency Stop button in order to stop
the engine in an emergency situation. Do not use the Illumination of green ENGINE ON indicator (1)
Emergency Stop button for normal engine stopping. indicates normal operation.

To prevent damage to the engine, use the mode con- Yellow ACTIVE ALARM indicator (2) illuminates if
trol switch or use the remote start/stop initiate contact the control system initiates a warning for an event
for normal engine stopping. or a diagnostic condition.
40
Operation Section
Features and Controls

Red ENGINE FAILURE indicator (3) illuminates if Mode Control Switch


the control system shuts down the engine due to
an event or a diagnostic condition. The ENGINE
FAILURE indicator also illuminates if an emergency
stop is performed.

MANUAL PRELUBE Switch and


PRELUBE ACTIVE Indicator
All G3600 Engines require lubrication prior to
start-up. The ECM will not permit the engine to start
until sufficient prelube pressure has been achieved.

Lubrication of the engine is required prior to rotation


of the crankshaft. This includes crankshaft rotation in
g00825037
order to service the engine. Rotating the crankshaft Illustration 31
before prelube may cause damage to the crankshaft Mode control switch in the AUTO position
bearings if the surfaces of the bearings are dry.
The mode control switch has four positions: AUTO,
START, STOP, and OFF/RESET

AUTO When the mode control switch is in


the AUTO position (12 oclock), the system is
configured for remote operation. When the remote
start/stop initiate contact closes, the prelube system
will operate. When the prelube pressure is sufficient,
the engine will start. When the remote start/stop
initiate contact opens, the engine will shut off. If the
cool down cycle is programmed, the engine will
operate for the cool down period before the engine
stops. The cool down cycle can be programmed for
a 0 to 30 minute period.
g00825028
Illustration 30 START When the mode control switch is turned
MANUAL PRELUBE switch and PRELUBE ACTIVE indicator to the START position (3 oclock), the prelube
system will operate. When the prelube pressure
The MANUAL PRELUBE switch enables the is sufficient, the engine will start. The engine will
operator to prelube the engine by pressing the operate until the ECM receives a shutdown signal.
switch.
The following methods cause a shutdown signal:
A lamp behind the switch illuminates when the
prelube is active. This is the PRELUBE ACTIVE The remote start/stop initiate contact opens when
indicator. If the mode control switch is in the AUTO the mode control switch is in the AUTO position.
position and the remote start/stop initiate contact
closes, the prelube system will operate and the The mode control switch is turned to the STOP
lamp will illuminate. The lamp will also illuminate position.
during the postlube.
The mode control switch is turned to the
Note: The ECM is programmed to provide engine OFF/RESET position.
lubrication after the engine is shut off. The typical
duration of the postlube is 180 seconds. The EMERGENCY STOP button is pressed.
An undesirable operating condition is sensed and
an engine shutdown is initiated by the ECM.
41
Operation Section
Features and Controls

STOP When the mode control switch is turned


to the STOP position (6 oclock), the engine will
shut off. If the cool down cycle is programmed,
the engine will operate for the cool down period
before the engine stops. When the engine is
coasting to a stop, a postlube cycle will operate.
The power to the control panel is maintained when
the mode control switch is in the STOP position.
The STOP position can be used to troubleshoot
some problems without starting the engine.

OFF/RESET When the mode control switch is


turned to the OFF/RESET position (9 oclock), the
engine is immediately shut off and the diagnostic
lights are reset. Power is removed from the control
panel and the actuators after the engine completes
the postlube cycle.

DESIRED SPEED Potentiometer

g00825039
Illustration 32
DESIRED SPEED potentiometer

The DESIRED SPEED potentiometer allows the


operator to adjust the desired engine speed. This is
achieved by providing a 0 to 5 volt input to the ECM.
42
Operation Section
Engine Starting

Engine Starting Check the coolant level. Add coolant, if necessary.


For information on the proper coolant to use,
refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
i01519373 Cooling System Specifications (Maintenance
Section).
Before Starting Engine
SMCS Code: 1000; 1400; 1450 Driven Equipment
Perform the required daily maintenance and other If necessary, check the oil levels of the driven
periodic maintenance before starting the engine. equipment. Perform any maintenance that is
This can prevent major repairs at a later date. required for the driven equipment. Refer to the
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, literature that is provided by the OEM of the
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Maintenance driven equipment.
Section).
If the engine is equipped with a clutch, ensure
that the clutch is disengaged.
Walk-Around Inspection
For generator set engines, ensure that the main
NOTICE circuit breaker is open.
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up the
fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct Electrical System
the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels
more often than recommended until the leak is found Inspect the wiring for the following conditions:
or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is proved to be
unwarranted. Loose connections

To obtain maximum service life for your engine, Wiring that is worn or frayed
make a thorough inspection before starting the
engine. Make a walk-around inspection of the Inspect the gauge panel and the control panel
installation. Look for items such as oil or coolant for good condition. Reset any shutoff or alarm
leaks, loose bolts and trash buildup. Remove any components.
trash. Make repairs, if necessary.
Lubrication System
The guards must be in the proper place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.

Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts


are clear.

Air Inlet System


Ensure that the air inlet piping and the air filters
are in place.

Ensure that all clamps and connections are


secure.

Cooling System Illustration 33 g00760044

Engine oil level gauge


Inspect the cooling system for leaks or loose (1) ADD mark
connections. Inspect the condition of all the (2) FULL mark
pipes for the cooling system. Ensure that the
connections are properly clamped.
Check the engine oil level. Maintain the engine
oil level between the ADD and FULL marks
Inspect the water pumps for evidence of leaks. on the ENGINE STOPPED side of the engine
oil level gauge. For information on the proper
engine oil to use, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Lubricant Specifications
(Maintenance Section).
43
Operation Section
Engine Starting

Check for leaks at the following components: Open the air supply valve for the air starting
crankshaft seals, crankcase, engine oil filters, motor.
plugs for the engine oil gallery, sensors, and
valve covers. Note: If the engine is equipped with a system for
external support, prepare the system before starting
Inspect the tubes, tee pieces, and clamps on the the engine. Ensure that all of the systems for engine
crankcase breathers. support are enabled. Perform all prestart checks for
the control system.
If the engine has an air cleaner for crankcase
ventilation, inspect the air cleaner service
i00662769
indicator. Service the air cleaner filter element
when the yellow diaphragm enters the red zone,
or the red piston locks in the visible position.
Cold Weather Starting
SMCS Code: 1000; 1250; 1450; 1453; 1456; 1900
Fuel System
See Gas Engines Application and Installation Guide,
Inspect the fuel lines for loose fittings and leaks. LEKQ7255 for more information on the following
Ensure that the fuel lines are properly clamped. topics:

Ensure that the fuel is supplied to the engine at Recommendations for the size and installation of
the correct pressure for the application. jacket water heaters and oil heaters

Many engines use a fuel pressure of 310 14 kPa Requirements for cranking torque and air starting
(45 2 psi). motors at various temperatures

Some engines use a variable fuel pressure that is Consult your Caterpillar dealer for more information
based on the engine load. on the starting aids that are available for cold
weather starting.
For the proper fuel pressure, refer to the report from
the engine commissioning. Jacket Water Heaters
Hydraulic Actuator System Jacket water heaters are available as optional
equipment. Jacket water heaters are recommended
Check the level of the oil in the tank for the hydraulic for improving startability in ambient temperatures
actuator system. Make sure that the oil is between below 21 C (70 F). These heaters are
the ADD and FULL marks on the oil level gauge. recommended for all installations that have
For information on the proper engine oil to use, automatic starting.
refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Hydraulic Oil (Maintenance Section). Lubricating Oil Heaters
Starting System Note: Oil pan immersion heaters are not
recommended for heating the lube oil. To ensure
Ensure that the barring device is fully disengaged. the compatibility of the components, only use
equipment that is recommended by Caterpillar.
Drain moisture and sediment from the air tank
and from any other air piping. NOTICE
Heating elements that are in direct contact with the
Check the oil level in the lubricator for the air lubricating oil can cause coking of the oil.
starting motor. Keep the lubricator at least half
full. Add oil, if necessary. Use nondetergent To aviod coking of the oil when the oil is heated, follow
10W oil for temperatures that are greater than these recommendations:
0 C (32 F). Use air tool oil for temperatures that
are below 0 C (32 F). The temperature of the heating surface must not ex-
ceed 150 C (300 F). The maximum heat density
Check the air pressure before starting. Starting of the heating surface must not exceed 1.24 w/cm2
motors with vanes require air pressure in a range (8W/in2).
of 620 to 1550 kPa (90 to 225 psi). Air turbines
require air pressure in a range of 414 to 620 kPa
(60 to 90 psi) or 690 to 1034 kPa (100 to 150 psi).
44
Operation Section
Engine Starting

Oil viscosity affects the amount of torque that is Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
needed to crank the engine. Oil temperatures if there is a DO NOT OPERATE warning tag or
below 10 C (50 F) require cranking torque that similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
is excessive. Oil heaters are recommended for to the controls.
heating the lube oil to 10 C (50 F) when the
ambient conditions are below this temperature. Ensure that no one will be endangered before the
engine is started and when the engine is started.
Requirements for Starting with Air Perform the procedures that are described in
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Before
To start the engine at colder temperatures, a larger
Starting Engine (Operation Section).
volume of starting air and/or a higher air pressure
is necessary. Ensure a sufficient supply of air
pressure for cold weather starting. Do not exceed Automatic Starting
the maximum air pressure for the starting motor.

Water Separator
When the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode, the
Condensation of vapor in the air supply can freeze engine can start at any moment. To avoid personal
in cold weather. This can enable the following injury, always remain clear of the the engine when
problems to occur: the engine is in the AUTOMATIC mode.
Ice that forms in the supply lines will restrict the
air supply. If the engine control switch is in the AUTO
position, the engine will automatically start when the
If particles of ice enter the inlet of the starting remote start/stop initiate contact closes. The engine
motor, the starting motor can be damaged. will accelerate to rated rpm when the oil pressure
is sufficient.
A water separator removes vapor from compressed
air prior to the air storage tank. Dry air is required Manual Starting
for cold weather in order to help prevent ice from
forming in the supply lines. 1. Ensure that fuel is supplied to the engine. Ensure
that no gas is leaking.
i01765812
2. Ensure that the driven equipment is unloaded.
Starting the Engine
a. For generator set engines, open the main
SMCS Code: 1000; 1450 circuit breaker.

b. For industrial engines, unload the compressor


or pump. Disengage the clutch (if equipped).
Place the transmission and/or other
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
attachments for the power take-off in
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
NEUTRAL.
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.

NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
fuel supply and/or the ignition to the engine.

Note: The EMERGENCY STOP button will shut off


both the fuel and the ignition.
g00791099
Illustration 34
(1) Engine control switch in the START position
(2) DESIRED SPEED potentiometer
45
Operation Section
Engine Starting

3. Verify that DESIRED SPEED potentiometer (2) Check the gauges during the warm-up. Complete
is set to an rpm that is appropriate. Verify that a walk-around inspection. Check for leaks and
the IDLE/RATED display (if equipped) indicates unusual noises. Correct any problems before
IDLE. proceeding.

4. Observe the Configuration screen on Caterpillar


Electronic Technician (ET) and verify that the
Engaging the Driven Equipment
FUEL ENERGY CONTENT and the SPECIFIC
Avoid detonation during loading. Generally, no
GRAVITY are correct.
load operation to full load operation can be
accomplished in one to five minutes without any
5. Turn engine control switch (1) to the START
problems.
position.
DO NOT apply a load to the engine or increase the
NOTICE rpm until the engine oil pressure is a minimum of
The engine must be prelubed before the crankshaft is 160 kPa (23 psi) at low idle rpm.
rotated. Damage can result if the crankshaft is rotated
on dry bearing surfaces. 1. Increase the engine rpm.

The minimum rpm for operating an engine with a


Note: The prelube oil pump will operate for load is 750 rpm. The maximum rpm for operating
approximately 30 seconds. The Electronic Control an engine with a load is 1000 rpm.
Module (ECM) will initiate the engine start-up
after the prelube pressure switch detects 1 psi a. For engines with a SPEED CONTROL
of oil pressure. If the module detects a signal potentiometer or a remote speed control, turn
for preventing the start-up, the corresponding the control to the engine rpm that is desired.
diagnostic code will be generated.
b. For engines with an IDLE/RATED switch,
6. Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes. toggle the switch to the RATED position.
The engine speed should stabilize at low idle Ensure that the gauges are in the normal
rpm. Perform these checks during the warm-up: ranges for the engine rpm.
Check all of the pressure gauges. Note: It may be necessary to apply some load in
order to attain normal operating temperatures.
Inspect the engine for leaks.
2. After verifying that the engine systems are
Listen for unusual noises. normal, engage the driven equipment.
When all systems are normal, the rpm may be Apply the load according to the requirements
increased. for temperatures:
Ensure that the oil pressure and the fuel pressure Before you apply a load up to 49 percent of
are in the normal ranges. After the engine has the rated load, the minimum temperature of the
started and the warm-up is complete, the engine jacket water is 38 C (100 F). The minimum
can be operated at low rpm and low load. The engine oil temperature is 10 C (50 F).
engine will reach normal operating temperature
faster if the engine is operated at low rpm and Before you apply a load between 50 and
with a low power demand. This procedure is more 100 percent of the rated load, the minimum
effective than idling the engine with no load. The temperature of the jacket water is 50 C (122 F).
engine should reach normal operating temperature The minimum engine oil temperature is 50 C
in a few minutes. (122 F).

i01742728 Continue to check the gauges and the driven


equipment.
After Starting Engine
For information on partial load operation, refer to
SMCS Code: 1000 this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
Operation topic (Operation Section).
Note: For new installations and engines that are
recently rebuilt, carefully monitor the engine in order 3. Adjust the load, as needed.
to detect any unusual engine performance.
46
Operation Section
Engine Operation

Engine Operation Caterpillar Engines can be operated at very light


loads for limited times with no harmful effects. Table
16 lists the limits for hours of operation at various
i01765829 loads.

Engine Operation After the time limit for reduced load operation
has expired, operate the engine for a minimum of
SMCS Code: 1000 two hours at a load that is more than 70 percent
of the rated load.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors
in attaining the maximum service life and economy For example, an engine is operating at 20 percent
for the engine. Follow the instructions in this of the rated load. The engine may be operated at
Operation and Maintenance Manual in order to this load factor for a maximum of one-half hour. After
minimize operating costs and maximize the service the one-half hour, operate this engine for at least
life of the engine. two hours at a load factor of more than 70 percent.

Observe the gauges or the Caterpillar Electronic To keep engine maintenance at a minimum, follow
Technician (ET) frequently while the engine is the guidelines that are listed in Table 16.
operating. Record the data from the gauges in a log.
Average the data that is recorded during operation Table 16
and record the average values for each day. Time Limits for Low Load Operation
Compare the data to the specifications for normal
engine operation. Comparing the data over time will Engine Load Time Limit
help to detect trends in engine performance. 0 to 30 percent 1/2 hour
Investigate any significant change in the gauge 31 to 50 percent 2 hours
readings. Monitor the engine operation and take 51 to 100 percent Continuous (1)
action when discrepancies are found.
(1) For continuous operation, the manifold air pressure must be
greater than the atmospheric pressure.
Operating the Engine and the
Driven Equipment
The minimum rpm for operating an engine with a
load is 750 rpm. The maximum rpm for operating
an engine with a load is 1000 rpm.

Check the gauges and the driven equipment


frequently while the engine is operating under a
load. The engine can be operated continuously at
full load.

Partial Load Operation


Extended operation at low idle or at a reduced load
will cause increased consumption of engine oil and
carbon buildup in the cylinders. Carbon buildup
results in the following effects:

Accelerated wear of components


Loss of control of the exhaust emissions
Narrow margin for detonation
Poor performance
Power loss
47
Operation Section
Engine Stopping

Engine Stopping The control panel must also be reset before the
engine will start. To reset the control panel, turn
mode control switch (1) to the OFF/RESET
i01526313 position.

Emergency Stopping
i01748696
SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
Manual Stop Procedure
NOTICE SMCS Code: 1000; 7418
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY use
ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices or
NOTICE
controls for normal stopping procedure.
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load can result in overheating and ac-
Ensure that any system that provides external celerated wear of engine components.
support to the engine is secured after the engine is
stopped. Turn off the auxiliary systems for engine Excessive temperatures in the turbocharger center-
operation after the engine is stopped. housing will cause oil coking problems.

Allow the engine to gradually cool before stopping the


NOTICE
engine
Do not start the engine until the problem necessitating
the emergency stop has been located and corrected.
Note: Remove the load at a rate that will avoid
detonation.
Emergency Stop Button
1. Disengage or unload the driven equipment.

a. For generator set engines, open the main


circuit breaker.

b. For industrial engines, unload the compressor


or pump. Disengage the clutch (if equipped).
Place the transmission and/or other
attachments for the power take-off in
NEUTRAL.

Note: Extended idling can cause excessive oil


consumption and related problems. See this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine
Operation topic (Operation Section).

2. Reduce the engine rpm to low idle.

Note: If the cooldown feature is not utilized, operate


the engine at low idle rpm for a cooldown period of
approximately one to two minutes before stopping
g00792865 the engine.
Illustration 35
(1) Emergency stop button 3. Use one of the following methods in order to
(2) Mode control switch in the OFF/RESET position
stop the engine:
The emergency stop button is in the OUT position
for normal engine operation. For an emergency
stop, push emergency stop button (2). The engine
will not start when the button is locked. To reset
the button, turn the button clockwise or pull the
button. The spring-loaded button will return to the
OUT position.
48
Operation Section
Engine Stopping

i00662051

After Stopping Engine


SMCS Code: 1000

Check the engine crankcase oil level. Maintain


the oil level between the ADD and FULL
marks on the ENGINE STOPPED side of the oil
level gauge.

If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair


any leaks and tighten loose bolts.

g00825057
Note the service hour meter reading. Perform the
Illustration 36 maintenance that is scheduled in this Operation
Engine control switch in the STOP position and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance Interval
Schedule (Maintenance Section).
a. Turn the engine control switch to the STOP
position. NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended in
b. If the engine control switch is in the AUTO the Coolant Specifications of this manual. Failure to do
position, the engine will stop when the remote so can cause engine damage.
start/stop initiate contact opens.

If the cooldown feature is utilized, the engine Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
will operate for a programmed period of
time before the engine stops. Otherwise, If freezing temperatures are expected, check
the engine will immediately shut off. When the coolant for protection against freezing. The
the engine rpm is reduced to approximately cooling system must be protected against freezing
100 rpm, the postlube cycle will operate for to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
approximately 180 seconds. the proper coolant/water mixture, if necessary.

The engine will coast to a stop. Ensure that any Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
system that provides external support to the engine driven equipment. Refer to the instructions that
is secured after the engine is stopped. Turn off are provided by the OEM of the driven equipment.
the auxiliary systems for engine operation after the
engine is stopped.

The power to the control panel will be maintained


until the engine control switch is turned to the
OFF/RESET position.
49
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications

Maintenance Section Due to significant variations in the quality and in the


performance of commercially available engine oils,
Caterpillar makes the following recommendation:

Lubricant Specifications Caterpillar Natural Gas Engine Oil (NGEO)


Caterpillar NGEO has been tested throughout
i00708567 the world in demanding environments. Caterpillar
NGEO has been tested in engines that use all types
Lubricant Information of gaseous fuel. The formulation of the engine oil
has been proven to be superior to many brands of
SMCS Code: 1000; 1300; 7581 engine oil that are locally available.
Engine oil performs several functions: For maximum service life of the engine and the
engine oil, use Caterpillar NGEO with low sulfur
Keeping the engine clean gaseous fuels that contain less than 0.43 mg H2S/MJ
(0.45 g H2S/Btu).
Preventing rust and corrosion
Caterpillar NGEO may also be used with high sulfur
Acting as a coolant natural gas. The use of these fuels may require a
reduced oil change interval.
Reducing friction and wear
Caterpillar NGEO is formulated and blended with
Engines that use gaseous fuel require oils that are special additives in order to provide protection
formulated with additives that are specific to these against oxidation and nitration. Caterpillar NGEO
engines. also has thermal stability.
No performance specifications are available to Caterpillar NGEO also provides the following
define the performance levels that are required benefits:
by engines that use gaseous fuels. Field tests
must be used in order to define oils that are Reduction of the formation of carbon and sludge
acceptable. To aid in oil selection, guidelines are
provided in Supplement, SEBU6400, Caterpillar
Resistance to foaming
Gaseous Fueled Spark Ignited Engines Lubrication
Specifications.
Resistance to corrosion
Grease is classified by the National Lubricating Improved cleanliness of cylinder liners, pistons,
Grease Institute (NLGI). The classification is valves, and valve seats
based on the ASTM D217-68 Worked Penetration
characteristics. The characteristics have a number Lubrication that helps to protect against scoring,
for consistency that is defined. For information scuffing, and wear
on grease, see this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Lubricating Grease topic (Maintenance Table 17 lists the properties of Caterpillar NGEO. The
Section). properties are based on ASTM test specifications.

i01607552

Engine Oil
SMCS Code: 1300; 1348; 7581

Caterpillar Engine Oils have been developed and


tested in order to provide the full performance and
service life that has been designed and built into
Caterpillar Engines. These engine oils are offered
by Caterpillar dealers for continued use when the
engine oil is changed. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for more information.
50
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications

Table 17 Field Test


Caterpillar NGEO Properties
Note: For more information, refer to , SEBU6400-02,
Characteristic ASTM SAE Viscosity Operation and Maintenance Manual, Field
Test Grade Evaluation of Commercial Oil.
30W 40W
API Gravity D 0286 28.4 27.5
Lubrication for Engines that use
Flash Point D 0092 265 265
Sour Gas and Bio-Gas
Pour Point D 0097 15 15 Note: For more information, refer to the specific
engines Operation and Maintenance Manual, Fuel
Viscosity (cSt) at D 0455 95 130
40 C (104 F)
Recommendations.

Viscosity (cSt) at D 0455 11 13.5 Many gaseous fuels contain sulfur compounds.
100 C (212 F) These compounds are primarily composed of
Viscosity Index D 0567 99 99 hydrogen sulfide (H2S). If the concentration is less
than the following amount, the gaseous fuels are
Weight (Percent) of D 0874 0.48 0.48 considered to be sweet. If the concentration is
Sulfated Ash greater than the following amount, the gaseous
Total Base Number D 2896 6.2 6.2 fuels are considered to be sour.
Weight (Percent) of D 4951 0.030 0.030 0.43 mg H2S/MJ (0.45 g H2S/Btu)
Phosphorus
Sour gas can reduce the service life of an engine
and the engine oil. When the sulfur compounds
Commercial Engine Oils are combined with water, acids are produced in
the engine oil. These acids attack the metals in
Specifications for commercial engine oils do not the engine crankcase. This causes corrosive wear.
exist for Caterpillar Engines that operate on gaseous To reduce the effects of these sulfur compounds,
fuels. The performance of lubrication oil for gas Caterpillar recommends the use of devices that
engines is determined by a field test. Successful treat the fuel.
field operation has been achieved with engine oils
that meet the following guidelines: If the sour gas cannot be treated in order to reduce
the level of sulfur, additional measures must be
Caterpillar recommends the use of engine oils taken in order to protect the engine. To reduce the
that are formulated specifically for heavy-duty harmful effects of sour gas, Caterpillar recommends
gas engines. Do not use engine oils that are the following guidelines:
specially formulated for gasoline engines or for
diesel engines.
Obtain frequent oil analyses.
Caterpillar recommends the use of engine oils Reduce the intervals for changing the engine oil.
that have a sulfated ash content between 0.40 Change the engine oil according to the results
and 0.60 percent. of the oil analysis.
The oil must demonstrate adequate protection Caterpillar does not recommend the use of engine
for a minimum of 7000 hours in a field test under oils with a high concentration of sulfated ash in
controlled conditions. order to reduce the harmful effects of sour gas.
High levels of sulfated ash may produce excessive
NOTICE deposits on the valves and on the turbine wheel of
Failure to follow these oil recommendations can cause the turbocharger. These deposits will reduce the
shortened engine service life due to deposits and/or service life of the engine. These deposits will also
excessive wear. increase the cost of maintenance.

For additional information on gaseous fuels and


NOTICE
on treatment of the fuel, refer to the following
Caterpillar recommends the use of oils that are formu- publications:
lated specifically for heavy duty spark ignited gaseous
fueled engines. Oils that are formulated for gasoline
engines only or for diesel engines only should not be Application and Installation, LEKQ7256,
Fuels/Fuel Systems
used.
51
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications

Application and Installation, LEKQ7260, Low See the appropriate Lubricant Viscosities table
BTU Engines in order to find the correct oil viscosity grade for
your engine.
Maintenance Management Schedules,
SEBU6127, Schedules for Industrial and EPG At the specified interval, service the engine
Spark Ignited Gas Engines compartment. Use new oil and install a new oil
filter.
For information regarding condemning limits of
the lubrication oil, refer to this Operation and Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
Maintenance Manual, SOS Oil Analysis topic specified in the Operation and Maintenance
(Maintenance Section). Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule.

Lubricant Viscosity i01145644

Table 18 Hydraulic Oil


Engine Oil Viscosity
SMCS Code: 1264; 5095
Caterpillar Ambient Temperature
NGEO
Grade of Minimum Maximum
Applications
Viscosity
Hydraulic Systems
SAE 40 (1) 5 C (41 F) 50 C (122 F)
(1) Multigrade oils are NOT recommended for use in Caterpillar Hydrostatic Transmissions
Gas Engines. If other grades of viscosity are selected, ensure
that the oil meets the requirements for Caterpillar Gas Engines.
Consult the supplier of the oil. Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil (HYDO)
Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil is formulated with a
i01123104 balanced additive system. The system includes
Aftermarket Oil Additives the following agents: detergents, rust inhibitors,
antiwear agents, and defoamers. Caterpillar
SMCS Code: 1348; 7581 Hydraulic Oil offers the following benefits: protection
against mechanical wear, protection against rusting,
Caterpillar does not recommend the use of protection against corrosive wear in hydraulic
aftermarket additives in oil. It is not necessary to systems, and protection against wear in hydrostatic
use aftermarket additives in order to achieve the transmission systems. Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil
engines maximum service life or rated performance. should be used to achieve maximum life and
Fully formulated, finished oils consist of base oils maximum performance from hydraulic system
and of commercial additive packages. These components and from hydrostatic transmissions.
additive packages are blended into the base oils Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil is recommended in most
at precise percentages in order to help provide hydraulic systems and in most hydrostatic systems.
finished oils with performance characteristics that
meet industry standards. Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil

There are no industry standard tests that evaluate If a different viscosity is required due to ambient
the performance or the compatibility of aftermarket temperatures, the following Caterpillar oils can be
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may used:
not be compatible with the finished oils additive
package, which could lower the performance of the Caterpillar Multigrade Diesel Engine Oil (DEO)
finished oil. The aftermarket additive could fail to
mix with the finished oil. This could produce sludge Caterpillar Single Grade Diesel Engine Oil (DEO)
in the crankcase. Caterpillar discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils. Caterpillar Transmission/Drive Train Oil (TDTO)

To achieve the best performance from a Caterpillar Caterpillar Transmission Multi-Season Oil (TMS)
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
Caterpillar Multipurpose Tractor Oil (MTO)
Select the proper Caterpillar oil or a commercial
oil that meets the EMA Recommended Guideline
on Diesel Engine Oil or the recommended API
classification.
52
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications

Commercial Oils The maximum recommended water content for


hydraulic systems that are filled with Caterpillar
If Caterpillar oils cannot be used, the following Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil (HEES) is 0.10 percent.
commercial classifications can be used in hydraulic If the water levels exceed 0.10 percent, the water
systems and in hydrostatic transmission systems: should be removed or the oil should be replaced.

CH-4 engine oils that have a minimum zinc Consult your Caterpillar dealer for additional
additive of 0.09 percent (900 ppm) information on this product and on the potential use.

CG-4 engine oils that have a minimum zinc Commercial Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil
additive of 0.09 percent (900 ppm)
(HEES)
CF-4 engine oils that have a minimum zinc If Caterpillar Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil (HEES) is
additive of 0.09 percent (900 ppm)
not used, commercial oils which meet the Caterpillar
BF-1 specifications should be used.
CF engine oils that have a minimum zinc additive
of 0.09 percent (900 ppm)
i01489947

Caterpillar Biodegradable SOS Oil Analysis


Hydraulic Oil (HEES)
SMCS Code: 1348; 7542-008
Caterpillar has a biodegradable hydraulic oil that
is available for use in machine hydraulic systems. Caterpillar recommends the SOS oil analysis
This fluid is recommended for the hydraulic systems program in order to monitor the condition of the
when environmental compliance is required or oil and the maintenance requirements of the
desired. engine. The SOS program is part of the preventive
maintenance program.

The SOS oil analysis includes these tests:

The Wear Rate Analysis monitors wear by


detecting, identifying and assessing the amount
and the type of wear metal that is in the oil. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the
oil is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil. For this reason, regular sampling
at specified intervals is necessary in order to
establish wear rates. Intermittent sampling does
not allow wear rate trend lines to be established.
Engine wear metals in the oil sample are
g00103844
compared to established Caterpillar norms in
Illustration 37 order to determine acceptability. Potential failures
can be identified when the wear rate and/or the
Machines with this symbol are filled with contaminants exceed the established trend.
biodegradable hydraulic oil. This symbol is located
on the hydraulic tank. Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water and/or glycol.
This fluid is formulated with the following
components: a saturated HEES (Hydraulic The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss
Environmental Ester Synthetic), synthetic base of the oils lubricating properties. An infrared
stock, and selected additives. Use this oil only in analysis is used to compare the properties of
hydraulic systems. new oil to the properties of the used oil sample.
This analysis allows technicians to determine the
Caterpillar Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil (HEES) amount of deterioration of the oil during use.
may become darker in color throughout the service
life of the oil. Analysis is required to determine the The test results of the oil samples will then be used
quality of the oil. as a basis for determining the oil change interval
for the engine. The results of the SOS oil analysis
may enable the engine to operate longer between
oil changes without the risk of damage.
53
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications

Obtain each oil sample when the oil is warm and


well mixed in order to ensure that the sample is
representative of the oil in the engine crankcase.

Oil analysis is essential in order to determine


satisfactory performance of the oil.

Refer to Special Publication, PEDP7036, SOS


Fluid Analysis for more information.

Consult your Caterpillar dealer for complete


information and assistance about the program.

Condemning Limits of the Oil


Oil analysis is the only method of determining if
an oil is protecting the engine. The oil analysis
is compared to limits that have been established
through experience.

The condemning limits for lubrication oil were


developed from experience with engine operation
and from the analysis of used oil. The limits provide
guidelines for determining the useful service life of
the engine oil. Table 19 lists the limits for the service
life of the oil.
Table 19
SOS Oil Analysis
Condemning Limits
Parameter Limit
Oxidation 100% defined by the
SOS Oil Analysis
Nitration 100% defined by the
SOS Oil Analysis
Water 0.5% maximum
Glycol 0%
Silicon (Bio-gas) 25 ppm
Wear Metals Based on Caterpillar
norms and on the trend of
the Wear Rate Analysis(1)
Additional Oil Analysis
Viscosity at 100 C (212 F)

Increase of 3 cSt from
by ASTM D445 new oil
Total acid number (TAN) by 3.0 maximum TAN or
ASTM D664 2.0 greater TAN than
the new oil
Total base number by 50% of new oil TBN
ASTM D2896
(1) A trend can be established from the results of three oil analyses.
54
Maintenance Section
Fuel Specifications

Fuel Specifications Rated load


For a detailed explanation of methane numbers,
i00880165 see Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7256,
Fuels/Fuel Systems.
Fuel Recommendations
SMCS Code: 1280 Dry Natural Gas
Dry natural gas is a mixture of methane, ethane,
General Fuel Information propane, and butane. Dry natural gas may also
have traces of heavier hydrocarbons.
Gaseous fuels consist primarily of hydrocarbons
(combinations of hydrogen and carbon) and some The Low Heat Value (LHV) of a gas is the high
inert gases. Pipeline natural gas has been used heat value (HHV) minus the heat that is required to
for many years. Other types of fuels such as vaporize the water that is formed by combustion.
wellhead, bio-gas, and manufactured gas need to For more information on heat values, see Application
be reviewed for acceptability. and Installation Guide, LEKQ7256, Fuels/Fuel
Systems.
Each commercial fuel gas is a mixture of gases.
Some of the gases are combustible and some of The heat value of dry natural gases may vary.
the gases are inert. The compositions of these gas This depends on the composition of the gas. Dry
mixtures have extreme variations. natural gas usually has an LHV that is between
33.53 to 34.65 kJ/L (900 to 930 Btu/ft3). Caterpillar
Caterpillar Gas Engines will operate successfully Gas Engines are adjusted at the factory with a dry
on a broad range of gaseous fuels. Adjustments natural gas that is within this range.
must be made to the fuel system when the fuel is
changed. Consult your Caterpillar dealer about the For dry natural gas, the acceptable limit of hydrogen
proper adjustments. sulfide is 0.43 mg H2S/MJ (.450 g H2S/Btu).

Permissible fuels must be analyzed in order to


determine the following characteristics: Sour Gas
Note: For sour gas, Caterpillar recommends engine
Composition arrangements that are similar to arrangements for
landfill gas.
Specific gravity
Sour gas refers to fuels that contain more than
Heat value 0.43 mg H2S/MJ (.450 g H2S/Btu). The following
gases are within this category:
Methane number
A fuels potential for detonation is indicated by a Some wellhead gases
methane number. The methane number of any gas
(fuel) can be determined with the following method: Landfill gas

1. Obtain a fuel analysis of the gas. Digester gas

2. Enter the data from the fuel analysis into the Sweet gas pertains to fuels that have less than
Caterpillar Software Program, LEKQ6378, 0.43 mg H2S/MJ (.450 g H2S/Btu).
Methane Number Program.
The use of gases that have hydrogen sulfide can
This software program calculates the fuels methane damage the engine. Products of combustion (water
number. vapor and sulfur oxides) form sulfurous acid and
sulfuric acid. Sulfur reacts easily with bright metals
The methane number is used for determining the such as copper. Therefore, oil coolers are usually
following parameters: the first components that are affected by the acids.
Other engine parts that are attacked by the acids
include the following components:
Compression ratio
Fuel system components Valves

Ignition timing Valve guides


55
Maintenance Section
Fuel Specifications

Piston pin bushings Note: The composition of the gas from a field can
change over time. Allow some adaptability for this
Piston rings change during the life of the project.

Cylinder liners Wellhead gas has minimal processing before


entering the fuel manifold. This fuel is commonly
Exhaust manifolds used in engines that power gas compressors. The
engines burn the same gas that is compressed in
Aftercoolers order to be transferred through pipelines.

Analyze the gas before use. If the gas has more Some gas fields contain significant amounts
than 0.43 mg H2S/MJ (.450 g H2S/Btu), treat the of hydrogen sulfide. In these cases, follow the
gas in order to reduce the content of hydrogen precautions that are recommended for using sour
sulfide. gas. Obtain a fuel analysis and determine the
methane number.
Various devices can reduce the content of hydrogen
sulfide. Examples are chemically active filters, Many wellhead gases have some heavier
reactive beds, and solutions. The performance of hydrocarbons such as pentane, isobutane and
the devices deteriorates as the reactive chemicals other gasolines. These heavier hydrocarbons
are depleted. The devices must be serviced or cause detonation and other problems.
replaced in order to maintain effectiveness.
For more information on hydrocarbons, see
Take the following precautions even if the gas is Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7256,
treated in order to reduce the level of hydrogen Fuels/Fuel Systems.
sulfide. This will help to protect the engine against
intervals when the devices for treating the fuel Consult your Caterpillar dealer before operating the
deteriorate. Even brief intervals of operation with engine with fuel that has more than one percent of
high sulfur fuels can damage the engine, unless hydrocarbons that are heavier than butane.
precautions are taken.
Bio-Gas
Maintain the temperature

of the coolant outlet to

a minimum of 110 C (230 F). Do not allow the
Bio-gas is generally classified as either gas that
rise in temperature across the engine to exceed is produced from landfills or gas that is produced
8.3 C (15 F). A rise in temperature of 5.6 C
from digester gas facilities. Although these gases
(10 F) is preferable.
are both the result of organic decomposition, the
compositions are different.
Lower jacket water temperatures permit water
vapor and hydrogen sulfide to condense on the
cylinder liners. Higher temperatures will reduce this Landfill Gas
condensation.
The decomposition of organic material produces
Establish an oil analysis program in order to landfill gas. The composition of landfill gas depends
ensure that the oil change intervals are not on the materials that are in the landfill. The gas is
extended beyond the condemning limits of the collected through a grid of pipes that are laid out
oil. The oil analysis will also be able to detect within the landfill.
other problems that may occur.
The collection of landfill gas was prompted by
ecological concerns. Landfill gas contains methane
Wellhead Gas (Field Gas) and other pollutants. These harmful pollutants are
consumed in order to produce useful energy.
Wellhead gas is natural gas that has not been
processed. The composition of gases from the Caterpillar offers a variety of engines that can be
wellheads in different gas fields varies. The operated successfully with landfill gas.
composition of the gas from different wellheads
within the same gas field can vary. As a result, the Fuel analysis is required in order to provide
gas from one source may be acceptable for use guidelines for treatment of the fuel. When
but the gas from a different source may not be an application that uses landfill gas initiates
acceptable. For this reason, a fuel analysis from operation, the operation and maintenance that is
each source is required to determine if the fuel is recommended by Caterpillar must be followed.
acceptable for a particular Caterpillar Engine.
Landfill gas may contain the following contaminants
that can cause harmful effects on engines:
56
Maintenance Section
Fuel Specifications

Chlorine Type of lubrication oil


Fluorine Most landfill applications will generate some
deposits in the combustion chamber and the
Siloxanes turbocharger. Siloxanes are a major contributor
to these deposits. The fuel requires treatment in
Sulfur order to remove the siloxanes. For information
on equipment for processing landfill gas, see
Water vapor Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7260, Low
Energy Fuels.
The sulfur compounds in landfill gas cause the
same engine problems as sulfur in sour gas. When Note: The amount of silicon in the fuel can be
landfill gas is used, follow the precautions that are measured with a test that was developed by
recommended for using sour gas. Caterpillar and Bio-Engineering Services. The test
kit enables a sample of the fuel to be analyzed.
Landfills can contain chlorine and fluorine The fuel can also be analyzed for other harmful
compounds in the form of form volatile organic contaminants such as chlorines, fluorines, sulfur,
compounds and chlorofluorocarbons. When these and halides. Details can be obtained from the
substances are burned in engines, corrosive following address:
hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid can be
produced. Bio-Engineering Services
36 Virginia Street
Landfill gas can corrode both the equipment that Southport, Merseyside PR8 6RU England
handles the gas and the engine. Vapor is produced Telephone: 44 (0) 1704-539094
by combustion. If that vapor condenses in the Fax: 44 (0) 1704-501660
crankcase, a solution that is potentially corrosive
to the engine can form. During normal combustion, some exhaust gas and
unburned fuel is forced past the piston rings and
Landfill gas and digester gas can contain siloxanes. into the crankcase. The contaminants in this blowby
Siloxanes are formed when silica ions attach to are vented away from the crankcase by positive
the methane hydrocarbon chain. These gaseous crankcase ventilation. The contaminants are diluted
compounds enter the combustion chamber with the and purged.
fuel. This enables silica type deposits to form in
the cylinders. The formation of water in the crankcase can result
in an acid solution which allows corrosion to occur.
Because the engine oil contains some calcium, A high jacket water temperature helps to prevent
deposits in the combustion chamber are generally a the condensation of water in the crankcase. For
combination of silicon and calcium with some other landfill gas, the engines have a high temperature
trace elements. These substances can coagulate in jacket water cooling system as standard equipment.
the combustion process and form larger particles. The standard water temperature regulators (outlet)
begin to open at 110 C (230 F).
The larger particles can be abrasive to exhaust
valve faces and valve seats. This causes the valves Because of the higher jacket water temperatures,
to become pitted and indented. The particles can the oil must be cooled by other means. In engines
also build up on the valve seat. The buildup can that use landfill gas, the oil is cooled by the water in
cause guttering of the valves. the separate circuit aftercooling system.

Deposits also form on the pistons and on the bottom To protect the service life of the engine, it is
deck of the cylinder heads. Detonation can loosen necessary to follow the guidelines for operation and
the deposits. The deposits that are loosened can maintenance that are recommended by Caterpillar.
be trapped between the valve and the valve seat. For engines that use landfill gas, practice the
The valve will be held open. Guttering of the valve following recommendations in addition to the
will result. precautions for using sour gas:

The formation of deposits depends on the following Exhaust gases are likely to contain acids. If the
factors: engine installation has a device that uses the heat
from the exhaust, maintain a minimum exhaust
Composition of the fuel gas temperature of 204 C (400 F). This will
prevent condensation in the device.
Operating conditions
57
Maintenance Section
Fuel Specifications

Landfill gas requires regular, careful maintenance Gaseous Fuel Filters


of the spark plugs. Misfire causes the engine
to run rough. The cylinder temperatures are The customer is responsible for supplying clean,
reduced. Cooler cylinders allow deposits to build dry fuel to the engine.
up faster in the combustion chamber, the exhaust
manifold, and the turbocharger. Exhaust port Fuel filters are no less important than air filters to
temperatures can indicate the performance of the protect gas engines from dirt and debris. A proper
spark plugs. An exhaust port temperature that fuel filter removes impurities that can damage the
decreases more than 66 C (150 F) below the internal components of the engine.
average operating temperature may indicate the
misfire of a spark plug. Clean the spark plug. The gas must be supplied to the engine at a
Inspect the spark plug and set the electrode gap. pressure that is acceptable. For optimum operation,
Replace the spark plug if the performance is in use a fuel filter that is properly sized for the gas
question. pressure.

Caterpillar Natural Gas Engine Oil (NGEO) For many gas engines, fuel filters are a provision of
is recommended for engines that use landfill the design for the application. These devices are
gas. NGEO has 0.45 percent sulfated ash. The included in the normal maintenance of the plant.
use of an oil that has a high concentration of Therefore, Caterpillar does not include a standard
sulfated ash will result in excessive deposits fuel filter as a part of each gas engine. However,
in the combustion chamber. Because of the fuel filters are available from your Caterpillar dealer.
inconsistent composition of landfill gas, oil may
react differently to a particular landfill gas. Use Consult your Caterpillar dealer about the
the SOS oil analysis program to determine requirements for filtering your engines fuel.
proper oil change intervals.

For new installations, sample the oil frequently


in order to establish a consistent program for oil
changes. Initially, sample the oil on a daily basis.
The properties of landfill gas can change rapidly.
Therefore, it is necessary to continue to monitor the
oil on a weekly basis or two times per month in
order to ensure adequate protection.

Note: For more information on landfill gas and


digester gas, see Application and Installation Guide,
LEKQ7260, Low Energy Fuels.

Digester Gas
A variety of materials can produce digester gas:

Sewage
Animal waste
Liquid effluent from vegetable oil mills and alcohol
mills

Digester gas has properties that are similar to the


properties of landfill gas. Digester gas usually has
some sulfur and siloxanes. However, digester gas
does not usually contain the chloroflorocarbons that
are found in landfill gas. The same precautions for
treatment of the fuel and protecting the engine are
required. Until experience proves otherwise, the
same maintenance recommendations are used.
58
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Cooling System Many engine failures are related to the cooling


system. The following problems are related to
Specifications cooling system failures: overheating, leakage of the
water pump, plugged radiators or heat exchangers,
and pitting of the cylinder liners.
i01640527
These failures can be avoided with proper cooling
General Coolant Information system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance
is as important as maintenance of the fuel system
SMCS Code: 1350; 1395 and the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant
is as important as the quality of the fuel and the
NOTICE lubricating oil.
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first. Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
water, additives, and glycol.

NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area Water
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temper- NOTICE
ature or drained completely to prevent damage. Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant
Additives (SCA) or without inhibited coolant. Water
alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures.
NOTICE Water alone does not provide adequate protection
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for against boiling or freezing.
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons: transfer heat.

Contamination of the cooling system Distilled water or deionized water is


recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
Overheating of the engine
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
Foaming of the coolant systems: hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt, and sea water.
Note: Air pockets can form in the cooling system if
the cooling system is filled at a rate that is greater If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
than 20 L (5 US gal) per minute. use water with the properties that are listed in Table
20.
After you drain the cooling system and after you
refill the cooling system, operate the engine.
Operate the engine without the filler cap until the
coolant reaches normal operating temperature and
the coolant level stabilizes. Ensure that the coolant
is maintained to the proper level.

NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system prob-
lems can develop without water temperature regula-
tors.

Refer to Special Instruction, SEBD0518, Know


Your Cooling System and Special Instruction,
SEBD0970, Coolant and Your Engine for more
detailed information.
59
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Table 20 Reduction of heat transfer


Caterpillar Minimum Acceptable Water Requirements
Leakage of the water pump seal
Property Maximum Limit ASTM Test
40 mg/L D512, Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small
Chloride (Cl) passages
(2.4 grains/US gal) D4327
100 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
(5.9 grains/US gal)
D516 Glycol
170 mg/L Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
Total Hardness D1126
(10 grains/US gal) against the following conditions:
340 mg/L
Total Solids D1888 Boiling
(20 grain/US gal)
Acidity pH of 5.5 to 9.0 D1293 Freezing
For a water analysis, consult one of the following Cavitation of the water pump and the cylinder liner
sources:
For optimum performance, Caterpillar recommends
Caterpillar dealer a 1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.

Local water utility company Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Agricultural agent
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
Independent laboratory temperature of 23 C (9 F).

Most conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreezes


Additives use ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be
used. In a 1:1 mixture with water, ethylene and
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of propylene glycol provide similar protection against
the cooling system. A lack of coolant additives freezing and boiling. See Tables 21 and 22.
or insufficient amounts of additives enable the
following conditions to occur: Table 21
Ethylene Glycol
Corrosion
Freeze Boil
Concentration
Formation of mineral deposits Protection Protection
50 Percent 36 C (33 F) 106 C (223 F)
Rust
60 Percent 51 C (60 F) 111 C (232 F)
Scale
Pitting and erosion from cavitation of the cylinder NOTICE
liner Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that ex-
ceed 50 percent glycol because of propylene glycols
Foaming of the coolant reduced heat transfer capability. Use ethylene glycol
in conditions that require additional protection against
Many additives are depleted during engine boiling or freezing.
operation. These additives must be replaced
periodically. This can be done by adding
Supplemental Coolant Additives (SCA) to Diesel
Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC).

Additives must be added at the proper


concentration. Overconcentration of additives can
cause the inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The
deposits can enable the following problems to
occur:

Formation of gel compounds


60
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Table 22 In those engine applications that do not require


Propylene Glycol
protection from boiling or freezing, a mixture
of SCA and water is acceptable. Caterpillar
Freeze Anti-Boil recommends a minimum of six percent to a
Concentration
Protection Protection maximum of eight percent SCA concentration in
50 Percent 29 C (20 F) 106 C (223 F) those cooling systems. Distilled water or deionized
water is preferred. Water which has the acceptable
characteristics may be used. For the acceptable
To check the concentration of glycol, use the characteristics, see this publication, General
1U-7298 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degree Celsius) Coolant Information topic (Maintenance Section).
or use the 1U-7297 Coolant/Battery Tester (Degree
Fahrenheit). The testers give readings that are Note: Table 23 is a list of the coolants that are
immediate and accurate. The testers can be used recommended and the service life (calendar) of
with ethylene or propylene glycol. the coolants. The service life of coolant is also
limited by use (service hours). Refer to the specific
engines Operation and Maintenance Manual,
i01452829
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Maintenance
Coolant Recommendations Section). To achieve this service life, the coolants
must be properly maintained. The maintenance
SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395 program includes SOS coolant analysis.
Table 23
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only Coolant Service Life
meets the ASTM D3306 or D4656 specification. This Coolant Type Service Life (1)
type of coolant/antifreeze is made for light duty auto-
motive applications. Caterpillar DEAC Three Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Coolant/Antifreeze that Two Years
The following coolants are the primary types of meets ASTM D5345
coolants that are used in Caterpillar Gas Engines:
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Preferred Caterpillar Diesel Engine Coolant/Antifreeze that One Year
Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) or a commercial meets ASTM D4985
heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze that meets ASTM Caterpillar SCA and
D4985 or ASTM D5345 specifications Two Years
Water

Acceptable A mixture of Caterpillar Supplemental Commercial SCA and


One Year
Coolant Additive and water that has the acceptable Water
characteristics (1) The service life of coolant is also limited by use (service hours).
Refer to the specific engines Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule (Maintenance
Caterpillar recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
Section).
glycol. This mixture will provide optimum heavy-duty
performance as a coolant/antifreeze.
i01111753
Note: Caterpillar DEAC DOES NOT require a
treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. Commercial Diesel Engine Antifreeze/
heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze that meets ASTM
D4985 or ASTM D5345 specifications MAY
Coolant (DEAC)
require a treatment with an SCA at the initial fill. SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
Read the label or the instructions that are provided
by the OEM of the product. Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar
Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) for
cooling systems that require a heavy-duty
coolant/antifreeze. Caterpillar DEAC is an alkaline
single-phase ethylene glycol type antifreeze that
contains corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents.

Caterpillar DEAC is formulated with the correct


amount of Caterpillar Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA). Do no use SCA at the initial fill when DEAC
is used.
61
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Containers of several sizes are available. Consult i01069295


your Caterpillar dealer for the part numbers.
Supplemental Coolant Additive
If concentrated DEAC is used, Caterpillar
recommends mixing the concentrate with distilled
(SCA)
water or with deionized water. If distilled water is SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
not available or deionized water is not available,
use water which has the required properties. For The use of SCA helps to prevent the following
the water properties, see this publication, General conditions from occurring:
Coolant Information topic (Maintenance Section).
Corrosion
i01164588
Formation of mineral deposits
Commercial Heavy-Duty
Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA Cavitation erosion of the cylinder liners
Foaming of the coolant
SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
Caterpillar Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC)
If Caterpillar DEAC is not used, select a is formulated with the correct level of Caterpillar
coolant/antifreeze with low silicate content for SCA. When the cooling system is initially filled with
heavy-duty applications that meets ASTM D5345 DEAC, adding more SCA is not necessary until the
or ASTM D4985 specifications. concentration of SCA has been depleted. To ensure
that the correct amount of SCA is in the cooling
Note: When you are not using Caterpillar DEAC the system, the concentration of SCA must be tested
cooling system must be drained one time during on a scheduled basis. Refer to the specific engines
every year. The cooling system must be flushed at Operation and Maintenance Manual, Maintenance
this time as well. Interval Schedule.
When a heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze is used, Containers of SCA are available in several sizes.
treat the cooling system with three to six Consult your Caterpillar dealer for the part numbers.
percent Caterpillar SCA by volume. For more
information, see this publication, Conventional
Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System Maintenance i01166959
topic (Maintenance Section).
Conventional Coolant/
If Caterpillar SCA is not used, select a commercial
SCA. The commercial SCA must provide a minimum
Antifreeze Cooling System
of 1200 mg/L or 1200 ppm (70 grains/US gal) of Maintenance
nitrites in the final coolant mixture.
SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
Coolant/antifreeze that meets ASTM D5345 or
ASTM D4985 specifications MAY require treatment NOTICE
with SCA at the initial fill. These coolants WILL Never operate an engine without water temperature
require treatment with SCA on a maintenance basis. regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
When concentrated coolant/antifreeze is mixed, proper operating temperature. Cooling system prob-
Caterpillar recommends mixing the concentrate with lems can develop without water temperature regula-
distilled water or with deionized water. If distilled tors.
water or deionized water is not available, water
which has the required properties may be used. For
the water properties, see this publication, General Check the coolant/antifreeze (glycol concentration)
Coolant Information topic (Maintenance Section). in order to ensure adequate protection against
boiling or freezing. Caterpillar recommends the
use of a refractometer for checking the glycol
concentration. Use the 1U-7298 Coolant/Battery
Tester (Celsius) or use the 1U-7297 Coolant/Battery
Tester (Fahrenheit). The testers give readings that
are immediate and accurate. The testers can be
used with ethylene or with propylene glycol.
62
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Adding the SCA to Conventional Test the coolant/antifreeze periodically for the
concentration of SCA. For the interval, see the
Coolant/Antifreeze at the Initial Fill specific engines Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule
Note: Caterpillar DEAC DOES NOT require an
(Maintenance Section). SCA test kits are available
addition of SCA when the cooling system is initially
from your Caterpillar dealer. Test the concentration of
filled.
SCA or submit a coolant sample to your Caterpillar
dealer. For more information on coolant analysis,
Commercial heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze
see the Operation and Maintenance Manual, SOS
that meets ASTM D4985 or ASTM D5345
Coolant Analysis topic (Maintenance Section).
specifications MAY require an addition of SCA when
the cooling system is initially filled. Read the label
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the
or the instructions that are provided by the OEM
test or based on the results of the coolant analysis.
of the product.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is required. Use the equation
Use the equation that is in Table 26 to determine
that is in Table 24 to determine the amount of
the amount of Caterpillar SCA that is required.
Caterpillar SCA that may be required when the
cooling system is initially filled with heavy-duty Table 26
coolant/antifreeze that meets ASTM D4985 or
ASTM D5345 specifications. Equation For Adding The SCA To Conventional
Coolant/Antifreeze For Maintenance
Table 24 V 0.014 = X
Equation For Adding The SCA At The Initial Fill
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Coolant/Antifreeze That Meets ASTM D4985
or ASTM D5345 Specifications (1) X is the amount of SCA that is required.
V 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Table 27 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 26.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
(1)
Table 27
Read the label or the instructions that are provided by the OEM
of the product. Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To
Conventional Coolant/Antifreeze For Maintenance
Table 25 is an example for using the equation that
Total Volume Factor for Amount of SCA
is in Table 24. of the Cooling Multiplication that is Required
System (V) (X)
Table 25
Example of the Equation For Adding The 946 L 0.014 13 L
SCA At The Initial Fill (250 US gal) (3.5 US gal)
Coolant/Antifreeze That Meets ASTM D4985
or ASTM D5345 Specifications Note: Specific engine applications may require
Total Volume Factor for Amount of SCA maintenance practices to be periodically evaluated
of the Cooling Multiplication that is Required in order to properly maintain the engines cooling
System (V) (X) system.
946 L 0.045 43 L
Table 28 lists part numbers and quantities of SCA
(250 US gal) (11 US gal)
that is available from your Caterpillar dealer.

Table 28
Adding the SCA to Conventional
Caterpillar Liquid SCA
Coolant/Antifreeze For
Part Number Quantity
Maintenance
8C-3680 19 L (5 US gal)
Heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze of all types REQUIRE
5P-2907 208 L (55 US gal)
periodic additions of an SCA.
63
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Cleaning the Cooling System of The quality of the water is a very important factor
in this type of cooling system. Distilled water or
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze deionized water is recommended for use in cooling
systems. If distilled water or deionized water is not
Caterpillar Cooling System Cleaner dissolves
available, water that has the required properties
mineral scale, corrosion products, light oil
may be used. For the water properties, see this
contamination and sludge.
Operation and Maintenance Manual, General
Coolant Information topic (Maintenance Section).
Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
A cooling system that uses a mixture of only SCA
new coolant.
and water requires more SCA than a cooling system
that uses a mixture of glycol and water. The SCA
Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is and water requires six to eight percent of SCA.
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.

Adding the SCA to Water at the


i01314838
Initial Fill
Water/Supplemental Coolant
The capacity of the cooling system determines the
Additive (SCA) amount of SCA that is required. Use the equation
that is in Table 29 to determine the amount of
SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
Caterpillar SCA that is required at the initial fill. This
equation is for a mixture of only SCA and water.
NOTICE
To help prevent water pump cavitation, Caterpillar rec- Table 29
ommends a minimum of 30 percent of glycol in the Equation For Adding The SCA To Water
coolant/antifreeze mixture. At The Initial Fill

Use a mixture that will provide protection against the V 0.07 = X


lowest ambient temperature. V is the total volume of the cooling system.

100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a temperature of X is the amount of SCA that is required.
13 C (9 F).
Table 30 is an example for using the equation that
is in Table 29.
NOTICE
Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant Table 30
Additives (SCA) or without inhibited coolant. Water
alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures. Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA
Water alone does not provide adequate protection To Water At The Initial Fill
against boiling or freezing. Total Volume Factor for Amount of SCA
of the Cooling Multiplication that is Required
System (V) (X)
Do not use water alone as an engine coolant.
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) helps to 946 L 0.07 66 L
prevent the following conditions from occurring: (250 US gal) (18 US gal)

Corrosion
Adding the SCA to Water for
Formation of mineral deposits Maintenance
Cavitation of the cylinder liner Test the mixture of SCA and water periodically for
the concentration of SCA. For the interval, see
Foaming of the coolant the specific engines Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Maintenance Interval Schedule
If Caterpillar SCA is not used, select a commercial (Maintenance Section).
SCA. The commercial SCA must provide a minimum
of 2400 mg/L or 2400 ppm (140 grains/US gal) of Test the concentration of SCA with the 8T-5296
nitrites in the final coolant mixture. Coolant Conditioner Test Kit or with SOS coolant
analysis. For more information on coolant analysis,
see this Operation and Maintenance Manual, SOS
Coolant Analysis topic (Maintenance Section).
64
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Instructions are provided with the 8T-5296 Table 33


Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Make the following Caterpillar Liquid SCA
modifications to Steps 3 and 5 of the instructions.
These modifications are needed for mixtures of SCA Part Number Quantity
and water:
8C-3680 19 L (5 US gal)
STEP 3 Add tap water to the vial up to the 20 5P-2907 208 L (55 US gal)
ml mark.

STEP 5 When the defined procedure is used, i01069690


a concentration of six to eight percent will yield
between 20 drops and 27 drops. If the number of SOS Coolant Analysis
drops is below 20 drops, the concentration of SCA
is low. If the number of drops is above 27 drops, the SMCS Code: 1350; 1352; 1395
concentration of SCA is high. Make the appropriate
adjustments to the concentration of SCA. Testing the engine coolant is important to ensure
that the engine is protected from internal cavitation
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the and from corrosion. The analysis also tests the
test or based on the results of the coolant analysis. ability of the coolant to protect the engine from
The capacity of the cooling system determines the boiling and from freezing.
amount of SCA that is required.
Coolant analysis can be performed at your
Use the equation that is in Table 31 to determine Caterpillar dealership. Caterpillars SOS coolant
the amount of Caterpillar SCA that is required. analysis is an excellent way to monitor the condition
of your coolant and your cooling system.
Table 31
Equation For Adding the SCA To Water
The most critical aspect of coolant analysis is
For Maintenance the interpretation of the results. The analyst must
be properly trained in order to provide a correct
V 0.023 = X diagnosis. The analyst must understand several
V is the total volume of the cooling system. variables.

X is the amount of SCA that is required. Different coolants have different formulations and
different condemning limits. Different commercial
Table 32 is an example for using the equation that labs may use different methods to test for the
is in Table 31. same variable. These other considerations are also
important for interpreting the results of a coolant
Table 32 analysis:
Example Of The Equation For Adding the SCA
To Water For Maintenance The number of hours on the sample
Total Volume Factor for Amount of SCA The equipment that uses the coolant
of the Cooling Multiplication that is Required
System (V) (X) The application of the equipment
946 L 0.023 22 L
(250 US gal) (6 US gal) Analysts at Caterpillars SOS fluid labs are trained
to determine the acceptability of coolants. These
analysts have knowledge of the equipment and
Note: Specific engine applications may require applications. These qualifications enable the
maintenance practices to be periodically evaluated analysts to detect problems before damage occurs.
in order to properly maintain the engines cooling
system.

Table 33 lists part numbers and quantities of SCA


that is available from your Caterpillar dealer.
65
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Specifications

Identification of buildup of the impurities that


NOTICE cause scaling
Do not use the same vacuum sampling pump for ex-
tracting oil samples that is used for extracting coolant Determination of possible electrolysis within the
samples. engines cooling system

A small residue of either type sample may remain in The results are reported, and appropriate
the pump and may cause a false positive analysis for recommendations are made.
the sample being taken.
For more information on SOS coolant analysis,
Always use a designated pump for oil sampling and a consult your Caterpillar dealer.
designated pump for coolant sampling.

Failure to do so may cause a false analysis which


could lead to customer and dealer concerns.

Caterpillars SOS coolant analysis is a program


with two levels. The program is based on periodic
samples. The samples are analyzed. The results
are reported, and appropriate recommendations are
made according to the results.

SOS Coolant Analysis (Level I)


A coolant analysis (Level I) is a test of the properties
of the coolant that includes the following items:

Glycol concentration for protection from boiling


and freezing

Ability to protect from erosion and corrosion


pH
Conductivity
Water hardness
Visual analysis
Analysis of the odor
The results are reported, and appropriate
recommendations are made.

SOS Coolant Analysis (Level II)


A coolant analysis (Level II) is a comprehensive
chemical evaluation of the coolant. This analysis is
also a check of the overall condition of the inside
of the cooling system. The following services are
provided:

Full Level I analysis


Identification of the source of metal corrosion and
of contaminants

Identification of buildup of the impurities that


cause corrosion
66
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Refill Capacities For the recommended coolant, refer to this


Operation and Maintenance Manual, Coolant
Recommendations (Maintenance Section).
i01742801
Table 36
Refill Capacities G3606 Engine Cooling System
Approximate Refill Capacities
SMCS Code: 1000; 1348; 1395; 7560
Compartment or System Liters US Gallons
Lubrication System Jacket Water 340 90
Aftercooler 61 16
The capacity of the Engine Crankcase includes the
capacity of the oil filters that are installed at the Accessory Module 345 91
factory.
External System
For the recommended oil, refer to this Operation Total Cooling System
and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil topic
(Maintenance Section). Table 37

Table 34 G3608 Engine Cooling System


Approximate Refill Capacities
Approximate Refill Capacity of Crankcase
Compartment or System Liters US Gallons
Sales Model Liters US Gallons
Jacket Water 469 124
G3606 708 187
Aftercooler 61 16
G3608 912 241
Accessory Module 345 91
G3612 1030 272
External System
G3616 1325 351
Total Cooling System

Hydraulic Actuator System Table 38

For the recommended hydraulic oil, see this G3612 Engine Cooling System
Approximate Refill Capacity
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Hydraulic Oil
topic (Maintenance Section). Compartment or System Liters US Gallons

Table 35 Jacket Water 669 177

Electrohydraulic Actuators System Aftercooler 64 17


Approximate Refill Capacity
Accessory Module 345 91
Compartment or System Liters US Gallons
External System
Hydraulic Oil Tank 19 5
Total Cooling System

Cooling System
To properly maintain the cooling system, the total
cooling system capacity must be determined. The
total cooling system capacity will vary between
individual installations.

The external system capacity includes the following


components: engine, expansion tank, heat
exchanger, and piping. Refer to the specifications
that are provided by Caterpillar or by the OEM of
the equipment. Record the total cooling system
capacity in the appropriate Table.
67
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities

Table 39
G3616 Engine Cooling System
Approximate Refill Capacity
Compartment or System Liters US Gallons
Jacket Water 900 238
Aftercooler 72 19
Accessory Module 345 91
External System
Total Cooling System
68
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i01742877 Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 85


Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94
Maintenance Interval Schedule Engine Mounts - Check ........................................ 95
(Engines with a 9:1 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Compression Ratio that Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120
use Wellhead Gas or Natural Every 5000 Service Hours
Gas)
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500 Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74
Combustion Sensor - Clean/Inspect/Replace ....... 78
When Required Cooling System Level Switch - Inspect ................. 83
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73 Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86
Barring Device - Lubricate .................................... 77 Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace ................. 92 Electrohydraulic System - Check/Adjust ............... 90
Overhaul Considerations .................................... 115 Electrohydraulic System Oil - Change .................. 91
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120 Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92
Engine Oil - Change ............................................. 95
Daily Engine Oil Filter - Change .................................... 97
Engine Protective Devices - Check ..................... 101
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - Check .... 75 Exhaust Bypass - Recondition ............................ 104
Air Tank Moisture and Sediment - Drain ............... 75 Gas Shutoff Valve - Inspect ................................ 106
Control Panel - Inspect ......................................... 80 Ignition System Spark Plugs - Replace .............. 110
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 82 Inlet Air System - Inspect .................................... 110
Driven Equipment - Inspect/Replace/Lubricate ... 88 Inlet Gas Manifold and Piping - Inspect/Replace .. 110
Electrohydraulic System - Inspect ......................... 91 Prechamber Check Valves - Clean ..................... 117
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 100 Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 118
Fuel System Fuel Filter Differential Pressure -
Check ................................................................ 104 Every 10 000 Service Hours
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 121
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73
Every 250 Service Hours Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 76
Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78 Electrohydraulic Actuator - Inspect ....................... 88
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive Engine Oil Temperature Regulator - Replace ..... 101
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 84 Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 101 Exhaust Shields - Inspect ................................... 104
Gas Pressure Regulator - Inspect/Replace ........ 106
Initial 1000 Service Hours Prechamber Check Valves - Replace ................. 117
Prelube Pump - Inspect ...................................... 118
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 121
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74 Water Temperature Regulator - Replace ............ 121
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86
Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92
Every 20 000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94 Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 80
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102 Every 25 000 Service Hours
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120 Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114
Every 1000 Service Hours
Every 50 000 Service Hours
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 76
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Check/Adjust ...... 107 Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition ................ 89
Gas Admission Valve - Recondition .................... 105
Every 2000 Service Hours Overhaul (In-Frame) ........................................... 111
Aftercooler Condensation - Drain ......................... 73 Every 100 000 Service Hours
Cooling System Coolant Analysis (Level II) -
Obtain ................................................................. 82 Overhaul (Major) ................................................. 112
69
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i01742871 Every 2000 Service Hours


Maintenance Interval Schedule Aftercooler Condensation - Drain ......................... 73
Cooling System Coolant Analysis (Level II) -
(Engines that use Bio-Gas) Obtain ................................................................. 82
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 85
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500
Cylinders - Inspect ................................................ 87
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94
When Required Engine Mounts - Check ........................................ 95
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102
Barring Device - Lubricate .................................... 77 Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace ................. 92 Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120
Engine Oil - Change ............................................. 95
Engine Oil Filter - Change .................................... 97 Every 5000 Service Hours
Overhaul Considerations .................................... 115
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120 Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74
Cooling System Level Switch - Inspect ................. 83
Daily Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - Check .... 75 Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86
Air Tank Moisture and Sediment - Drain ............... 75 Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Control Panel - Inspect ......................................... 80 Electrohydraulic System - Check/Adjust ............... 90
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 82 Electrohydraulic System Oil - Change .................. 91
Driven Equipment - Inspect/Replace/Lubricate ... 88 Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92
Electrohydraulic System - Inspect ......................... 91 Engine Protective Devices - Check ..................... 101
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect ..... 93 Exhaust Bypass - Recondition ............................ 104
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 100 Gas Shutoff Valve - Inspect ................................ 106
Fuel System Fuel Filter Differential Pressure - Inlet Air System - Inspect .................................... 110
Check ................................................................ 104 Inlet Gas Manifold and Piping - Inspect/Replace .. 110
Turbocharger - Clean .......................................... 119 Prechamber Check Valves - Replace ................. 117
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 121 Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 118
Turbocharger Cleaner Tube - Replace ................ 120
Every 125 Service Hours
Every 10 000 Service Hours
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 101
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 76
Every 250 Service Hours
Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78 Electrohydraulic Actuator - Inspect ....................... 88
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive Engine Oil Temperature Regulator - Replace ..... 101
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 84 Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102
Exhaust Shields - Inspect ................................... 104
Initial 1000 Service Hours Gas Pressure Regulator - Inspect/Replace ........ 106
Prelube Pump - Inspect ...................................... 118
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74 Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 121
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74 Water Temperature Regulator - Replace ............ 121
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86 Between 13 000 and 13 500 Service Hours
Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94 Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102 Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103 Every 20 000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 80
Every 1000 Service Hours
Between 26 000 and 27 000 Service Hours
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 76
Combustion Sensor - Clean/Inspect/Replace ....... 78 Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition ................ 89
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Replace .............. 110 Gas Admission Valve - Recondition .................... 105
Prechamber Check Valves - Clean ..................... 117 Overhaul (In-Frame) ........................................... 111
70
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

Between 39 000 and 39 500 Service Hours


Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114

Between 52 000 and 54 000 Service Hours


Overhaul (Major) ................................................. 112
71
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

i01742883 Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 85


Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94
Maintenance Interval Schedule Engine Mounts - Check ........................................ 95
(Engines with a 10.5:1 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Compression Ratio that Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120
use Wellhead Gas or Natural Every 5000 Service Hours
Gas)
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450; 7500 Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74
Combustion Sensor - Clean/Inspect/Replace ....... 78
When Required Cooling System Level Switch - Inspect ................. 83
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73 Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86
Barring Device - Lubricate .................................... 77 Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace ................. 92 Electrohydraulic System - Check/Adjust ............... 90
Overhaul Considerations .................................... 115 Electrohydraulic System Oil - Change .................. 91
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120 Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92
Engine Oil - Change ............................................. 95
Daily Engine Oil Filter - Change .................................... 97
Engine Protective Devices - Check ..................... 101
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - Check .... 75 Exhaust Bypass - Recondition ............................ 104
Air Tank Moisture and Sediment - Drain ............... 75 Gas Shutoff Valve - Inspect ................................ 106
Control Panel - Inspect ......................................... 80 Inlet Air System - Inspect .................................... 110
Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................ 82 Inlet Gas Manifold and Piping - Inspect/Replace .. 110
Driven Equipment - Inspect/Replace/Lubricate ... 88 Prechamber Check Valves - Clean ..................... 117
Electrohydraulic System - Inspect ......................... 91 Starting Motor - Inspect ...................................... 118
Engine Oil Level - Check .................................... 100
Fuel System Fuel Filter Differential Pressure - Every 10 000 Service Hours
Check ................................................................ 104
Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 121 Actuator Control Linkage - Replace ...................... 73
Alternator - Inspect ............................................... 76
Every 250 Service Hours Driven Equipment - Check .................................... 87
Electrohydraulic Actuator - Inspect ....................... 88
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78 Engine Oil Temperature Regulator - Replace ..... 101
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102
(SCA) - Test/Add ................................................. 84 Exhaust Shields - Inspect ................................... 104
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................ 101 Gas Pressure Regulator - Inspect/Replace ........ 106
Prechamber Check Valves - Replace ................. 117
Initial 1000 Service Hours Prelube Pump - Inspect ...................................... 118
Water Pump - Inspect ......................................... 121
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean ............... 74
Water Temperature Regulator - Replace ............ 121
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ........... 74
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record .................. 85
Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record ................... 86
Between 15 000 and 16 000 Service Hours
Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change ......... 92 Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean ..................... 94 Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect .... 102
Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust .................... 102 Every 20 000 Service Hours or 3 Years
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record ........... 120 Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change .......... 80

Every 1000 Service Hours Between 30 000 and 32 000 Service Hours
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace ............... 76 Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Replace .............. 110 Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114

Every 2000 Service Hours Between 45 000 and 48 000 Service Hours
Aftercooler Condensation - Drain ......................... 73 Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition ................ 89
Cooling System Coolant Analysis (Level II) - Gas Admission Valve - Recondition .................... 105
Obtain ................................................................. 82 Overhaul (In-Frame) ........................................... 111
72
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule

Between 60 000 and 64 000 Service Hours


Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace ... 105
Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114

Between 75 000 and 80 000 Service Hours


Overhaul (Major) ................................................. 112
73
Maintenance Section
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace

i01765614

Actuator Control Linkage -


Replace
(Replace the Rod Ends)
SMCS Code: 1265-510

g00788934
Illustration 39
A drain plug is located on the right side near the rear of the engine.
(1) Plug

g00799207
Illustration 38
Typical example of rod ends on an actuator and on the linkage
for an actuator

Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach


the linkages.

Inspect the rod ends of the following components


for wear:

Air choke actuator Illustration 40


g00788946

A drain plug is located on the left side near the front of the engine.
Exhaust bypass actuator
(2) Plug
Fuel control actuator
1. Ensure that the engine is not running.
Linkages
2. Remove plugs (1) and (2).
If necessary, replace the rod ends. Assemble the
linkage according to the instructions in the engines 3. Drain the moisture into suitable containers.
Specifications.
4. Install the plugs.

i01762572

Aftercooler Condensation -
Drain
SMCS Code: 1063

The aftercooler is similar to a radiator. Coolant


passes through the tubes in the aftercooler core.
Inlet air that is warmed by the turbocharger
compressor is directed through the aftercooler core.
The air is cooled in the aftercooler.

Condensation can form in the passages of the


aftercooler system. Drain plugs are provided for
draining the condensation.
74
Maintenance Section
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean

i01762654

Air Starting Motor Lines


Personal injury can result from removing hoses or
Screen - Clean fittings in a pressure system.
SMCS Code: 1451-070-LI Failure to relieve pressure can cause personal in-
jury.

Do not disconnect or remove hoses or fittings un-


til all pressure in the system has been relieved.

1. Ensure that the air supply to the lubricator is OFF.

g00789123
Illustration 41
(1) Plug
(2) Screen

If the engine is equipped with an air starting motor,


use the following procedure:
g00745554
1. Ensure that the air supply to the air lines is OFF. Illustration 42
(1) Filler plug
2. Remove plug (1). (2) Bowl
(3) Drain valve
3. Carefully remove screen (2). Clean the screen
with nonflammable solvent. Inspect the screen 2. Slowly loosen filler plug (1) in order to release
for damage. If the screen is damaged, replace the pressure from the lubricator.
the damaged screen with a new screen.
NOTICE
4. Install clean, dry screen (2). Clean plug (1). Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained
Install the plug. during performance of inspection, maintenance, test-
ing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be prepared to
collect the fluid with suitable containers before open-
i01762681
ing any compartment or disassembling any compo-
Air Starting Motor Lubricator nent containing fluids.
Bowl - Clean Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar
Tools and Shop Products Guide for tools and supplies
SMCS Code: 1451-070 suitable to collect and contain fluids on Caterpillar
products.
If the engine is equipped with an air starting motor,
use the following procedure: Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.

3. Place a suitable container under bowl (2) and


open drain valve (3) in order to drain the oil from
the bowl.

4. Remove bowl (2). Clean the bowl with warm


water.
75
Maintenance Section
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - Check

5. Dry the bowl. Inspect the bowl for cracks. If the


bowl is cracked, replace the damaged bowl with
a new bowl.
Personal injury can result from removing hoses or
fittings in a pressure system.
6. Install the bowl.
Failure to relieve pressure can cause personal in-
7. Make sure that drain valve (3) is closed. Fill bowl
jury.
(2) through the hole for filler plug (1).
Do not disconnect or remove hoses or fittings un-
Use nondetergent 10W oil for temperatures that
til all pressure in the system has been relieved.
are greater than 0 C (32 F). Use air tool oil for
temperatures that are below 0 C (32 F).
2. Ensure that the air supply to the lubricator is OFF.
8. Install filler plug (1). Slowly loosen filler plug (4) in order to release
pressure from the lubricator bowl.
9. If necessary, adjust the lubricator in order to
release two drops of oil per 30 seconds. For 3. Remove filler plug (4). Pour oil into the
instructions, see this Operation and Maintenance lubricator bowl. Use nondetergent 10W oil for
Manual, Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - temperatures that are greater than 0 C (32 F).
Check topic (Maintenance Section). Use air tool oil for temperatures that are below
0 C (32 F).
i01762698
4. Install filler plug (4).
Air Starting Motor Lubricator
Oil Level - Check Adjust the Lubricator
SMCS Code: 1451-535 Note: Adjust the lubricator with a constant rate of air
flow. After the adjustment, the lubricator will release
If the engine is equipped with an air starting motor, oil in proportion to variations of the air flow.
use the following procedure:
1. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is OFF.

NOTICE
Never allow the lubricator bowl to become empty. The NOTICE
air starting motor will be damaged by a lack of lubrica- Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
tion. Ensure that sufficient oil is in the lubricator bowl. 30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.

2. Operate the air starting motor. Observe the drops


of oil that are released in dome (1).

Note: Some lubricators have an adjustment screw


rather than a knob.

3. If necessary, adjust the lubricator in order to


release two drops of oil per 30 seconds. To
increase the rate, turn knob (2) counterclockwise.
To decrease the rate, turn the knob clockwise.

i00351324
g00745561
Illustration 43
Air Tank Moisture and
1. Observe the oil level in sight gauge (3). If the oil Sediment - Drain
level is less than 1/2, add oil to the lubricator
bowl. SMCS Code: 1466-543-M&S

Moisture and sediment in the air starting system


can cause the following conditions:

Freezing
76
Maintenance Section
Alternator - Inspect

Corrosion of internal parts Belts


Malfunction of the air starting system Pulleys
Bearings
If the belts are too tight, unnecessary stress is
When opening the drain valve, wear protective placed on the components. This reduces the
gloves, a protective face shield, protective cloth- service life of the components.
ing, and protective shoes. Pressurized air could
cause debris to be blown and result in personal
injury. Adjustment

1. Open the drain valve that is on the bottom of


the air tank. Allow the moisture and sediment
to drain.

2. Close the drain valve.

i00839754

Alternator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 1405-040

Inspect the alternator for the following conditions:


g00789191
Illustration 44
Loose connections (1) Adjusting nuts
(2) Mounting bolt
Proper charging of the battery
1. Remove the belt guard.
Observe the ammeter during engine operation in
order to ensure proper battery performance and/or 2. Loosen mounting bolt (2).
proper performance of the electrical system.
3. Turn adjusting nuts (1) in order to increase or
Make repairs, if necessary. See the Service Manual decrease the belt tension.
for service procedures. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance. 4. Tighten adjusting nuts (1). Tighten mounting
bolt (2). For the proper torque, see the Service
Manual, Specifications module.
i01519792

Alternator Belt - 5. Install the belt guard.

Inspect/Adjust/Replace If new belts are installed, check the belt tension


again after 30 minutes of engine operation at rated
SMCS Code: 1357-025; 1357-040; 1357-510; 1405 rpm.

Inspection Replacement
Inspect the alternator belts for wear and for For applications that require multiple drive belts,
cracking. Replace belts that are not in good replace the belts in matched sets. Used belts are
condition. stretched. Replacing only one belt of a matched set
will cause the new belt to carry an excessive load.
Check the belt tension according to the information The additional load on the new belt could cause the
in the Service Manual, Specifications module. new belt to break.

Slippage of loose belts can reduce the efficiency


of the driven components. Vibration of loose belts
can cause unnecessary wear on the following
components:
77
Maintenance Section
Barring Device - Lubricate

i01519824 Note: Illustration 46 and Illustration 47 show the


locations of the grease fittings for two typical barring
Barring Device - Lubricate devices. Some engines may be equipped with
different barring devices.
SMCS Code: 1235-086

NOTICE
Do not use an impact wrench to operate the barring
device. The use of an impact wrench will cause gear
tooth failure.

Guards must be in place prior to operating barring


device motor.

Remove all hand tools prior to operating barring


device motor.
g00789211
Illustration 46
Right side section view of a barring device without an electric motor
(1) Grease fitting
(2) Vent

1. Ensure that the barring device is locked in the


disengaged position.

2. Lubricate grease fitting (1) with MPGM until the


grease is visible at vent (2).

g00334420
Illustration 45
Rear view of a barring device with an electric motor

Note: Prelube of the engine is required before the


crankshaft is rotated for normal maintenance.

The barring device provides a means for slowly


turning the flywheel in order to service the engine.
The barring device can also be used to prevent
rotation of the crankshaft. When the barring device g00789218
is in the engaged position, the engine starting Illustration 47
system is disabled. (1) Grease fitting
(2) Gear end
When the barring device is not used, the barring
device must be fully disengaged from the flywheel 1. Ensure that the barring device is locked in the
and secured in the disengaged position. Refer to disengaged position.
the Service Manual for information on operation of
the barring device. 2. Lubricate grease fitting (1) with MPGM until the
grease is visible at gear end (2).
NOTICE
Do not operate the engine starting motor until the bar-
ring group pinion gear is fully disengaged from the fly-
wheel ring gear. Serious damage to the engine could
result.
78
Maintenance Section
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check

i01639002 i01765627

Battery Electrolyte Level - Combustion Sensor -


Check Clean/Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 1401-535-FLV SMCS Code: 1900; 1905

When the engine is not run for long periods of To provide a signal without interference to the
time or when the engine is run for short periods, engine control module, the sensor must be in good
the batteries may not fully recharge. Ensure a full condition. The connections must be clean.
charge in order to help prevent the battery from
freezing. If batteries are properly charged, ammeter
reading should be very near zero.

All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which


can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a face
shield and protective clothing when working on or
near batteries.

1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte


level to the FULL mark on the battery.

If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled


water. If distilled water is not available use
clean water that is low in minerals. Do not use
artificially softened water.

2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the


1U-7298 Coolant/Battery Tester (C) or the
1U-7297 Coolant/Battery Tester (F).

3. Keep the batteries clean.

Clean the battery case with one of the following


cleaning solutions: g00789241
Illustration 48
A mixture of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) of baking soda and Section view of a cylinder head with a combustion sensor
1 L (1 qt) of clean water (1) Harness connector
(2) Connector
(3) Extension
A mixture of 0.1 L (0.11 qt) of ammonia and (4) Sensor
1 L (1 qt) of clean water (5) Gasket
(6) Discs
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean
water. Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach
the combustion sensor.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items Note: Clean the connections and polish the
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT connections with a clean, dry cloth. Always install
remove material excessively. Excessive removal a new O-ring seal in connector (1) when the
of material can cause the clamps to not fit combustion sensor is serviced.
properly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with
5N-5561 Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or 1. Disconnect harness connector (1) from
MPGM grease. connector (2). Remove the O-ring seal from the
harness connector. Clean the end of the harness
connector. Install a new O-ring seal.

2. Remove connector (2). Clean the inside of the


connectors adapters.
79
Maintenance Section
Combustion Sensor - Clean/Inspect/Replace

3. Remove extension (3). Clean both ends of the Light brown deposits or beige deposits around
extension. the electrode is produced by normal operation.
White deposits or gray deposits may be caused
by the following substances:

Pressurized air can cause personal injury. When Excessive oil


pressurized air is used for cleaning, wear a protec-
tive face shield, protective clothing, and protective Use of the wrong oil
shoes.
A substance that is introduced through the fuel
system or the air system
Note: The maximum air pressure for cleaning
purposes must be below 207 kPa (30 psi). A buildup of ash on the electrode reduces the
efficiency of the sensor.
4. The area around sensor (4) may have debris.
Thoroughly remove any debris. Use compressed 8. Measure the resistance between terminal post
air. Ensure that the area around the sensor is (6) and electrode (10).
clean and free of debris.
The sensor must pass a low voltage check for
5. Loosen sensor (4) with a 15.9 mm (5/8 inch) continuity between the terminal post and the
spark plug socket and an extension. After the electrode (15 volts DC). The resistance must not
sensor has been loosened, remove the sensor exceed five ohms.
by hand in order to detect problems with the
threads. 9. Thoroughly clean the sensor.

If the sensor resists removal by hand, apply Clean the shell and the electrode that is inside of
penetrating oil to the threads. Use the wrench the shell. Do not use a wire brush. Glass beads
and apply steady pressure to the sensor until are the preferred method for cleaning. Follow
the sensor is loose. these guidelines for the use of glass beads:

Always use clean glass beads.


Use care in order to clean only the electrode
and the insulator near the electrode.

Do not use glass beads on the outside of the


shell or on the upper part of the insulator.
g00789274
Illustration 49
Combustion sensor Ensure that the sensor is clean and free of dirt
and oil.
(6) Terminal post
(7) Insulator
(8) Shell Note: Do not use anti-seize compound on the
(9) Gasket sensor. Most of the heat is transferred through
(10) Electrode the threads and the seat area of the sensor. The
surfaces must be in contact in order to provide the
6. After the sensor is removed, discard gasket (9). heat transfer that is required.
7. Inspect the sensor closely for damage. 10. Place a new 108-3515 Plug Gasket on the
sensor. Install the sensor by hand until the sensor
Terminal post (6) must not move. If the terminal bottoms out. Tighten the sensor to 38 2 Nm
post can be moved by hand, discard the sensor. (28 2 lb ft).
Inspect insulator (7) for cracks. If a crack is 11. Install extension (3). Make sure that discs (5)
found, discard the sensor. are positioned in order to align the extensions
connectors with sensor (4) and connector (2).
Inspect shell (8) for damage. Cracks can
be caused by overtightening the sensor. 12. Make sure that the O-ring seal on connector (2)
Overtightening can also loosen the shell. Discard is in good condition. Install the connector.
any sensor that has a shell that is cracked or
loose. 13. Attach harness connector (1) to connector (2).
Inspect electrode (10) for excessive wear.
80
Maintenance Section
Control Panel - Inspect

i01762721

Control Panel - Inspect


SMCS Code: 4490-040; 7451-040

Inspect the condition of the panel. If a component is


damaged, ensure that the component is repaired or
that the component is replaced. If equipped, ensure
that the electronic displays are operating properly.

Inspect the wiring for good condition. Ensure that


the wiring connections are secure.

Record the Data and Review the Illustration 50


g00792409

Data Location of cooling system drain valves or drain plugs on the water
pumps
If equipped, check the gauges and check the (1) Jacket water pump
indicators frequently during normal operation. (2) Aftercooler and oil cooler pump
Record the data in a log. Compare the new data to
the data that was previously recorded. Comparing
the new data to the recorded data will establish the
normal gauge readings for the engine. A gauge
reading that is abnormal may indicate a problem
with operation or with the gauge.

i01762726

Cooling System Coolant


(DEAC) - Change
SMCS Code: 1350-044
g00901833
Clean the cooling system before the recommended Illustration 51
maintenance interval if the following conditions exist: Location of drain plug for the jacket water system

The engine overheats frequently. 3. Open the cooling system drain valves (if
equipped). Remove the cooling system drain
Foaming is observed. plugs. Allow the coolant to drain.

The oil has entered the cooling system and the NOTICE
coolant is contaminated.
Dispose of used engine coolant properly or recycle.
Various methods have been proposed to reclaim used
NOTICE coolant for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full
Use of commercially available cooling system clean- distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by
ers may cause damage to cooling system compo- Caterpillar to reclaim the used coolant.
nents. Use only cooling system cleaners that are ap-
proved for Caterpillar engines.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Caterpillar
Drain the Cooling System dealer or consult Caterpillar Service Technology
Group:
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Ensure that the engine will not start when the Outside Illinois: 1-800-542-TOOL
cooling system is drained. Inside Illinois: 1-800-541-TOOL
Canada: 1-800-523-TOOL
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly
in order to relieve any pressure. Remove the
cooling system filler cap.
81
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change

Clean the Cooling System 3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in System Cleaner. Add .5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per
order to remove any debris. 3.8 to 7.6 L (1 to 2 US gal) of the cooling system
capacity. Install the cooling system filler cap.
2. Close the cooling system drain valves (if
equipped). Clean the cooling system drain plugs 4. Start the engine. Operate the engine for
and install the cooling system drain plugs. a minimum of 90 minutes with a coolant
temperature of at least 82 C (180 F).
NOTICE
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
per minute to avoid air locks.
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the cooling system drain
3. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of clean valves (if equipped). Remove the cooling system
water and Caterpillar Fast Acting Cooling System drain plugs. Allow the water to drain.
Cleaner. Add .5 L (1 pint) of cleaner per 15 L
(4 US gal) of the cooling system capacity. Install NOTICE
the cooling system filler cap. Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal com-
4. Start the engine. Operate the engine for ponents.
a minimum of 30 minutes with a coolant
temperature of at least 82 C (180 F). To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
to completely flush the cooling system with clear wa-
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool. ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in cleaning agent are gone.
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the cooling system drain
valves (if equipped). Remove the cooling system 6. Flush the cooling system with clean water until
drain plugs. Allow the water to drain. the water that drains is clean. Close the cooling
system drain valves (if equipped). Clean the
cooling system drain plugs and install the cooling
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system system drain plugs.
can result in damage to copper and other metal com-
ponents. Fill the Cooling System
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure
NOTICE
to completely flush the cooling system with clear wa-
Fill the cooling system no faster than 19 L (5 US gal)
ter. Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
per minute in order to avoid air locks.
cleaning agent are gone.

Note: For information about the proper coolant


6. Flush the cooling system with clean water until
to use, see this Operation and Maintenance
the water that drains is clean. Close the cooling
Manual, Coolant Recommendations (Maintenance
system drain valves (if equipped). Clean the
Section). For the capacity of the cooling system,
cooling system drain plugs and install the cooling
see the Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
system drain plugs.
Capacities (Maintenance Section).

Cleaning a Cooling System that 1. Fill the cooling system with coolant/antifreeze. Do
has Heavy Deposits or Plugging not install the cooling system filler cap.

Note: For the following procedure to be effective, 2. Start the engine. Operate the engine in order
there must be an active flow through the cooling to purge the air from the cavities of the engine
system components. block. Allow the coolant to warm and allow the
coolant level to stabilize. Stop the engine.
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in
order to remove any debris. 3. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant to
the proper level on the sight gauge (if equipped).
2. Close the cooling system drain valves (if If a sight gauge is not equipped, maintain the
equipped). Clean the cooling system drain plugs coolant to the level that is specified by the OEM
and install the cooling system drain plugs. of the cooling system.
82
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Coolant Analysis (Level II) - Obtain

4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the Identification of buildup of the impurities that
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the cause corrosion
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap are
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler Identification of buildup of the impurities that
cap and install a new cooling system filler cap. If cause scaling
the gaskets of the cooling system filler cap are
not damaged, use a 9S-8140 Pressurizing Pump Determination of possible electrolysis within the
in order to pressure test the cooling system filler engines cooling system
cap. The correct pressure is stamped on the face
of the cooling system filler cap. If the cooling A report of the results of the analysis is provided.
system filler cap does not retain the correct Maintenance recommendations are based on the
pressure, install a new cooling system filler cap. results.

5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for For more information about SOS coolant analysis,
leaks and for proper operating temperature. consult your Caterpillar dealer.

i01065859 i01762768

Cooling System Coolant Cooling System Coolant Level


Analysis (Level II) - Obtain - Check
SMCS Code: 1350 SMCS Code: 1350-535-FLV

For conventional heavy-duty coolant/antifreeze,


check the concentration of supplemental coolant
additive (SCA) regularly. The concentration of SCA Climbing equipment may be required to access
can be checked with an SOS coolant analysis this service point. Refer to the Operation and
(Level I). A more detailed coolant analysis is Maintenance Manual, Mounting and Dismount-
recommended periodically. ing topic for safety information.
For example, considerable deposits are found in the
water jacket areas on the external cooling system, Engines That Are Equipped With a
but the concentrations of coolant additives were
carefully maintained. The coolant water probably Sight Gauge
contained minerals which were deposited on the
engine over time.

A coolant analysis can be conducted in order to


verify the condition of the water that is being used
in the cooling system. A full water analysis may be
obtained from the following sources:

Caterpillar dealer
Local water utility company
Agricultural agent
Independent laboratory g00750429
Illustration 52
Caterpillar recommends an SOS coolant analysis (1) Filler cap
(Level II). This is a comprehensive chemical (2) Sight gauge
evaluation of the coolant. This analysis is also a
check of the overall condition of the inside of the If the engine is equipped with a sight gauge,
cooling system. The following services are provided: observe the position of the coolant in the sight
gauge. At normal operating temperature, the proper
Full Level I analysis coolant level is in the upper half of the sight gauge.
If the coolant level is low, add the proper coolant
Identification of the source of metal corrosion and mixture.
of contaminants
83
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Level Switch - Inspect

Engines That Are Not Equipped i01519993

With a Sight Gauge Cooling System Level Switch


- Inspect
SMCS Code: 7422-040
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap, The low coolant level switch actuates an alarm or
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system a shutoff if the coolant level is low. A low coolant
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system level could cause the engine to overheat. This could
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres- result in damage to the engine.
sure.
If the coolant level is low, coolant must be added to
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped the expansion tank or the heat exchanger.
and cool. Check the coolant level only after the
engine has been stopped and the cooling system
filler cap is cool enough to touch with your bare
hand.

Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in order


to relieve any pressure. Maintain the coolant within
13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the filler pipe.

Add Coolant
Note: For the proper coolant mixture to use, see
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Coolant
Recommendations (Maintenance Section).
g00789360
Illustration 54
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool. (1) Switch
(2) Lines
2. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Pour the proper For proper operation of the switch, the lines and
coolant mixture into the filler pipe. the switch must be clean.

1. Drain the coolant to a level below lower line (2).


Drain the coolant into a clean container so that
the coolant can be reused.

2. Remove switch (1). Inspect the openings of the


inlet and the outlet for plugging. If an opening is
plugged, clean the switch.

3. Inspect lines (2) for plugging. Clean the lines, if


necessary. Pressure air or a flexible wire can be
used to clean the lines.

4. Install switch (1).


g00103639
Illustration 53 5. Pour the coolant into the cooling system. Verify
Gaskets that the low coolant level switch is operating
properly. A switch that is operating properly will
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the activate an alarm until a sufficient amount of
gaskets of the cooling system filler cap. If the coolant is added.
gaskets are damaged, replace the old cooling
system filler cap with a new cooling system filler
cap. Install the cooling system filler cap.

4. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for


leaks.
84
Maintenance Section
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add

i01613281 Add the SCA, If Necessary


Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) -
Test/Add Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause seri-
ous burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
SMCS Code: 1352-045; 1395-081 stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
This maintenance procedure is required for pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the pres-
conventional coolants such as DEAC and for sure.
mixtures of water and SCA.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly.

Note: Always dispose of fluids according to local


Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali. regulations.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact with
the skin and eyes. Do not drink cooling system 2. If necessary, drain some coolant in order to allow
coolant additive. space for the addition of the SCA.

Note: Test the concentration of the SCA or obtain an NOTICE


SOS coolant analysis (Level I). Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra-
tion can form deposits on the higher temperature sur-
faces of the cooling system, reducing the engines
Test the Concentration of the SCA heat transfer characteristics. Reduced heat transfer
could cause cracking of the cylinder head and other
Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA high temperature components.

NOTICE Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentra-


Do not exceed the recommended six percent supple- tion could also result in blockage of the heat exchang-
mental coolant additive concentration. er, overheating, and/or accelerated wear of the water
pump seal.
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supple-
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit or the 4C-9301 Coolant
mental coolant additive concentration.
Conditioner Test Kit. Follow the instructions that are
on the label of the test kit.
3. Add the proper amount of SCA. The
Water and SCA concentration of the SCA depends on the type
of coolant that is used.
NOTICE a. For cooling systems that use conventional
Do not exceed the recommended eight percent sup- coolant/antifreeze, refer to this Operation
plemental coolant additive concentration. and Maintenance Manual, Conventional
Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System
Test the concentration of the SCA with the 8T-5296 Maintenance topic (Maintenance Section).
Coolant Conditioner Test Kit. Follow the instructions
that are in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, b. For cooling systems that use only a mixture
Water/Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) topic of water and SCA, refer to this Operation and
(Maintenance Section). Maintenance Manual, Water/Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) topic (Maintenance
Section).
SOS Coolant Analysis (Level I)
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Install the
Level I is a basic analysis of the coolant. The cooling system filler cap.
following items are tested: SCA concentration,
glycol concentration, pH, and conductivity.

The results are reported, and recommendations


are made according to the results. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for information on the benefits of
managing your equipment with an SOS analysis.
85
Maintenance Section
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record

i00708678 Excessive crankcase blowby may indicate the need


for an overhaul. By keeping a record of the results,
Crankcase Blowby - a gradual increase in the amount of the crankcase
Measure/Record blowby will be noted until the amount of crankcase
blowby has become excessive.
SMCS Code: 1317
Use the following tools to measure the blowby:
Note: The typical crankcase blowby on a new engine
is approximately 0.02 m3/bkW h (.50 ft3/bhp h). 8T-2700 Blowby/Air Flow Indicator
Measure the crankcase blowby of new engines. 1U-8860 Large Engine Blowby Pickup Group
Record the data. Continue to periodically measure
the crankcase blowby. Comparing the recorded Refer to these Special Instructions that are provided
data to the new data provides information about the with the tools:
condition of the engine.
Special Instruction, SEHS8712, Using the
Note: Crankcase blowby is one of the three factors 8T-2700 Blowby/Airflow Indicator Group
that help to determine the in-frame overhaul interval.
For more information, see the Operation and Special Instruction, SEHS8984, Using the
Maintenance manual, Overhaul (In-Frame) topic in 1U-8860 Large Engine Blowby Pickup Group
the Maintenance Section.
Record the crankcase blowby for the engine. Keep
After a new engine is used for a short time, the a record of the results.
crankcase blowby can decrease as the piston rings
are seated. The crankcase blowby will gradually For more information, see the Service Manual,
increase as the following components show wear: Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting. For
assistance, consult your Caterpillar dealer.
piston rings
i01664687
cylinder liners
Crankshaft Vibration Damper
Note: A problem with the piston rings causes the
oil to deteriorate rapidly. Information regarding the - Inspect
condition of the piston rings can be obtained from
the measurement of the crankcase blowby and the SMCS Code: 1205-040
results of oil analysis.
The crankshaft vibration damper limits the torsional
The crankcase blowby of a worn engine may vibration of the crankshaft. The visconic damper
exceed the crankcase blowby of a new engine by has a weight that is located inside a fluid filled case.
two times or more.
Damage to the crankshaft vibration damper or failure
A sudden increase in crankcase blowby could of the damper can increase torsional vibrations.
indicate a broken piston ring. The following This can result in damage to the crankshaft and to
conditions are other potential sources of crankcase other engine components. A deteriorating damper
blowby: can cause excessive gear train noise at variable
points in the speed range.
Worn valve guides
A damper that is hot is due to excessive torsional
vibration. Monitor the temperature of the damper
A turbocharger seal that leaks during operation.
A rebuilt engine can have a high crankcase blowby
due to the following factors: The 8T-2821 Temperature Indicator or the
8T-2822 Temperature Indicator are recommended
for monitoring the temperature of the damper.
The piston rings are not seated properly. Evenly space four of the adhesive indicators around
the outer diameter of the damper.
Worn parts such as valve guides were not
replaced.
86
Maintenance Section
Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record

Note: If you use an infrared thermometer to monitor Note: Cylinder pressure is one of the three factors
the temperature of the damper, use the thermometer that help to determine the in-frame overhaul
during operation with similar loads and speeds. interval. For more information, refer to this Operation
Keep a record of the data. If the temperature and Maintenance manual, Overhaul (In-Frame)
begins to rise, reduce the interval for inspecting the (Maintenance Section).
damper.
Cylinder pressure can be measured during
If the temperature of the damper reaches 110 C inspection of the spark plugs. Use the following
(230 F), consult your Caterpillar dealer. guidelines for checking the cylinder pressure:

Inspect the damper for evidence of dents, cracks, Remove all of the spark plugs.
and leaks of the fluid.
Minimize the cranking time. This will enable a
If a fluid leak is found, determine the type of fluid. maximum consistent cranking speed for the
The fluid in the damper is silicone. Silicone has check. Also, the starting air or battery power will
the following characteristics: transparent, viscous, be conserved.
smooth, and sticky. If leaking silicone is found,
repair the damper or replace the damper. A loss of cylinder pressure or a change of pressure
in one or more cylinders may indicate the following
If the fluid leak is oil, inspect the crankshaft seal for conditions. These conditions may indicate a
leaks. If a leak is observed, replace the seal. problem with lubrication:

Inspect the damper and repair or replace the Excessive deposits


damper for any of the following reasons.
Guttering of valves
The damper is dented, cracked, or leaking.
A broken valve
The paint on the damper is discolored from heat.
A piston ring that sticks
The engine has had a failure because of a broken
crankshaft. A broken piston ring
An analysis of the oil has revealed that the front Worn piston rings
bearing of the crankshaft is badly worn.
Worn cylinder liners
There is a large amount of gear train wear that is
not caused by a lack of oil. If the cylinder pressure has risen by one or more
compression ratios, the engine needs a top end
Removal and Installation overhaul in order to remove deposits. Failure to
remove the deposits will increase the chance for
detonation. Severe guttering of the valves will occur.
Refer to the Service Manual, Disassembly and
Assembly or consult your Caterpillar dealer for
To measure the cylinder pressure, refer to Special
information about damper replacement.
Instruction, GMG00694, Analyzing Cylinder
Condition By Measuring Air Flow. Also, use the
i01520103 146-2739 Cylinder Pressure Adapter.
Cylinder Pressure - Illustration 55 is a graph of typical cylinder pressures
Measure/Record for engines with different compression ratios.

SMCS Code: 1223-082-CC; 1223; 7450-082

Measure the cylinder pressure of new engines.


Record the data. Continue to periodically measure
the cylinder pressure. Comparing the recorded data
to the new data provides information about the
condition of the engine.
87
Maintenance Section
Cylinders - Inspect

When possible, insert the borescope through the


opening in the cylinder head for the prechamber
assembly and the ignition body. This location
will provide the best possible view of the entire
combustion chamber. This requires draining the
coolant to a level below the cylinder head. If this
is not possible, insert the borescope through the
opening for the combustion sensor. Look for the
following conditions:

Valve wear
Deposits on the valve seat
Deposits on the valve face
Polishing of the cylinder walls
Scratching of the cylinder walls
Deposits on the cylinder walls that are above the
Illustration 55
g00789376 upper limit of the piston stroke
(Y) Cylinder pressure in kPa (psi)
(X) Compression ratio Deposits that are on the valve face and the valve
(1) Normal range for cylinder pressure seat can cause guttering of the valve. Inspect
the valve seat and the valve face for excessive
Record the pressure for each cylinder. Use deposits. If excessive deposits are found, replace
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Valve Data the valve and the valve seat.
Sheet (Reference Materials Section).
Determine whether the exhaust valve face has
erosion from pitting. This requires the exhaust valve
i01765658 to be in the open position. To obtain as much detail
Cylinders - Inspect as possible, obtain a close up view of the valve
face. Erosion of the exhaust valve face can lead
(Inspect the Combustion to guttering of the valve. If erosion is found on the
exhaust valve face, recondition the cylinder head as
Chamber) soon as possible.
SMCS Code: 1223-040; 1223
Note: Operation at loads that are less than 50
percent of the rated load can result in an excessive
Excessive deposits can accumulate in the
buildup of carbon deposits in the combustion
combustion chambers of engines that use gas
chamber. The deposits can lead to detonation and
with a low BTU such as bio-gas fuel, landfill gas,
premature ignition. This condition is more obvious
etc. The deposits can affect the characteristics of
at certain engine speeds and loads.
combustion. Erratic operation can result. The rate of
recession of the exhaust valves can increase. The
risk of guttering of the exhaust valves can increase. i00693905

Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to Driven Equipment - Check


inspect the combustion chamber.
SMCS Code: 3279-535
Use a borescope to inspect the combustion
chamber. The inspection will provide information Every 5000 Service Hours
about the internal condition of the engine.

A borescope with a lens that can be rotated is Engines That Are Not Attached To the
recommended. This type of borescope provides a Base with a Dowel
clear view of the combustion chamber and of the
bottom deck of the cylinder head. Photographic If some engines are too rigidly mounted, excessive
documentation or video documentation is also stress may affect the internal support of the cylinder
recommended. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for block. This could cause the following problems:
information on available borescopes.
88
Maintenance Section
Driven Equipment - Inspect/Replace/Lubricate

Distortion of the bores of the main bearing Damaged parts


Distortion of the alignment of the bore Perform any maintenance that is recommended
by the OEM of the driven equipment. Refer to the
Severe damage to the engine could result. The literature of the OEM of the driven equipment for the
service life of the engine could be severely reduced. following service instructions.

For engines that are not attached to the base with Inspection
a dowel, check the alignment after every 5000
service hours. Lubricating grease and lubricating oil
requirements
Every 10,000 Service Hours
Specifications for adjustment
Engines That Are Attached To the Base Replacement of components
with a Dowel
Requirements for ventilation
Some engines must be more rigidly mounted. Due
to thermal expansion, a cold engine will expand
i01610487
after the engine achieves operating temperature.

Some engines are attached to the base with a dowel


Electrohydraulic Actuator -
in the rear mounting support. This installation forces Inspect
the thermal growth forward. The driven equipment
is also attached with a dowel in order to maintain SMCS Code: 1716-040
alignment with the engine.
Inspect the actuators for the fuel control, the
For this type of installation, check the alignment wastegate, and the air choke.
after every 10,000 service hours.

Check the Alignment


During operation, the linkage of the electrohy-
The alignment between the engine and the driven draulic actuators can form pinch points which
equipment must be maintained properly. Improper can cause personal injury. Shut down the engine
alignment will cause damage to the engine, the before you service the electrohydraulic actuators.
coupling, and the driven equipment.

Check the alignment according to the instructions


that are provided by the following manufacturers:

Caterpillar
OEM of the coupling
OEM of the driven equipment

i00935098

Driven Equipment -
Inspect/Replace/Lubricate Illustration 56
g00833473

(1) Receptacle for the wiring harness


SMCS Code: 3279-040 (2) Solenoid
(3) Bolt
Observe the driven equipment during operation. (4) Guards
Look for the following items:
1. Disconnect the wiring harness from receptacle
Unusual noise and vibration (1). Inspect the connectors for damage and
corrosion. Make repairs, if necessary.
Loose connections
89
Maintenance Section
Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition

2. Inspect the joint between solenoid (2) and the 11. Connect the wiring harness to receptacle (1).
housing for leaks.
i01610640
If a leak is found between the solenoid and the
housing, replace the O-ring seal for the solenoid.
For instructions, refer to this Operation and
Electrohydraulic Actuator -
Maintenance Manual, Electrohydraulic Actuator Recondition
- Recondition.
SMCS Code: 1716-020
3. Check the solenoids mounting bolts (3) for
tightness. Recondition the actuators for the fuel control, the
wastegate, and the air choke. The main components
4. Remove guards (4). of each actuator include the housing, a piston
assembly, and a solenoid which actuates the piston.
The piston assembly and the solenoid can be
serviced separately.

Note: New parts or remanufactured parts may be


used for reconditioning the actuators.

During operation, the linkage of the electrohy-


draulic actuators can form pinch points which
can cause personal injury. Shut down the engine
before you service the electrohydraulic actuators.

g00833477
Illustration 57
(5) Rod end
(6) Clevis
(7) Boot

5. Disconnect rod end (5) from clevis (6).

6. Remove clevis (6).

7. Remove rubber boot (7). Inspect the boot for


damage. If the boot is damaged, obtain a new
boot for assembly.

There may be a small amount of hydraulic fluid


inside of the boot. Wipe off the boot and reinstall g00833592
Illustration 58
the boot. (1) Receptacle for the wiring harness
(2) Guards
If an excessive amount of hydraulic fluid is found
inside the boot, the seal for the actuators shaft 1. Disconnect the wiring harness from receptacle
is probably worn. If this is the case, replace (1). Inspect the connectors for damage and
the piston assembly. For instructions, refer corrosion. Make repairs, if necessary.
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition. 2. Remove guards (2).

8. Install boot (7). Make sure that the outer end of 3. Disconnect the supply line (not shown) and the
the boot folds inward when the actuators shaft return line (not shown) for the hydraulic oil.
moves from the fully open position to the fully
closed position.

9. Install clevis (6). Connect rod end (5) to the


clevis.

10. Install guards (4).


90
Maintenance Section
Electrohydraulic System - Check/Adjust

7. Place housing (7) in a vise. Remove piston


assembly (8). Remove O-ring seal (9) from
the joint between the piston assembly and the
housing.

Note: O-ring seal (9) is included with the piston


assembly.

8. Install a new O-ring seal (9) and piston assembly


(8). Make sure that the spring in the housing
is properly aligned in the bore of the piston.
Tighten the piston assembly according to the
engines Specifications.

g00833594 9. Remove bolts (10) in order to remove solenoid


Illustration 59 (11). Remove O-ring seal (12) from the joint
(3) Rod end between the solenoid and the housing.
(4) Clevis
(5) Boot
(6) Nut 10. Install a new O-ring seal (12) and solenoid (11).
Install bolts (10). Tighten the bolts according to
4. Disconnect rod end (3) from clevis (4). the engines Specifications.

5. Remove clevis (4) and rubber boot (5). Inspect 11. Install the actuator in the bracket with nut (6).
the boot for damage. If the boot is damaged,
obtain a new boot for assembly. 12. Install boot (5). Make sure that the outer end of
the boot folds inward when the actuators shaft
Note: Handle the actuator carefully. Use care not to moves from the fully open position to the fully
damage the actuators shaft. Damage to the shaft closed position.
can result in premature failure of the O-ring seal.
This will cause hydraulic fluid to leak. 13. Install clevis (4). Connect rod end (3) to the
clevis.
6. Remove nut (6) in order to remove the actuator
from the bracket. 14. Install guards (2).

Note: Do not allow debris to enter the actuator. Seal 15. Connect the supply line and the return line for
the openings with clean covers immediately after the hydraulic oil.
the solenoid and/or the piston assembly is removed.
16. Connect the wiring harness to receptacle (1).

i01525261

Electrohydraulic System -
Check/Adjust
SMCS Code: 1716-025; 1716-535

Check the Pressure Relief Valve


Check the pressure relief valve for the hydraulic
system according to the procedure that is in
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting. Adjust
g00833595
Illustration 60 the pressure according to the instructions.
(7) Housing
(8) Piston assembly
(9) O-ring seal
(10) Bolt
(11) Solenoid
(12) O-ring seal

Note: The spring in the housing will be loose after


the piston assembly is removed.
91
Maintenance Section
Electrohydraulic System - Inspect

i01525272 Inspect the hoses and lines for wear and leaks.
Ensure that the hoses and lines are properly
Electrohydraulic System - clamped. Inspect the connections for leaks. Ensure
Inspect that the connections are secure.

SMCS Code: 1716-040 Inspect the following items for leaks and good
condition:
Inspect the conditions of these items for the
electrohydraulic system: Actuators

Oil level Pressure relief valve

Hoses, lines, connections, and components Pump


Make repairs, if necessary.

i01525302

Electrohydraulic System Oil -


Change
SMCS Code: 1716-510-OC

Ensure that the engine cannot start during this


procedure.

g00792283
Illustration 61
(1) Sight gauge
(2) Hose
(3) Line

Check the Oil Level


1. Check the oil level in sight gauge (1).

The oil should be between the ADD and FULL


marks on the tank.

Note: For the proper oil to use, refer to this Illustration 62


g00792335
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Hydraulic Oil
(1) Oil filler cap
topic (Maintenance Section). (2) Valve

2. If necessary, remove the oil filler cap. Pour the 1. Remove oil filler cap (1).
correct oil into the oil filler.
Note: Drain the oil into a suitable container. Dispose
3. Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap. of fluids according to local regulations.

Inspect the Lines, Connections, 2. Place a suitable container under valve (2). Open
the valve. Allow the oil to drain. After the oil has
and Components drained, close the valve.

Note: For the proper oil to use, refer to this


Operation and Maintenance Manual, Hydraulic Oil
The linkage can move and form a pinch point topic (Maintenance Section).
which can cause personal injury. Keep hands
away from the linkage. 3. Pour the proper oil into the oil filler. Clean the oil
filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.

4. Clean up any oil that may have spilled.


92
Maintenance Section
Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change

i01525282 5. Start the engine. Check the oil level in sight


gauge (2). The oil should be between the ADD
Electrohydraulic System Oil and FULL marks on the tank. If necessary,
Filter - Change remove oil filler cap (4). Pour the correct oil into
the oil filler. Clean the oil filler cap. Install the
SMCS Code: 1716-510-FI oil filler cap.

i01765689

Engine Air Cleaner Element -


Replace
SMCS Code: 1051-510; 1054-510

NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
g00792302
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine
Illustration 63 components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent air-
(1) Filter borne debris from entering the air inlet.
(2) Sight gauge
(3) Filler cap
NOTICE
1. Remove filter (1) with a 1U-8760 Chain Wrench. Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
2. Clean the sealing surface of the filter mounting
base. Ensure that all of the old filter gasket is
removed. Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach
the air cleaner element.

Clean the air cleaner elements or replace the air


cleaner elements when the following conditions
occur:

Inspect the air cleaner elements before the air filter


restriction reaches 2.5 kPa (10 inches of H2O). A
loss of engine performance may occur when the
air filter restriction exceeds this limit.

The air cleaner elements must be cleaned or


replaced before the air filter restriction exceeds
3.75 kPa (15 inches of H2O).
g00103713
Illustration 64 Note: The air filter restriction is measured at the air
Typical filter mounting base and gasket inlet to the turbocharger compressor.

Note: For the proper oil to use, refer to this Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Hydraulic Oil
topic (Maintenance Section). Note: If the air cleaner is not manufactured by
Caterpillar, follow the instructions that are provided
3. Apply clean hydraulic oil to the new filter gasket. by the OEM of the air cleaner.
4. Install the filter by hand. Tighten the filter until the
gasket contacts the mounting base. Tighten the
filter according to the instructions that are shown
on the filter. Do not overtighten the filter.
93
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect

If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the Do not use an element that has any tears and/or
air can split the material of the air cleaner element. holes in the filter material. Do not use an element
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Discard
engine wear. Your Caterpillar dealer has the proper damaged elements.
air cleaner elements for your application. Consult
your Caterpillar dealer for the correct air cleaner Storing Air Cleaner Elements
element.
If an element that passes inspection will not be
Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for used, the element can be stored for future use.
accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt
and debris, as needed.

Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with


clean air cleaner elements. Before installation,
thoroughly inspect the air cleaner elements for tears
and/or holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket
or the seal of the air cleaner element for damage.
Maintain a supply of suitable air cleaner elements
for replacement purposes.

1. Remove the air cleaner cover. Remove the air


cleaner element.

2. Cover the turbocharger air inlet with tape in


order to keep dirt out. g00281694
Illustration 66

3. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a
body with a clean, dry cloth. protective covering for storage. Restricted air flow
may result. To protect against dirt and damage,
4. Remove the tape for the turbocharger air inlet. wrap the elements in Volatile Corrosion Inhibited
Install an air cleaner element that is new or (VCI) paper.
cleaned.
Place the element into a box for storage. For
5. Install the air cleaner cover. identification, mark the outside of the box.

Inspecting Air Cleaner Elements Store the box in a dry location.

i01520297

Engine Air Cleaner Service


Indicator - Inspect
SMCS Code: 7452-040

Some engines are equipped with an air cleaner for


crankcase ventilation.

This air cleaner filters air that is drawn into the


crankcase. The air dilutes the harmful fumes that
may accumulate in the crankcase. The air and the
Illustration 65 g00281693 fumes are drawn away from the crankcase.

Inspect the clean, dry air cleaner element. Use a


60 watt blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the element. Rotate
the element. Inspect the element for tears and/or
holes. Inspect the element for light that may show
through the filter material. If it is necessary in order
to confirm the result, compare the element to a new
element that has the same part number.
94
Maintenance Section
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean

g00789538 g00351792
Illustration 67 Illustration 68
Service indicator Porous filter

Observe the service indicator. Clean the air cleaner A porous filter is part of a fitting that is used for
element or replace the air cleaner element when mounting of the service indicator. Inspect the filter
one of the following conditions occur: for cleanliness. Clean the filter, if necessary. Use
compressed air or a clean, nonflammable solvent.
The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
The red piston locks in the visible position. frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
Replace the service indicator annually regardless
The air filter restriction reaches .25 kPa of the operating conditions. Replace the service
(1 inch of H2O). indicator when the engine is overhauled, and
whenever major engine components are replaced.
Inspect the service indicator daily for cracks, holes,
or loose fittings. If any of these conditions are Note: When a new service indicator is installed,
present, repair the service indicator or replace the excessive force may crack the top of the service
service indicator. indicator. Tighten the service indicator to a torque
of 2 Nm (18 lb in).
Test the Service Indicator
i01765695
Service indicators are important instruments.
Engine Crankcase Breather -
Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator Clean
should reset in less than three pushes.
SMCS Code: 1317-070
Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated rpm.
If the crankcase breather is not maintained on a
The yellow core should latch approximately at the regular basis, the crankcase breather will become
greatest vacuum that is attained.
plugged. A plugged crankcase breather will cause
excessive crankcase pressure that can shut down
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the the engine. Leakage of the crankshaft seal can
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
occur.
replace the service indicator. If the new service
indicator will not reset, the fitting for the service Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach
indicator may be plugged.
the engine crankcase breather.

Perform this maintenance when the engine is


stopped.
95
Maintenance Section
Engine Mounts - Check

Settling of the isolators will result in misalignment


between the engine and the driven equipment.
Inspect the condition of isolators, if necessary.
Keep the isolators clean and dry. Ensure that the
isolators are free of oil and contamination. Inspect
the isolators for deterioration.

Replace any isolator that shows deterioration.


For more information, refer to the literature that is
provided by the OEM of the isolators. Also refer to
the following publications:

Gas Engines Application and Installation Guide,


LEKQ7252, G3600 Mounting, Alignment
g00789623
Illustration 69
Special Instruction, SEHS9162, Spring Isolator
(1) Breather assembly Group Installation and Adjustment Procedure
(2) Tee
(3) Hose clamp
(4) O-ring seal Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
(5) Retaining clamp

i01520399
1. Loosen retaining clamps (5). Loosen hose
clamps (3). Remove breather assemblies (1) and Engine Oil - Change
O-ring seals (4).
SMCS Code: 1348-044; 1348
2. Wash the breather elements in clean
nonflammable solvent. Inspect tee (2) for cracks
that can be caused by vibration. Replace the old Oil Change Interval
tee with a new tee if cracking is found.
Considerations for the oil change interval include
3. Install new O-ring seals (4). the type of fuel and the engine application. An
established SOS oil analysis program enables
4. Allow the breather elements to dry before used oil to be evaluated. The evaluation can be
installation. Install the breather assemblies in the used to determine if this oil change interval is
original position. Coat the rubber parts with clean suitable for your specific engine.
engine oil or petroleum jelly in order to make
installation easier. Tighten the retaining clamps Engines That Use Bio-Gas
and the hose clamps according to the engines
Specifications manual. The oil change interval is determined by the results
of oil analysis. Change the lubrication oil when oil
analysis determines that the oil has reached the
i01612978 condemning limit. Also, change the engine oil filters.
Engine Mounts - Check
Change the Engine Oil
SMCS Code: 1152-535

Check the torque of the bolts for the mounting


plates. For the proper torque, refer to Gas Engines
Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7252, Hot oil and components can cause personal in-
G3600 Mounting, Alignment. jury.

Engine vibration can be caused by the following Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.
conditions:
NOTICE
Improper mounting of the engine Ensure that the engine is stopped before performing
this procedure. Attach a DO NOT OPERATE tag to the
Deterioration of the isolators starting controls.
96
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil - Change

Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As


the oil cools, suspended waste particles settle on
the bottom of the oil pan. The waste particles are
not removed when the cold oil is drained. Drain the
crankcase with the oil warm. This draining method
allows the waste particles that are suspended in the
oil to be drained properly.

Failure to follow this recommended procedure will


allow the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.

1. After the engine has been operated at normal


operating temperature, STOP the engine.
g00789729
Note: Drain the oil into a suitable container. Dispose Illustration 71
of fluids according to local regulations. (2) Screen assembly

a. Loosen the bolts of the cover for the oil


suction screen. Remove the cover and the
gasket. Discard the old gasket. Slide screen
assembly (2) from the tube.

b. Wash the screen assembly in clean


nonflammable solvent. Allow the screen
assembly to dry before installation.

c. Install the screen assembly. Install a new


gasket. Install the cover.

4. Change the engine oil filters. Refer to this


Operation and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil
g00789667
Illustration 70 Filter - Change topic (Maintenance Section).
(1) Drain valve
NOTICE
2. Open drain valve (1) in order to drain used oil. Only use oils that are recommended by Caterpillar.
After the oil has drained, close drain valve (1). For the proper oil to use, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil topic (Maintenance
Note: If a suction device is used in order to remove Section).
the oil from the oil pan, ensure that the suction
device is clean. This will prevent dirt from entering
the oil pan. Be careful not to strike the engine oil
suction tubes or the piston cooling jets.

3. Clean the oil suction screen.

Note: Approximately 1 L (1 qt) of oil will remain in


the housing after the sump has been completely
drained. This oil will pour out of the housing when
the cover for the oil suction screen is removed.
Prepare to catch the oil in a suitable container.
Clean up any spilled oil with rags. DO NOT use
absorbent particles to clean up the oil.
97
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Filter - Change

Service tools are available to aid in the service of


NOTICE oil filters. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for the part
Engine damage can occur if the crankcase is filled names and the part numbers. Follow the instructions
above the FULL mark on the oil level gauge (dip- that are supplied with the service tools. If the
stick). service tools are not used, perform the following
appropriate procedure.
An overfull crankcase can enable the crankshaft to dip
into the oil. This will reduce the power that is devel- Replacing the Engine Oil Filters
oped and also force air bubbles into the oil. These
bubbles (foam) can cause the following problems: re- With the Engine Stopped
duction of the oils ability to lubricate, reduction of oil
pressure, inadequate cooling of the pistons, oil blow-
ing out of the crankcase breathers, and excessive oil
consumption. Hot oil and components can cause personal in-
jury.
Excessive oil consumption will enable deposits to form
on the pistons and in the combustion chamber. De- Do not allow hot oil or components to contact skin.
posits in the combustion chamber lead to the following
problems: guttering of the valves, packing of carbon
under the piston rings, and wear of the cylinder liner. Perform the following procedure after the oil has
been drained.
If the oil level is above the FULL mark on the oil level
gauge, drain some of the oil immediately. Note: Use this procedure if the engine oil filters do
not have a control valve.
Note: For the amount of oil to use, refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, Refill
Capacities (Maintenance Section).

5. Remove the oil filler cap. Fill the crankcase


through the oil filler tube only. Clean the oil filler
cap. Install the oil filler cap.

6. Follow this Operation and Maintenance Manual,


Starting The Engine procedure (Operation
Section). Operate the engine at low idle for two
minutes. Inspect the engine for oil leaks. Ensure
that the oil level is at the FULL mark on the
LOW IDLE side of the oil level gauge.
g00789754
Illustration 72
7. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back (1) Pressure gauge
into the sump for a minimum of ten minutes. (2) Drain
(3) Cover
8. Remove the oil level gauge and check the oil (4) Control valve
level. Maintain the oil level to the FULL mark
on the ENGINE STOPPED side of the oil level 1. Connect a hose from each drain valve (2) to a
gauge. suitable container in order to catch the oil.

2. Open both drain valves (2). Allow the oil to drain.


i01520518
Note: Some oil will remain in the housing after
Engine Oil Filter - Change the oil has been drained. This oil will pour out of
the housing when cover (3) is removed. Prepare
SMCS Code: 1308-510; 1308 to catch the oil in a suitable container. Clean up
any spilled oil with rags. DO NOT use absorbent
Replace the engine oil filters when the following particles to clean up the oil.
conditions are met:

Every oil change


The engine oil filter differential pressure reaches
100 kPa (15 psi).
98
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Filter - Change

6. Ensure that the surfaces for O-ring seals (6) are


clean. Inspect the O-ring seals. If the old O-ring
seals are damaged or deteriorated, replace the
Personal injury can result from parts and/or cov-
old O-ring seals with new O-ring seals. Install
ers under spring pressure.
the O-ring seals.
Spring force will be released when covers are re-
7. Install covers (3). Ensure that the spring is seated
moved.
properly between elements (7) and covers (3).
Close drain valves (2).
Be prepared to hold spring loaded covers as the
bolts are loosened.
8. Ensure that the crankcase is filled with oil.
Operate the prelube pump and rotate the control
3. Be alert to the spring force. The cover has a valve (if equipped) to the FILL position for each
spring force up to 240 N (54 lb). Gradually loosen housing. After both of the housings are full of oil,
but do not remove the last two bolts or nuts turn the control valve (if equipped) to the RUN
that are located at opposite ends of covers (3). position.
Before removing the last two bolts or nuts, pry
the covers loose or tap the covers with a rubber 9. Start the engine. Check for oil leaks.
mallet in order to relieve any spring pressure.
Replacing the Engine Oil Filters
During Engine Operation

Filter contains hot pressurized fluid when engine


is running.

Follow instructions on control valve to avoid per-


sonal injury.

If rapid air movement exists to blow fluid, Stop the


engine to avoid fire.
g00789772
Illustration 73
(5) Wire rack If it is necessary to replace the oil filters during
(6) O-ring seal engine operation, perform the following procedure.
(7) Element

4. Elements (7) are mounted on wire racks (5)


inside the housing. Use a pan to catch the oil
that drips when wire racks (5) are removed.
Remove wire racks (5). Remove used elements
(7). Clean up any oil that is spilled.

NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar speci-
fications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by
Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to
the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters
g00789754
recommended by Caterpillar. Illustration 74
(1) Pressure gauge
(2) Drain
5. Ensure that the new oil filter elements are in good (3) Cover
condition. Place the elements on wire rack (5). (4) Control valve
Install the wire rack and the elements.
1. Connect a hose from drain valve (2) to a suitable
container in order to catch the oil.
99
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Filter - Change

2. Rotate control valve (4) to the LOWER SERVICE


position. NOTICE
Caterpillar oil filters are built to Caterpillar speci-
3. Open drain valve (2) and drain the lower oil filter fications. Use of an oil filter not recommended by
housing. Observe pressure gauge (1) until the Caterpillar could result in severe engine damage to
pressure is 0. the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of
the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering
Note: Some oil will remain in the housing after the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters
the oil has been drained. This oil will pour out of recommended by Caterpillar.
the housing when cover (3) is removed. Prepare
to catch the oil in a suitable container. Clean up
any spilled oil with rags. DO NOT use absorbent 6. Ensure that the new oil filter elements are in good
particles to clean up the oil. condition. Place the elements on wire rack (5).
Install the wire rack and the elements.

7. Ensure that the surfaces for O-ring seal (6) are


clean. Inspect the O-ring seal. If the old O-ring
Personal injury can result from parts and/or cov- seal is damaged or deteriorated, replace the old
ers under spring pressure. O-ring seal with a new O-ring seal. Install the
O-ring seal.
Spring force will be released when covers are re-
moved. 8. Install cover (3). Ensure that the spring is seated
properly between element (8) and cover (3).
Be prepared to hold spring loaded covers as the Close drain valve (2).
bolts are loosened.
9. Rotate control valve (4) to the LOWER FILL
4. After zero pressure has been reached, remove position. Observe pressure gauge (1). Check
cover (3). Be alert to the spring force. The cover cover (3) for leaks.
has a spring force up to 240 N (54 lb). Gradually
loosen but do not remove the last two bolts or Note: A hydraulic stop will limit the rotation of the
nuts that are located at opposite ends of cover control valve until the oil filter housing is full of oil.
(3). Before removing the last two bolts or nuts,
pry the cover loose or tap the cover with a rubber 10. After the pressure of the lower oil filter and the
mallet in order to relieve any spring pressure. upper oil filter is equal, rotate control valve (4) to
the UPPER SERVICE position. Repeat Step 1
through Step 9 for the upper oil filter.

11. After the oil filters have been serviced and after
the pressure of the lower oil filter and the upper
oil filter is equal, rotate control valve (4) to the
RUN position.

Inspect the Used Oil Filter Elements


Cut the used oil filter element open with a utility
knife. Remove the metal wrap. Cut the filter element
free from the end caps. Spread apart the pleats and
inspect the element for metal debris. An excessive
amount of debris in the element may indicate early
g00789772
Illustration 75 wear or a pending failure.
(5) Wire rack
(6) O-ring seal Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
(7) Element
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found
in the element. Ferrous metals may indicate wear
5. Elements (7) are mounted on wire rack (5) inside on the steel and the cast iron parts of the engine.
the housing. Use a pan to catch the oil that drips Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
when wire rack (5) is removed. Remove wire aluminum parts, the brass parts, or the bronze parts
rack (5). Remove used elements (7). Clean up of the engine. Parts that may be affected include the
any oil that is spilled. following components: main bearings, rod bearings,
turbocharger bearings, and cylinder heads.
100
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Level - Check

Aluminum debris may indicate problems with the Note: For engines with powered crankcase
bearings of the front gears. If aluminum is found in ventilation, remove the oil filler cap. Allow the
the filter, inspect the crankshaft vibration damper crankcase pressure to stabilize before checking the
and the front idler gear bearing. engine oil level.

Due to normal wear and friction, it is not uncommon 1. Ensure that oil level gauge (1) is seated.
to find small amounts of debris in the oil filter
element. If an excessive amount of debris is found a. If the engine is stopped, remove oil level
in the oil filter element, consult your Caterpillar gauge (1). Observe the oil level on ENGINE
dealer in order to arrange for further oil analysis. STOPPED WITH OIL COLD side (3).

b. If the engine is operating, reduce the engine


i01520762
speed to low idle. Remove oil level gauge (1)
Engine Oil Level - Check and observe the oil level on ENGINE AT LOW
IDLE WITH WARM OIL side (4).
SMCS Code: 1348-535-FLV
The oil level should be between ADD mark
The most accurate check of the oil level is (5) and FULL mark (6).
performed when the engine is stopped. Perform
this maintenance on a surface that is as level as NOTICE
possible. Engine damage can occur if the crankcase is filled
above the FULL mark on the oil level gauge (dip-
stick).

An overfull crankcase can enable the crankshaft to dip


into the oil. This will reduce the power that is devel-
oped and also force air bubbles into the oil. These
bubbles (foam) can cause the following problems: re-
duction of the oils ability to lubricate, reduction of oil
pressure, inadequate cooling of the pistons, oil blow-
ing out of the crankcase breathers, and excessive oil
consumption.

Excessive oil consumption will enable deposits to form


on the pistons and in the combustion chamber. De-
posits in the combustion chamber lead to the following
g00789822
Illustration 76 problems: guttering of the valves, packing of carbon
(1) Oil level gauge under the piston rings, and wear of the cylinder liner.
(2) Oil filler
If the oil level is above the FULL mark on the oil level
gauge, drain some of the oil immediately.

2. If necessary, remove oil filler cap (2) and add


oil. For the correct oil to use, see this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, Engine Oil topic
(Maintenance Section). Do not fill the crankcase
above FULL mark (6). Clean the oil filler cap.
Install the oil filler cap.

3. Record the amount of oil that is added. For the


next oil sample and analysis, include the total
amount of oil that has been added since the
previous sample. This will help to provide the
g00789825 most accurate oil analysis.
Illustration 77
(3) ENGINE STOPPED WITH OIL COLD side
(4) ENGINE AT LOW IDLE WITH WARM OIL side
(5) ADD mark
(6) FULL mark
101
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain

i01534451
NOTICE
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain Do not use the same vacuum sampling pump for ex-
tracting oil samples that is used for extracting coolant
SMCS Code: 1348-554-SM samples.
In addition to a good preventive maintenance
A small residue of either type sample may remain in
program, Caterpillar recommends using SOS oil the pump and may cause a false positive analysis for
analysis at regularly scheduled intervals in order
the sample being taken.
to monitor the condition of the engine and the
maintenance requirements of the engine. Always use a designated pump for oil sampling and a
designated pump for coolant sampling.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Failure to do so may cause a false analysis which
could lead to customer and dealer concerns.

Hot oil and hot components can cause personal If the engine is not equipped with a sampling valve,
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to use the 1U-5718 Vacuum Pump. The pump is
contact the skin. designed to accept sampling bottles. Disposable
tubing must be attached to the pump for insertion
into the sump.
Before you take the oil sample, complete the Label,
PEEP5031 for identification of the sample. In order For instructions, see Special Publication, PEHP6001,
to help obtain the most accurate analysis, provide How To Take A Good Oil Sample. Consult your
the following information: Caterpillar dealer for complete information and
assistance in establishing an SOS program for
Engine model your engine.

Service hours on the engine


i00839584
The number of hours that have accumulated Engine Oil Temperature
since the last oil change
Regulator - Replace
The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change SMCS Code: 1330-510

To ensure that the sample is representative of the The oil temperature regulators divert the engine
oil in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil oil to the oil cooler in order to maintain engine oil
sample. temperature.

To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools For instructions on replacing the oil temperature
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil regulators, see the Service Manual, Disassembly
samples must be clean. and Assembly module.

Caterpillar recommends using the sampling valve


in order to obtain oil samples. The quality and the i00626013
consistency of the samples are better when the
sampling valve is used. The location of the sampling
Engine Protective Devices -
valve allows oil that is flowing under pressure to be Check
obtained during normal engine operation.
SMCS Code: 7400-535
The 169-8373 Fluid Sampling Bottle is
recommended for use with the sampling valve. The Alarms and shutoffs must function properly. Alarms
fluid sampling bottle includes the parts that are provide timely warning to the operator. Shutoffs help
needed for obtaining oil samples. Instructions are to prevent damage to the engine. It is impossible
also provided. to determine if the engine protective devices are
in good working order during normal operation.
Malfunctions must be simulated in order to test the
engine protective devices.
102
Maintenance Section
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect

A calibration check of the engine protective devices 3. Inspect the sensor for damage.
will ensure that the alarms and shutoffs activate
at the setpoints. Ensure that the engine protective If the sensor is damaged, obtain a new sensor
devices are functioning properly. for installation.

NOTICE 4. Inspect the O-ring seal for the sensor.


During testing, abnormal operating conditions must be
simulated. If the O-ring seal is damaged, obtain a new
O-ring seal for installation.
The tests must be performed correctly in order to pre-
vent possible damage to the engine. 5. Clean the tip of the sensor.

Note: The engine speed/timing sensor does not


To prevent damage to the engine, only authorized require any special adjustments.
service personnel or your Caterpillar dealer should
perform the tests. 6. Install the sensor. Make sure that the sensor is
properly seated. Tighten bolt (2).
Visual Inspection 7. Inspect the wiring harness. Make sure that the
connector is in good condition. Attach the wiring
Visually check the condition of all gauges, sensors
harness to the sensor. Make sure that the mating
and wiring. Look for wiring and components that
of the connectors is proper.
are loose, broken, or damaged. Damaged wiring
or components should be repaired or replaced
immediately. i01765700

Engine Valve Lash -


i01762818
Inspect/Adjust
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor -
SMCS Code: 1102-025
Clean/Inspect
For instructions on the following procedures, refer to
SMCS Code: 1905-040; 1905-070; 1907-040;
Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting. Consult
1907-070
your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
The engine speed/timing sensor is located at the
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary for these
right rear side of the engine.
procedures.

Check the Timing of the Crankshaft


and Camshaft
The timing of the crankshaft and camshaft must be
checked, and the valve bridge must be adjusted
before the valve lash is adjusted.

NOTICE
If the camshaft is rotated with the timing pin installed,
the timing pin will break. This can result in further dam-
age. Make sure to remove the timing pin before the
camshaft is rotated.
g00901865
Illustration 78
(1) Engine speed/timing sensor
(2) Bolt

1. Disconnect the wiring harness from engine


speed/timing sensor (1).

2. Remove bolt (2) in order to remove engine


speed/timing sensor (1).
103
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect

The crankshaft and camshaft timing must be


NOTICE checked, and valve bridge adjustment must be
DO NOT use the starting motor to rotate the crank- performed before making a valve lash adjustment.
shaft. The lubrication oil can drain out from between
the crankshaft and the engine bearings if the engine Perform the valve lash setting when the engine is
has not been operated for a period of time. Damage cold. After the engine has been shut down and the
can result if the crankshaft is rotated on dry bearing valve covers are removed, the engine is considered
surfaces. cold.

To prevent damage to the crankshaft bearings, DO Before performing maintenance, prevent the entry
NOT crank the engine before prelube, especially after of foreign matter into the top of the cylinder head
this maintenance procedure. and the valve mechanism. Thoroughly clean the
area around the valve mechanism covers.

NOTICE Gas Admission Valve


The prelube pump should not be operated continu-
ously for extended periods of time. If, during repairs,
Check the valve lash for the gas admission valve
the prelube pump has run continuously for a period when the valve lash for the inlet valves and exhaust
of three hours or more, it will be necessary to remove valves are checked. Adjust the valve lash for the
any oil that may have collected in the cylinders and/or
gas admission valves, if necessary.
above the valves.

i01765711
Prelube of the engine is required before the
crankshaft is rotated for normal maintenance. Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect
Activate the prelube pump for rotating the engine
crankshaft. SMCS Code: 1109-040

NOTICE NOTICE
Do not use an impact wrench to operate the barring A valve rotator which does not operate properly will
device. The use of an impact wrench will cause gear accelerate valve face wear and valve seat wear and
tooth failure. shorten valve life. If a damaged rotator is not replaced,
valve face guttering could result and cause pieces of
The barring device provides a means for slowly the valve to fall into the cylinder. This can cause piston
turning the flywheel in order to service the engine. and cylinder head damage.
The barring device can also be used to prevent
rotation of the crankshaft.
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach
the engine valve rotators.
Valve Bridge
Perform this procedure after the valve lash has
NOTICE been set.
Do NOT attempt to adjust the valves if the crankshaft
and camshaft are not synchronized. Disregard for this 1. Mark the tops of the valve rotators with a
can result in engine damage such as bent valves. permanent marker. Note the position of the
marks.

Check the valve bridges. Perform the procedure for 2. Install the valve covers. See the Service Manual
both valve bridges for each cylinder. for the procedure.

After the valve bridge is checked for each cylinder, 3. Start the engine. Operate the engine for 5
check the valve lash for the exhaust valves, the inlet minutes. Stop the engine.
valves, and the gas admission valves.
4. Remove the valve covers. Observe the position
Engine Valve Lash of the marks that are on the valve rotators.

If the valve lash is within the tolerance, an If a valve fails to rotate, consult your Caterpillar
adjustment of the valve lash is NOT necessary. dealer.
104
Maintenance Section
Exhaust Bypass - Recondition

i01765718
NOTICE
Exhaust Bypass - Recondition The exhaust shields can be damaged if work is per-
formed on the exhaust shields or around the exhaust
SMCS Code: 1057-020 shields.

Remove the exhaust shields or protect the exhaust


shields before performing work on the exhaust shields
or around the exhaust shields. Handle the exhaust
shields carefully.

Do not tear the foil that is inside of the exhaust shields.


Torn foil will allow the insulation to absorb flammable
liquids and a fire can result from engine heat.

Ensure that the exhaust manifold is cool. Inspect


the exhaust shields. Replace any exhaust shield
that is damaged. Refer to the Service Manual for
g00799396
the procedure to remove the exhaust shields and
Illustration 79 install the exhaust shields.
Typical example
(1) Rod ends
(2) Cover and seal i01763022
(3) Shaft
Fuel System Fuel Filter
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary in order Differential Pressure - Check
to reach the components of the exhaust bypass.
SMCS Code: 1261-535
Replace the following parts:
If the engine is equipped with a fuel filter, a fuel
Rod ends (1) filter differential pressure gauge must be installed.
The fuel filter differential pressure gauge is installed
Cover and seal (2) in order to determine when the fuel filter requires
service. This gauge and the fuel filter are supplied
Shaft (3) by the customer.
For instructions on assembling the exhaust bypass, A fuel filter differential pressure gauge indicates the
refer to the Specifications. difference in fuel pressure between the inlet side
and the outlet side of the fuel filter. The differential
i00457458
pressure increases as the fuel filter becomes
plugged.
Exhaust Shields - Inspect
Operate the engine at the rated rpm and at the
SMCS Code: 1067-040 normal operating temperature. Check the fuel filter
differential pressure.

Service the fuel filter when the fuel filter differential


pressure reaches 1.7 kPa (0.25 psi).
Hot engine components can cause injury from
burns. Before performing maintenance on the For instructions, refer to Special Instruction,
engine, allow the engine and the components to SEHS9298, Installation and Maintenance of
cool. Gaseous Fuel Filters. Consult your Caterpillar
dealer for assistance.
105
Maintenance Section
Gas Admission Valve - Recondition

i01765725 Valve guide (5) will probably have very little wear.
However, measure the inner diameter of the valve
Gas Admission Valve - guide at both ends and the middle. The maximum
Recondition allowable inner diameter of the valve guide at both
ends and the middle is 9.538 mm (0.3755 inch).
SMCS Code: 1105-020-GS If any measurement exceeds this specification,
replace the valve guide. If this is not possible,
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach replace support assembly (6) and the valve guide.
the gas admission valves.
It is unlikely for support assembly (6) to require
For the procedure to remove the gas admission replacement. However, inspect the valve seat in the
valve, refer to the engines Disassembly and support assembly.
Assembly.

When you disassemble the gas admission valve,


inspect the seals. Replace the seals, if necessary.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace.

g00833994
Illustration 81
Angle and dimensions for the valve seat in the support assembly

If the valve seat is worn, the valve seat can be


slightly ground according to these specifications:

The angle for the valve seat is 44.75 0.5


degrees.

The gauge diameter of the valve seat within a


maximum depth of 2.0 mm (0.079 inch) from
the end of the support assembly is 39.75 mm
(1.565 inch).

Use some Prussian blue to verify complete contact


of the valve in the valve seat.

i01765734

Illustration 80
g00833978
Gas Admission Valve Seals -
Exploded view and section view of the parts for the gas admission
valve Inspect/Replace
(1) Retainer locks
(2) Valve rotator SMCS Code: 1105-040-GS; 1105-510-GS
(3) Outer valve spring
(4) Inner valve spring The camshaft operates the mechanism for the gas
(5) Valve guide admission valve in order to allow fuel to enter the
(6) Support assembly
(7) Valve
inlet port of the cylinder.

To recondition the gas admission valve, replace Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach
retainer locks (1), valve rotator (2), outer valve the gas admission valves.
spring (3), inner valve spring (4), and valve (7).
106
Maintenance Section
Gas Pressure Regulator - Inspect/Replace

For the procedure to remove the gas admission Pin holes


valve, refer to the engines Disassembly and
Assembly. Improper operation
If any of those conditions are found, the gas
pressure regulator must be repaired or replaced.

For information on replacing the gas pressure


regulator, see the Service Manual. Consult your
Caterpillar dealer for assistance.

i01611465

Gas Shutoff Valve - Inspect


SMCS Code: 1329-040

The gas shutoff valve (GSOV) has a solenoid that


is operated with 24 VDC. When power is supplied
to the solenoid, fuel flows through the GSOV to the
engine. When the power is interrupted, the gas is
shut off.

1. Shut off the engine.

2. Shut off the fuel supply to the GSOV.

g00833829
Illustration 82
Exploded view and section view of the parts for the gas admission
valve
(1) Upper valve stem seal
(2) Lower valve stem seal
(3, 4, and 5) O-ring seals for the support assembly

Note: The portion of the valve stem in lower valve


stem seal (2) may be slightly worn. This shallow
wear does not affect the performance of the gas
admission valve. Illustration 83 g00834076

(1) Receptacle
Inspect valve stem seals (1) and (2). Inspect (2) Gasket
O-ring seals (3), (4), and (5). Replace the seals, if (3) Cap
necessary. (4) Bolt
(5) Cover

i00679524 3. Disconnect the wiring harness from receptacle


(1). Inspect the connectors for damage and
Gas Pressure Regulator - corrosion. Make repairs, as needed.
Inspect/Replace
4. Inspect gasket (2) for damage and wear.
SMCS Code: 1550-040; 1550-510 Replace the gasket, if necessary.

Inspect the gas pressure regulator for the following 5. Remove cap (3). Remove the washer under the
conditions: cap in order to inspect the solenoid.

Wear 6. Inspect the solenoid for damage. If the epoxy


coating is cracked or damaged, obtain a new
Cracks solenoid for assembly.
107
Maintenance Section
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Check/Adjust

7. Inspect the cavity for the solenoid. Look for Removing the Spark Plug
moisture, debris, and abrasion of the wiring.
Make repairs, if necessary. Thoroughly clean
the cavity.

8. Remove bolts (4) and cover (5) in order to


inspect the internal parts of the GSOV.

9. Clean the internal parts. Inspect the diaphragm,


the center pin for the diaphragm, and the shaft
for the solenoid. If any of the parts are damaged,
replace the entire GSOV.

10. Inspect the internal passages. Remove any


debris.

11. Reassemble the diaphragm, the center pin for g00823378


Illustration 84
the diaphragm, and the shaft for the solenoid. (1) Harness connector
Install cover (5) with bolts (4). (2) Bolt
(3) Transformer
12. Install cap (3). Connect the wiring harness to (4) O-ring seal
(5) Extension
receptacle (1). (6) Spark plug

13. Turn on the fuel supply to the GSOV. Use a gas 1. Ensure that the mode control switch is in the
detector to check for gas leaks. STOP or OFF/RESET position.

i01763042 NOTICE
Pulling on the wiring harness may break the wires. Do
Ignition System Spark Plugs - not pull on the wiring harness.
Check/Adjust
2. Remove the lockwire. Disconnect harness
SMCS Code: 1555-535 connector (1). Use pliers to turn the connector
counterclockwise.
Maintenance of the spark plugs is required in order
to obtain the following benefits: 3. Remove bolts (2).
Normal fuel consumption 4. Remove transformer (3). Inspect O-ring seal (4).
If the O-ring seal is worn or damaged, discard
Normal levels of emissions the O-ring seal and use a new O-ring seal for
assembly.
Maximum service life of the spark plugs
5. Remove extension (5).
The service life of the spark plugs is affected by
fouling due to deposits from the oil and by peak
voltage. Maintenance of the ignition system is also
affected by voltage. Higher voltage is required
by higher inlet manifold air pressure and a higher Pressurized air can cause personal injury. When
compression ratio. Higher voltage reduces the pressurized air is used for cleaning, wear a protec-
service life of components such as spark plug wires tive face shield, protective clothing, and protective
and transformers. shoes.

6. Debris may have collected near the spark plug.


Thoroughly remove any debris. Use compressed
air. The maximum air pressure for cleaning
purposes must be below 207 kPa (30 psi).
Ensure that the area around the spark plug is
clean and free of dirt and debris.
108
Maintenance Section
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Check/Adjust

7. Use a 4C-4601 Spark Plug Socket and an Faint marks may extend from shell (3) onto the
extension to loosen spark plug (6). After the insulator. The marks may be a result of corona that
spark plug has been loosened, remove the forms at the top of the shell. The corona develops
spark plug by hand in order to detect problems when a very high voltage potential ionizes the
with the threads. After the spark plug has been air that surrounds a conductor. This is a normal
removed, discard the used gasket. condition. This is not an indication of leakage
between the shell and the insulator.
NOTICE
The use of a thread tap will remove metal unnecessar- Inspect shell (3) for damage. Cracks can be caused
ily. This will also reduce the heat transfer for the spark by overtightening the spark plug. Overtightening
plug. This can result in a reduction of the spark plug can also loosen the shell. Discard any spark plug
service life and a reduction of the detonation margin. that has a shell that is cracked or loose.

Inspect electrode (5) for excessive wear. Flat


If the spark plug resists removal by hand, apply surfaces with sharp edges provide the best
penetrating oil to the threads. Use the wrench and conditions for creating a spark. An electrode will
apply steady pressure to the spark plug until the become worn from use. The surfaces erode. A
spark plug is loose. higher voltage is required in order to produce a
spark.
If the spark plug cannot be removed by hand, clean
the threads with 9U-7511 Spark Plug Seat Cleaner.
This tool scrapes debris from the seat and from the
threads.

Inspecting the Spark Plug

g00760569
Illustration 86
(6) Precious metal pads on the electrode and the ground strap

Caterpillar spark plugs have precious metal pads


(6) on the tips of the electrode and the ground
strap. This material will gradually erode.
g00838300
Illustration 85
Replace the spark plug if the precious metal is
(1) Terminal post
(2) Insulator
worn off.
(3) Shell
(4) Gasket Light brown deposits or beige deposits around the
(5) Electrode electrode are produced by normal operation. White
deposits or gray deposits may be caused by the
Inspect the spark plug closely for damage. The following substances:
condition of the spark plug can indicate the
operating condition of the engine. Excessive oil
Terminal post (1) must not move. If the terminal post Use of the wrong oil
can be moved by hand, discard the spark plug.
A substance that is introduced through the fuel
Inspect insulator (2) for cracks. If a crack is found, system or the air system
discard the spark plug.
A spark plug can operate despite a buildup of ash.
However, a buildup of ash can cover the electrode
gap. This will cause misfire. Large deposits may
retain heat which can cause premature fuel ignition.
This can lead to uncontrollable detonation.
109
Maintenance Section
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Check/Adjust

A standard ohmmeter (nine volt) can be used 3. Always use a new gasket when a spark plug is
for measuring the resistance of the spark plug. installed. If a used spark plug is installed, place
The ohmmeter can be used only for spark plugs a new 9Y-6792 Gasket on the spark plug. Orient
with wire-wound resistors. It is not possible to use the tabs of the gasket toward the electrode.
a standard ohmmeter (nine volt) for measuring Otherwise, the gasket may not seat properly. If
the resistance of other types of spark plugs. a gasket for a spark plug is installed incorrectly,
Measure the resistance between terminal post (1) do not increase the torque on the spark plug
and electrode (5). Discard any spark plug if the in order to improve the seal. Do not reuse the
resistance is outside the range of 1000 to 1500 gasket. Install a new gasket.
Ohms.
NOTICE
Cleaning the Spark Plug Do not overtighten the spark plug. The shell can be
cracked and the gasket can be deformed. The metal
Thoroughly clean the spark plug. Do not use a wire can deform and the gasket can be damaged. The shell
brush. Glass beads are the preferred method for can be stretched. This will loosen the seal that is be-
cleaning. tween the shell and the insulator, allowing combustion
pressure to blow past the seal. Serious damage to the
Follow these guidelines for using glass beads: engine can occur.

Always use clean glass beads. Use the proper torque.

Use care in order to clean only the electrode and 4. Install the spark plug by hand until the spark
the insulator near the electrode.
plug bottoms out. Tighten the spark plug to
68 4 Nm (50 3 lb ft).
Do not use glass beads on the outside of the
shell or on the upper part of the insulator.
5. Inspect the extension and clean the extension.

Installing the Spark Plug


Note: Use the 9U-7516 Spark Plug Gauge to
measure the electrode gap. Do not use a flat feeler
gauge for measuring the electrode gap of used
spark plugs. A feeler gauge will produce a false
measurement because the used precious metal
surfaces will be curved.

1. Before installing the spark plug, set the electrode


gap to 0.29 0.03 mm (.011 0.001 inch).

Adjust the electrode gap by bending the ground


electrode at the existing bend. Then bend the
g00823413
strap near the weld in order to achieve proper Illustration 87
alignment and even spacing between the two (1) O-ring seal
precious metal surfaces. Measure the electrode (2) Connection of the extension and the transformer
gap after the alignment. Correct the electrode (3) Connection of the extension and the spark plug
gap, if necessary.
a. Inspect O-ring seal (1). If the O-ring seal is
Note: Do not use anti-seize compound on spark hard, cracked, or melted, use a new O-ring
plugs. Most of the heat is transferred through the seal for assembly.
threads and the seat area of the spark plug. The
surfaces must be in contact in order to provide the b. Use a mild abrasive cleaner to clean deposits
heat transfer that is required. and/or corrosion from the extension at
connection points (2) and (3).
2. Ensure that the spark plug is clean and free of
dirt and oil. c. Apply one of the following lubricants to O-ring
seal (1) and to the extension at connection
points (2) and (3):

4C-9504 Dielectric Grease


8T-9020 Dielectric Grease
110
Maintenance Section
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Replace

This will help to protect the connection points Leaks


of the extension from corrosion.
Loose connections
6. Ensure that the internal spring exerts force on
the connection points. Install the extension onto Ensure that all of the connections are secure.
the spark plug. Ensure that the components are in good condition.

7. Ensure that the transformer assembly is clean Make repairs, if necessary. For information regarding
and free of dirt and oil. Center the extension into removal and installation of the components, refer
the transformer. Install the transformer. to Service Manual, Disassembly and Assembly.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
8. Connect the wiring harness. Tighten the
connector clockwise with pliers until the
i00683392
connector cannot be loosened by hand. Replace
the lockwire. Inlet Gas Manifold and Piping -
i01612988
Inspect/Replace
SMCS Code: 1550-040; 1550-510
Ignition System Spark Plugs -
Replace Inspect the components of the fuel inlet system for
the following conditions:
SMCS Code: 1555-510
Cracks
Remove the used spark plugs. Install new spark
plugs. Deterioration
For instructions on removing and installing Leaks
spark plugs, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, Ignition System Spark Plugs Loose connections
- Check/Adjust topic (Maintenance Section).
Wear
i01765745
Inspect the following components:
Inlet Air System - Inspect
Fuel lines from the source to the gas regulator
SMCS Code: 1058-040; 1071-040; 1087-040
Fuel lines from the gas regulator to the fuel inlet
Use of a platform may be necessary to inspect the
following components of the air inlet system: Fuel inlet

Piping between the air cleaner and the Control valve


turbocharger
Fuel manifold
Rubber hoses in the air lines
Connections of the fuel manifold and the fuel lines
Turbocharger
Connections of the fuel lines to the orifice
Piping between the turbocharger and the
aftercooler Connections of the fuel lines to the cylinder head

Aftercooler Connections of the fuel lines to the precombustion


chamber
Connection of the aftercooler to the air plenum
Fuel pressure sensor
Connection of the air plenum to the cylinder head
Fuel temperature sensor
Inspect the components for the following conditions:
Ensure that all of the connections are secure.
Ensure that the components of the fuel system are
Cracks in good condition.
111
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (In-Frame)

Make repairs, if necessary. For information regarding Scheduling an in-frame overhaul normally depends
removal and installation of the components, see the on the following three conditions:
Service Manual. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for
assistance. An increase of oil consumption

i01539111
An increase of crankcase blowby

Overhaul (In-Frame) A decrease and a variation of cylinder


compression
SMCS Code: 1000-020
Each individual condition may not indicate a need
for an overhaul. However, evaluating the three
Scheduling an In-Frame Overhaul conditions together is the most accurate method of
determining when an overhaul is necessary.
Table 40 lists the approximate number of service
hours before an in-frame overhaul for different The engine does not require an overhaul if the
G3600 Engine applications. engine is operating within acceptable limits for
oil consumption, crankcase blowby, and cylinder
Table 40 compression.
Estimated Service Hours Before an In-Frame
Overhaul Periodically measure each of the three conditions.
The first measurement should occur during the
Rated Fuel Compression Service
rpm Ratio Hours
first scheduled maintenance. This establishes
a baseline for future measurements. Additional
1000 Wellhead 9.2:1 50,000 measurements are scheduled at regular intervals.
gas or These measurements are performed in order to
natural gas determine a schedule for the next in-frame overhaul.
900 Natural gas 10.5:1 48,000
The following changes in the three conditions
1000 Natural gas 10.5:1 45,000 normally require a scheduled overhaul:
N/A Bio-gas 9.2:1 26,000 to
27,000 A 300 percent increase in oil consumption
A 200 percent increase in crankcase blowby
For engines with a 9.2:1 compression ratio, the
in-frame overhauls are performed for every two top
end overhauls.
A 20 percent loss of cylinder compression
Note: These indications do not require an engine
For engines with a 10.5:1 compression ratio, the to be shut down for service. These indications
in-frame overhauls are performed for every three only mean that an engine should be scheduled for
top end overhauls. service in the near future. If the engine operation
is satisfactory, an immediate overhaul is not a
For the combinations of the overhauls, refer to Table requirement.
41.
An in-frame overhaul does not typically require
Table 41
the engine to be removed. Instead, the service is
Combinations of Overhauls for Different performed with the engine in place.
Engine Applications
9.2:1 Compression Ratio 10.5:1 Compression Note: The generator or the driven equipment may
Ratio also require service when the engine overhaul is
performed.
First top end overhaul First top end overhaul
Second top end overhaul Second top end overhaul In-Frame Overhaul Information
and first in-frame overhaul
Third top end overhaul Third top end overhaul and An in-frame overhaul includes all of the work
first in-frame overhaul that is done for a top end overhaul. Additionally,
some other components that wear are replaced.
The condition of components is inspected. Those
For information on estimating operating hours before components are replaced, if necessary.
an overhaul, refer to Maintenance Management
Schedules, SEBU6127.
112
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Major)

Inspect the following components according to Table 42


the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability In-Frame Overhaul (1)
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index Procedure Component
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Inspect Aftercooler
Parts. Replace
Cylinder liners
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services
Oil cooler
and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure
that the components are operating within the Pistons
appropriate specifications.
Rebuild Gas admission valve
If you elect to perform an overhaul without the Electrohydraulic actuators
services of a Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
Vibration damper
following recommendations.
Replace Camshaft bearings
The following definitions explain the terminology for
Camshaft followers
the services that are performed during an overhaul:
Connecting rod bearings
Inspect Inspect the components according to
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability Crankshaft seals
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable Engine oil pump
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used Exhaust shields
Parts. The guidelines were developed in order to Gaskets and seals
help Caterpillar dealers and customers to avoid
unnecessary expenditures. New parts are not Electrohydraulic systems
required if the existing parts can still be used, oil pump
reconditioned, or repaired. If the components are Main bearings
not in the reusability guidelines, refer to the Service
Manual, Specifications module. Oil temperature regulators
Piston rings
Rebuild The component can be reconditioned in
order to comply with reusability guidelines. Prechamber assemblies
Water pumps
Replace The service life of the part is exhausted.
The part may fail before the next maintenance Water temperature
interval. The part must be replaced with a part that regulators
meets functional specifications. The replacement (1) In addition to these procedures, perform the procedures for
part may be a new part, a CAT remanufactured the top end overhaul.
part, a rebuilt part, or a used part. Various
worn components may be exchanged with your i01539146
Caterpillar dealer. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
about repair options for your engine. Overhaul (Major)
SMCS Code: 7595-020-MJ

Scheduling a Major Overhaul


Table 43 lists the approximate number of service
hours before a major overhaul for different G3600
Engine applications.
113
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Major)

Table 43 The following changes in the three conditions


Estimated Service Hours Before a Major Overhaul
normally require a scheduled overhaul:

Rated Fuel Compression Service A 300 percent increase in oil consumption


rpm Ratio Hours
1000 Wellhead 9.2:1 100,000 A 200 percent increase in crankcase blowby
gas or
natural gas A 20 percent loss of cylinder compression
900 Natural gas 10.5:1 80,000 Note: These indications do not require an engine
1000 Natural gas 10.5:1 75,000 to be shut down for service. These indications
only mean that an engine should be scheduled for
N/A Bio-gas 9.2:1 52,000 to service in the near future. If the engine operation
54,000 is satisfactory, an immediate overhaul is not a
requirement.
For engines with a 9.2:1 compression ratio, the
in-frame overhauls are performed for every two The engine does not require an overhaul if the
top end overhauls and the major overhauls are engine is operating within acceptable limits for
performed for every four top end overhauls. oil consumption, crankcase blowby, and cylinder
compression.
For engines with a 10.5:1 compression ratio, the
in-frame overhauls are performed for every three Other factors must also be considered for
top end overhauls and the major overhauls are determining a major overhaul:
performed for every five top end overhauls.
The service hours of the engine
Periodically, the procedures for the overhauls are
combined. For the combinations of the overhauls, The wear metal analysis of the lube oil
refer to Table 44.
An increase in the levels of noise and vibration
Table 44
Combinations of Overhauls for Different An increase of wear metals in the lube oil indicates
Engine Applications that the bearings and the surfaces that wear may
need to be serviced. An increase in the levels of
9.2:1 Compression Ratio 10.5:1 Compression noise and vibration indicates that rotating parts
Ratio require service.
First top end overhaul First top end overhaul
Note: It is possible for oil analysis to indicate a
Second top end overhaul Second top end overhaul decrease of wear metals in the lube oil. The cylinder
and first in-frame overhaul liners may be worn so that polishing of the bore
Third top end overhaul Third top end overhaul and occurs. Also, the increased use of lube oil will dilute
first in-frame overhaul the wear metals.
Fourth top end overhaul, Fourth top end overhaul
Monitor the engine as the engine accumulates
second in-frame overhaul,
and first major overhaul service hours. Consult your Caterpillar dealer about
scheduling a major overhaul.
Fifth top end overhaul Fifth top end overhaul and
first major overhaul Note: The driven equipment may also require
service when the engine is overhauled. Refer to the
For information on estimating operating hours before literature that is provided by the OEM of the driven
an overhaul, refer to Maintenance Management equipment.
Schedules, SEBU6127.
Major Overhaul Information
The need for a major overhaul is determined by
several factors. A major overhaul includes all of the work that is
done for a top end overhaul. A major overhaul
An increase of oil consumption can also include all of the work that is done for
an in-frame overhaul. A major overhaul includes
An increase of crankcase blowby additional parts and labor. Additional parts and
labor may be required in order to completely rebuild
A decrease and variation of cylinder compression the engine. In some cases, the engine is relocated
for disassembly.
114
Maintenance Section
Overhaul (Top End)

For the major overhaul, bearings, seals, gaskets, Table 45


and components that wear are disassembled. The Major Overhaul
parts are cleaned and inspected. If necessary, the
parts are replaced. The crankshaft is measured Procedure Component
for wear. The crankshaft may require regrinding.
Inspect Camshafts
Alternatively, the crankshaft may be replaced with a Replace
Caterpillar replacement part. Connecting rods
Crankshaft
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services
and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure Rebuild Inlet air piping
that the components are operating within the
Replace Aftercooler
appropriate specifications.
Camshaft lifters
If you elect to perform an overhaul without the
Exhaust manifolds
services of a Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
following recommendations. Gear train bearings
Oil cooler
The following definitions explain the terminology for
the services that are performed during an overhaul:

Inspect Inspect the components according to i01539096

the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability Overhaul (Top End)


publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index SMCS Code: 7595-020-TE
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts. The guidelines were developed in order to
help Caterpillar dealers and customers to avoid Top End Overhaul Information
unnecessary expenditures. New parts are not
required if the existing parts can still be used, Table 46 lists the approximate number of service
reconditioned, or repaired. If the components are hours before a top end overhaul for different G3600
not in the reusability guidelines, refer to the Service Engine applications.
Manual, Specifications module.
Table 46
Rebuild The component can be reconditioned in Estimated Service Hours Before a Top End Overhaul
order to comply with reusability guidelines.
Rated Fuel Compression Service
rpm Ratio Hours
Replace The service life of the part is exhausted.
The part may fail before the next maintenance 1000 Wellhead 9.2:1 25,000
interval. The part must be replaced with a part that gas or
meets functional specifications. The replacement natural gas
part may be a new part, a CAT remanufactured 900 Natural gas 10.5:1 16,000
part, a rebuilt part, or a used part. Some worn
components may be exchanged with your 1000 Natural gas 10.5:1 15,000
Caterpillar dealer. Consult your Caterpillar dealer N/A Bio-gas 9.2:1 13,000 to
about repair options for your engine. 13,500

For information on estimating operating hours before


an overhaul, refer to Maintenance Management
Schedules, SEBU6127.

A top end overhaul involves servicing the cylinder


heads and turbochargers. Also, some other engine
components are inspected.

Top end overhauls require more tools than


preventive maintenance. The following tools
are needed for restoring the engine to factory
specifications:

Torque wrenches
115
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations

Dial indicators Replace The service life of the part is exhausted.


The part may fail before the next maintenance
Accurate measurement tools interval. The part must be replaced with a part that
meets functional specifications. The replacement
Cleaning equipment part may be a new part, a CAT remanufactured
part, a rebuilt part, or a used part. Some worn
Rebuilding equipment components may be exchanged with your
Caterpillar dealer. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
Caterpillar dealers are equipped with these tools. about repair options for your engine.
Caterpillar dealers can provide a flat rate price for a
top end overhaul. Table 47
Top End Overhaul
Unexpected problems may be found during a top
end overhaul. Plan to correct these problems, if Procedure Component
necessary. Inspect Seals for the gas admission
Replace valve
Buildup in the cylinders from excessive oil
consumption Rebuild Gas pressure regulator
Starting motor
Plugging of the aftercooler from coolant that is
poorly maintained Turbochargers
Replace Cylinder heads and
Degradation of the oil cooler from hydrogen gaskets
sulfide in the fuel
Oil temperature regulators
Inspect the following components according to Spark plug extenders
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable Water temperature
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index regulators
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used
Parts.
i01604264

Your Caterpillar dealer can provide these services Overhaul Considerations


and components. Your Caterpillar dealer can ensure
that the components are operating within the
SMCS Code: 7595-043
appropriate specifications.

If you elect to perform an overhaul without the Overhaul Information


services of a Caterpillar dealer, be aware of the
following recommendations. An overhaul is replacing the major worn components
of the engine. An overhaul is a maintenance interval
The following definitions explain the terminology for that is planned. The engine is rebuilt with certain
the services that are performed during an overhaul: rebuilt parts or new parts that replace the worn
parts.
Inspect Inspect the components according to
the instructions that are in Caterpillar reusability An overhaul also includes the following maintenance:
publications. Refer to Guidelines for Reusable
Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029, Index Inspection of all the parts that are visible during
of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of Used the disassembly
Parts. The guidelines were developed in order to
help Caterpillar dealers and customers to avoid Replacement of the seals and gaskets that are
unnecessary expenditures. New parts are not removed
required if the existing parts can still be used,
reconditioned, or repaired. If the components are Cleaning of the internal passages of the engine
not in the reusability guidelines, refer to the Service and the engine block
Manual, Specifications module.

Rebuild The component can be reconditioned in


order to comply with reusability guidelines.
116
Maintenance Section
Overhaul Considerations

Most owners will save money by overhauling the Generally, engines that are operated at a reduced
engine at the intervals that are recommended in load and/or speed achieve more service life before
the Operation and Maintenance Manual. It is not an overhaul. However, this is for engines that are
practical to wait until the engine exhibits symptoms properly operated and maintained.
of excessive wear or failure. It is not less costly to
wait. A planned overhaul before failure may be the Overhaul Inspection
best value for the following reasons:
Refer to the Service Manual for the disassembly
Costly unplanned downtime can be avoided. and assembly procedures that are necessary in
order to perform the required maintenance on the
Many original parts can be reused according to items that are listed. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
the guidelines for reusable parts. for assistance.

The service life of the engine can be extended To determine the reusability publications that are
without the risk of a major catastrophe due to needed to inspect the engine, refer to Guidelines for
engine failure. Reusable Parts and Salvage Operations, SEBF8029,
Index of Publications on Reusability or Salvage of
Achieve the best cost/value relationship per hour Used Parts.
of extended service life.
The Guidelines For Reusable Parts and Salvage
Overhaul Intervals Operations is part of an established Caterpillar
parts reusability program. These guidelines
Note: For information on estimating operating were developed in order to assist Caterpillar
hours before an overhaul, refer to Maintenance dealers and customers reduce costs by avoiding
Management Schedules, SEBU6127. unnecessary expenditures for new parts. If the
engine parts comply with the established inspection
Top end overhauls are determined by the projection specifications, the parts can be reused. New parts
of exhaust valve stems. In-frame overhauls are are not necessary if the old parts can be reused,
determined by cylinder compression, crankcase repaired, or salvaged.
blowby, and oil consumption. Major overhauls are
determined by the in-frame tests, and by results of If the parts are not within the inspection
SOS oil analysis. specifications, the parts should be salvaged,
repaired, replaced, or exchanged. The use of
Some other factors that are important for out-of-spec parts could result in unscheduled
determining the overhaul intervals include the downtime and/or costly repairs. The use of
following considerations: out-of-spec parts can also contribute to increased
fuel consumption and reduction of engine efficiency.
Performance of preventive maintenance
Your Caterpillar dealer can provide the parts that
Use of recommended lubricants are needed to rebuild the engine at the least
possible cost.
Use of recommended coolants
Overhaul Programs
Use of recommended fuels
An economical way to obtain most of the parts
Proper installation that are needed for overhauls is to use Caterpillar
remanufactured parts. Caterpillar remanufactured
Operating conditions parts are available at a fraction of the cost of new
parts. These parts have been rebuilt by Caterpillar
Operation within acceptable limits and certified for use. The following components are
examples of the remanufactured parts:
Engine load
Alternators
Engine speed
Connecting rods
Note: To avoid oil problems, engines that are
turbocharged and aftercooled must be operated at Crankshafts
a minimum of 60 percent of rated load.
Cylinder heads
Oil Pumps
117
Maintenance Section
Prechamber Check Valves - Clean

Starting motors Note: Refer to the engines Disassembly and


Assembly manual for instructions on removal and
Turbochargers installation of the check valves.

Water pumps 1. Remove check valve assembly (3) and gasket


(5).
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for details and for a
list of the remanufactured parts that are available. 2. Discard gasket (5). Clean the check valve
assembly with a nonflammable solvent that will
Your Caterpillar dealer may be offering a variety of not leave residue.
overhaul options.
3. Clean the seat for the check valve assembly
A Flat Rate Overhaul guarantees the maximum price with the 9U-5156 Tool Group. The tool group
that you will pay for an overhaul. Flat rate prices on includes instructions.
preventive maintenance programs or major repair
options are available from many servicing dealers 4. Before installation, inspect O-ring seals (2)
for all Caterpillar Engines. Consult your Caterpillar and (4) for dirt and cuts. If an O-ring seal is
dealer in order to schedule a before failure overhaul. damaged, discard the O-ring seal and install a
new O-ring seal.
Overhaul Recommendation
5. Install a new gasket (5). Install the clean, dry
Caterpillar recommends a scheduled overhaul in check valve assembly.
order to minimize downtime. A scheduled overhaul
will provide the lowest cost and the greatest value.
i01765759
Schedule an overhaul with your Caterpillar dealer.

Overhaul programs vary between dealers. To obtain


Prechamber Check Valves -
specific information about the types of overhaul Replace
programs and services, consult your Caterpillar
dealer. SMCS Code: 1550-510

i01765755

Prechamber Check Valves -


Clean
SMCS Code: 1550-070

g00789869
Illustration 89
(1) Plug
(2) O-ring seal
(3) Check valve assembly
(4) O-ring seal
(5) Gasket

Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach


g00789869 the prechamber check valves.
Illustration 88
(1) Plug Note: Refer to the engines Disassembly and
(2) O-ring seal
(3) Check valve assembly
Assembly manual for instructions on removal and
(4) O-ring seal installation of the check valves.
(5) Gasket
1. Remove check valve assembly (3) and gasket
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach (5).
the prechamber check valves.
118
Maintenance Section
Prelube Pump - Inspect

2. Keep plug (1) for reassembly. Discard the other i01113939


parts. Obtain new parts for reassembly.
Starting Motor - Inspect
3. Use the 9U-5156 Tool Group in order to clean
the check valve seat. The tool group includes SMCS Code: 1451-040; 1453-040
instructions.
If the starting motor fails, the engine may not start
4. Install the following new parts: O-ring seal (2), in an emergency situation. A scheduled inspection
check valve assembly (3), O-ring seal (4), and of the starting motor is recommended.
gasket (5).
The starting motor pinion and the flywheel ring gear
must be in good condition in order for the engine
i01612991 to start properly. The engine will not start if the
starting motor pinion does not engage the flywheel
Prelube Pump - Inspect ring gear. The teeth of the starting motor pinion and
the flywheel ring gear can be damaged because
SMCS Code: 1319-040 of irregular engagement.
Inspect the prelube pump for the following Inspect the starting motor for proper operation.
conditions: Listen for grinding when the engine is started.
Inspect the teeth of the starting motor pinion and
Cracks the flywheel ring gear. Look for patterns of wear on
the teeth. Look for teeth that are broken or chipped.
Pin holes If damaged teeth are found, the starting motor
pinion and the flywheel ring gear must be replaced.
Proper operation
Wear Electric Starting Motor
Inspect the prelube pump for leaks. Replace all of Note: Problems with the electric starting motor can
the seals if a leak is observed. be caused by the following conditions: malfunction
of the solenoid and malfunction of the electric
Inspect the wiring for the following conditions: starting system.

Damage Inspect the electrical system for the following


conditions:
Fraying
Loose connections
Ensure that the wiring is in good condition.
Corrosion
Inspect the electrical connections. Ensure that the
electrical connections are secure. Wires that are worn or frayed
If repair or replacement is necessary, refer to the Cleanliness
engines Disassembly and Assembly manual.
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance. Make repairs, if necessary.

Air Prelube Pump


Inspect all of the components in the air circuit for
the prelube pump. Inspect all of the air lines and
connections for leaks. Ensure that the components
in the air circuit are in good condition.

Electric Prelube Pump


Inspect the brushes. Replace the brushes, if
necessary.
119
Maintenance Section
Turbocharger - Clean

Air Starting Motor Table 48


Materials for Cleaning 3600 Engine Turbochargers
Material Particle Size

Personal injury or death can result from improper- Nut shell 1.7 mm
ly checking for a leak. (1/16 inch)
Formed carbon 1 mm (1/32 inch)
Always use a board or cardboard when checking
for a leak. Escaping air or fluid under pressure, Granulated carbon (70% hardness) 1.2 to 2 mm
(3/64 to 5/64 inch)
even a pin-hole size leak, can penetrate body tis-
sue causing serious injury, and possible death. Granulated dry rice 1.7 mm
(1/16 inch)
If fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated
immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of
injury.

Inspect all of the components in the air circuit for


the starting motor. Inspect all of the air lines and
connections for leaks.

If the teeth of the starting motor pinion and/or the


flywheel ring gear are damaged, the air circuit for
the starting motor must be examined in order to
determine the cause of the problem.

Removal and Installation of the


g00833073
Starting Motor Illustration 90
(1) Air valve
Refer to the Service Manual, Disassembly and (2) Purge valve
(3) Cap
Assembly module for information on removing the (4) Gate valve
starting motor and installing the starting motor.
Note: During normal engine operation, air valve (1),
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance. purge valve (2), and gate valve (4) are closed.

i01765784 1. Ensure that purge valve (2) is closed. Ensure


that cap (3) is secure. Open gate valve (4).
Turbocharger - Clean
2. Open air valve (1) in order to remove deposits
(Cleaning with Dry Particles) that may be in the connecting pipe. After three
minutes, close air valve (1). Close gate valve (4).
SMCS Code: 1052-070
3. Open purge valve (2) in order to relieve any
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary to reach pressure from the container. Close purge valve
the turbocharger. (2).
If the engine has more than one turbocharger, each 4. Remove cap (3). Pour 0.5 L (0.5 qt) of the
turbocharger requires cleaning. particles into the container. Tighten cap (3).
Note: The drain openings in the exhaust housing 5. Ensure that purge valve (2) is closed. Reduce
of the turbocharger are closed during the cleaning the output of the engine so that the exhaust
procedure. Some of the particles will be expelled temperature before the turbine is less than
through the exhaust stack. The particles that are 577 C (1070 F).
expelled will be burned.
6. Open gate valve (4). Open air valve (1).
The materials that are listed in Table 48 are
recommended for use with this cleaning procedure. 7. After 60 to 90 seconds, close air valve (1). Close
gate valve (4).
120
Maintenance Section
Turbocharger Cleaner Tube - Replace

8. Open purge valve (2) in order to relieve any The exhaust valves and valve seats show the
pressure from the container. Close purge valve greatest wear due to high operating temperatures.
(2). The top end overhaul interval is normally scheduled
according to exhaust valve recession.
i01765785
The actual measurement of the valve recession
Turbocharger Cleaner Tube - inside of the cylinder head is difficult to obtain.
Two simpler methods are used to determine valve
Replace recession:

SMCS Code: 1052-510 Measure the projection of the valve stem above
the cylinder head. It is necessary to remove the
rocker arms in order to obtain this measurement.
This method is more accurate than measuring the
projection of the exhaust valve rotators. Measure
the projection of the exhaust valve stems with the
4C-2980 Cylinder Head Valve Projection Group.

Measure the projection of the valve rotator


above the cylinder head. It is not necessary to
remove the rocker arms in order to obtain this
measurement. Measure the projection of the
exhaust valve rotators with the 148-2997 Valve
Recession Tool Group.

g00790542 Make several copies of this Operation and


Illustration 91 Maintenance Manual, Valve Data Sheet
(1) Air valve (Reference Materials Section). Record the
(2) Purge valve measurements on the sheets.
(3) Gate valve
(4) Tube
Measure the projection of the inlet and exhaust
Note: Use of a platform may be necessary in order valve stems and the exhaust valve rotators at
to reach the cleaner tube. the first 1000 service hours. This measurement
is the baseline. The baseline is a reference for
1. Stop the engine. subsequent measurements.

2. Ensure that air valve (1) and gate valve (3) are Measure the projection of the inlet and exhaust
closed. valve rotators when the engine valve lash is
checked. Continue this periodic measurement
3. Open purge valve (2) in order to relieve any until the projection of the valve rotator has
pressure from the container. increased by a total of 1.6 mm (.063 inch). This
is 70 percent of the maximum limit. Measure the
4. Remove tube (4). Discard the used tube. projection of the valve stems when this occurs.
This measurement will determine the actual wear
5. Install a new tube. of both the valves and the valve seats.

6. Close purge valve (2). After 70 percent of the maximum limit has been
reached, measure the projection of the exhaust
valve stems at every 500 hours of operation.
i00682053
Plan for the top end overhaul as the valve
Valve Stem Projection - stem projection approaches the maximum limit.
Measure/Record Perform the top end overhaul when the valve stem
projection has increased by a total of 2.3 mm
SMCS Code: 1105-082 (.09 inch). Do not allow the valve recession to
exceed this limit. The valve head can break.
Valve Recession The valves and the valve seats This will cause severe damage in the combustion
are worn over time. This causes the valves to chamber and the turbocharger.
recede into the cylinder head. This condition is
called valve recession. Consult your Caterpillar dealer for assistance.
121
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection

i01492446

Walk-Around Inspection
NEVER use a flame to check for gas leaks. Use a
SMCS Code: 1000-040 gas detector.

An open flame can ignite mixtures of air and fuel.


Inspect the Engine for Leaks and This will cause explosion and/or fire which could
for Loose Connections result in severe personal injury or death.

A walk-around inspection should only take a few


minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
Check the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps.
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be
avoided.
Inspect the piping for the air inlet system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps.
For maximum engine service life, thoroughly inspect
the engine room before starting the engine. Look for
items such as leaks, loose bolts, loose connections
Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
and trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed. wires.
The guards must be in the proper place. Repair Inspect the ground straps for good connections
damaged guards or replace missing guards. and for good condition.
Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system gauge that is damaged. Replace any gauge that
contamination. can not be calibrated.

NOTICE Inspect the exhaust system for leaks. If a leak


For any type of leak, clean up the fluid. If leaking is ob- is found, make repairs.
served, find the source and correct the leak. If leaking
is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than
recommended until the leak is found or fixed, or until i00524084
the suspicion of a leak is proved to be unwarranted.
Water Pump - Inspect
NOTICE SMCS Code: 1361-040
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine or deck is
a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning A failed water pump might cause severe engine
or high pressure water. overheating problems that could result in cracks in
the cylinder head, a piston seizure or other potential
damage to the engine.
Ensure that cooling lines are properly clamped.
Check for leaks. Check the condition of all pipes. Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. If leaking
of the water pump seals is observed, replace all of
Inspect the water pumps for coolant leaks. the water pump seals. Refer to the Service Manual
for the disassembly and assembly procedure.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by coolant
in the cooling system. It is normal for a small Inspect the water pump for wear, cracks, pin holes
amount of leakage to occur when the engine cools and proper operation. Refer to the Service Manual
and the parts contract. or consult your Caterpillar dealer if repair is needed
or replacement is needed.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need
to replace the water pump seal. For instructions
on removal and installation of water pumps and/or i00839511
seals, refer to the Service Manual, Disassembly
and Assembly module for the engine or consult
Water Temperature Regulator -
your Caterpillar dealer. Replace
Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the SMCS Code: 1355-510
front crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the
oil pan, the oil filters and the valve covers. Replace the water temperature regulators for these
systems:
122
Maintenance Section
Water Temperature Regulator - Replace

Jacket water
Oil cooler
Aftercooler
Replace the water temperature regulators before
the water temperature regulators fail. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulators reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.

A water temperature regulator that fails in a


partially opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.

A water temperature regulator that fails in the


closed position can cause excessive overheating.
Excessive overheating could result in cracking of
the cylinder head or a seizure of the pistons.

A water temperature regulator that fails in the open


position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside
the cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could
result in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and
wear of the cylinder liner. Also, a low temperature
can allow moisture to condense in the oil. This can
form damaging acids.

NOTICE
Failure to replace the water temperature regulators on
a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe en-
gine damage.

Never operate the engine without the water tempera-


ture regulators installed.

If the water temperature regulator is installed incor-


rectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder head
damage. Ensure that the new water temperature reg-
ulator is installed in the original position.

Note: If only the water temperature regulators are


replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system
to a level that is below the water temperature
regulator housing.
123
Reference Information Section
Customer Service

Reference Information Latin America, Mexico, Carribean


Caterpillar Americas Co.
Section 701 Waterford Way, Suite 200
Miami, FL 33126-4670
USA
Phone: 305-476-6800
Customer Service Fax: 305-476-6801

Europe, Africa, and Middle East


i01706971
Caterpillar Overseas S.A.
Customer Assistance 76 Route de Frontenex
P.O. Box 6000
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450 CH-1211 Geneva 6
Switzerland
Phone: 22-849-4444
USA and Canada Fax: 22-849-4544
When a problem arises concerning the operation of Far East
an engine or concerning the service of an engine, Caterpillar Asia Pte. Ltd.
the problem will normally be managed by the dealer 7 Tractor Road
in your area. Jurong, Singapore 627968
Republic of Singapore
Your satisfaction is a primary concern to Caterpillar Phone: 65-662-8333
and to Caterpillar dealers. If you have a problem Fax: 65-662-8302
that has not been handled to your complete
satisfaction, follow these steps: China
Caterpillar China Ltd.
1. Discuss your problem with a manager from the 37/F., The Lee Gardens
dealership. 33 Hysan Avenue
Causeway Bay
2. If your problem cannot be resolved at the dealer G.P.O. Box 3069
level without additional assistance, use the Hong Kong
phone number that is listed below to talk with a Phone: 852-2848-0333
Field Service Coordinator: Fax: 852-2848-0440
1-800-447-4986 Japan
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd.
The normal hours are from 8:00 to 4:30 Monday SBS Tower
through Friday Central Standard Time. 10-1, Yoga 4-Chome
Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-8530
3. If your needs have not been met still, submit the Japan
matter in writing to the following address: Phone: 81-3-5717-1150
Fax: 81-3-5717-1177
Caterpillar Inc.
Manager, Customer Service, Engine Division Japan
Mossville Bldg AC Caterpillar Power Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 610 8F, AIG Aoyama Bldg.
Mossville, Illinois 61552-0610 2-11-16, Minami-Aoyama
Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0062
Please keep in mind: probably, your problem will Phone: 81-3-5786-3803
ultimately be solved at the dealership, using the Fax: 81-3-5786-3809
dealerships facilities, equipment, and personnel.
Therefore, follow the steps in sequence when a Australia and New Zealand
problem is experienced. Caterpillar of Australia Ltd.
1 Caterpillar Drive
Outside of the USA and of Canada Private Mail Bag 4
Tullamarine, Victoria 3043
If a problem arises outside the USA and outside Australia
Canada, and if the problem cannot be resolved at Phone: 03-9953-9333
the dealer level, consult the appropriate Caterpillar Fax: 03-9335-3366
office.
124
Reference Information Section
Customer Service

i01028392

Ordering Replacement Parts


SMCS Code: 4450; 7567

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar
replacement parts or parts with equivalent spec-
ifications including, but not limited to, physical
dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema-


ture failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

Quality Caterpillar replacement parts are available


from Caterpillar dealers throughout the world.
Caterpillar dealers parts inventories are up-to-date.
The parts stocks include all of the parts that are
normally needed to protect your Caterpillar engine
investment.

When you order parts, please specify the following


information:

Part number
Part name
Quantity
If there is a question concerning the part number,
please provide your dealer with a complete
description of the needed item.

When a Caterpillar engine requires maintenance


and/or repair, provide the dealer with all the
information that is stamped on the Information Plate.
This information is described in this Operation and
Maintenance Manual (Product Information Section).

Discuss the problem with the dealer. Inform the


dealer about the conditions of the problem and
the nature of the problem. Inform the dealer about
when the problem occurs. This will help the dealer
in troubleshooting the problem and solving the
problem faster.
125
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials

Reference Materials Owners receipts


Maintenance log
i00912149

Maintenance Records
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450

Caterpillar Inc. recommends the retention


of accurate maintenance records. Accurate
maintenance records can be used for the following
purposes:

Determine operating costs.


Establish maintenance schedules for other
engines that are operated in the same
environment.

Show compliance with the required maintenance


practices and maintenance intervals.

Maintenance records can be used for a variety of


other business decisions that are related to engine
maintenance.

Maintenance records are a key element of a


maintenance program that is well managed.
Accurate maintenance records can help your
Caterpillar dealer to fine tune the recommended
maintenance intervals in order to meet the specific
operating situation. This should result in a lower
engine operating cost.

Records should be kept for the following items:

Fuel Consumption A record of fuel consumption


is essential in order to determine when the load
sensitive components should be inspected or
repaired. Fuel consumption also determines
overhaul intervals.

Service Hours A record of service hours is


essential to determine when the speed sensitive
components should be inspected or repaired.

Documents These items should be easy to obtain,


and these items should be kept in the engine
history file. All of the documents should show this
information: date, service hours, fuel consumption,
unit number, and engine serial number. The
following types of documents should be kept as
proof of maintenance or repair for warranty:

Keep the following types of documents as proof of


maintenance for warranty. Also, keep these types of
documents as proof of repair for warranty:

Dealer work orders and itemized bills


Owners repair costs
126
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials

i01176304

Maintenance Log
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Table 49
Engine Model Customer Identifier
Serial Number Arrangement Number
Service Quantity
Service Item Date Authorization
Hours Of Fuel
127
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials

i00769479

Valve Data Sheet


SMCS Code: 1000
Table 50
Engine Model Serial Number Service Hours Authorization
Cylinder Valve Location Current Stem Rotator
Cylinder Wear
Pressure Measure Baseline Baseline
1 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
2 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
3 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
4 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
5 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
6 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
7 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
8 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
9 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
10 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
11 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
12 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
13 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
14 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
15 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
16 Pushrod Side
Exhaust Manifold
128
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials

i01745078 Miscellaneous
Reference Material Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ2368,
Gas Engine Application and Installation Guide
SMCS Code: 1000; 4450
Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7250,
The following literature can be obtained through any Air Intake, Exhaust, Ventilation
Caterpillar dealer.
Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7252,
Lubricants G3600 Mounting, Alignment

Special Publication, PECP6026, One Safe Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7255,
Source G3600 Cooling Systems, Heat Recovery,
Lubrication System
Special Publication, PEDP7036, SOS Fluid
Analysis Maintenance Management Schedules,
SEBU6127, Schedules for Industrial and EPG
Data Sheet, PEHP0002, Multipurpose Lithium Spark Ignited Gas Engines
Complex Grease with Molybdenum (MPGM)
Service Manual, RENR5905, G3600 Engines
Data Sheet, PEHP0003, Multipurpose Lithium
Complex Grease (MPG) Software Program, LEKQ6378, Methane Number
Program
Data Sheet, PEHP0017, Special Purpose Grease
(SPG) Bearing Lubricant Specifications, SENR3130, Torque Specifications
Special Publication, PEHP6001, How To Take A Special Instruction, GMG00694, Analyzing
Good Oil Sample Cylinder Condition By Measuring Air Flow

Supplement, SEBU6400, Caterpillar Gaseous Special Instruction, SEHS7332, Do Not Operate


Fueled Spark Ignited Engines Lubrication Tag
Specifications
Special Instruction, SEHS7633, Battery Test
Procedure
Fuels
Special Instruction, SEHS7768, Use of the
Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7256, 6V-2150 Starting/Chargineg Analyzer
Fuels, Fuel Systems
Special Instruction, SEHS8622, Using the FT-
Application and Installation Guide, LEKQ7260, 1984 Air-To-Air Aftercooler Leak Test Group
Low Energy Fuels
Special Instruction, SEHS8712, Using the
Coolants 8T-2700 Blowby/Airflow Indicator Group

Data Sheet, PEHP7057, Coolant Analysis Special Instruction, SEHS8984, Using the
1U-8860 Large Engine Blowby Pickup Group
Special Publication, PECP6026, One Safe
Source Special Instruction, SEHS9031, Storage
Procedure for Caterpillar Products
Special Publication, PEDP7036, SOS Fluid
Analysis Special Instruction, SEHS9162, Spring Isolator
Group Installation and Adjustment Procedure
Special Publication, SEBD0518, Know Your
Cooling System Special Instruction, SEHS9298, Installation and
Maintenance of Gaseous Fuel Filters
Special Publication, SEBD0970, Coolant and
Your Engine Special Publication, NEHS0526, Service
Technician Application Guide

Special Publication, NENG2500, Caterpillar Tools


and Shop Products Guide
129
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials

Special Publication, SEBF8029, Index to International Organization for Standardization


Guidelines for Reusable Parts and Salvage (ISO)
Operations 1, rue de Varemb
Case postale 56
Special Publication, SEBF8062, Procedure to CH-1211 Genve 20
Inspect and Clean Air Filters Switzerland
Telephone: +41 22 749 01 11
Facsimile: +41 22 733 34 30
i01109461
E-mail: central@iso.ch
Additional Reference Material Web site: http://www.iso.ch

SMCS Code: 1000; 4450 European classifications are established by the


Counseil International Des Machines a Combustion
The EMA Lubricating Oils Data Book can (CIMAC) (International Council on Combustion
be obtained from the following locations: local Engines).
technological society, local library, and local college.
If necessary, consult EMA at the following address: CIMAC Central Secretariat
Lyoner Strasse 18
Engine Manufacturers Associaton 60528 Frankfurt
401 N. Michigan Ave. Germany
Chicago, IL, USA 60611 Telephone: +49 69 6603 1567
Telephone: (312) 644-6610 ext. 3626 Facsimile: +49 69 6603 1566

The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) i00382622


Specifications can be found in your SAE handbook.
This publication can also be obtained from the Warranty Information
following locations: local technological society, local
library, and local college. If necessary, consult SAE SMCS Code: 1000
at the following address:

SAE International
Engine Protection Plans
400 Commonwealth Drive
Warrendale, PA, USA 15096-0001 Extended Warranties and Service
Telephone: (724) 776-4841 Contracts
The American Petroleum Institute Publication No. A wide variety of protection plans are available for
1509 can be obtained from the following locations: Caterpillar Engines. Consult your Caterpillar dealer
local technological society, local library, and local for detailed information on the specific programs
college. If necessary, consult API at the following and coverages that are available.
address:
Consult your Caterpillar dealer for information on a
American Petroleum Institute plan that is tailored in order to fit your requirements.
1220 L St. N.W.
Washington, DC, USA 20005
Telephone: (202) 682-8000

The International Organization for Standardization


(ISO) offers information and customer service
regarding international standards and standardizing
activities. ISO can also supply information on the
following subjects that are not controlled by ISO:
national standards, regional standards, regulations,
certification, and related activities. Consult the
member of ISO in your country.
130
Index Section

Index
A Control Panel ......................................................... 37
DESIRED SPEED Potentiometer .................... 41
Actuator Control Linkage - Replace (Replace the Rod EMERGENCY STOP Button ........................... 39
Ends) ................................................................... 73 Indicators ........................................................... 39
Additional Reference Material ............................. 129 Machine Information Display System (MIDS) .... 37
After Starting Engine ............................................. 45 MANUAL PRELUBE Switch and PRELUBE
Engaging the Driven Equipment ........................ 45 ACTIVE Indicator ............................................ 40
After Stopping Engine............................................ 48 Mode Control Switch.......................................... 40
Aftercooler Condensation - Drain .......................... 73 Control Panel - Inspect .......................................... 80
Aftermarket Oil Additives ....................................... 51 Record the Data and Review the Data............... 80
Air Starting Motor Lines Screen - Clean................ 74 Conventional Coolant/Antifreeze Cooling System
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Bowl - Clean ............ 74 Maintenance ........................................................ 61
Air Starting Motor Lubricator Oil Level - Check ..... 75 Adding the SCA to Conventional Coolant/Antifreeze
Adjust the Lubricator .......................................... 75 at the Initial Fill ................................................. 62
Air Tank Moisture and Sediment - Drain................ 75 Adding the SCA to Conventional Coolant/Antifreeze
Alternator - Inspect ................................................ 76 For Maintenance .............................................. 62
Alternator Belt - Inspect/Adjust/Replace................ 76 Cleaning the Cooling System of Heavy-Duty
Adjustment ......................................................... 76 Coolant/Antifreeze............................................ 63
Inspection........................................................... 76 Coolant Recommendations ................................... 60
Replacement...................................................... 76 Cooling System Coolant (DEAC) - Change ........... 80
Clean the Cooling System ................................. 81
Cleaning a Cooling System that has Heavy
B Deposits or Plugging ........................................ 81
Drain the Cooling System .................................. 80
Barring Device - Lubricate ..................................... 77 Fill the Cooling System ...................................... 81
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .......................... 78 Cooling System Coolant Analysis (Level II) -
Before Starting Engine .................................... 18, 42 Obtain .................................................................. 82
Air Inlet System.................................................. 42 Cooling System Coolant Level - Check ................. 82
Cooling System.................................................. 42 Add Coolant ....................................................... 83
Driven Equipment .............................................. 42 Engines That Are Equipped With a Sight
Electrical System ............................................... 42 Gauge .............................................................. 82
Fuel System ....................................................... 43 Engines That Are Not Equipped With a Sight
Hydraulic Actuator System................................. 43 Gauge .............................................................. 83
Lubrication System ............................................ 42 Cooling System Level Switch - Inspect.................. 83
Starting System ................................................. 43 Cooling System Specifications .............................. 58
Walk-Around Inspection..................................... 42 Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
Burn Prevention..................................................... 15 (SCA) - Test/Add.................................................. 84
Batteries............................................................. 15 Add the SCA, If Necessary ................................ 84
Coolant............................................................... 15 SOS Coolant Analysis (Level I)........................ 84
Oils..................................................................... 15 Test the Concentration of the SCA..................... 84
Crankcase Blowby - Measure/Record ................... 85
Crankshaft Vibration Damper - Inspect ................. 85
C Removal and Installation.................................... 86
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention......... 17
Cold Weather Starting .......................................... 43 Customer Assistance........................................... 123
Jacket Water Heaters......................................... 43 Outside of the USA and of Canada.................. 123
Lubricating Oil Heaters ...................................... 43 USA and Canada ............................................. 123
Requirements for Starting with Air ..................... 44 Customer Service ................................................ 123
Combustion Sensor - Clean/Inspect/Replace........ 78 Cylinder Pressure - Measure/Record .................... 86
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and Cylinders - Inspect (Inspect the Combustion
SCA ..................................................................... 61 Chamber)............................................................. 87

Diesel Engine Antifreeze/Coolant (DEAC) ............ 60


131
Index Section

Driven Equipment - Check..................................... 87 Engine Storage...................................................... 32


Check the Alignment.......................................... 88 Generator Storage ............................................. 32
Every 10,000 Service Hours .............................. 88 Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust ..................... 102
Every 5000 Service Hours ................................. 87 Check the Timing of the Crankshaft and
Driven Equipment - Inspect/Replace/Lubricate .... 88 Camshaft........................................................ 102
Engine Valve Lash ........................................... 103
Gas Admission Valve ....................................... 103
E Valve Bridge..................................................... 103
Engine Valve Rotators - Inspect .......................... 103
Electrical System................................................... 18 Exhaust Bypass - Recondition............................. 104
Grounding Practices .......................................... 19 Exhaust Shields - Inspect .................................... 104
Electrohydraulic Actuator - Inspect........................ 88
Electrohydraulic Actuator - Recondition ................ 89
Electrohydraulic System - Check/Adjust................ 90 F
Check the Pressure Relief Valve........................ 90
Electrohydraulic System - Inspect ......................... 91 Features and Controls ........................................... 33
Check the Oil Level ............................................ 91 Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention............. 15
Inspect the Lines, Connections, and Fire Extinguisher ................................................ 16
Components..................................................... 91 Lines, Tubes and Hoses..................................... 17
Electrohydraulic System Oil - Change................... 91 Foreword.................................................................. 5
Electrohydraulic System Oil Filter - Change .......... 92 California Proposition 65 Warning ....................... 4
Emergency Stopping ............................................. 47 Literature Information........................................... 4
Emergency Stop Button ..................................... 47 Maintenance ........................................................ 4
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace.................. 92 Maintenance Intervals.......................................... 4
Inspecting Air Cleaner Elements........................ 93 Operation ............................................................. 4
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ................... 92 Overhaul .............................................................. 5
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect...... 93 Safety ................................................................... 4
Test the Service Indicator .................................. 94 Fuel Recommendations......................................... 54
Engine Crankcase Breather - Clean...................... 94 Bio-Gas .............................................................. 55
Engine Lifting......................................................... 31 Dry Natural Gas ................................................. 54
Engine Lifting with a Generator.......................... 31 Gaseous Fuel Filters.......................................... 57
Engine Lifting and Storage .................................... 31 General Fuel Information ................................... 54
Engine Mounts - Check ......................................... 95 Sour Gas............................................................ 54
Engine Oil .............................................................. 49 Wellhead Gas (Field Gas).................................. 55
Commercial Engine Oils .................................... 50 Fuel Specifications ................................................ 54
Lubricant Viscosity ............................................. 51 Fuel System Fuel Filter Differential Pressure -
Lubrication for Engines that use Sour Gas and Check................................................................. 104
Bio-Gas ............................................................ 50
Engine Oil - Change .............................................. 95
Change the Engine Oil....................................... 95 G
Oil Change Interval ............................................ 95
Engine Oil Filter - Change ..................................... 97 Gas Admission Valve - Recondition .................... 105
Inspect the Used Oil Filter Elements.................. 99 Gas Admission Valve Seals - Inspect/Replace.... 105
Replacing the Engine Oil Filters During Engine Gas Pressure Regulator - Inspect/Replace ......... 106
Operation ......................................................... 98 Gas Shutoff Valve - Inspect ................................. 106
Replacing the Engine Oil Filters With the Engine General Coolant Information ................................. 58
Stopped............................................................ 97 Additives ............................................................ 59
Engine Oil Level - Check ..................................... 100 Glycol ................................................................. 59
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ................................. 101 Water ................................................................. 58
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis................ 101 General Hazard Information .................................. 12
Engine Oil Temperature Regulator - Replace...... 101 Asbestos Information ......................................... 14
Engine Operation................................................... 46 Containing Fluid Spillage ................................... 14
Operating the Engine and the Driven Dispose of Waste Properly ................................ 15
Equipment ........................................................ 46 Fluid Penetration ................................................ 14
Partial Load Operation ....................................... 46 Pressure Air and Water...................................... 13
Engine Protective Devices - Check ..................... 101
Visual Inspection.............................................. 102
Engine Speed/Timing Sensor - Clean/Inspect..... 102
Engine Starting................................................ 18, 42
Engine Stopping .............................................. 18, 47
132
Index Section

H Overhaul (Major).................................................. 112


Major Overhaul Information ............................. 113
Hydraulic Oil .......................................................... 51 Scheduling a Major Overhaul........................... 112
Applications........................................................ 51 Overhaul (Top End) ............................................. 114
Caterpillar Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil Top End Overhaul Information ......................... 114
(HEES) ............................................................. 52 Overhaul Considerations ..................................... 115
Caterpillar Hydraulic Oil (HYDO) ....................... 51 Overhaul Information ....................................... 115
Commercial Oils................................................. 52

P
I
Plate Locations and Film Locations....................... 29
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Check/Adjust ....... 107 Engine Identification........................................... 29
Cleaning the Spark Plug .................................. 109 Information Plate................................................ 29
Inspecting the Spark Plug................................ 108 Serial Number Plate........................................... 29
Installing the Spark Plug .................................. 109 Prechamber Check Valves - Clean...................... 117
Removing the Spark Plug ................................ 107 Prechamber Check Valves - Replace .................. 117
Ignition System Spark Plugs - Replace ............... 110 Prelube Pump - Inspect ....................................... 118
Ignition Systems .................................................... 17 Air Prelube Pump............................................. 118
Important Safety Information ................................... 2 Electric Prelube Pump ..................................... 118
Inlet Air System - Inspect..................................... 110 Product Description ............................................... 22
Inlet Gas Manifold and Piping - Inspect/Replace.. 110 Engine Service Life ............................................ 23
Product Identification Information ......................... 29
Product Information Section .................................. 20
L Programmable System Parameters....................... 33

Lubricant Information............................................. 49
Lubricant Specifications ........................................ 49 R

Reference Information ........................................... 29


M Reference Information Section ............................ 123
Reference Material .............................................. 128
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines that use Coolants........................................................... 128
Bio-Gas)............................................................... 69 Fuels ................................................................ 128
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines with a Lubricants ........................................................ 128
10.5:1 Compression Ratio that use Wellhead Gas or Miscellaneous .................................................. 128
Natural Gas) ........................................................ 71 Reference Materials ............................................ 125
Maintenance Interval Schedule (Engines with a Refill Capacities..................................................... 66
9:1 Compression Ratio that use Wellhead Gas or Cooling System.................................................. 66
Natural Gas) ........................................................ 68 Hydraulic Actuator System................................. 66
Maintenance Log ................................................. 126 Lubrication System ............................................ 66
Maintenance Records.......................................... 125
Maintenance Section ............................................. 49
Manual Stop Procedure......................................... 47 S
Model View Illustrations......................................... 20
Model Views and Specifications ............................ 20 SOS Coolant Analysis ......................................... 64
Monitoring System................................................. 33 SOS Coolant Analysis (Level I)........................ 65
Integrated Combustion Sensing Module SOS Coolant Analysis (Level II)....................... 65
(ICSM).............................................................. 35 SOS Oil Analysis ................................................. 52
Mounting and Dismounting.................................... 17 Condemning Limits of the Oil............................. 53
Safety Section ......................................................... 6
Safety Signs and Labels.......................................... 6
O Specifications ........................................................ 24
Drives and Gear Trains ...................................... 25
Operation Section.................................................. 31 Engine Specifications......................................... 24
Ordering Replacement Parts............................... 124 Reference Weights............................................. 28
Overhaul (In-Frame) ............................................ 111 Starting Motor - Inspect ....................................... 118
In-Frame Overhaul Information ........................ 111 Air Starting Motor............................................. 119
Scheduling an In-Frame Overhaul ................... 111 Electric Starting Motor ..................................... 118
Removal and Installation of the Starting
Motor .............................................................. 119
133
Index Section

Starting the Engine................................................ 44


Automatic Starting ............................................. 44
Manual Starting.................................................. 44
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA)................... 61

Table of Contents..................................................... 3
Turbocharger - Clean (Cleaning with Dry
Particles)............................................................ 119
Turbocharger Cleaner Tube - Replace................. 120

Valve Data Sheet................................................. 127


Valve Stem Projection - Measure/Record............ 120

Walk-Around Inspection ...................................... 121


Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ................................................... 121
Warranty Information ........................................... 129
Engine Protection Plans................................... 129
Water Pump - Inspect .......................................... 121
Water Temperature Regulator - Replace ............. 121
Water/Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) ........ 63
Adding the SCA to Water at the Initial Fill.......... 63
Adding the SCA to Water for Maintenance ........ 63
134
Index Section
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section Product Identification Information in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual.

Delivery Date:

Product Information
Model:

Product Identification Number:

Engine Serial Number:

Transmission Serial Number:

Generator Serial Number:

Attachment Serial Numbers:

Attachment Information:

Customer Equipment Number:

Dealer Equipment Number:

Dealer Information
Name: Branch:

Address:

Dealer Contact Phone Number Hours

Sales:

Parts:

Service:
2002 Caterpillar
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